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================================================================================

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                   d88888                  d88P" "Y88b 8888b   888
                  d88P888                  888     888 88888b  888
                 d88P 888 888d888 88888b.  888     888 888Y88b 888
                d88P  888 888P"   888 "88b 888     888 888 Y88b888
               d88P   888 888     888  888 888     888 888  Y88888
              d8888888888 888     888 d88P Y88b. .d88P 888   Y8888
             d88P     888 888     88888P"   "Y88888P"  888    Y888
                                  888
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                                  888

                            ARP handler inspection

                        (http://arpon.sourceforge.net)

        Copyright (C) 2008-2016 Andrea Di Pasquale <spikey.it@gmail.com>

================================================================================
    INDEX
================================================================================

    1. IMPORTANT NOTICE
    2. WHAT IS ARPON?
    3. FEATURES
    4. SUPPORTED OPERATING SYSTEMS
    5. REQUIRED SOFTWARE AND LIBRARIES
    6. STABLE RELEASE VIA THE HTTP MIRROR
    7. VERSION
    8. CHANGELOG
    9. BUILDING AND INSTALLATION
    10. UPGRADE
    11. QUICK START
    12. ARPON DAEMON
    13. IMPORTANT NOTE
    14. OPTIONS SUMMARY
    15. FILES
    16. EXAMPLES
    17. HOW TO USE ARPON
    18. UNINSTALLATION
    19. SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT
    20. DEVELOPMENT RELEASE VIA THE GIT REPOSITORY
    21. ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS
    22. COMPILE TIME BUGS
    23. RUNTIME BUGS
    24. SUPPORT THE PROJECT
    25. AUTHOR
    26. COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING
    27. THANKS
    28. REFERENCE WEBSITE
    29. NOTES

================================================================================
    1. IMPORTANT NOTICE
================================================================================

Since ArpON 3.0-ng (next generation), ArpON has been rewritten from scratch,
therefore all the old versions of ArpON (lower of 3.0-ng) are deprecated.
Please upgrade all installations of ArpON and read carefully the documentation
and the man page of ArpON.

================================================================================
    2. WHAT IS ARPON?
================================================================================

ArpON (ARP handler inspection) is a Host-based solution that make the ARP
standardized protocol secure in order to avoid the Man In The Middle (MITM)
attack through the ARP spoofing, ARP cache poisoning or ARP poison routing
attack.

This is possible using three kinds of anti ARP spoofing techniques:

    1. SARPI (Static ARP Inspection) for the statically configured networks
       without DHCP;
    2. DARPI (Dynamic ARP Inspection) for the dynamically configured networks
       with DHCP;
    3. HARPI (Hybrid ARP Inspection) for the statically and dynamically
       configured networks with DHCP.

The goal of ArpON is therefore to provide a secure and efficient network daemon
that provides the SARPI, DARPI and HARPI anti ARP spoofing technique, thus
making the ARP standardized protocol secure from any foreign intrusion.

================================================================================
    3. FEATURES
================================================================================

The features of ArpON are:

    • FREE. ArpON is released under the BSD open source license. This means that
      you have total freedom to modify and use it with your system, even if it's
      commercial.

    • POPULAR. ArpON is used as the network daemon by many users, both the
      network managers and academic researchers. ArpON is downloaded several
      hundred of times every month.

    • TESTED AND RELIABLE. Many users have contributed over the years in testing
      ArpON on a wide range of Man In The Middle (MITM) attack tools through the
      ARP spoofing, ARP cache poisoning or ARP poison routing.

    • EASY TO USE. ArpON is distributed as a single tarball that once compiled,
      runs on every supported Operating System. You launch the executable, and
      from that moment the Operating System is able to avoid the Man In The
      Middle (MITM) attack through the ARP spoofing, ARP cache poisoning or ARP
      poison routing.

    • MULTI-PLATFORM. Many developers have contributed over the years in porting
      ArpON on a wide range of GNU/Linux distributions.

    • COMPATIBLE AND PORTABLE. ArpON is completely compatible with the ARP
      standardized protocol. ArpON is an network daemon that runs in user space,
      this also means that ArpON will be easily portable to other Operating
      Systems.

    • WELL DOCUMENTED. The documentation of ArpON is easy and complete. The
      documentation contains the retrieving tutorial; the building tutorial; the
      installation tutorial; the user tutorial with many examples and scenarios;
      the development tutorial with the Activity diagrams of the SARPI, DARPI
      and HARPI anti ARP spoofing technique and with modular source code well
      commented; the bug report tutorial that takes you step-by-step through all
      of the features of ArpON.

================================================================================
    4. SUPPORTED OPERATING SYSTEMS
================================================================================

ArpON supports the GNU/Linux Operating System and a wide range of distributions.

================================================================================
    5. REQUIRED SOFTWARE AND LIBRARIES
================================================================================

The source code compilation of the stable release of ArpON requires the
following software and libraries installed in the System:

    • GNU Binutils:

        http://sourceware.org/binutils/

    • GNU C Compiler (GCC):

        http://gcc.gnu.org

    • Cmake 2.6 (or higher):

        http://cmake.org

    • GNU Make:

        http://www.gnu.org/software/make/

    • GNU C Library (Glibc) with POSIX Threads (Pthreads):

        http://www.gnu.org/software/libc/libc.html

    • GNU C Library (Glibc) with Realtime Extensions (Librt):

        http://www.gnu.org/software/libc/libc.html

    • Libpcap with development libraries 1.0.0 (or higher):

        http://www.tcpdump.org

    • Libnet1 with development libraries 1.1.2.1 (or higher):

        http://packetfactory.openwall.net/projects/libnet/

    • Libdnet with development libraries 1.11 (or higher):

        http://libdnet.sourceforge.net

The development release of ArpON also requires the following software installed
in the System:

    • Git:

        http://git-scm.com

    • GNU C Debugger (GDB):

        http://sourceware.org/gdb/

The documentation of ArpON also requires the following software installed in the
System:

    • Visual Paradigm:

        http://www.visual-paradigm.com

    • OpenOffice Draw:

        http://www.openoffice.org

    • VRT Network Equipment:

        http://www.vrt.com.au/downloads/vrt-network-equipment/

================================================================================
    6. STABLE RELEASE VIA THE HTTP MIRROR
================================================================================

The latest stable release of ArpON is available via the HTTP mirror, please
follow these steps:

    1. First you have to download the tarball via the HTTP mirror:

        $ wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/arpon/files/latest/download \
        -O arpon.tar.gz

    2. After you have successfully downloaded the tarball, download the MD5 file
       of the tarball via the HTTP mirror:

        $ wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/arpon/files/latest.md5/download \
        -O latest.md5

    3. Generate the MD5 of your tarball downloaded:

        $ md5sum arpon.tar.gz | awk '{print $1}' > arpon.md5

    4. Validate the MD5 of your tarball downloaded:

        $ diff -u latest.md5 arpon.md5

       If you have not the output of the diff, the tarball downloaded is valid.

    5. If the tarball si valid, untar the tarball downloaded:

        $ mkdir arpon
        $ tar -xvzf arpon.tar.gz -C arpon --strip-components=1

    6. After you have successfully downloaded and validated the tarball then
       you must initiate the building and installation.

================================================================================
    7. VERSION
================================================================================

The version of ArpON is available in:

    $ cat /path/to/arpon/VERSION

================================================================================
    8. CHANGELOG
================================================================================

The changelog of ArpON is available in:

    $ cat /path/to/arpon/CHANGELOG

================================================================================
    9. BUILDING AND INSTALLATION
================================================================================

To build and install the ArpON, please follow these steps:

    • To install the ArpON in the default "/" path:

        $ cd /path/to/arpon
        $ mkdir build
        $ cd build
        $ cmake ..
        $ make
        $ sudo make install

    • To install the ArpON in an other path:

        $ cd /path/to/arpon
        $ mkdir build
        $ cd build
        $ cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX="/path/to/install" ..
        $ make
        $ sudo make install

      Usually the paths of the installation are: "/", "/usr" or "/usr/local".

    • If the your dependencies are installed in the other paths:

        $ cd /path/to/arpon
        $ mkdir build
        $ cd build
        $ cmake -DCMAKE_INCLUDE_PATH="/path/to/include1;/path/to/include2" \
          -DCMAKE_LIBRARY_PATH="/path/to/library1;/path/to/library2" ..
        $ make
        $ sudo make install

    • If you want personalize the CFLAGS compiler parameters:

        $ cd /path/to/arpon
        $ mkdir build
        $ cd build/
        $ cmake -DCMAKE_C_FLAGS="your-cflags-here" ..
        $ make
        $ sudo make install

================================================================================
    10. UPGRADE
================================================================================

To upgrade the ArpON, please follow the steps of the building and installation
(with the same path of your previous installation of ArpON) that will overwrite
all the files of ArpON.

================================================================================
    11. QUICK START
================================================================================

To start quickly with ArpON, please follow these guidelines:

    1. See the documentation file of ArpON. It contains the retrieving tutorial;
       the building tutorial; the installation tutorial; the user tutorial with
       many examples and scenarios; the development tutorial with the Activity
       diagrams of the SARPI, DARPI and HARPI anti ARP spoofing technique and
       with modular source code well commented; the bug report tutorial that
       takes you step-by-step through all of the features of ArpON. Please note
       that:

       If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with a
       browser web this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/index.html

       Else open with a browser web this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/index.html

       where PATH is the path of your installation.

    2. See the man page of ArpON:

        $ man 8 arpon

    3. See the help screen of ArpON:

        $ sudo arpon -h

================================================================================
    12. ARPON DAEMON
================================================================================

The synopsis of ArpON daemon command is:

    arpon [OPTIONS] [SARPI | DARPI | HARPI]

ArpON sets of policies in the ARP cache for all the static and or dynamic
entries matching the specified network interface (or that matching the several
specified network interfaces if run concurrently several daemons of ArpON for
different network interfaces), through the run of SARPI, DARPI or HARPI anti
ARP spoofing technique.

ArpON have to be run with the root privileges. ArpON have to be configured using
command-line options and a configuration file. ArpON reloads the configuration
of the specified network interface and rereads its configuration file when it
receives a hangup signal (SIGHUP) by executing itself with the name and options
it was started with. ArpON exits correctly when it receives an interrupt signal
(SIGINT) or a termination signal (SIGTERM).

================================================================================
    13. IMPORTANT NOTE
================================================================================

The ArpON daemon sets two fundamental kernel network parameters via the sysctl
interface on the specified network interface:

    1. The arp_ignore kernel parameter of the specified network interface is
    always setted to 8 by ArpON. This is done to disable, in the specified
    network interface of the Operating System, the sending of the ARP replies in
    response to received ARP requests for all local addresses (the ARP replies
    on the specified network interface, will be sent by ArpON instead of the
    Operating System).

    2. The arp_accept kernel parameter of the specified network interface is
    always setted to 0 by ArpON. This is done to disable, in the specified
    network interface of the Operating System, the creating of the new IP
    entries in the ARP cache triggered by the unsolicited and gratuitous ARP
    requests and replies (the IP entries in the ARP cache on the specified
    network interface, will be created or updated by ArpON as static or dynamic
    IP entries instead of the Operating System).

The ArpON daemon restores the previously values read from the arp_ignore and
arp_accept kernel parameters of the specified network interface when it receives
an interrupt signal (SIGINT) or a termination signal (SIGTERM). Remember to
restore the values of the arp_ignore and arp_accept kernel parameters of the
specified network interface (the default values are 0 for both), if you have
terminated the ArpON daemon with other signals, e.g. kill signal (SIGKILL).

================================================================================
    14. OPTIONS SUMMARY
================================================================================

The available options of ArpON daemon command are:

    • General options:

        -d, --daemon
        Daemonize the ArpON.

        -i, --interface <interface>
        Use the specified network interface.

    • SARPI 'Static ARP Inspection' option:

      SARPI anti ARP spoofing technique manages and sets the policies in the ARP
      cache only for all the static entries matching the specified network
      interface, in order to avoid the Man In The Middle (MITM) attack through
      the ARP spoofing, ARP cache poisoning or ARP poison routing. Therefore
      SARPI is an optimal choice in those statically configured networks
      without DHCP. SARPI sets these policies:

      1) CLEAN: SARPI cleans from the ARP cache only all the entries matching
         the specified network interface, that are present or not present in the
         configuration file;
      2) UPDATE: SARPI updates in the ARP cache only all the static entries
         matching the specified network interface, that are present in the
         configuration file;
      3) REFRESH: SARPI refreshes in the ARP cache only a static entry matching
         the specified network interface, that is present in the configuration
         file;
      4) ALLOW: SARPI sets up in the ARP cache only a dynamic entry matching the
         specified network interface, that is not present in the configuration
         file.

      Therefore SARPI requires a specified network interface and the
      specification in the configuration file of the ARP cache only for all the
      static entries matching the specified network interface.

        -S, --sarpi
        Run SARPI anti ARP spoofing technique.

    • DARPI 'Dynamic ARP Inspection' option:

      DARPI anti ARP spoofing technique manages and sets the policies in the ARP
      cache only for all the dynamic entries matching the specified network
      interface, in order to avoid the Man In The Middle (MITM) attack through
      the ARP spoofing, ARP cache poisoning or ARP poison routing. Therefore
      DARPI is an optimal choice in those dynamically configured networks with
      DHCP. DARPI sets these policies:

      1) CLEAN: DARPI cleans from the ARP cache only all the entries matching
         the specified network interface;
      2) ALLOW: DARPI sets up in the ARP cache only a dynamic entry matching
         the specified network interface;
      3) DENY: DARPI cleans up from the ARP cache only a dynamic entry matching
         the specified network interface.

      Therefore DARPI requires a specified network interface and it doesn't
      requires any specification in the configuration file of the ARP cache only
      for all the dynamic entries matching the specified network interface.

        -D, --darpi
        Run DARPI anti ARP spoofing technique.

    • HARPI 'Hybrid ARP Inspection' option:

      HARPI anti ARP spoofing technique manages and sets the policies in the ARP
      cache for both all the static and dynamic entries matching the specified
      network interface, in order to avoid the Man In The Middle (MITM) attack
      through the ARP spoofing, ARP cache poisoning or ARP poison routing.
      Therefore HARPI is an optimal choice in those statically and dynamically
      configured networks with DHCP. HARPI sets and combines these policies of
      the SARPI and DARPI:

      1) CLEAN: HARPI cleans from the ARP cache only all the entries matching
         the specified network interface, that are present or not present in the
         configuration file;
      2) UPDATE: HARPI updates in the ARP cache only all the static entries
         matching the specified network interface, that are present in the
         configuration file;
      3) REFRESH: HARPI refreshes in the ARP cache only a static entry matching
         the specified network interface, that is present in the configuration
         file;
      4) ALLOW: HARPI sets up in the ARP cache only a dynamic entry matching
         the specified network interface, that is not present in the
         configuration file;
      5) DENY: HARPI cleans up from the ARP cache only a dynamic entry matching
         the specified network interface, that is not present in the
         configuration file.

      Therefore HARPI requires a specified network interface, the specification
      in the configuration file of the ARP cache only for all the static entries
      matching the specified network interface; instead it doesn't requires any
      specification in the configuration file of the ARP cache only for all the
      dynamic entries matching the specified network interface.

        -H, --harpi
        Run HARPI anti ARP spoofing technique.

    • Standard options:

        -v, --version
        Print the version and exit.

        -h, --help
        Print the help screen and exit.

================================================================================
    15. FILES
================================================================================

The available files of ArpON daemon command are:

    • The configuration file contains the configuration data of ArpON and it is
      used when run the SARPI or HARPI anti ARP spoofing technique, for the
      specification in the ARP cache only for all the static entries matching
      the specified network interface (or that matching the several specified
      network interfaces if run concurrently several daemons of ArpON for
      different network interfaces). This file should be writable by root only
      but it is recommended (though not necessary) that it be world-readable.
      Please note that:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, the configuration
      file is:

        /etc/arpon.conf

      Else the configuration file is:

        PATH/etc/arpon.conf

      where PATH is the path of your installation.

    • The log file contains the log data of ArpON. If there are several
      daemons of ArpON running concurrently for different network interfaces,
      this contains the log data of all the daemons of ArpON. This file should
      be readable only by root, and need not be readable by anyone else. Please
      note that:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, the log file is:

        /var/log/arpon.log

      Else the log file is:

        PATH/log/arpon.log

      where PATH is the path of your installation.

    • The pid file contains the process ID of ArpON. If there are several
      daemons of ArpON running concurrently for different network interfaces,
      this contains the process ID of the one started last. The content of this
      file is not sensitive; it can be world-readable. Please note that:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, the pid file is:

        /var/run/arpon.pid

      Else the pid file is:

        PATH/run/arpon.pid

      where PATH is the path of your installation.

================================================================================
    16. EXAMPLES
================================================================================

These examples shows how to use all three kinds of anti ARP spoofing techniques
of ArpON daemon. Note that these examples use the default "/" path of the
installation of the files.

In the same host, we have three network interfaces with different subnet classes
and we would set the ARP cache for all the static and dynamic entries matching
the eth0, wlan0 and eth1 network interfaces. This scenario requires the run
concurrently of three daemons of ArpON:

    • SARPI 'Static ARP Inspection' example:

      The eth0 network interface has the 192.168.1.2/24 IP address. We have only
      three static entries of the ARP cache:

      1) 192.168.1.1 at 58:ac:78:10:b9:77;
      2) 192.168.1.3 at d4:be:d9:fe:8b:45;
      3) 192.168.1.4 at 90:94:e4:bb:1c:10.

      and we have no dynamic entries of the ARP cache. This is the ideal case
      where we have to use the SARPI anti ARP spoofing technique, therefore
      specify in the configuration file of the ARP cache only all the static
      entries matching the eth0 network interface:

        $ sudo nano /etc/arpon.conf

      Therefore:

        #
        # ArpON configuration file.
        #
        # See the arpon(8) man page for details.
        #

        #
        # Static entries matching the eth0 network interface:
        #
        # First static entry:
        192.168.1.1     58:ac:78:10:b9:77
        # Second static entry:
        192.168.1.3     d4:be:d9:fe:8b:45
        # Third static entry:
        192.168.1.4     90:94:e4:bb:1c:10

      Daemonize the ArpON and run SARPI anti ARP spoofing technique on the eth0
      network interface:

        $ sudo arpon -d -i eth0 -S

      Read the log file:

        $ sudo tail -f /var/log/arpon.log

      Read the pid file:

        $ cat /var/run/arpon.pid

    • DARPI 'Dynamic ARP Inspection' example:

      The wlan0 network interface has the 172.16.1.2/24 IP address. We have no
      static entries of the ARP cache, and we have only dynamic entries of the
      ARP cache. This is the ideal case where we have to use the DARPI anti ARP
      spoofing technique, therefore daemonize the ArpON and run DARPI anti ARP
      spoofing technique on the wlan0 network interface:

        $ sudo arpon -d -i wlan0 -D

      Read the log file:

        $ sudo tail -f /var/log/arpon.log

      Read the pid file:

        $ cat /var/run/arpon.pid

    • HARPI 'Hybrid ARP Inspection' example:

      The eth1 network interface has the 10.0.1.2/16 IP address. We have only
      two static entries of the ARP cache:

      1) 10.0.1.1 at 58:ac:78:88:1a:bb;
      2) 10.0.10.1 at 90:94:e4:7e:f4:59.

      and we have the rest of entries as dynamic entries of the ARP cache. This
      is the ideal case where we have to use the HARPI anti ARP spoofing
      technique, therefore specify in the configuration file of the ARP cache
      only all the static entries matching the eth1 network interface:

        $ sudo nano /etc/arpon.conf

      Therefore:

        #
        # ArpON configuration file.
        #
        # See the arpon(8) man page for details.
        #

        #
        # Static entries matching the eth0 network interface:
        #
        # First static entry:
        192.168.1.1     58:ac:78:10:b9:77
        # Second static entry:
        192.168.1.3     d4:be:d9:fe:8b:45
        # Third static entry:
        192.168.1.4     90:94:e4:bb:1c:10

        #
        # Static entries matching the eth1 network interface:
        #
        # First static entry:
        10.0.1.1        58:ac:78:88:1a:bb
        # Second static entry:
        10.0.10.1       90:94:e4:7e:f4:59

      Daemonize the ArpON and run HARPI anti ARP spoofing technique on the eth1
      network interface:

        $ sudo arpon -d -i eth1 -H

      Read the log file:

        $ sudo tail -f /var/log/arpon.log

      Read the pid file:

        $ cat /var/run/arpon.pid

================================================================================
    17. HOW TO USE ARPON
================================================================================

The available scenarios of ArpON, that explain respectively how ArpON works and
how to use ArpON are:

    • Half-duplex ArpON defense:

      This scenario shows the half-duplex Man In The Middle (half-duplex MITM)
      attack through the ARP spoofing. The attacker is attacking only the host
      A, therefore the attacker is intercepting only the communications from the
      host A to host B:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexattack.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexattack.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexattack.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexattack.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexattack.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexattack.odg

      Run the ArpON only in the host A in order to avoid the half-duplex attack:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexdefense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexdefense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexdefense.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexdefense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexdefense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/halfduplexdefense.odg

      The communications between the host A and the host B are back again
      secure, leaving the attacker out.

    • Full-duplex ArpON defense:

      This scenario shows the full-duplex Man In The Middle (full-duplex MITM)
      attack through the ARP spoofing. The attacker is attacking both the host
      A and the host B, therefore the attacker is intercepting all the
      communications between the host A and the host B:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexattack.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexattack.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexattack.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexattack.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexattack.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexattack.odg

      Run the ArpON only in the host A in order to avoid the half-duplex attack:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexhalfdefense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexhalfdefense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexhalfdefense.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexhalfdefense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexhalfdefense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexhalfdefense.odg

      The communications from the host A to host B are back again secure,
      leaving the attacker out. Finally, run the ArpON also in the host B in
      order to avoid the full-duplex attack:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexfulldefense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexfulldefense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexfulldefense.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexfulldefense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexfulldefense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/scenario/fullduplexfulldefense.odg

      The communications between the host A and the host B are back again
      secure, leaving the attacker out.

================================================================================
    18. UNINSTALLATION
================================================================================

To uninstall ArpON:

    $ cd /path/to/arpon/build
    $ sudo make uninstall

================================================================================
    19. SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT
================================================================================

If you are a developer and you wish write any fix, feature or OS port of ArpON,
please follow these steps, make it available under the BSD open source license
and contribute to the project sending the patch:

    1. Clone or pull via the GIT repository and use the latest development
       release of ArpON.
    2. Understand the Activity diagrams of ArpON, that explain respectively the
       algorithms and the policies of SARPI, DARPI and HARPI anti ARP spoofing
       technique.
    3. Create a new devel branch and personalize the build type from Release to
       Debug:

        $ cd /path/to/arpon
        $ git checkout -b devel
        $ mkdir debug
        $ cd debug
        $ cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE="debug" ..
        $ make VERBOSE=1

    4. Before to see any codes, study and adhere the FreeBSD encoding standard:

        https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=style&sektion=9

    5. Write any fix, feature or OS port for ArpON and test it in Debug build
       type:

        $ cd /path/to/arpon
        $ vim file_to_edit_1 file_to_edit_2 file_to_edit_N
        $ cd /path/to/arpon/debug
        $ make VERBOSE=1
        $ sudo make install
        $ sudo arpon [OPTIONS] [SARPI | DARPI | HARPI]

    6. Switch the build type from Debug to Release and test, test and test it
       again in Release build type:

        $ cd /path/to/arpon/debug
        $ sudo make uninstall
        $ cd ..
        $ mkdir release
        $ cd release
        $ cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE="release" ..
        $ make
        $ sudo make install
        $ sudo arpon [OPTIONS] [SARPI | DARPI | HARPI]

    7. Commit the changes into devel branch and create the patch:

        $ cd /path/to/arpon/
        $ rm -Rf debug release
        $ git add -A
        $ git commit -m "Describe your patch"
        $ git format-patch master --stdout > patch.diff

    8. Send the created patch.diff file with any details to author or via the
       Bug tracking system:

        http://sourceforge.net/p/arpon/bugs/

    9. The author will review the code, make any necessary changes and merge the
       code into the proper branch.
    10. You will receive full credit as a contributor to the project.

================================================================================
    20. DEVELOPMENT RELEASE VIA THE GIT REPOSITORY
================================================================================

The latest development release of ArpON is available via the GIT repository:

    http://sourceforge.net/p/arpon/code/ci/master/tree/

Please follow these steps:

    1. First you have to clone the project via the GIT repository:

        $ git clone git://git.code.sourceforge.net/p/arpon/code arpon
        $ cd arpon

    Or via the GIT repository over HTTP protocol:

        $ git clone http://git.code.sourceforge.net/p/arpon/code arpon
        $ cd arpon

    2. If you already had the repository cloned, you will need to pull the
       latest changes:

        $ cd /path/to/arpon
        $ git pull

    3. After you have successfully cloned or pulled the repository then you must
       initiate the building and installation.

================================================================================
    21. ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS
================================================================================

All the available algorithms of ArpON are compatible with the ARP standardized
protocol as described in these official RFC documents:

    1. RFC 826:

        http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc826

    2. RFC 2131:

        http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2131

    3. RFC 3927:

        http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3927

    4. RFC 5227:

        http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5227

Note that all the available algorithms of ArpON set the arp_ignore and the
arp_accept fundamental kernel network parameters via the sysctl interface as
described in this official kernel document:

    1. IP sysctl:

        http://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt

Therefore the available Activity diagrams of ArpON, that explain respectively
the algorithms and the policies of all three kinds of anti ARP spoofing
techniques are:

    • SARPI 'Static ARP Inspection' Activity diagram:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/uml/SARPI.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/uml/SARPI.pdf

      or open with the Visual paradigm application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/uml/SARPI.vpp

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/uml/SARPI.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/uml/SARPI.pdf

      or open with the Visual paradigm application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/uml/SARPI.vpp

      To understand the SARPI 'Static ARP Inspection' Activity diagram, it is
      very important to understand this network diagram, that show a simple
      case of execution of the SARPI algorithm, in order to permit the
      communication between the host A (with a static IP address) and the host
      B (with a static IP address):

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI.odg

      Instead this network diagram shows a simple case of execution of the
      SARPI algorithm, in order to permit the communication between the host A
      (with a static IP address) and the host B (with a static IP address),
      leaving the host C (attacker) out from the communication:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI_defense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI_defense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI_defense.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI_defense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI_defense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/SARPI_defense.odg

    • DARPI 'Dynamic ARP Inspection' Activity diagram:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/uml/DARPI.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/uml/DARPI.pdf

      or open with the Visual paradigm application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/uml/DARPI.vpp

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/uml/DARPI.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/uml/DARPI.pdf

      or open with the Visual paradigm application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/uml/DARPI.vpp

      To understand the DARPI 'Dynamic ARP Inspection' Activity diagram, it is
      very important to understand this network diagram, that show a simple
      case of execution of the DARPI algorithm, in order to permit the
      communication between the host A (with a dynamic IP address) and the host
      B (with a dynamic IP address), checking any network errors:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI.odg

      Instead this network diagram shows a simple case of execution of the
      DARPI algorithm, in order to permit the communication between the host A
      (with a dynamic IP address) and the host B (with a dynamic IP address),
      leaving the host C (attacker) out from the communication:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI_defense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI_defense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI_defense.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI_defense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI_defense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/DARPI_defense.odg

    • HARPI 'Hybrid ARP Inspection' Activity diagram that combines the SARPI and
      DARPI Activity diagram:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/uml/HARPI.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/uml/HARPI.pdf

      or open with the Visual paradigm application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/uml/HARPI.vpp

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/uml/HARPI.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/uml/HARPI.pdf

      or open with the Visual paradigm application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/uml/HARPI.vpp

      To understand the HARPI 'Hybrid ARP Inspection' Activity diagram, it is
      very important to understand these network diagrams, where the first one
      show a simple case of execution of the HARPI algorithm, in order to permit
      the communication between the host A (with a static IP address) and the
      host B (with a static IP address):

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static.odg

      Instead this network diagram shows a simple case of execution of the
      HARPI algorithm, in order to permit the communication between the host A
      (with a static IP address) and the host B (with a static IP address),
      leaving the host C (attacker) out from the communication:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static_defense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static_defense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static_defense.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static_defense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static_defense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_static_defense.odg

      The second one show a simple case of execution of the HARPI algorithm,
      in order to permit the communication between the host A (with a dynamic
      IP address) and the host B (with a dynamic IP address), checking any
      network errors:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic.odg

      Instead this network diagram shows a simple case of execution of the
      HARPI algorithm, in order to permit the communication between the host A
      (with a dynamic IP address) and the host B (with a dynamic IP address),
      leaving the host C (attacker) out from the communication:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic_defense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic_defense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic_defense.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic_defense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic_defense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_dynamic_defense.odg

      The third one show a simple case of execution of the HARPI algorithm,
      in order to permit the communication between the host A (with a dynamic
      IP address) and the host B (with a static IP address), checking any
      network errors:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid.odg

      Instead this network diagram shows a simple case of execution of the
      HARPI algorithm, in order to permit the communication between the host A
      (with a dynamic IP address) and the host B (with a static IP address),
      leaving the host C (attacker) out from the communication:

      If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, open with an image
      viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid_defense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid_defense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        /usr/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid_defense.odg

      Else open with an image viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid_defense.jpg

      or open with a Pdf viewer application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid_defense.pdf

      or open with the OpenOffice Draw application this file:

        PATH/share/doc/arpon/network/HARPI_hybrid_defense.odg

================================================================================
    22. COMPILE TIME BUGS
================================================================================

If you are not able to compile ArpON on your System, please follow these steps
to make a simple bug report in order to help us to find the bug and fix it:

    1. Clean the ArpON build directory:

        $ cd /path/to/arpon/build
        $ make clean-all

    2. Create the report directory:

        $ mkdir /tmp/report

We need the following informations:

    1. A description of your Operating System:

        $ uname -a > /tmp/report/os.log

    2. A description of your GNU/Linux distribution:

       If you have the lsb_release command:

        $ lsb_release -a > /tmp/report/distro.log

       Else if you have not the lsb_release command:

        $ cp /etc/os-release /tmp/report/distro.log

       Else if you have not the os-release file put your distribution name:

        $ echo "your-distro-here" > /tmp/report/distro.log

    3. The version of ArpON:

        $ cp ../VERSION /tmp/report

    4. The CMake cache file:

        $ cmake ..
        $ cp CMakeCache.txt /tmp/report

    5. The entire output from make:

        $ make VERBOSE=1 >> /tmp/report/make_out.log \
        2>> /tmp/report/make_err.log

    6. Make a tarball of your report:

        $ cd /tmp
        $ tar -pcvzf report.tar.gz report
        report/
        report/distro.log
        report/os.log
        report/make_err.log
        report/CMakeCache.txt
        report/VERSION
        report/make_out.log

    7. Send the report.tar.gz tarball to author or via the Bug tracking system:

        http://sourceforge.net/p/arpon/bugs/

================================================================================
    23. RUNTIME BUGS
================================================================================

If the bug is critical and results in a segmentation fault, please follow these
steps to make a detailed bug report in order to help us to find the bug and fix
it:

    1. Recompile the ArpON in debug build type:

        $ cd /path/to/arpon
        $ mkdir debug
        $ cd debug
        $ cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE="debug" ..
        $ make
        $ sudo make install

    2. Create the report directory:

        $ mkdir /tmp/report

We need the following informations:

    1. A description of your Operating System:

        $ uname -a > /tmp/report/os.log

    2. A description of your GNU/Linux distribution:

       If you have the lsb_release command:

        $ lsb_release -a > /tmp/report/distro.log

       Else if you have not the lsb_release command:

        $ cp /etc/os-release /tmp/report/distro.log

       Else if you have not the os-release file put your distribution name:

        $ echo "your-distro-here" > /tmp/report/distro.log

    3. The version of ArpON:

        $ cp ../VERSION /tmp/report

    4. The stacktrace of ArpON that reproduces the bug:

       Override any limit for coredumps:

        $ ulimit -c unlimited

       Enter in the directory where there is the ArpON executable:

       If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, enter in:

        $ cd /sbin

       Else enter in:

        $ cd PATH/sbin

       where PATH is the path of your installation.

       Run the ArpON executable and reproduce the bug (it'll create the
       coredump):

        $ sudo arpon your-parameters-here

       Create the stacktrace of the bug with the gdb and the coredump:

        $ sudo gdb --batch --quiet -ex "thread apply all bt full" -ex "quit" \
        arpon core >> /tmp/report/stacktrace.log 2>> /tmp/report/stacktrace.log

       Please note that the path of the coredump depends by your OS setting.

    5. The log file of ArpON:

       If you chose the default "/" path of the installation, copy this file:

        $ cp /var/log/arpon.log /tmp/report

       Else copy this file:

        $ cp PATH/log/arpon.log /tmp/report

       where PATH is the path of your installation.

    6. Make a tarball of your report:

        $ cd /tmp
        $ tar -pcvzf report.tar.gz report
        report/
        report/distro.log
        report/arpon.log
        report/os.log
        report/stacktrace.log
        report/VERSION

    7. Send the report.tar.gz tarball to author or via the Bug tracking system:

        http://sourceforge.net/p/arpon/bugs/

================================================================================
    24. SUPPORT THE PROJECT
================================================================================
We are always happy about donations in any form.

If you are a corporate user, vendor or private user, we would gladly accept any
donations, either monetary or in goods (network hardware, etc). We assure you
that any donation we receive is very much appreciated and used for further
development of ArpON software.

If you are interested in making a donation, please contact the author.

================================================================================
    25. AUTHOR
================================================================================

ArpON was writen by Andrea Di Pasquale aka "spikey" <spikey.it@gmail.com>:

    http://it.linkedin.com/pub/andrea-di-pasquale/1b/3b0/252/

================================================================================
    26. COPYRIGHT AND LICENSING
================================================================================

Copyright (C) 2008-2016 Andrea Di Pasquale <spikey.it@gmail.com>
All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:

1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR HIS RELATIVES BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
SERVICES; LOSS OF MIND, USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF
THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

================================================================================
    27. THANKS
================================================================================

The list of the contributors to the project is available in:

    $ cat /path/to/arpon/THANKS

================================================================================
    28. REFERENCE WEBSITE
================================================================================

The reference website of ArpON project is here:

    http://arpon.sourceforge.net

================================================================================
    29. NOTES
================================================================================

The ArpON daemon is completely compatible with the ARP standardized protocol as
described in these official RFC documents:

    1. RFC 826:

        http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc826

    2. RFC 2131:

        http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2131

    3. RFC 3927:

        http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3927

    4. RFC 5227:

        http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5227

The ArpON daemon sets the arp_ignore and the arp_accept fundamental kernel
network parameters via the sysctl interface as described in this official kernel
document:

    1. IP sysctl:

        http://www.kernel.org/doc/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt

================================================================================

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