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# ----------------------------------------------------------------------
#    Copyright (c) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007,
#                  2008, 2009
#    NOVELL (All rights reserved)
#
#    Copyright (c) 2010
#    Canonical Ltd. (All rights reserved)
#
#    Copyright (c) 2013
#    Christian Boltz (All rights reserved)
#
#    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
#    modify it under the terms of version 2 of the GNU General Public
#    License published by the Free Software Foundation.
#
#    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
#    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
#    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
#    GNU General Public License for more details.
#
#    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
#    along with this program; if not, contact Novell, Inc.
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------


=pod

=head1 NAME

AppArmor - kernel enhancement to confine programs to a limited set of resources.

=head1 DESCRIPTION

AppArmor is a kernel enhancement to confine programs to a limited set
of resources. AppArmor's unique security model is to bind access control
attributes to programs rather than to users.

AppArmor confinement is provided via I<profiles> loaded into the kernel
via apparmor_parser(8), typically through the F</etc/init.d/apparmor>
SysV initscript, which is used like this:

	# /etc/init.d/apparmor start
	# /etc/init.d/apparmor stop
	# /etc/init.d/apparmor restart

AppArmor can operate in two modes: I<enforcement>, and I<complain or learning>:

=over 4

=item *

I<enforcement> -  Profiles loaded in enforcement mode will result 
in enforcement of the policy defined in the profile as well as reporting 
policy violation attempts to syslogd.  

=item *

I<complain> - Profiles loaded in  C<complain> mode will not enforce policy.  
Instead, it will report policy violation attempts. This mode is convenient for 
developing profiles. To manage complain mode for individual profiles the 
utilities aa-complain(8) and aa-enforce(8) can be used. 
These utilities take a program name as an argument. 


=back

Profiles are traditionally stored in files in F</etc/apparmor.d/>
under filenames with the convention of replacing the B</> in pathnames
with B<.> (except for the root B</>) so profiles are easier to manage
(e.g. the F</usr/sbin/nscd> profile would be named F<usr.sbin.nscd>).

Profiles are applied to a process at exec(3) time (as seen through the
execve(2) system call): once a profile is loaded for a program, that
program will be confined on the next exec(3). If a process is already
running under a profile, when one replaces that profile in the kernel,
the updated profile is applied immediately to that process.
On the other hand, a process that is already running unconfined cannot
be confined.

AppArmor supports the Linux kernel's securityfs filesystem, and makes
available the list of the profiles currently loaded; to mount the
filesystem:

	# mount -tsecurityfs securityfs /sys/kernel/security
	$ cat /sys/kernel/security/apparmor/profiles
	/usr/bin/mutt
	/usr/bin/gpg
	   ...

Normally, the initscript will mount securityfs if it has not already
been done.

AppArmor also restricts what privileged operations a confined process
may execute, even if the process is running as root. A confined process
cannot call the following system calls:

	create_module(2) delete_module(2) init_module(2) ioperm(2)
	iopl(2) ptrace(2) reboot(2) setdomainname(2)
	sethostname(2) swapoff(2) swapon(2) sysctl(2)

=head1 ERRORS

When a confined process tries to access a file it does not have permission
to access, the kernel will report a message through audit, similar to:

	audit(1386511672.612:238): apparmor="DENIED" operation="exec" 
	  parent=7589 profile="/tmp/sh" name="/bin/uname" pid=7605 
	  comm="sh" requested_mask="x" denied_mask="x" fsuid=0 ouid=0

	audit(1386511672.613:239): apparmor="DENIED" operation="open" 
	  parent=7589 profile="/tmp/sh" name="/bin/uname" pid=7605 
	  comm="sh" requested_mask="r" denied_mask="r" fsuid=0 ouid=0

	audit(1386511772.804:246): apparmor="DENIED" operation="capable"
	  parent=7246 profile="/tmp/sh" pid=7589 comm="sh" pid=7589 
	  comm="sh" capability=2  capname="dac_override"

The permissions requested by the process are described in the operation=
and denied_mask= (for files - capabilities etc. use a slightly different
log format).
The "name" and process id of the running program are reported,
as well as the profile name including any "hat" that may be active, 
separated by "//". ("Name"
is in quotes, because the process name is limited to 15 bytes; it is the
same as reported through the Berkeley process accounting.)

For confined processes running under a profile that has been loaded in 
complain mode, enforcement will not take place and the log messages 
reported to audit will be of the form:

	audit(1386512577.017:275): apparmor="ALLOWED" operation="open"
	  parent=8012 profile="/usr/bin/du" name="/etc/apparmor.d/tunables/"
	  pid=8049 comm="du" requested_mask="r" denied_mask="r" fsuid=1000 ouid=0

	audit(1386512577.017:276): apparmor="ALLOWED" operation="open"
	  parent=8012 profile="/usr/bin/du" name="/etc/apparmor.d/tunables/"
	  pid=8049 comm="du" requested_mask="r" denied_mask="r" fsuid=1000 ouid=0


If the userland auditd is not running, the kernel will send audit events
to klogd; klogd will send the messages to syslog, which will log the
messages with the KERN facility. Thus, REJECTING and PERMITTING messages
may go to either F</var/log/audit/audit.log> or F</var/log/messages>,
depending upon local configuration.

=head1 DEBUGGING

AppArmor provides a few facilities to log more information,
which can help debugging profiles.

=head2 Enable debug mode

When debug mode is enabled, AppArmor will log a few extra messages to
dmesg (not via the audit subsystem). For example, the logs will tell
whether environment scrubbing has been applied.

To enable debug mode, run:

	echo 1 > /sys/module/apparmor/parameters/debug

=head2 Turn off deny audit quieting

By default, operations that trigger C<deny> rules are not logged.
This is called I<deny audit quieting>.

To turn off deny audit quieting, run:

	echo -n noquiet >/sys/module/apparmor/parameters/audit

=head2 Force audit mode

AppArmor can log a message for every operation that triggers a rule
configured in the policy. This is called I<force audit mode>.

B<Warning!> Force audit mode can be extremely noisy even for a single profile,
let alone when enabled globally.

To set a specific profile in force audit mode, add the C<audit> flag:

	profile foo flags=(audit) { ... }

To enable force audit mode globally, run:

	echo -n all > /sys/module/apparmor/parameters/audit

If auditd is not running, to avoid losing too many of the extra log
messages, you will likely have to turn off rate limiting by doing:

	echo 0 > /proc/sys/kernel/printk_ratelimit

But even then the kernel ring buffer may overflow and you might
lose messages.

Else, if auditd is running, see auditd(8) and auditd.conf(5).

=head1 FILES

=over 4

=item F</etc/init.d/apparmor>

=item F</etc/apparmor.d/>

=item F</var/lib/apparmor/>

=item F</var/log/audit/audit.log>

=item F</var/log/messages>

=back

=head1 SEE ALSO

apparmor_parser(8), aa_change_hat(2), apparmor.d(5),
aa-autodep(1), clean(1),
auditd(8),
aa-unconfined(8), aa-enforce(1), aa-complain(1), and
L<https://wiki.apparmor.net>.

=cut