File: secG2.html

package info (click to toggle)
anarchism 9.5-1
  • links: PTS
  • area: main
  • in suites: woody
  • size: 12,192 kB
  • ctags: 493
  • sloc: makefile: 40; sh: 8
file content (549 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 32,707 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
<HTML>
<HEAD>

<TITLE>G.2 Why does individualist anarchism imply socialism? </TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<p>

<H1>G.2 Why does individualist anarchism imply socialism? </h1>
<p>
Here we present a short summary of why individualist anarchism implies
socialism and not capitalism. While it is true that people like Tucker
and Warren placed "property" at the heart of their vision of anarchy,
this does not make them supporters of capitalism (see sections 
<a href="secG2.html#secg21">G.2.1</a>
and <a href="secG2.html#secg22">G.2.2</a>). Unlike capitalists, the individualist anarchists identified 
"property" with simple "possession," or <i>"occupancy and use"</i> and considered 
profit, rent and interest as exploitation. Indeed, Tucker explicitly stated 
that <i>"all property rests on a labour title, and no other property do I
favour."</i> [<b>Instead of a Book</b>, p. 400] Because of this and their explicit
opposition to usury (profits, rent and interest) and capitalist property, 
they could and did consider themselves as part of the wider socialist 
movement, the libertarian wing as opposed to the statist Marxist wing.
<p>
Individualist anarchists like Tucker strongly believed that a truly free 
(i.e. non-capitalist) market would ensure that the worker would receive 
the <i>"full product"</i> of his or her labour. Nevertheless, in order to claim 
Tucker as a proto-"anarcho"-capitalist, "anarcho"-capitalists may argue 
that capitalism pays the "market price" of labour power, and that this 
price <b>does</b>  reflect the <i>"full product"</i> (or value) of the worker's 
labour. 
<p>
As Tucker supported the Labour Theory of Value we doubt that he would 
have agreed with the "anarcho"-capitalist argument that market price 
of labour reflected the value it produced (see <a href="secCcon.html">
Section C</a>). He, like 
the other individualist anarchists, was well aware that labour produces 
the "surplus wealth" which was appropriated in the name of interest, 
rent and profit. In other words, he very forcible rejected the idea 
that the market price of labour reflects the value of that labour, 
considering <i>"the natural wage of labour is its product"</i> and <i>"that 
this wage, or product, is the only just source of income."</i> [<b>Instead 
of a Book</b>, p. 6]
<p>
However, assuming that we accept the capitalist economic apologetics
at their face value, such an argument fails to place Individualist
Anarchism in the capitalist tradition. This is because the argument 
ignores the need to replace and improve upon existing capital. In 
the context of a market economy, the replacement and improvement of 
capital is important, as accumulation allows the reduction of labour 
costs (either directly or indirectly) by investing in new machinery 
or processes and so improving market position. In addition, capital 
investments are required in order to offer new services to the 
customer (for example, in banking, a network of auto-tellers). 
Either way, new capital is required. But new capital comes from 
value created by labour and realised as profits. And this means that 
in order to ensure that labour receives its due, companies <b>must</b> be 
co-operatives so that workers will have a say in how the profits 
they create are used, otherwise they do not get their <i>"natural 
wage."</i> In addition, the ability to influence one's own destiny 
by having a voice in investment decisions is certainly another 
"value" that one's labour can produce beyond the exchange value 
to be invested. We might call it "self-determination value," which 
individualist anarchists certainly regarded as a benefit of the 
artisan/co-operative labour they favoured (and their system implies). 
But workers will not be able to realise the full self-determination 
value of their labour nor receive its <i>"full product"</i> if investment 
decisions are not in their hands. Logically, therefore, individualist 
anarchism <b>must</b> tend towards co-operative, not capitalist, labour in 
order for them to receive the full value of their labour.
<p>
In addition, while it is true that in an economy with a very low
degree of monopoly within industries prices <b>do</b> tend towards
the production cost of a commodity, this cannot be said to occur
instantaneously. This means that in an economy without oligopolies
and without interest or rent, prices would tend, in the long run,
towards Tucker's their <i>"labour cost of production"</i> this cannot be
said to occur in the short run. Given that in the long run <i>"we are
all dead"</i> (to use Keynes' words) -- i.e. that we may never see it --
any form of wage labour can lead to usury being recreated as workers
would not receive their entire product back. That is, due to short
term changes in price workers market wage may not equal what they
produce. They <b>only</b> solution to this problem is workers' ownership
and control as this ensures workers remain control of the product
of their labour at all times (as well as the labour itself). <b>If,</b> 
as Tucker argued, <i>"the object of Anarchism . . . [is] to let every 
man [or woman] 'control self and the results of self-exertion'"</i> then 
this is only possible under workers' self-management and ownership.
[<b>Occupancy and Use versus the Single Tax</b>] This, we must note, was 
Proudhon's argument and part of the reason he supported workers' 
co-operatives (we will discuss the problem of natural barriers to 
competition in <a href="secG4.html">section G.4</a> along with the dangers associated with a 
lack of workers' control in a free society).
<p>
More importantly, wage labour violates two key aspects of Individualist
Anarchist thought, namely its support for <i>"occupancy and use"</i> and
its opposition to the state. We will discuss each in turn.
<p>
Obviously wage labour violates the idea that those who use something 
automatically own it. In the case of land and housing, the 
Individualist Anarchists argued that the person who lives or 
works on it (even under lease) would be regarded <i>"as the occupant 
and user of the land on which the house stands, and as the owner of 
the house itself,"</i> that is they become <i>"the owner of both land and 
house as soon as he becomes the occupant."</i> [<b>Ibid.</b>] Now, to take a 
concrete example from Tucker's time, the 3 800 workers locked out 
by Carnegie at Homestead in 1892 definitely occupied and used the 
works from which they were barred entry by the owners. The owners, 
obviously, did not use the workplace themselves -- they hired 
<b>others</b> to occupy and use it <b>for</b> them. Now, why should <i>"occupancy 
and use"</i> be acceptable for land and housing but not for workplaces? 
There is no reason and so wage labour, logically, violates <i>"occupancy 
and use"</i> -- for under wage labour, those who occupy and use a 
workplace do not own or control it. Hence <i>"occupancy and use"</i> 
logically implies workers' control and ownership.
<p>
The reason why wage labour violates Individualist Anarchist opposition
to the state for a related reason. If the workers who use a workplace
do not own it, then someone else will (i.e. the owner). This in
turn means that the owner can tell those who use the resource what
to do, how to do it and when. That is, they are the sole authority
over the workplace and those who use it. However, according to
Tucker, the state can be defined (in part) as <i>"the assumption of
sole authority over a given area and all within it."</i> Tucker considered
this element as <i>"common to all States."</i> [<b>The Individualist Anarchists</b>.
p. 24] Thus wage labour creates a situation which is similar to the
state, namely the assumption of sole authority over a given area and
those who use it. Hence opposition to the state logically implies
support for workers' control and ownership for only in this case 
can people govern themselves during the working day.
<p>
Therefore, as far as the employer/employee social relationship 
goes, it does not fit in well with Tucker's statement that <i>"if the 
individual has the right to govern himself, all external government 
is tyranny."</i> [<b>The Anarchist Reader</b>, p. 151] As we have argued in 
Section B.4 (<a href="secB4.html">How does capitalism affect liberty?</a>), wage labour produces 
a very specific form of <i>"external government"</i> in the workplace, namely 
hierarchical management structures. Therefore, logically, Individualist 
Anarchism (like Social Anarchism) must oppose all forms of wage
labour in favour of self-government in production (i.e. co-operative, 
not wage, labour).
<p>
That this the case can be seen from Proudhon's argument in <b>The 
General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century</b>. There 
he argues that employees are <i>"subordinated, exploited"</i> and their 
<i>"permanent condition is one of obedience,"</i> a <i>"slave."</i> [p. 216] 
Indeed, capitalist companies <i>"plunder the bodies and souls of 
wage workers"</i> and they are <i>"an outrage upon human dignity and 
personality."</i> [p. 218] However, in a co-operative the situation 
changes and the worker is an <i>"associate"</i> and <i>"forms a part of 
the producing organisation . . . [and] forms a part of the 
sovereign power, of which he was before but the subject."</i> 
[p. 216] Without co-operation and association, <i>"the workers . . . 
would remain related as subordinates and superiors, and there 
would ensue two industrial castes of masters and wage-workers, 
which is repugnant to a free and democratic society."</i> [p. 216] 
As Robert Graham notes, <i>"Proudhon's market socialism is 
indissolubly linked to his notions of industry democracy and 
workers' self-management."</i> [<i>"Introduction"</i>, <b>General Idea of 
the Revolution</b>, p. xxxii]
<p>
And we must add that John Stuart Mill (who agreed with the Warrenite
slogan <i>"Individual Sovereignty"</i>) faced with the same problem that
wage labour made a mockery of individual liberty came to the same
conclusion. He thought that if <i>"mankind is to continue to improve"</i>
(and it can only improve within liberty, we must add) then in the
end one form of association will predominate, <i>"not that which can
exist between a capitalist as chief, and workpeople without a voice
in management, but the association of the labourers themselves on
terms of equality, collectively owning the capital with which they
carry on their operations, and working under managers elected and
removable by themselves."</i> [quoted by Carole Pateman, <b>Participation
and Democratic Theory</b>, p. 34]
<p>
Therefore, logically, individualist anarchism must support 
co-operatives and self-employment in order to ensure the maximum 
individual self-government and labour's <i>"natural wage."</i> That this 

is the case can be seen from Tucker's quoting Ernest Lesigne that 
anarchistic socialism aims for <i>"The land to the cultivator. The mine 
to the miner. The tool to the labourer. The product to the producer."</i> 
<p>
It can also be seen from Tucker's description of what would replace the 
current system of statism (and note he calls it <i>"scientific socialism"</i> 
thus squarely placing his ideas in the anti-capitalist camp):
<p><blockquote>
<i>"we have something very tangible to offer , . .  We offer non-compulsive
organisation. We offer associative combination. We offer every possible
method of voluntary social union by which men and women may act together
for the furtherance of well-being. In short, we offer voluntary scientific
socialism in place of the present compulsory, unscientific organisation
which characterises the State and all of its ramifications. . ."</i> [quoted
in Martin, <b>Op. Cit.</b>, p. 218]
</blockquote><p>
Tucker himself pointed out that <i>"the essence of government is control. . . 
He who attempts to control another is a governor, an aggressor, an 
invader."</i> [<b>Instead of a Book</b>, p. 23] However, in places in <b>Instead 
of a Book</b> Tucker suggests that (non-exploitative, and so non-capitalist) 
wage labour could exist in individualist anarchy. Unlike wage labour
under capitalism, workers would employ other workers and all workers
would receive the full product of their labour. As such, this relationship
is <b>non-capitalist</b> as it does not involve usury. Be that as it may, such
relationships are not libertarian and so contradict Tucker's own theories 
on individual liberty (as Proudhon and Mill recognised with their own,
similar, positions). Wage labour is based on the control of the worker 
by the employer; hence Tucker's contract theory can lead to a form of 
"voluntary" and "private" government within the workplace. This means 
that, while outside of a contract an individual is free, within it he 
or she is governed. This violates Tucker's concept of <i>"equality of liberty,"</i> 
since the boss has obviously more liberty than the worker during working
hours. 
<p>
This result, as noted in <a href="secA3.html">section A.3</a>, 
could <b>only</b> be avoided by workers'
control, which is in fact the logical implication of Tucker's and other
individualists' proposals (as we have proven above, and can be seen from
Tucker's famous essay <i>"State Socialism and Anarchism"</i> for example). This 
is hardly a surprising implication, since as we've seen, artisan production 
was commonplace in 19th-century America and its benefits were extolled by 
the individualists. Without workers' control, individualist anarchism 
would soon become a form of capitalism and so statism -- a highly unlikely 
intention of individualists like Tucker, who hated both.
<p>
Therefore, given the assumptions of individualist anarchism in both 
their economic and political aspects, it is forced along the path of 
co-operative, not wage, labour. In other words, individualist anarchism 
is a form of socialism as workers receive the full product of their 
labour (i.e. there is no non-labour income) and this, in turn, logically
implies a society in which self-managed firms compete against each
other on the free market, with workers selling the product of their
labour and not the labour itself. As this unites workers with the
means of production they use, it is <b>not</b> capitalism and instead a
form of socialism based upon worker ownership and control of the
places they work.
<p>
For individualist anarchists not to support co-operatives results in 
a contradiction, namely that the individualist anarchism which aims 
to secure the worker's <i>"natural wage"</i> cannot in fact do so, while 
dividing society into a class of order givers and order takers (which 
violates individual self-government). It is this contradiction within 
Tucker's thought which the self-styled "anarcho"-capitalists take 
advantage of in order to maintain that individualist anarchism in fact 
implies capitalism (and so private-statism), not workers' control. In order 
to reach this implausible conclusion, a few individualist anarchist ideas 
are ripped from their social context and applied in a way that makes a 
mockery of them. That it was never Tucker's intention to deny workers' 
control can be inferred from his argument that mutualism would give 
workers the bargaining power to obtain equality in the workplace, 
which clearly points to the end of capitalist authority relations, 
as will be explained further in <a href="secG5.html">section G.5</a>. 
<p>
However, due to problems inherent in the nature of a market economy, even
the assumption of workers' control may not be enough to ensure that
individualistic anarchism does not become a new form of archy, as will be
discussed in section G.4 (<a href="secG4.html">"Why do social anarchists reject individualist
anarchism ideas?"</a>).
<p>
<a name="secg21"><h2>G.2.1 What about their support of the free market?</h2>
<p>
Many, particularly on the libertarian right, would dismiss claims 

that the Individualist Anarchists were socialists. By their support 
of the "free market" the Individualist Anarchists, they would claim, 
show them as really supporters of capitalism. Most, if not all, 
anarchists would reject this claim. Why is this the case?
<p>
This because such claims show an amazing ignorance of socialist 
ideas and history. The socialist movement has had a many schools, 
many of which, but not all, opposed the market and private property.
Given that the right-libertarians who make such claims are not
well informed of the ideas they oppose (i.e. of socialism, 
particularly <b>libertarian</b> socialism) it is unsurprising they
claim that the Individualist Anarchists are not socialists (of
course the fact that many Individualist Anarchists argued they 
<b>were</b> socialists is ignored). Coming from a different tradition,
it is unsurprising they are not aware of the fact that socialism
is not monolithic. Hence we discover right-libertarian guru 
von Mises claiming that the <i>"essence of socialism is the entire
elimination of the market."</i> [<b>Human Action</b>, p. 702] This would
have come as something of a surprise to, say, Proudhon, who 
argued that <i>"[t]o suppress competition is to suppress liberty
itself."</i> [<b>The General Idea of the Revolution</b>, p. 50] Similarly,
it would have surprised Tucker, who called himself a socialist
while supporting a freer market than von Mises ever dreamt of.
<p>
It could be argued that these self-proclaimed socialists did not,
in fact, understand what socialism "really meant." For this to
be the case, <b>other</b>, more obviously socialist, writers and
thinkers would dismiss them as socialists. This, however, is not
the case. Thus we find Karl Marx, for example, writing of <i>"the
socialism of Proudhon."</i> [<b>Capital</b>, vol. 1, p. 161f] Engels
talked about Proudhon being <i>"the Socialist of the small peasant
and master-craftsman"</i> and of <i>"the Proudhon school of Socialism."</i>
[Marx and Engels, <b>Selected Works</b>, p. 254 and p. 255] Bakunin
talked about Proudhon's <i>"socialism, based on individual and
collective liberty and upon the spontaneous action of free
associations."</i> [<b>Michael Bakunin: Selected Writings</b>, p. 100]
These renown socialists did not consider Proudhon's position
to be in any way anti-socialist.
<p>
Looking at Tucker and the Individualist anarchists we discover
that other socialists considered them socialists. Looking at
Rudolf Rocker we discover him arguing that <i>"it is not difficult
to discover certain fundamental principles which are common
to all of them and which divide them from all other varieties
of socialism. They all agree on the point that man be given
the full reward of his labour and recognise in this right the
economic basis of all personal liberty. They all regard the
free competition of individual and social forces as something
inherent in human nature . . . They answered the socialists 
of other schools who saw in <b>free competition</b> one of the 
destructive elements of capitalist society that the evil lies
in the fact we have too little rather than too much competition,
since the power of monopoly has made competition impossible."</i>
[<b>Pioneers of American Freedom</b>, p. 160]
<p>
Adolph Fischer, one of the Haymarket Martyrs and contemporary
of Tucker, argued that <i>"every anarchist is a socialist, but
every socialist is not necessarily an anarchist. The anarchists
are divided into two factions: the communistic anarchists and 
the Proudhon or middle-class anarchists . . ."</i> The former
<i>"advocate the communistic or co-operative method of production"</i>
while the latter <i>"do not advocate the co-operative system of
production [i.e. communism], and the common ownership of the
means of production, the products and the land."</i> [<b>The 
Autobiographies of the Haymarket Martyrs</b>, p. 81] However,
while not being communists (i.e. aiming to eliminate the
market), he obviously recognised the Individualists Anarchists
as fellow socialists (we should point out that Proudhon <b>did</b>
support co-operatives, as did the Individualist Anarchists, 
but they did not carry this to communism as do most social 
anarchists -- as is clear, Fischer means communism by the term
<i>"co-operative system of production"</i> rather than co-operatives
as they exist today and Proudhon supported).
<p>
Thus claims that the Individualist Anarchists were not "really"
socialists because they support competition are false. The simple 
fact is that those who make this claim are ignorant of the socialist 
movement, its ideas and its history (or desire, like many Marxists, 
to write out of history competing socialist theories). As Tucker 
argued, <i>"the fact that State Socialism . . . has overshadowed other 
forms of Socialism gives it no right to a monopoly of the Socialistic
idea."</i> [<b>Instead of a Book</b>, pp. 363-4] It is no surprise that
the authoritarian left and "libertarian" right have united to
define socialism in such a way as to eliminate anarchism from
its ranks -- they both have an interest in removing a theory
which exposes the inadequacies of their dogmas, which explains
how we can have both liberty <b>and</b> equality, have freedom in
work <b>and</b> outside it and have a decent, free and just society.
<p>
So why is Individualist Anarchism and Proudhon's mutualism socialist?
Simply because they opposed the exploitation of labour by capital
and proposed a means of ending it. Therefore, if socialism is, to
quote Kropotkin, <i>"understood in its wide, generic, and true sense"</i> 
as <i>"an effort to <b>abolish</b> the exploitation of labour by capital"</i> 
[<b>Kropotkin's Revolutionary Pamphlets</b>, p. 169] then the Individualist 
Anarchists and Proudhon must be considered socialists (of course 
<b>libertarian</b> socialists) due to their opposition to usury. It
is for this reason we discover Rudolf Rocker arguing that Stephan
P. Andrews was <i>"one of the most versatile and significant exponents
of libertarian socialism"</i> in the USA in spite of his belief that
<i>"the specific cause of the economic evil [of capitalism] is 
founded not on the existence of the wage system"</i> but, rather,
on the exploitation of labour, <i>"on the unjust compensation of
the worker"</i> and the usury that <i>"deprives him of a part of his
labour."</i> [<b>Pioneers of American Freedom</b>, p. 85 and pp. 77-8]
His opposition to exploitation meant he was a socialist.
<p>
<a name="secg22"><h2>G.2.2 What about their support of "private property"?</h2>
<p>
The notion that because the Individualist Anarchists supported
"property" they supported capitalism is distinctly wrong. This
is for two reasons. Firstly, private property is not the distinctive
aspect of capitalism -- exploitation and wage labour is. Thus
support of private property does not indicate a support for
capitalism. Even use of John Locke's arguments in favour of 
private property could be used against capitalism. As Murray 
Bookchin makes clear regarding early American society:
<p><blockquote>
<i>"Unknown in the 1640s, the non-bourgeois aspects of Locke's
theories were very much in the air a century and a half
later . . . [In an artisan/peasant society] a Lockean argument 
could be used as effectively against the merchants . . .to
whom the farmers were indebted, as it could against the King
[or the State]. Nor did the small proprietors of America
ever quite lose sight of the view that attempts to seize their
farmsteads and possessions for unpaid debts were a violation
of their 'natural rights,' and from the 1770s until as late
as the 1930s they took up arms to keep merchants and bankers
from dispossessing them from land they or their ancestors
had wrestled from 'nature' by virtue of their own labour. The 
notion that property was sacred was thus highly elastic: it
could be used as effectively by pre-capitalist strata to hold
on to their property as it could by capitalists strata to
expand their holdings."</i> [<b>The Third Revolution</b>, vol. 1, 
pp. 187-8]
</blockquote><p>
What right-libertarians do is to confuse two very different
kinds of "property," one of which rests on the labour of the
producer themselves and the other on the exploitation of the
labour of others. They do not analyse the social relationships
between people which the property generates and, instead, 
concentrate on <b>things</b> (i.e. property). Thus, rather than
being interested in people and the relationships they create
between themselves, the right-libertarian focuses on property
(and, more often than not, just the word rather than what the
word describes). This is a strange position for someone seeking
liberty to take, as liberty is a product of social interaction
(i.e. the relations we have and create with others) and not a
product of things (property is not freedom as freedom is a 
relationship between people, not things). In effect, they
confuse property with possession (and vice versa).
<p>
And if quoting Karl Marx is not <b>too</b> out of place, we discover
that he did not consider property as being identical with
capitalism. <i>"The historical conditions of [Capital's] existence
are by no means given with the mere circulation of money and
commodities. It arises only when the owner of the means of
production and subsistence finds the free worker available
on the market, as the seller of his own labour-power."</i> This
wage-labour is the necessary pre-condition for capitalism,
<b>not</b> "private property" as such. Thus artisan/peasant 
production is not capitalism as <i>"the means of production 
and subsistence, while they remain the property of the 
immediate producer, are not capital. They only become capital
under circumstances in which they serve at the same time as
means of exploitation of, and domination over, the worker."</i>
[<b>Capital</b>, vol. 1, p. 264 and p. 938] We quote Marx simply
because as authorities on socialism go, he is one that 
right-libertarians (or Marxists, for that matter) cannot 
ignore or dismiss. Needless to say, he is essentially 
repeating Proudhon's distinction between property and 
possession. The former is theft and despotism, the latter 
is liberty.
<p>
Thus artisan production is not capitalist. It does not generate
relationships of exploitation and domination as the worker
owns and controls their own means of production. It is, in
effect, a form of socialism (a <i>"petit bourgeois"</i> form of
socialism, to use the typical Marxist phrase). Thus support
for "private property" need not mean support for capitalism
(as shown, for example, by the Individualist Anarchists). To
claim otherwise is to ignore the essential insight of socialism
and totally distort the socialist case against capitalism.
<p>
Secondly, and more importantly, what the Individualist Anarchists 
meant by "private property" (or "property") was distinctly different 
than what is meant by theorists on the libertarian right. Basically, 
the libertarian right exploit, for their own ends, the confusion 
generated by the use of the word "property" by the likes of Tucker 
to describe a situation of "possession." Proudhon recognised this 
danger. He argued that <i>"it is proper to call different things by 
different names, if we keep the name 'property' for the former 
[individual possession], we must call the latter [the domain of 
property] robbery, repine, brigandage. If, on the contrary, we 
reserve the name 'property' for the latter, we must designate the 
former by the term <b>possession</b> or some other equivalent; otherwise 
we should be troubled with an unpleasant synonym."</i> [<b>What is 
Property?</b>, p. 373] Unfortunately Tucker, who translated this 
work, did not heed Proudhon's words of wisdom and called possession 
in an anarchist society by the word "property."
<p>
Looking at Tucker's arguments, it is clear that the last thing
Tucker supported was capitalist property rights. For example,
he argued that <i>"property, in the sense of individual possession,
is liberty"</i> and contrasted this with capitalist property. 
[<b>Instead of a Book</b>, p. 394] That his ideas on "property" 
were somewhat different than that associated with right-libertarian
thinkers is most clearly seen with regards to land. Here we
discover him advocating <i>"occupancy and use"</i> and rejecting the
"right" of land owners to bar the landless from any land they
owned but did not <b>personally</b> use. Rent was <i>"due to that denial
of liberty which takes the shape of land monopoly, vesting titles
to land in individuals and associations which do not use it,
and thereby compelling the non-owning users to pay tribute to the
non-using owners as a condition of admission to the competitive
market."</i> Anarchist opposition of rent did <i>"not mean simply the
freeing of unoccupied land. It means the freeing of all land not 
occupied <b>by the owner.</b> In other words, it means land ownership 
limited by occupancy and use."</i> [Tucker, <b>The Individualist 
Anarchists</b>, p. 130 and p. 155] This would result in a <i>"system 
of occupying ownership . . . accompanied by no legal power to 
collect rent."</i> [<b>Instead of a Book</b>, p. 325]
<p>
A similar position was held by John Beverley Robinson. He argued
that there <i>"are two kinds of land ownership, proprietorship or
property, by which the owner is absolute lord of the land, to use 
it or to hold it out of use, as it may please him; and possession,
by which he is secure in the tenure of land which he uses and
occupies, but has no claim upon it at all of he ceases to use
it."</i> Moreover, <i>"[a]ll that is necessary to do away with Rent
is to away with absolute property in land."</i> [<b>Patterns of Anarchy</b>, 
p. 272] 
<p>
Thus the Individualist Anarchists definition of "property" differed 
considerably from that of the capitalist definition. As they 
themselves acknowledge. Robinson argued that <i>"the only real
remedy is a change of heart, through which land using will be
recognised as proper and legitimate, but land holding will be
regarded as robbery and piracy."</i> [<b>Op. Cit.</b>, p. 273] Tucker, 
likewise, indicated that his ideas on "property" were not the
same as existing ones when he argued that <i>"the present system of
land tenure should be changed to one of occupancy and use"</i> and
that <i>"no advocate of occupancy-and-use tenure of land believes
that it can be put in force, until as a theory it has been as
generally . . . seen and accepted as is the prevailing theory of
ordinary private property."</i> [<b>Occupancy and Use verses the Single
Tax</b>]
<p>
Hence to claim that the Individualist Anarchists supported capitalist
property rights is false. As can be seen, they advocated a system
which differed significantly to the current system, indeed they
urged the restriction of property rights to a form of possession.
Unfortunately, by generally using the term "property" to describe
this new system of possession they generated exactly the confusion
that Proudhon foretold. Sadly, right-libertarians use this confusion
to promote the idea that the likes of Tucker supported capitalist
property rights and so capitalism.
<p>
For these two reasons it is clear that just because the Individualist
Anarchists supported (a form of) "property" does not mean they 
are capitalists. Indeed, Kropotkin argued that a communist-anarchist
revolution would <b>not</b> expropriate the tools of self-employed workers
who exploited no-one (see his <b>Act for Yourselves</b> pp. 104-5). 
Malatesta argued that in a free society <i>"the peasant [is free] to
cultivate his piece of land, alone if he wishes; free is the shoe
maker to remain at his last or the blacksmith in his small forge."</i>
Thus these two very famous communist-anarchists also "supported"
"property" but they are recognised as obviously socialists. This
apparent contradiction is resolved when it is understood that for 
communist-anarchists (like all anarchists) the abolition of property 
does not mean the end of possession and so <i>"would not harm the 
independent worker whose real title is possession and the work 
done"</i> unlike capitalist property. [Malatesta, <b>Life and Ideas</b>, 
p. 103] In other words, <b>all</b> anarchists (as we argue in 
<a href="secB3.html">section 
B.3</a>) oppose private property but support possession.
<p>
That many of the Individualist Anarchists used the term "property"
to describe a system of possession (or <i>"occupancy-and-use"</i>) should
not blind us to the anti-capitalist nature of that "property." Once
we move beyond looking at the words they used to want they meant by
those words we clearly see that their ideas are distinctly different
from those of supporters of capitalism.
<p>
</BODY>
</HTML>