File: amavisd-snmp-subagent-zmq

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amavisd-new 1:2.11.0-6.1
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#!/usr/bin/perl -T

#------------------------------------------------------------------------------
# This program implements an SNMP AgentX (RFC 2741) subagent for amavisd-new.
#
# Author: Mark Martinec <Mark.Martinec@ijs.si>
#
# Copyright (c) 2012-2014, Mark Martinec
# All rights reserved.
#
# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
# are met:
# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
#    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
#    this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
#    and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
# AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
# ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS
# BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
# CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
# SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
# INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
# CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
# ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
# POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
#
# The views and conclusions contained in the software and documentation are
# those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing official
# policies, either expressed or implied, of the Jozef Stefan Institute.

# (the above license is the 2-clause BSD license, also known as
#  a "Simplified BSD License", and pertains to this program only)
#
# Patches and problem reports are welcome.
# The latest version of this program is available at:
#   http://www.ijs.si/software/amavisd/
#------------------------------------------------------------------------------

package AmavisAgent;

use strict;
use re 'taint';
use warnings;
use warnings FATAL => qw(utf8 void);
no warnings 'uninitialized';

use Errno qw(ESRCH ENOENT EACCES EEXIST);
use POSIX ();
use Time::HiRes ();
use IO::File qw(O_RDONLY O_WRONLY O_RDWR O_CREAT O_EXCL);
use Unix::Syslog qw(:macros :subs);

use NetSNMP::OID;
use NetSNMP::ASN qw(:all);
use NetSNMP::default_store qw(:all);
use NetSNMP::agent qw(:all);
use NetSNMP::agent::default_store (':all');

use vars qw($VERSION);  $VERSION = 2.008002;

use vars qw($myversion $myproduct_name $myversion_id $myversion_date);
use vars qw($syslog_ident $syslog_facility $log_level);
use vars qw($zmq_ctx $zmq_sock $snmp_sock_specs $agentx_sock_specs);

$myproduct_name = 'amavis-agentx';
$myversion_id = '2.9.0'; $myversion_date = '20140506';
$myversion = "$myproduct_name-$myversion_id ($myversion_date)";
my $agent_name = $myproduct_name;


### USER CONFIGURABLE:

$log_level = 0;  # 0..5
$syslog_facility = LOG_MAIL;
$syslog_ident = $myproduct_name;

# The $snmp_sock_specs is a specification of a ZMQ socket to which
# this program will establish a ZMQ connection and receive data from.
# Syntax is whatever zmq_connect() accepts. Is should match a socket
# specification of the same name in amavis-services.
#
$snmp_sock_specs = "tcp://127.0.0.1:23233";

# The $agentx_sock_specs is a socket specification in a syntax accepted
# by net-snmp agentx library (the NETSNMP_DS_AGENT_X_SOCKET setting).
# It specifies a socket (typically listened to by a snmpd process) to
# which this program will connect to using AgentX protocol. When net-snmp
# is used as a SNMP server, $agentx_sock_specs should match the
# socket specification agentXSocket in snmpd.conf. Typical choices are
# '/var/agentx/master' or 'tcp:localhost:705' or 'tcp6:localhost:705'.
# An undefined value lets the agentx library pick a default.
#
$agentx_sock_specs = "tcp6:localhost:705";


### END OF USER CONFIGURABLE


package AmavisVariable;

sub new    { my($class) = @_; bless [(undef) x 8], $class }
sub oid    { my $self = shift; !@_ ? $self->[0] : ($self->[0]=shift) }
sub oidstr { my $self = shift; !@_ ? $self->[1] : ($self->[1]=shift) }
sub name   { my $self = shift; !@_ ? $self->[2] : ($self->[2]=shift) }
sub type   { my $self = shift; !@_ ? $self->[3] : ($self->[3]=shift) }
sub mytype { my $self = shift; !@_ ? $self->[4] : ($self->[4]=shift) }
sub suffix { my $self = shift; !@_ ? $self->[5] : ($self->[5]=shift) }
sub value  { my $self = shift; !@_ ? $self->[6] : ($self->[6]=shift) }
sub next   { my $self = shift; !@_ ? $self->[7] : ($self->[7]=shift) }


package AmavisAgent;

use vars qw($mta_queue_dir @age_slots %variables);
use vars qw($top @databases %oidstr_to_obj @oid_sorted_list);
use vars qw(%asn_name_to_type %is_a_numeric_asn_type %asn_type_to_full_name);
use vars qw($syslog_open);

BEGIN {

# geometic progression, rounded,
#   common ratio = exp((ln(60)-ln(1))/6) = 1.97860
  @age_slots = (
    0.1,    0.2,    0.5,
    1,      2,      4,      8,      15,      30,        # seconds
    1*60,   2*60,   4*60,   8*60,   15*60,   30*60,     # minutes
    1*3600, 2*3600, 4*3600, 8*3600, 15*3600, 30*3600);  # hours

  %asn_name_to_type = (
    'C32' => ASN_COUNTER,
    'C64' => ASN_COUNTER64,
    'G32' => ASN_GAUGE,
    'INT' => ASN_INTEGER,
    'I64' => ASN_INTEGER64,
    'U32' => ASN_UNSIGNED,
    'U64' => ASN_UNSIGNED64,
    'STR' => ASN_OCTET_STR,
    'OID' => ASN_OBJECT_ID,
    'TIM' => ASN_TIMETICKS,
  );

  %is_a_numeric_asn_type = (
    ASN_COUNTER,    1,
    ASN_COUNTER64,  1,
    ASN_GAUGE,      1,
    ASN_INTEGER,    1,
    ASN_INTEGER64,  1,
    ASN_UNSIGNED,   1,
    ASN_UNSIGNED64, 1,
    ASN_TIMETICKS,  1,
  );

  %asn_type_to_full_name = (
    ASN_COUNTER,    'Counter32',
    ASN_COUNTER64,  'Counter64',
    ASN_GAUGE,      'Gauge32',
    ASN_INTEGER,    'Integer32',
  #                 'IpAddress',
    ASN_INTEGER64,  'Integer64',
    ASN_UNSIGNED,   'Unsigned32',
    ASN_UNSIGNED64, 'Unsigned64',
    ASN_OCTET_STR,  'DisplayString',
    ASN_OBJECT_ID,  'OBJECT IDENTIFIER',
    ASN_TIMETICKS,  'TimeTicks',
  );

  $top = '1.3.6.1.4.1.15312.2.1';
  @databases = (
    { root_oid_str => "$top.1",     name => 'am.snmp',  ttl => 4 },
    { root_oid_str => "$top.2",     name => 'am.nanny', ttl => 4 },
    { root_oid_str => "$top.3.1.1", name => 'pf.maildrop',
                                    file => 'maildrop', ttl => 18 },
    { root_oid_str => "$top.3.1.2", name => 'pf.incoming',
                                    file => 'incoming', ttl => 18 },
    { root_oid_str => "$top.3.1.3", name => 'pf.active',
                                    file => 'active',   ttl => 18 },
    { root_oid_str => "$top.3.1.4", name => 'pf.deferred',
                                    file => 'deferred', ttl => 18 },
  );
  # 1.3.6.1.4.1.15312        enterprises . Jozef Stefan Institute
  # 1.3.6.1.4.1.15312.2      amavisd-new
  # 1.3.6.1.4.1.15312.2.1    amavisd-new SNMP
  # 1.3.6.1.4.1.15312.2.1.1  amavisd-new Statistics
  # 1.3.6.1.4.1.15312.2.1.2  amavisd-new Process status
  # 1.3.6.1.4.1.15312.2.1.3  amavisd-new (a view into MTA queue sizes)
  # 1.3.6.1.4.1.15312.2.2    amavisd-new LDAP Elements

} # BEGIN

sub declare_variable($$;$$$) {
  my($oid_str,$name, $typename,$instance_lo,$instance_hi) = @_;
  $typename = 'C32'  if !defined $typename;
  $instance_lo = 0               if !defined $instance_lo;
  $instance_hi = $instance_lo    if !defined $instance_hi;
  $instance_hi = $instance_lo    if $instance_hi < $instance_lo;
  my $type = $asn_name_to_type{$typename};
  for my $ind ($instance_lo .. $instance_hi) {
    my $full_oid_str = sprintf("%s.%d", $oid_str,$ind);
  # do_log(5, "declaring variable %s, %s", $full_oid_str, $name);
    my $var = AmavisVariable->new;
    $var->oidstr($full_oid_str);
  # $var->oid(NetSNMP::OID->new($full_oid_str));  # later
    $var->type($type);
    $var->mytype($typename);
  # $var->suffix($suffix);
    $var->name("$name.$ind");
    if (!exists $variables{"$name.$ind"}) {
      $variables{"$name.$ind"} = $var;
    } else {
      # allow a variable name to map to multiple SNMP variables
      if (ref $variables{"$name.$ind"} ne 'ARRAY') {
        $variables{"$name.$ind"} = [ $variables{"$name.$ind"} ];
      }
      push(@{$variables{"$name.$ind"}}, $var);
    }
  }
}

BEGIN {

  { # amavisd statistics MIB
    my $r = $databases[0]->{root_oid_str};
    declare_variable("$r.1.1",     'sysDescr',      'STR');
    declare_variable("$r.1.2",     'sysObjectID',   'OID');
    declare_variable("$r.1.3",     'sysUpTime',     'TIM');
    declare_variable("$r.1.4",     'sysContact',    'STR');
    declare_variable("$r.1.5",     'sysName',       'STR');
    declare_variable("$r.1.6",     'sysLocation',   'STR');
    declare_variable("$r.1.7",     'sysServices',   'INT');

    declare_variable("$r.2.1",     'InMsgs');                  # orig=x locl=x
    declare_variable("$r.2.2",     'InMsgsInbound');           # orig=0 locl=1
    declare_variable("$r.2.3",     'InMsgsOutbound');          # orig=1 locl=0
    declare_variable("$r.2.4",     'InMsgsInternal');          # orig=1 locl=1
    declare_variable("$r.2.5",     'InMsgsOriginating');       # orig=1 locl=x
    declare_variable("$r.2.6",     'InMsgsOpenRelay');         # orig=0 locl=0

    # these have duplicates at $r.{19..26}.1, except InMsgsStatusRelayed
    declare_variable("$r.2.7",     'InMsgsStatusAccepted');    # 2xx, AM.PDP
    declare_variable("$r.2.8",     'InMsgsStatusRelayed');     # 2xx, forward
    declare_variable("$r.2.9",     'InMsgsStatusDiscarded');   # 2xx, no DSN
    declare_variable("$r.2.10",    'InMsgsStatusNoBounce');    # 2xx, no DSN
    declare_variable("$r.2.11",    'InMsgsStatusBounced');     # 2xx, DSN sent
    declare_variable("$r.2.12",    'InMsgsStatusRejected');    # 5xx
    declare_variable("$r.2.13",    'InMsgsStatusTempFailed');  # 4xx

    declare_variable("$r.3.1",     'InMsgsSize',            'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.3.2",     'InMsgsSizeInbound',     'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.3.3",     'InMsgsSizeOutbound',    'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.3.4",     'InMsgsSizeInternal',    'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.3.5",     'InMsgsSizeOriginating', 'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.3.6",     'InMsgsSizeOpenRelay',   'C64');

    declare_variable("$r.4.1",     'InMsgsRecips');            # orig=x locl=x
    declare_variable("$r.4.2",     'InMsgsRecipsInbound');     # orig=0 locl=1
    declare_variable("$r.4.3",     'InMsgsRecipsOutbound');    # orig=1 locl=0
    declare_variable("$r.4.4",     'InMsgsRecipsInternal');    # orig=1 locl=1
    declare_variable("$r.4.5",     'InMsgsRecipsOriginating'); # orig=1 locl=x
    declare_variable("$r.4.6",     'InMsgsRecipsOpenRelay');   # orig=0 locl=0
    declare_variable("$r.4.7",     'InMsgsRecipsLocal');       # orig=x locl=1

    declare_variable("$r.5.1",     'InMsgsBounce');
    declare_variable("$r.5.2",     'InMsgsBounceNullRPath');
    declare_variable("$r.5.3",     'InMsgsBounceKilled');
    declare_variable("$r.5.4",     'InMsgsBounceUnverifiable');
    declare_variable("$r.5.5",     'InMsgsBounceRescuedByDomain');
    declare_variable("$r.5.6",     'InMsgsBounceRescuedByOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.5.7",     'InMsgsBounceRescuedByPenPals');

    declare_variable("$r.6.1",     'OutMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.6.2",     'OutMsgsRelay');
    declare_variable("$r.6.3",     'OutMsgsSubmit');
    declare_variable("$r.6.4",     'OutMsgsSubmitQuar');
    declare_variable("$r.6.5",     'OutMsgsSubmitDsn');
    declare_variable("$r.6.6",     'OutMsgsSubmitNotif');
    declare_variable("$r.6.7",     'OutMsgsSubmitAV');
    declare_variable("$r.6.8",     'OutMsgsSubmitArf');
    declare_variable("$r.6.9",     'OutMsgsProtoLocal');
    declare_variable("$r.6.10",    'OutMsgsProtoLocalRelay');
    declare_variable("$r.6.11",    'OutMsgsProtoLocalSubmit');
    declare_variable("$r.6.12",    'OutMsgsProtoSMTP');
    declare_variable("$r.6.13",    'OutMsgsProtoSMTPRelay');
    declare_variable("$r.6.14",    'OutMsgsProtoSMTPSubmit');
    declare_variable("$r.6.15",    'OutMsgsProtoLMTP');
    declare_variable("$r.6.16",    'OutMsgsProtoLMTPRelay');
    declare_variable("$r.6.17",    'OutMsgsProtoLMTPSubmit');
    declare_variable("$r.6.18",    'OutMsgsProtoBSMTP');
    declare_variable("$r.6.19",    'OutMsgsProtoBSMTPRelay');
    declare_variable("$r.6.20",    'OutMsgsProtoBSMTPSubmit');
    declare_variable("$r.6.21",    'OutMsgsProtoPipe');
    declare_variable("$r.6.22",    'OutMsgsProtoPipeRelay');
    declare_variable("$r.6.23",    'OutMsgsProtoPipeSubmit');
    declare_variable("$r.6.24",    'OutMsgsProtoSQL');
    declare_variable("$r.6.25",    'OutMsgsProtoSQLRelay');
    declare_variable("$r.6.26",    'OutMsgsProtoSQLSubmit');
    declare_variable("$r.6.27",    'OutMsgsDelivers');      # 2xx
    declare_variable("$r.6.28",    'OutMsgsAttemptFails');  # 4xx
    declare_variable("$r.6.29",    'OutMsgsRejects');       # 5xx

    declare_variable("$r.7.1",     'OutMsgsSize',                'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.2",     'OutMsgsSizeRelay',           'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.3",     'OutMsgsSizeSubmit',          'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.4",     'OutMsgsSizeSubmitQuar',      'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.5",     'OutMsgsSizeSubmitDsn',       'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.6",     'OutMsgsSizeSubmitNotif',     'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.7",     'OutMsgsSizeSubmitAV',        'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.8",     'OutMsgsSizeSubmitArf',       'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.9",     'OutMsgsSizeProtoLocal',      'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.10",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoLocalRelay', 'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.11",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoLocalSubmit','C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.12",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoSMTP',       'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.13",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoSMTPRelay',  'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.14",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoSMTPSubmit', 'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.15",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoLMTP',       'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.16",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoLMTPRelay',  'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.17",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoLMTPSubmit', 'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.18",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoBSMTP',      'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.19",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoBSMTPRelay', 'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.20",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoBSMTPSubmit','C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.21",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoPipe',       'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.22",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoPipeRelay',  'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.23",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoPipeSubmit', 'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.24",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoSQL',        'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.25",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoSQLRelay',   'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.7.26",    'OutMsgsSizeProtoSQLSubmit',  'C64');

    declare_variable("$r.8.1",     'QuarMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.8.2",     'QuarMsgsArch');
    declare_variable("$r.8.3",     'QuarMsgsClean');
    declare_variable("$r.8.4",     'QuarMsgsMtaFailed');
    declare_variable("$r.8.5",     'QuarMsgsOversized');
    declare_variable("$r.8.6",     'QuarMsgsBadHdr');
    declare_variable("$r.8.7",     'QuarMsgsSpammy');
    declare_variable("$r.8.8",     'QuarMsgsSpam');
    declare_variable("$r.8.9",     'QuarMsgsUnchecked');
    declare_variable("$r.8.10",    'QuarMsgsBanned');
    declare_variable("$r.8.11",    'QuarMsgsVirus');
    declare_variable("$r.8.12",    'QuarAttemptTempFails');
    declare_variable("$r.8.13",    'QuarAttemptFails');

    declare_variable("$r.9.1",     'QuarMsgsSize',          'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.9.2",     'QuarMsgsSizeArch',      'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.9.3",     'QuarMsgsSizeClean',     'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.9.4",     'QuarMsgsSizeMtaFailed', 'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.9.5",     'QuarMsgsSizeOversized', 'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.9.6",     'QuarMsgsSizeBadHdr',    'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.9.7",     'QuarMsgsSizeSpammy',    'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.9.8",     'QuarMsgsSizeSpam',      'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.9.9",     'QuarMsgsSizeUnchecked', 'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.9.10",    'QuarMsgsSizeBanned',    'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.9.11",    'QuarMsgsSizeVirus',     'C64');

    declare_variable("$r.10.1.1",  'ContentCleanMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.10.1.2",  'ContentCleanMsgsInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.1.3",  'ContentCleanMsgsOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.1.4",  'ContentCleanMsgsInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.10.1.5",  'ContentCleanMsgsOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.10.1.6",  'ContentCleanMsgsOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.10.2.1",  'ContentMtaFailedMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.10.2.2",  'ContentMtaFailedMsgsInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.2.3",  'ContentMtaFailedMsgsOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.2.4",  'ContentMtaFailedMsgsInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.10.2.5",  'ContentMtaFailedMsgsOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.10.2.6",  'ContentMtaFailedMsgsOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.10.3.1",  'ContentOversizedMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.10.3.2",  'ContentOversizedMsgsInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.3.3",  'ContentOversizedMsgsOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.3.4",  'ContentOversizedMsgsInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.10.3.5",  'ContentOversizedMsgsOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.10.3.6",  'ContentOversizedMsgsOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.10.4.1",  'ContentBadHdrMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.10.4.2",  'ContentBadHdrMsgsInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.4.3",  'ContentBadHdrMsgsOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.4.4",  'ContentBadHdrMsgsInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.10.4.5",  'ContentBadHdrMsgsOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.10.4.6",  'ContentBadHdrMsgsOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.10.5.1",  'ContentSpammyMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.10.5.2",  'ContentSpammyMsgsInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.5.3",  'ContentSpammyMsgsOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.5.4",  'ContentSpammyMsgsInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.10.5.5",  'ContentSpammyMsgsOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.10.5.6",  'ContentSpammyMsgsOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.10.6.1",  'ContentSpamMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.10.6.2",  'ContentSpamMsgsInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.6.3",  'ContentSpamMsgsOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.6.4",  'ContentSpamMsgsInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.10.6.5",  'ContentSpamMsgsOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.10.6.6",  'ContentSpamMsgsOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.10.7.1",  'ContentUncheckedMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.10.7.2",  'ContentUncheckedMsgsInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.7.3",  'ContentUncheckedMsgsOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.7.4",  'ContentUncheckedMsgsInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.10.7.5",  'ContentUncheckedMsgsOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.10.7.6",  'ContentUncheckedMsgsOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.10.8.1",  'ContentBannedMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.10.8.2",  'ContentBannedMsgsInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.8.3",  'ContentBannedMsgsOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.8.4",  'ContentBannedMsgsInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.10.8.5",  'ContentBannedMsgsOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.10.8.6",  'ContentBannedMsgsOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.10.9.1",  'ContentVirusMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.10.9.2",  'ContentVirusMsgsInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.9.3",  'ContentVirusMsgsOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.10.9.4",  'ContentVirusMsgsInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.10.9.5",  'ContentVirusMsgsOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.10.9.6",  'ContentVirusMsgsOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.11.1",    'CacheAttempts');
    declare_variable("$r.11.2",    'CacheMisses');
    declare_variable("$r.11.3",    'CacheHits');
    declare_variable("$r.11.4",    'CacheHitsVirusCheck');
    declare_variable("$r.11.5",    'CacheHitsVirusMsgs');
    declare_variable("$r.11.6",    'OutConnNew');
    declare_variable("$r.11.7",    'OutConnQuit');
    declare_variable("$r.11.8",    'OutConnTransact');
    declare_variable("$r.11.9",    'OutConnReuseFail');
    declare_variable("$r.11.10",   'OutConnReuseRecent');
    declare_variable("$r.11.11",   'OutConnReuseRefreshed');

    declare_variable("$r.12.1",    'OpsDec');
    declare_variable("$r.12.2",    'OpsSpamCheck');
    declare_variable("$r.12.3",    'OpsVirusCheck');

    declare_variable("$r.13.1",    'PenPalsAttempts');
    declare_variable("$r.13.2",    'PenPalsAttemptsRid');
    declare_variable("$r.13.3",    'PenPalsAttemptsMid');
    declare_variable("$r.13.4",    'PenPalsMisses');
    declare_variable("$r.13.5",    'PenPalsHits');
    declare_variable("$r.13.6",    'PenPalsHitsRid');
    declare_variable("$r.13.7",    'PenPalsHitsMid');
    declare_variable("$r.13.8",    'PenPalsHitsMidRid');
    declare_variable("$r.13.9",    'PenPalsSavedFromTag2');
    declare_variable("$r.13.10",   'PenPalsSavedFromTag3');
    declare_variable("$r.13.11",   'PenPalsSavedFromKill');

    declare_variable("$r.14.1",    'SqlAddrSenderAttempts');
    declare_variable("$r.14.2",    'SqlAddrSenderMisses');
    declare_variable("$r.14.3",    'SqlAddrSenderHits');
    declare_variable("$r.14.4",    'SqlAddrRecipAttempts');
    declare_variable("$r.14.5",    'SqlAddrRecipMisses');
    declare_variable("$r.14.6",    'SqlAddrRecipHits');

    declare_variable("$r.15.1",    'LogEntries',           'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.15.2",    'LogEntriesEmerg',      'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.15.3",    'LogEntriesAlert',      'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.15.4",    'LogEntriesCrit',       'C64'); # lvl le -3
    declare_variable("$r.15.5",    'LogEntriesErr',        'C64'); # lvl le -2
    declare_variable("$r.15.6",    'LogEntriesWarning',    'C64'); # lvl le -1
    declare_variable("$r.15.7",    'LogEntriesNotice',     'C64'); # lvl le  0
    declare_variable("$r.15.8",    'LogEntriesInfo',       'C64'); # lvl le  1
    declare_variable("$r.15.9",    'LogEntriesDebug',      'C64'); # lvl le  2
    declare_variable("$r.15.10",   'LogEntriesLevel0',     'C64'); # le 0
    declare_variable("$r.15.11",   'LogEntriesLevel1',     'C64'); # eq 1
    declare_variable("$r.15.12",   'LogEntriesLevel2',     'C64'); # eq 2
    declare_variable("$r.15.13",   'LogEntriesLevel3',     'C64'); # eq 3
    declare_variable("$r.15.14",   'LogEntriesLevel4',     'C64'); # eq 4
    declare_variable("$r.15.15",   'LogEntriesLevel5',     'C64'); # ge 5
    declare_variable("$r.15.16",   'LogLines',             'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.15.17",   'LogRetries',           'C64');

    declare_variable("$r.16.1",    'TimeElapsedTotal',     'INT');
    declare_variable("$r.16.2",    'TimeElapsedReceiving', 'INT');
    declare_variable("$r.16.3",    'TimeElapsedSending',   'INT');
    declare_variable("$r.16.4",    'TimeElapsedDecoding',  'INT');
    declare_variable("$r.16.5",    'TimeElapsedPenPals',   'INT');
    declare_variable("$r.16.6",    'TimeElapsedVirusCheck','INT');
    declare_variable("$r.16.7",    'TimeElapsedSpamCheck', 'INT');

    declare_variable("$r.17.1",    'UserCounter1',         'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.17.2",    'UserCounter2',         'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.17.3",    'UserCounter3',         'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.17.4",    'UserCounter4',         'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.17.5",    'UserCounter5',         'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.17.6",    'UserCounter6',         'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.17.7",    'UserCounter7',         'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.17.8",    'UserCounter8',         'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.17.9",    'UserCounter9',         'C64');
    declare_variable("$r.17.10",   'UserCounter10',        'C64');

    declare_variable("$r.18.1",    'UserGauge1',           'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.18.2",    'UserGauge2',           'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.18.3",    'UserGauge3',           'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.18.4",    'UserGauge4',           'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.18.5",    'UserGauge5',           'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.18.6",    'UserGauge6',           'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.18.7",    'UserGauge7',           'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.18.8",    'UserGauge8',           'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.18.9",    'UserGauge9',           'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.18.10",   'UserGauge10',          'G32');

    declare_variable("$r.19.1",    'InMsgsStatusAccepted');    # 2xx, AM.PDP
    declare_variable("$r.19.2",    'InMsgsStatusAcceptedInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.19.3",    'InMsgsStatusAcceptedOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.19.4",    'InMsgsStatusAcceptedInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.19.5",    'InMsgsStatusAcceptedOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.19.6",    'InMsgsStatusAcceptedOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.20.1",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedUntagged');  # 2xx, fwd
    declare_variable("$r.20.2",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedUntaggedInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.20.3",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedUntaggedOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.20.4",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedUntaggedInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.20.5",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedUntaggedOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.20.6",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedUntaggedOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.21.1",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedTagged'); # 2xx, forward
    declare_variable("$r.21.2",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedTaggedInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.21.3",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedTaggedOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.21.4",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedTaggedInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.21.5",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedTaggedOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.21.6",    'InMsgsStatusRelayedTaggedOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.22.1",    'InMsgsStatusDiscarded');   # 2xx, no DSN
    declare_variable("$r.22.2",    'InMsgsStatusDiscardedInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.22.3",    'InMsgsStatusDiscardedOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.22.4",    'InMsgsStatusDiscardedInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.22.5",    'InMsgsStatusDiscardedOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.22.6",    'InMsgsStatusDiscardedOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.23.1",    'InMsgsStatusNoBounce');    # 2xx, no DSN
    declare_variable("$r.23.2",    'InMsgsStatusNoBounceInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.23.3",    'InMsgsStatusNoBounceOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.23.4",    'InMsgsStatusNoBounceInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.23.5",    'InMsgsStatusNoBounceOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.23.6",    'InMsgsStatusNoBounceOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.24.1",    'InMsgsStatusBounced');     # 2xx, DSN sent
    declare_variable("$r.24.2",    'InMsgsStatusBouncedInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.24.3",    'InMsgsStatusBouncedOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.24.4",    'InMsgsStatusBouncedInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.24.5",    'InMsgsStatusBouncedOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.24.6",    'InMsgsStatusBouncedOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.25.1",    'InMsgsStatusRejected');    # 5xx
    declare_variable("$r.25.2",    'InMsgsStatusRejectedInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.25.3",    'InMsgsStatusRejectedOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.25.4",    'InMsgsStatusRejectedInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.25.5",    'InMsgsStatusRejectedOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.25.6",    'InMsgsStatusRejectedOpenRelay');

    declare_variable("$r.26.1",    'InMsgsStatusTempFailed');  # 4xx
    declare_variable("$r.26.2",    'InMsgsStatusTempFailedInbound');
    declare_variable("$r.26.3",    'InMsgsStatusTempFailedOutbound');
    declare_variable("$r.26.4",    'InMsgsStatusTempFailedInternal');
    declare_variable("$r.26.5",    'InMsgsStatusTempFailedOriginating');
    declare_variable("$r.26.6",    'InMsgsStatusTempFailedOpenRelay');
  }

  { # amavisd child processes MIB
    my $r = $databases[1]->{root_oid_str};
    declare_variable("$r.1.1",     'ProcGone');                    # counter!
    declare_variable("$r.1.2",     'ProcAll',              'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.1.3",     'ProcIdle',             'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.1.4",     'ProcBusy',             'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.1.5",     'ProcBusyTransfer',     'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.1.6",     'ProcBusyDecode',       'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.1.7",     'ProcBusyVirus',        'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.1.8",     'ProcBusySpam',         'G32');
    declare_variable("$r.1.9",     'ProcBusyOther',        'G32');
    declare_variable(sprintf("%s.2.%d", $r,$_+1),
                                   'ProcBusy'.$_, 'G32')  for (0..@age_slots);
  }
} # BEGIN

use vars qw($zmq_mod_name $zmq_mod_version $zmq_lib_version);
BEGIN {
  my($zmq_major, $zmq_minor, $zmq_patch);
  if (eval { require ZMQ::LibZMQ3 && require ZMQ::Constants }) {
    $zmq_mod_name = 'ZMQ::LibZMQ3';  # new interface module to zmq v3 or libxs
    import ZMQ::LibZMQ3;  import ZMQ::Constants qw(:all);
    ($zmq_major, $zmq_minor, $zmq_patch) = ZMQ::LibZMQ3::zmq_version();
  # *zmq_sendmsg   [native]                   # (socket,msgobj,flags)
  # *zmq_recvmsg   [native]                   # (socket,flags) -> msgobj
    *zmq_sendstr = sub {                      # (socket,string,flags)
      my $rv = zmq_send($_[0], $_[1], length $_[1], $_[2]||0);
      $rv == -1 ? undef : $rv;
    };
  } elsif (eval { require ZMQ::LibZMQ2 && require ZMQ::Constants }) {
    $zmq_mod_name = 'ZMQ::LibZMQ2';  # new interface module to zmq v2
    import ZMQ::LibZMQ2;  import ZMQ::Constants qw(:all);
    ($zmq_major, $zmq_minor, $zmq_patch) = ZMQ::LibZMQ2::zmq_version();
    # zmq v2/v3 incompatibile renaming
    *zmq_sendmsg = \&ZMQ::LibZMQ2::zmq_send;  # (socket,msgobj,flags)
    *zmq_recvmsg = \&ZMQ::LibZMQ2::zmq_recv;  # (socket,flags) -> msgobj
    *zmq_sendstr = sub {                      # (socket,string,flags)
      my $rv = zmq_send(@_);  $rv == -1 ? undef : $rv;
    };
  } elsif (eval { require ZeroMQ::Constants && require ZeroMQ::Raw }) {
    $zmq_mod_name = 'ZeroMQ';  # old interface module to zmq v2
    import ZeroMQ::Raw;  import ZeroMQ::Constants qw(:all);
    ($zmq_major, $zmq_minor, $zmq_patch) = ZeroMQ::version();
    # zmq v2/v3 incompatibile renaming
    *zmq_sendmsg = \&ZeroMQ::Raw::zmq_send;   # (socket,msgobj,flags)
    *zmq_recvmsg = \&ZeroMQ::Raw::zmq_recv;   # (socket,flags) -> msgobj
    *zmq_sendstr = sub {                      # (socket,string,flags)
      my $rv = zmq_send(@_);  $rv == -1 ? undef : $rv;
    };
  } else {
    die "Perl modules ZMQ::LibZMQ3 or ZMQ::LibZMQ2 or ZeroMQ not available\n";
  }
  $zmq_mod_version = $zmq_mod_name->VERSION;
  $zmq_lib_version = join('.', $zmq_major, $zmq_minor, $zmq_patch);
  1;
}

sub zmq_version {
  sprintf("%s %s, lib %s",
          $zmq_mod_name, $zmq_mod_version, $zmq_lib_version);
};

sub zmq_recvstr {               # (socket,buffer,offset) -> (len,more)
  my $sock = $_[0];
  my $offset = $_[2] || 0;
  my $zm = zmq_recvmsg($sock);  # a copy of a received msg obj
  if (!$zm) { substr($_[1],$offset) = ''; return }
  ($offset ? substr($_[1],$offset) : $_[1]) = zmq_msg_data($zm);
  my $len = length($_[1]) - $offset;
  zmq_msg_close($zm);
  return $len  if !wantarray;
  my $more = zmq_getsockopt($sock, ZMQ_RCVMORE);
  if ($more == -1) { substr($_[1],$offset) = ''; return }
  ($len, $more);
};


sub do_log($$;@) {
# my($level,$errmsg,@args) = @_;
  my $level = shift;
  if ($level <= $log_level) {
    my $errmsg = shift;
    # treat $errmsg as sprintf format string if additional arguments provided
    $errmsg = sprintf($errmsg,@_)  if @_;
    if (!$syslog_open) {
      $errmsg .= "\n";
      print STDERR $errmsg;  # print ignoring I/O status, except SIGPIPE
    } else {
      my $prio = $level >=  3 ? LOG_DEBUG  # most frequent first
               : $level >=  1 ? LOG_INFO
               : $level >=  0 ? LOG_NOTICE
               : $level >= -1 ? LOG_WARNING
               :                LOG_ERR;
      syslog($prio, "%s", $errmsg);
    }
  }
}

# Returns the smallest defined number from the list, or undef
sub min(@) {
  my $r = @_ == 1 && ref($_[0]) ? $_[0] : \@_;  # accept list, or a list ref
  my $m;  defined $_ && (!defined $m || $_ < $m) && ($m = $_)  for @$r;
  $m;
}

# Returns the largest defined number from the list, or undef
sub max(@) {
  my $r = @_ == 1 && ref($_[0]) ? $_[0] : \@_;  # accept list, or a list ref
  my $m;  defined $_ && (!defined $m || $_ > $m) && ($m = $_)  for @$r;
  $m;
}

# Return untainted copy of a string (argument can be a string or a string ref)
sub untaint($) {
  return undef  if !defined $_[0];  # must return undef even in a list context!
  no re 'taint';
  local $1;  # avoid Perl taint bug: tainted global $1 propagates taintedness
  (ref($_[0]) ? ${$_[0]} : $_[0]) =~ /^(.*)\z/s;
  $1;
}

# Send a query to 'amavis-services snmp-responder' and collect a value
# of a queried SNMP variable
#
sub query_zmq_responder_bulk($) {
  my($chan) = @_;
  do_log(5, "query_zmq_responder_bulk %s", $chan);
  defined zmq_sendstr($zmq_sock, $chan.'?')
    or die "Error sending a ZMQ message: $!";
  for (;;) {
    my($msgstr,$msgstr_l,$more);
    ($msgstr_l,$more) = zmq_recvstr($zmq_sock,$msgstr);
    if (!defined $msgstr_l) {
      do_log(0, "zmq_recvstr failed: %s", $!);
      last;
    }
    my($chan, $key, $type, $val) = split(' ',$msgstr,4);
    if ($chan ne 'am.snmp' && $chan ne 'am.nanny') {
      do_log(2, "zmq response, wrong channel, got: %s", $msgstr);
      last;
    }
    do_log(5, "query_zmq_responder_bulk: %s got %s", $more?'M':' ', $msgstr);
    $val  = undef  if $val  eq '?';
    $type = undef  if $type eq '?';
    if (!defined $type) {
      do_log(5, "query_zmq_responder NO DATA for %s", $key);
      $val = undef;
    } else {
      $type = 'INT'  if $key =~ /^TimeElapsed/ && $type eq 'C32';
      $type = 'TIM'  if $key eq 'sysUpTime'    && $type eq 'INT';
    }
    if ($type eq 'C32' || $type eq 'C64') {  # counters
      $val = !defined $val ? 0 : 0+$val;
    } elsif ($type eq 'STR' || $type eq 'OID') {
      $val = ''  if !defined $val;
    } elsif ($key eq 'sysUpTime') {
      if (defined $val) {
        my $uptime = Time::HiRes::time - $val;
        $val = int($uptime*100);  # ticks
      }
    } elsif ($type =~ /^(?:G32|INT|I64|U32|U64|TIM)\z/) {
      $val = !defined $val ? 0 : 0+$val;
    }
    set_variable_value($key, $val);
    last if !$more;
  }
}

sub set_variable_value($$) {
  my($name, $value) = @_;
  my $instance; local($1,$2);
  if ($name =~ /^(.*)\.(\d+)/s) { $name = $1; $instance = $2 }
  $instance = "0"  if !defined $instance;
  my $v = $variables{"$name.$instance"};
  if (!defined($v)) {
    do_log(5, "No such variable %s.%s", $name,$instance);
  } else {
    my(@var) = ref $v eq 'ARRAY' ? @$v : $v;
    for my $var (@var) {
      my $type = $var->type;
      if ($name =~ /^TimeElapsed/) {
        $value = int(($value+5)/10);  # ms -> 0.01s ticks
      } elsif ($type == ASN_COUNTER   || $type == ASN_GAUGE     ||
               $type == ASN_INTEGER   || $type == ASN_UNSIGNED  ||
               $type == ASN_TIMETICKS) {
        $value = 0+$value;
      } elsif ($type == ASN_COUNTER64 || $type == ASN_INTEGER64 ||
               $type == ASN_UNSIGNED64) {
        $value = sprintf("%1.0f",$value);
      } elsif ($type == ASN_OCTET_STR) {
        $value = "$value";
      }
      $var->value($value);
    }
  }
}

sub reset_all_variable_values($) {
  my($root_oid_str) = @_;
  while (my($key,$v) = each(%variables)) {
    my(@var) = ref $v eq 'ARRAY' ? @$v : $v;
    for my $var (@var) {
      if (!defined($root_oid_str) || $var->oidstr =~ /^\Q$root_oid_str\E\./) {
        $var->value(undef);
      }
    }
  }
}

sub dump_variables() {
  for my $oid (@oid_sorted_list) {
    my(@oidlist) = $oid->to_array;
    my $oidstr = join('.', @oidlist);
    my $descr = "";
    my $suffix_sp = join(' ', @oidlist[9 .. ($#oidlist-1)]);
    my $var = $oidstr_to_obj{$oidstr};
    my $mib_type_name = $asn_type_to_full_name{$var->type};
    my $name = $var->name;
    $name =~ s/\.0\z//;
    printf STDERR (<<'END', $name, $mib_type_name, $descr, $suffix_sp);
%s OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX	%s
    MAX-ACCESS	read-only
    STATUS	current
    DESCRIPTION
      "%s"
    ::= { amavis %s }

END
  }
}

sub init_data() {
  while (my($name,$v) = each(%variables)) {
    my(@var) = ref $v eq 'ARRAY' ? @$v : $v;
    for my $var (@var) {
      my $oidstr = $var->oidstr;
      $var->oid(NetSNMP::OID->new($oidstr));
      $oidstr_to_obj{$oidstr} = $var;
    }
  }
  @oid_sorted_list = sort { snmp_oid_compare($a,$b) }
                      map { $_->oid }
                      map { ref $_ eq 'ARRAY' ? @$_ : $_ } values(%variables);
  # build a linked list of variable objects in OID sorted order
  # to speed up sequential MIB traversal by getnext
  my $prev_var;
  for my $oid (@oid_sorted_list) {
    my $oidstr = join('.', $oid->to_array);
    my $var = $oidstr_to_obj{$oidstr};
    $prev_var->next($var)  if defined $prev_var;
    $prev_var = $var;
  }
}

sub count_files_in_postfix_dir($$);  # prototype
sub count_files_in_postfix_dir($$) {
  my($dir,$deadline) = @_;
  local(*DIR); my $f; my $cnt = 0; my $aborted = 0;
  if (!opendir(DIR,$dir)) {
    do_log(-1, "Can't open directory %s: %s", $dir,$!);
  } else {
    while (defined($f = readdir(DIR))) {
      next  if $f eq '.' || $f eq '..';
      # Postfix uses one-character subdirs
      if (length($f) == 1 && -d "$dir/$f") {
        my($n,$abt) = count_files_in_postfix_dir("$dir/$f", $deadline);
        $cnt += $n;
        if ($abt) { $aborted = 1; last }
      } else {
        $cnt++;
      }
      if (defined $deadline && Time::HiRes::time > $deadline) {
        $aborted = 1; last;
      }
    }
    closedir(DIR) or die "Error closing directory $dir: $!";
  }
  ($cnt,$aborted);
}

sub update_data($) {
  my($database) = @_;
  do_log(3, "updating variables from %s", $database->{name});
  my $start_time = Time::HiRes::time;
  if ($database->{name} =~ /^pf/) {
    # not really a database, just a 'view' into an MTA spool directory
    my $dir = $database->{file};
    my($cnt,$aborted) =
      count_files_in_postfix_dir("$mta_queue_dir/$dir", $start_time + 5);
    my $var_name = "MtaQueueEntries\u$dir";
    set_variable_value($var_name, $cnt);
    do_log(3, "mta queue: %s %d", $var_name,$cnt);
    do_log(-1,"exceeded time limit on dir %s, aborted after %.1f s, ".
              "count so far: %d",
              $var_name, Time::HiRes::time - $start_time, $cnt)  if $aborted;
  } else {
    query_zmq_responder_bulk($database->{name});
  }

  my $now = Time::HiRes::time;
  my $elapsed = $now - $start_time;
  $elapsed = 0  if $elapsed < 0;  # clock jump?
  my $ll = $elapsed >= 30 ? -1 : $elapsed >= 5 ? 0 : $elapsed >= 1 ? 2 : 3;
  do_log($ll, "updating %s took %.3f s", $database->{name}, $elapsed);

  my $ttl = $database->{ttl};
  $ttl = 1  if !defined $ttl || $ttl < 1;

  if ($database->{name} =~ /^pf/) {
    my $ttl_lower_bound = 8*$elapsed;  # don't be a hog!
    my $since_query = $database->{last_query_timestamp};
    $since_query = $now - $since_query  if defined $since_query;
    if (defined $since_query && $elapsed > 4) {
      # there is a chance that a SNMP client timed out on this query;
      # stretch the next update period to allow one quick next response
      # from cached data, assuming queries are at about regular intervals
      $ttl_lower_bound = max($ttl_lower_bound, 1.5 * $since_query);
    }
    $ttl_lower_bound = min($ttl_lower_bound, 20*60);  # cap at 20 minutes
    if ($ttl < $ttl_lower_bound) {
      $ttl = $ttl_lower_bound;
      do_log(3, "postponing refresh on %s for another %.1f s%s",
                $database->{name}, $ttl,
                !defined $since_query ? ''
                  : sprintf(", %.1f s since query", $since_query) );
    }
  }

  $database->{last_refreshed} = $now;
  $database->{update_due_at} = $now + $ttl;
}

sub find_next_gt($$) {
  my($x, $a_ref) = @_;
  my($l, $u) = (0, $#$a_ref);
  my $j;
  while ($l <= $u) {
    $j = $l + int(($u - $l)/2);  # good practices: avoids integer overflow
    if ($a_ref->[$j] > $x) { $u = $j-1 } else { $l = $j+1 }
  }
  $l > $#$a_ref ? -1 : $l;
}

my $fast_poll = 0;
my $last_query_timestamp = 0;
sub snmp_handler($$$$) {
  my($handler, $registration_info, $request_info, $requests) = @_;

  my $now = Time::HiRes::time;
  my $dt = $now - $last_query_timestamp;
  if ($dt < 1.5) { $fast_poll = 1 } elsif ($dt > 4) { $fast_poll = 0 }
  $last_query_timestamp = $now;

  my $mode = $request_info->getMode;
  for (my $req=$requests; $req; $req=$req->next) {
    my $oid_in_request = $req->getOID;  # OID from a request
    my $actual_oid; my $err; my $eom = 0;
    if ($mode == MODE_GET) {
      $actual_oid = $oid_in_request;
      do_log(5, "Get %s", $oid_in_request);
    } elsif ($mode == MODE_GETBULK) {
      # never happens, not registered for getbulk
      do_log(2, "GetBulk %s", $oid_in_request);
    } elsif ($mode == MODE_GETNEXT) {
      if (!@oid_sorted_list) {
        $eom = 1;  # end of MIB
      } elsif ($oid_in_request < $oid_sorted_list[0]) {
        $actual_oid = $oid_sorted_list[0];
        $req->setOID($actual_oid);
        do_log(4, "First: %s -> %s", $oid_in_request,$actual_oid);
      } elsif ($oid_in_request > $oid_sorted_list[-1]) {
        $eom = 1;  # end of MIB
        do_log(4, "Last: %s", $oid_in_request);
      } else {
        # check first for a sequential traversal, likely faster
        my $var = $oidstr_to_obj{join('.', $oid_in_request->to_array)};
        if ($var) {
          my $next_var = $var->next;
          if (!$next_var) {
            $eom = 1;  # end of MIB
          } else {
            $actual_oid = $next_var->oid;
            $req->setOID($actual_oid);
          }
        }
        if (!$err && !$eom && !defined $actual_oid) {
          # fall back to a binary search
          do_log(5, "Using a binary search for %s", $oid_in_request);
          my $ind = find_next_gt($oid_in_request, \@oid_sorted_list);
          if ($ind < 0) {
            $eom = 1;  # end of MIB
          } else {
            $actual_oid = $oid_sorted_list[$ind];
            $req->setOID($actual_oid);
          }
        }
      }
      do_log(5, "GetNext %s -> %s", $oid_in_request,
                !defined $actual_oid ? 'undef' : $actual_oid);
    } else {
      do_log(0, "Unknown request %s", $oid_in_request);
      $req->setError($request_info, SNMP_ERR_NOTWRITABLE); $err = 1;
    }
    if ($err) {
      # already dealt with
    } elsif ($eom || !defined $actual_oid) {  # end of MIB
      # just silently not provide a value
      do_log(5, "No more MIB beyond %s", $oid_in_request);
    } else {
      my $oid_str = join('.', $actual_oid->to_array);
      my $var = $oidstr_to_obj{$oid_str};
      if (!$var) {
        $req->setError($request_info, SNMP_ERR_NOSUCHNAME);
      } else {
        my $value;
        my($name,$type,$mytype) = ($var->name, $var->type, $var->mytype);

        # find out under which OID root the query falls
        for my $database (@databases) {
          next  if !$database->{registered};
          my $root_oid_str = $database->{root_oid_str};
          if ($oid_str =~ /^\Q$root_oid_str\E\./) {
            my $db_name = $database->{name};
            $database->{last_query_timestamp} = $now;
            if (!defined($database->{update_due_at}) ||
                Time::HiRes::time >=
                  $database->{update_due_at} + ($fast_poll ? 4 : 0) ) {
              # fast polling stretches time-to-update a bit, increasing
              # chances of collecting consistent data from the same moment
              update_data($database);  # stale MIB, needs updating
            }
            $value = $var->value;
          }
        }

        if (!defined $type) {
          $req->setError($request_info, SNMP_ERR_BADVALUE);
        } else {
          $value = $is_a_numeric_asn_type{$type} ? 0 : ""  if !defined $value;
          # the NetSNMP::agent agent.xs is too finicky and does not like a
          # SVt_PVIV data type for an integer or counter, it only takes SVt_IV
          # or a string; work around this limitation
          my $status = $req->setValue($type,
                                  $is_a_numeric_asn_type{$type} ? int(0+$value)
                                                                : "$value");
          if (!$status) {
            do_log(0, "setValue error: %s, %s, %s", $type,$name,$value);
            $req->setError($request_info, SNMP_ERR_BADVALUE);
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
  1;
}

sub daemonize() {
  closelog()  if $syslog_open;
  $syslog_open = 0;

  STDOUT->autoflush(1);
  STDERR->autoflush(1);
  close(STDIN)  or die "Can't close STDIN: $!";

  my $pid;
  # the first fork allows the shell to return and allows doing a setsid
  eval { $pid = fork(); 1 }
  or do {
    my($eval_stat) = $@ ne '' ? $@ : "errno=$!";  chomp $eval_stat;
    die "Error forking #1: $eval_stat";
  };
  defined $pid  or die "Can't fork #1: $!";
  if ($pid) {  # parent process terminates here
    POSIX::_exit(0);  # avoid END and destructor processing
  }

  # disassociate from a controlling terminal
  my $pgid = POSIX::setsid();
  defined $pgid && $pgid >= 0 or die "Can't start a new session: $!";

  # We are now a session leader. As a session leader, opening a file
  # descriptor that is a terminal will make it our controlling terminal.
  # The second fork makes us NOT a session leader. Only session leaders
  # can acquire a controlling terminal, so we may now open up any file
  # we wish without worrying that it will become a controlling terminal.

  # second fork prevents from accidentally reacquiring a controlling terminal
  eval { $pid = fork(); 1 }
  or do {
    my($eval_stat) = $@ ne '' ? $@ : "errno=$!";  chomp $eval_stat;
    die "Error forking #2: $eval_stat";
  };
  defined $pid  or die "Can't fork #2: $!";
  if ($pid) {  # parent process terminates here
    POSIX::_exit(0);  # avoid END and destructor processing
  }

  chdir('/')  or die "Can't chdir to '/': $!";

  # a daemonized child process, live long and prosper...
  do_log(2, "Daemonized as process [%s]", $$);

  openlog($syslog_ident, LOG_PID | LOG_NDELAY, $syslog_facility);
  $syslog_open = 1;

  close(STDOUT)               or die "Can't close STDOUT: $!";
  open(STDOUT, '>/dev/null')  or die "Can't open /dev/null: $!";
  close(STDERR)               or die "Can't close STDERR: $!";
  open(STDERR, '>&STDOUT')    or die "Can't dup STDOUT: $!";
}

sub usage() {
  return <<"EOD";
Usage:
  $0 [options]

  Options:
   -V              show version, then exit
   -h              show help, then exit
   -f              stay in foreground
   -d log_level    debugging level, 0..5, default 0
   -P pid_file     a file name to receive a PID of a damonized process
EOD
}


# main program starts here

my $foreground = 0;
my $pid_filename;  # e.g. "/var/run/amavisd-snmp-subagent.pid";
my $pid_file_created = 0;
my $keep_running = 1;

  delete @ENV{'PATH', 'IFS', 'CDPATH', 'ENV', 'BASH_ENV'};
  $SIG{INT}  = sub { die "interrupted\n" };  # do the END code block
  $SIG{TERM} = sub { die "terminated\n" };   # do the END code block
  $SIG{PIPE} = 'IGNORE';  # don't signal on a write to a widowed pipe

  while (@ARGV >= 2 && $ARGV[0] =~ /^-[dP]\z/ ||
         @ARGV >= 1 && $ARGV[0] =~ /^-[hVf-]\z/) {
    my($opt,$val);
    $opt = shift @ARGV;
    $val = shift @ARGV  if $opt =~ /^-[dP]\z/;  # these take arguments
    if ($opt eq '--') {
      last;
    } elsif ($opt eq '-h') {  # -h  (help)
      die "$myversion\n\n" . usage();
    } elsif ($opt eq '-V') {  # -V  (version)
      die "$myversion\n";
    } elsif ($opt eq '-f') {  # -f  (foreground)
      $foreground = 1;
    } elsif ($opt eq '-d') {  # -d log_level
      $log_level = 0+$val;
    } elsif ($opt eq '-P') {  # -P pid_file
      $pid_filename = untaint($val)  if $val ne '';
    } else {
      die "Error in parsing command line options: $opt\n\n" . usage();
    }
  }
  !@ARGV  or die "Unprocessed command line options: $ARGV[0]\n\n" . usage();

  if (!defined $mta_queue_dir) {  # test for access to Postfix queue directory
    local($ENV{PATH}) = '/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin:/opt/postfix/sbin';
    $! = 0;
    $mta_queue_dir = qx(postconf -h queue_directory 2>/dev/null);
    if (!defined $mta_queue_dir) {
      if ($! != 0) {
        do_log(1, "no postfix (unable to run postconf command): $!");
      } else {
        do_log(1, "failed to execute \"postconf queue_directory\": $?");
      }
    } else {
      chomp $mta_queue_dir;
      if ($mta_queue_dir =~ /^\s*\z/) {
        do_log(1, "unknown Postfix queue directory");
        undef $mta_queue_dir;
      } else {
        do_log(2, "got a Postfix queue directory: %s", $mta_queue_dir);
        my $dir = "$mta_queue_dir/active";
        local(*DIR);
        if (!opendir(DIR,$dir)) {  # testing access
          do_log(1, "can't open directory %s: %s", $dir,$!);
          undef $mta_queue_dir;
        } else {
          closedir(DIR) or die "Error closing directory $dir: $!";
        }
      }
    }
  }

  if (defined $mta_queue_dir) {
    # Postfix queue size MIB
    declare_variable($databases[2]->{root_oid_str},
                                   'MtaQueueEntriesMaildrop', 'G32');
    declare_variable($databases[3]->{root_oid_str},
                                   'MtaQueueEntriesIncoming', 'G32');
    declare_variable($databases[4]->{root_oid_str},
                                   'MtaQueueEntriesActive',   'G32');
    declare_variable($databases[5]->{root_oid_str},
                                   'MtaQueueEntriesDeferred', 'G32');
  }

  $SIG{'__WARN__'} =  # log warnings
    sub { my($m) = @_; chomp($m); do_log(-1,"_WARN: %s",$m) };
  $SIG{'__DIE__' } =  # log uncaught errors
    sub { if (!$^S) { my($m) = @_; chomp($m); do_log(-2,"_DIE: %s",$m) } };

  if ($foreground) {
    do_log(0,"%s starting in foreground, perl %s", $myversion,$]);
  } else {  # daemonize
    openlog($syslog_ident, LOG_PID | LOG_NDELAY, $syslog_facility);
    $syslog_open = 1;
    do_log(2,"to be daemonized");
    daemonize();
    srand();
    do_log(0,"%s starting. daemonized as PID [%s], perl %s", $myversion,$$,$]);
    if (defined $pid_filename && $pid_filename ne '') {
      my $pidf = IO::File->new;
      my $stat = $pidf->open($pid_filename, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_RDWR, 0640);
      if (!$stat && $! == EEXIST) {
        do_log(0,"PID file %s exists, overwriting", $pid_filename);
        $stat = $pidf->open($pid_filename, O_CREAT|O_RDWR, 0640);
      }
      $stat or die "Can't create file $pid_filename: $!";
      $pid_file_created = 1;
      $pidf->print("$$\n") or die "Can't write to $pid_filename: $!";
      $pidf->close or die "Can't close $pid_filename: $!";
    }
  }

  do_log(5, "zmq_init");
  $zmq_ctx = zmq_init();
  $zmq_ctx or die "Can't create ZMQ context: $!";

  do_log(5, "creating ZMQ_REQ socket");
  $zmq_sock = zmq_socket($zmq_ctx,ZMQ_REQ);
  $zmq_sock or die "Can't create ZMQ socket: $!";

  do_log(5, "zmq_setsockopt on socket");
  my $sock_ipv4only = 1;  # a ZMQ default
  if (defined &ZMQ_IPV4ONLY && $snmp_sock_specs =~ /:[0-9a-f]*:/i) {
    zmq_setsockopt($zmq_sock, ZMQ_IPV4ONLY(), 0) != -1
      or die "Error turning off ZMQ_IPV4ONLY on a ZMQ socket: $!";
    $sock_ipv4only = 0;
  }
  do_log(5, "connecting to zmq socket %s%s", $snmp_sock_specs,
            $sock_ipv4only ? '' : ', IPv6 enabled');
  zmq_connect($zmq_sock, $snmp_sock_specs) != -1
    or die "zmq_connect to $snmp_sock_specs failed: $!";

# netsnmp_ds_set_boolean(NETSNMP_DS_APPLICATION_ID,
#                        NETSNMP_DS_LIB_DONT_READ_CONFIGS, 1);

  netsnmp_ds_set_string( NETSNMP_DS_APPLICATION_ID,
                         NETSNMP_DS_AGENT_X_SOCKET, $agentx_sock_specs
                       )  if defined $agentx_sock_specs;

  my $agent = NetSNMP::agent->new('Name' => $agent_name, 'AgentX' => 1)
    or die "Can't create a SNMP agent $agent_name";

  init_data();  # must come *after* NetSNMP::agent->new
# dump_variables();

  for my $database (@databases) {
    my $root_oid_str = $database->{root_oid_str};
    my $db_name = $database->{name};
    if ($db_name =~ /^pf/ && !defined $mta_queue_dir) {
      do_log(2, "not registering root OID %s for %s", $root_oid_str,$db_name);
    } else {
      do_log(2, "registering root OID %s for %s", $root_oid_str,$db_name);
      $root_oid_str = '.' . $root_oid_str;
      $agent->register($agent_name, $root_oid_str, \&snmp_handler)
        or die "Can't register a SNMP agent $agent_name under $root_oid_str";
      $database->{registered} = 1;
    }
  }

  while ($keep_running) {
    $agent->agent_check_and_process(1);
  }
  exit;

END {
  eval { do_log(2, "%s shutting down", $myproduct_name) };
  if (defined $agent) {
    eval { $agent->shutdown };  # ignoring status
  }
  if ($pid_file_created) {
    unlink($pid_filename)
      or eval { do_log(0, "Can't remove file %s: %s", $pid_filename,$!) };
  }
  if ($zmq_sock) {
    zmq_setsockopt($zmq_sock, ZMQ_LINGER, 0);  # ignoring status
    zmq_close($zmq_sock);  # ignoring status
  }
  if ($syslog_open) { eval { closelog() }; $syslog_open = 0 }
  zmq_term($zmq_ctx)  if $zmq_ctx;   # ignoring status
}