File: backup2l

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backup2l 1.5-7
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#!/bin/bash

# backup2l --- low-maintenance backup tool

# Copyright (c) 2001-2009 Gundolf Kiefer <gundolf.kiefer@web.de>

# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
# any later version.
#
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
# Foundation, Inc.; 59 Temple Place, Suite 330;
# Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.





##################################################
# Set global variables

VER=1.5


# The following variable defines the commonly required tools. Additional tools
# may be required by special functions, e. g. md5sum by the check functions.
# Tool requirements are check in the do_* and show_* functions.

COMMON_TOOLS="date find grep gzip gunzip sed awk mount umount"


# The following variables define the format of *.list files. Modify at your own risk.

FORMAT="%8s %TD %.8TT %04U.%04G %04m %p"     # format for *.list files

FILTER_NAME="sed 's#^\([-:. 0-9]*/\)\{3\}#/#'"
    # sed command for extracting names from .list, .new, ... files
    # (removes everything up to the 3rd "/"; two are contained in the time field)
FILTER_CHOWN="sed 's#^\( *[^ ]\+\)\{3\} *0\{0,3\}\([0-9]\+\)\.0\{0,3\}\([0-9]\+\) \+\([0-9]*\)\{4\} \+/\(.*\)\$#\2:\3 \"\5\"#'"
    # sed command for extracting ownerships and names from .list files
FILTER_CHMOD="sed 's#^\( *[^ ]\+\)\{4\} *\([0-9]\{4\}\) \+/\(.*\)\$#\2 \"\3\"#'"
    # sed command for extracting permissions and names from .list files
#FILTER_UNIFY_NAME="sed 's#\\\\[0-7]\{3\}#?#g;   s#[^a-zA-Z0-9_ .$%:~/=+\#\-]#?#g'"
FILTER_UNIFY_NAME="sed 's#\\\\[0-7]\{3\}#?#g;   s#[^a-zA-Z0-9_ .$%:~/=+\#\-]#?#g'"
    # replaces special and escaped characters by '?';
    # only used when checking TOCs of fresh backup archives in order to avoid false alarms

# The following alternative (donated by Christian Ludwig <Ludwig_C@gmx.de>) is slightly more precise,
# but requires perl to be installed:
#FILTER_UNIFY_NAME="perl -n -e 's{\\\\(\d{3})}{chr(oct(\$1))}eg; print;'"

# On systems without GNU sed >= 3.0.2 such as Mac OS X, try the following alternatives...
# ... settings (donated by Joe Auricchio <avarame@ml1.net>).

#FILTER_CHOWN="perl -pe 's#^( *[^ ]+){3} *0{0,3}([0-9]+).0{0,3}([0-9]+) +([0-9]*){4} +/(.*)\$#\$2.\$3 \"\$5\"#'"
#FILTER_CHMOD="perl -pe 's#^( *[^ ]+){4} *([0-9]{4}) +/(.*)\$#\$2 \"\$3\"#'"

#COMMON_TOOLS="$COMMON_TOOLS perl"





##################################################
# Misc. helpers


require_tools ()
{
    local NOT_AVAIL=""
    for TOOL in $@; do
        if [ "`which $TOOL 2> /dev/null`" == "" ]; then NOT_AVAIL="$NOT_AVAIL $TOOL"; fi
    done
    if [[ "$NOT_AVAIL" != "" ]]; then
        echo "ERROR: The following required tool(s) cannot be found: $NOT_AVAIL"
        exit 3
    fi
}


get_bid_of_name ()
{
    local SUFFIX=${1#$VOLNAME.}
    echo ${SUFFIX%%.*}
}


get_last_bid ()
{
    if [ -f $VOLNAME.1.list.gz ]; then
        REV_ARCH_LIST=(`ls $VOLNAME.*.list.gz | sort -r`)
        get_bid_of_name ${REV_ARCH_LIST[0]}
    else
        echo "0"  # default if no archives exist yet
    fi
}


get_base_bid ()
{
    local BID=$(( $1 - 1 ))
    echo ${BID%%+(0)}
}


expand_bid_list ()
{
    local SUFFIX="$1"
    shift
    local ARCH_LIST=""
    local BID ARCH
    for BID in "$@"; do
        ARCH_LIST="$ARCH_LIST `ls -1 $BACKUP_DIR/$VOLNAME.$BID.$SUFFIX 2> /dev/null`"
    done
    local BID_LIST=""
    local ARCH
    for ARCH in $ARCH_LIST; do
        BID_LIST="$BID_LIST `get_bid_of_name ${ARCH#$BACKUP_DIR/}`"
    done
    echo $BID_LIST
}


do_symlink ()
{
    # tries to symlink & copies if not possible (e. g. on FAT32/Samba file systems)
    ln -s $@ &> /dev/null ||
    cp -af $@
}


readable_bytes_sum ()
{
  awk -v UNIT=$1 '
    { B += $1 }
    END {
      KB=B / 1024.0;
      MB=KB / 1024.0;
      GB=MB / 1024.0;
      if ((GB>=1.0 && UNIT=="") || UNIT=="G" || UNIT=="g") print sprintf("%.1fG", GB);
      else if ((MB>=1.0 && UNIT=="") || UNIT=="M" || UNIT=="m") print sprintf("%.1fM", MB);
      else if ((KB>=1.0 && UNIT=="") || UNIT=="K" || UNIT=="k") print sprintf("%.0fK", KB);
      else print sprintf("%i ", B);
    }
  '
}





##################################################
# Archive drivers & helpers


BUILTIN_DRIVER_LIST="DRIVER_TAR DRIVER_TAR_GZ DRIVER_TAR_BZ2 DRIVER_AFIOZ"


DRIVER_TAR ()
{
    case $1 in
        -test)
            require_tools tar
            echo "ok"
            ;;
        -suffix)
            echo "tar"
            ;;
        -create)        # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name, $4 = file list file
            tar cf $3 -T $4 --numeric-owner --no-recursion 2>&1 \
                | grep -v 'tar: Removing leading .* from .* names'
            ;;
        -toc)           # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name
            tar tf $3 | sed 's#^#/#'
            ;;
        -extract)       # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name, $4 = file list file
            tar x --same-permission --same-owner --numeric-owner -f $3 -T $4 2>&1
            ;;
    esac
}


DRIVER_TAR_GZ ()
{
    case $1 in
        -test)
            require_tools tar
            echo "ok"
            ;;
        -suffix)
            echo "tar.gz"
            ;;
        -create)        # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name, $4 = file list file
            tar czf $3 -T $4 --no-recursion 2>&1 \
                | grep -v 'tar: Removing leading .* from .* names'
            ;;
        -toc)           # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name
            tar tzf $3 | sed 's#^#/#'
            ;;
        -extract)       # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name, $4 = file list file
            tar zx --same-permission --same-owner -f $3 -T $4 2>&1
            ;;
    esac
}


DRIVER_TAR_BZ2 ()
{
    case $1 in
        -test)
            require_tools tar bzip2
            echo "ok"
            ;;
        -suffix)
            echo "tar.bz2"
            ;;
        -create)        # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name, $4 = file list file
            tar cjf $3 -T $4 --no-recursion 2>&1 \
                | grep -v 'tar: Removing leading .* from .* names'
            ;;
        -toc)           # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name
            tar tjf $3 | sed 's#^#/#'
            ;;
        -extract)       # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name, $4 = file list file
            tar jx --same-permission --same-owner -f $3 -T $4 2>&1
            ;;
    esac
}


DRIVER_AFIOZ ()
{
    case $1 in
        -test)
            require_tools afio
            echo "ok"
            ;;
        -suffix)
            echo "afioz"
            ;;
        -create)        # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name, $4 = file list file
            afio -Zo $3 < $4 2>&1
#            afio -Zo - < $4 > $3 2>&1
            ;;
        -toc)           # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name
            afio -Zt $3 | sed 's#^#/#' # 's#^#/#;s#\.z$##'
#            afio -Zt - < $3 | sed 's#^#/#' # 's#^#/#;s#\.z$##'
            ;;
        -extract)       # Arguments: $2 = BID, $3 = archive file name, $4 = file list file
            afio -Zinw $4 $3 2>&1
#            afio -Zinw $4 - < $3 2>&1
            ;;
    esac
}



# Helpers


require_drivers ()
{
    for DRIVER in $@; do
        local STATUS=`$DRIVER -test`
        if [ "$STATUS" != "ok" ]; then
            echo "ERROR: Archive driver not ready: $DRIVER"
            echo $STATUS
            exit 3
        fi
    done
}


get_driver_and_file ()           # Argument: <path>/<volname>.<bid>
{
    local DRIVER
    for DRIVER in $USER_DRIVER_LIST $BUILTIN_DRIVER_LIST; do
        local SUFFIX=`$DRIVER -suffix`
        if [ "$SUFFIX" != "" -a -e "$1.$SUFFIX" ]; then
            echo "$DRIVER:$1.$SUFFIX"
            break
        fi
    done
}


get_driver ()                    # Argument: <path><volname><bid>
{
    local DRIVER_AND_FILE=`get_driver_and_file $1`
    echo ${DRIVER_AND_FILE%%:*}
}


get_archive ()                   # Argument: <path><volname><bid>
{
    local DRIVER_AND_FILE=`get_driver_and_file $1`
    echo ${DRIVER_AND_FILE##*:}
}





##################################################
# (Un)mount backup disk and (un)lock volume


MUST_BE_UNMOUNTED=0


mount_dev ()
{
    if [ ! -d $BACKUP_DIR -a "$BACKUP_DEV" != "" ]; then
        echo "Mounting $BACKUP_DEV..."
        echo
        mount $BACKUP_DEV
        MUST_BE_UNMOUNTED=1
    fi
    if [ ! -d $BACKUP_DIR ]; then
        echo "ERROR: $BACKUP_DIR not present (mount failed?)"
        umount $BACKUP_DEV >& /dev/null
        exit 3
    fi
    if [ -e $BACKUP_DIR/$VOLNAME.lock ]; then
        if [ `ps -a | grep -af $BACKUP_DIR/$VOLNAME.lock | grep ${0##*/} | wc -l` -gt 0 ]; then
            echo "ERROR: Backup volume is locked."
            echo
            echo "Another instance is currently running. If you are sure that this is not"
            echo "the case, then remove the lock file '$BACKUP_DIR/$VOLNAME.lock' manually."
            exit 3
        fi
    fi
    echo $$ > $BACKUP_DIR/$VOLNAME.lock
}


umount_dev ()
{
    rm -f $BACKUP_DIR/$VOLNAME.lock
    if [ $MUST_BE_UNMOUNTED == "1" ]; then
        echo
        echo "Unmounting $BACKUP_DEV..."
        umount $BACKUP_DEV
        MUST_BE_UNMOUNTED=0
    fi
}





##################################################
# Purging


purge ()
{
    local LV=${#1}
    : $[LV-=1]
    local LASTDIG=${1:LV:1}
    local PREFIX=${1%?}
    if [[ $LV == 0 ]]; then
        local CAND=$VOLNAME.$1*.list.gz
    else
        local CAND=$VOLNAME.$PREFIX[$LASTDIG-9]*.list.gz
    fi
    local ARCH BASE
    for ARCH in $CAND; do
        BASE=${ARCH%.list.gz}
        echo "  removing <$BASE>"
        rm -fr $BASE.*
    done
}


name_cleanup ()
{
    local DST=0
    local SRC=0
    local SUFFIX SRC_FILE DST_FILE CHK
    while [[ $SRC -lt 9 ]]; do
        : $[SRC+=1]
        if [[ -f $VOLNAME.$SRC.list.gz ]]; then
            : $[DST+=1]
            if [[ "$SRC" != "$DST" ]]; then
                for SRC_FILE in $VOLNAME.$SRC* ; do
                    local SUFFIX=${SRC_FILE##$VOLNAME.$SRC}
                    local DST_FILE=$VOLNAME.$DST$SUFFIX
                    if [ ${SUFFIX#*.} == "list.gz" ]; then
                        echo "  moving <${SRC_FILE%.list.gz}> to <${DST_FILE%.list.gz}>"
                    fi
                    if [ ${SUFFIX#*.} == "new.gz" -a -h $SRC_FILE ]; then
                        rm -fr $SRC_FILE
                        do_symlink ${DST_FILE%.new.gz}.list.gz $DST_FILE
                    else
                        mv $SRC_FILE $DST_FILE
                    fi
                done
                for CHK in $VOLNAME.$DST*.check ; do
                    cat $CHK | sed "s/ \.\/$VOLNAME.$SRC/ \.\/$VOLNAME.$DST/" |\
                      sed "s/ $VOLNAME.$SRC/ $VOLNAME.$DST/" > $TMP.check
                    mv $TMP.check $CHK
                done
            fi
        fi
    done
}


do_purge ()
{
    if [[ "$1" == "" ]]; then
        echo "No archive specified - not purging anything!"
    else
        mount_dev
        cd $BACKUP_DIR
        BID_LIST=`expand_bid_list list.gz "$@"`
        if [[ "$BID_LIST" == "" ]]; then
            echo "No archive(s) matching '$@' found - nothing to purge."
        else
            echo "Purging <$BID_LIST>..."
            for BID in $BID_LIST; do
                purge $BID
            done
            name_cleanup
         fi
    fi
}





##################################################
# Checking


create_check ()
{
    # Parameter: single BID
    local BID=$1
    if [[ "${#BID}" == "1" ]]; then
        local BASE_FILE=""
    else
        local BASE_FILE=$VOLNAME.`get_base_bid $BID`.list.gz
    fi
    echo "Creating check file for <$VOLNAME.$BID>..."
    rm -f $VOLNAME.$BID.check
    md5sum `find . -follow -path "*/$VOLNAME.$BID.*" -type f` $BASE_FILE > $TMP.check
    mv $TMP.check $VOLNAME.$BID.check
}


do_create_check ()
{
    require_tools $COMMON_TOOLS md5sum

    mount_dev
    cd $BACKUP_DIR
    rm -fr $TMP.*

    if [[ "$1" == "" ]]; then
        BID_LIST=`expand_bid_list list.gz "*"`
    else
        BID_LIST=`expand_bid_list list.gz "$@"`
    fi
    for BID in $BID_LIST; do
        if [[ "$1" != "" || ! -f $VOLNAME.$BID.check ]]; then
            create_check $BID
        fi
    done
}


check_arch ()
{
    # Parameter: single BID

    local BID=$1
    echo "Checking archive <$VOLNAME.$BID>..."

    # Check the plausibility by file existence...
    local SUFFIX
    for SUFFIX in list.gz skipped.gz new.gz obsolete.gz error.gz; do
        if [[ ! -f $VOLNAME.$BID.$SUFFIX ]]; then
            echo "  ERROR: File '$VOLNAME.$BID.$SUFFIX' does not exist."
        fi
    done
    if [[ ${#BID} -gt 1 ]]; then
        if [[ ! -f $VOLNAME.`get_base_bid $BID`.list.gz ]]; then
            echo "  ERROR: Base archive <$VOLNAME.`get_base_bid $BID`> does not exist."
        fi
    fi

    # Check check sum file...
    if [[ -f $VOLNAME.$BID.check ]]; then
        md5sum -c $VOLNAME.$BID.check 2>&1 | sed 's/^/  /'
        if [[ $(( `grep $VOLNAME.$BID. $VOLNAME.$BID.check | wc -l` )) -lt 6 ]]; then
            echo "  ERROR: Check file seems to be corrupted."
        fi
    else
        echo "  Information: no check file"
    fi
}


do_check ()
{
    require_tools $COMMON_TOOLS md5sum

    mount_dev
    cd $BACKUP_DIR
    rm -fr $TMP.*

    if [[ "$1" == "" ]]; then
        BID_LIST=`expand_bid_list list.gz "*"`
    else
        BID_LIST=`expand_bid_list list.gz "$@"`
    fi
    for BID in $BID_LIST; do
        check_arch $BID
    done
}





##################################################
# Print summary


show_summary ()
{
    require_tools $COMMON_TOOLS

    echo "Summary"
    echo "======="
    echo
    cd $BACKUP_DIR
    if [[ `echo $VOLNAME.*.list.gz` == "" ]]; then
        echo "No backup archives present."
    else
        echo "Backup       Date       Time  |  Size   | Skipped  Files+D |  New  Obs. | Err."
        echo "------------------------------------------------------------------------------"
        for f in `ls $VOLNAME.*.list.gz` ; do
            p=${f%%.list.gz}
            size="`du -sbL $p.* | readable_bytes_sum $SIZE_UNITS`"
            skipped=$( gunzip -c $p.skipped.gz | wc -l )
            total=$( gunzip -c $p.list.gz | wc -l )
            new_files=$( gunzip -c $p.new.gz | wc -l )
            obsolete=$( gunzip -c $p.obsolete.gz | wc -l )
            errors=$( gunzip -c $p.error.gz | grep '<' | wc -l )
            printf "%-12s %s %s |%8s |%8i %8i |%5i %5i |%5i\n" \
                   $p $(date -r $p.list.gz +"%Y-%m-%d %H:%M") "$size" \
                   $skipped $total $new_files $obsolete $errors
        done
    fi
    echo
    df -h $BACKUP_DIR
}





##################################################
# backup


compute_level_and_bids ()
{
    # Determine level and base BID for new backup...
    if [ ! -f $VOLNAME.1.list.gz ]; then
        LEVEL="0";
    else
        if [[ "$1" -gt 0 || "$1" == "0" ]]; then
            LEVEL=$1
        else
            LEVEL=$MAX_LEVEL
        fi
        BASE_BID=`get_last_bid`
        while [[ "$LEVEL" -gt 0 && "${BASE_BID:$LEVEL:1}" -gt "$[MAX_PER_LEVEL-1]" ]]; do
            : $[LEVEL-=1]
        done
        BASE_BID=${BASE_BID:0:$[LEVEL+1]}
        BASE_BID=${BASE_BID%%+(0)}
    fi

    # Determine new archive's name
    if [ "$LEVEL" != "0" ]; then
        NEW_BID=$BASE_BID
        while [ ${#NEW_BID} -le $LEVEL ]; do
            NEW_BID=${NEW_BID}"0"
        done
        : $[NEW_BID+=1]
    else
        NEW_BID="1"
        while [ -f $VOLNAME.$NEW_BID.list.gz ]; do
            : $[NEW_BID+=1]
        done
    fi
}


prepare_backup ()
{
    # Input: Comment ("Preparing"/"Estimating"), selected level (optional)
    # Output: $LEVEL, $BASE_BID, $NEW_BID
    #         $TMP.list $TMP.skipped $TMP.new $TMP.obsolete $TMP.files

    # Determine level, base BID and new BID
    compute_level_and_bids $2
    if [ "$LEVEL" != "0" ]; then
        echo "$1 differential level-$LEVEL backup <$VOLNAME.$NEW_BID> based on <$VOLNAME.$BASE_BID>..."
    else
        echo "$1 full backup <$VOLNAME.$NEW_BID>..."
    fi

    # Determine main list & which files are new or obsolete...
    set -f  # pathname expansion off as it may destroy $SKIPCOND
    OLDIFS=$IFS
    IFS=""
    find ${SRCLIST[*]} \( \( ${SKIPCOND[*]} \) \
        \( -type d -fprintf $TMP.skipped.dirs "$FORMAT/\n" -o -fprintf $TMP.skipped.files "$FORMAT\n" \) \) \
        -o \( -not -type d -printf "$FORMAT\n" -o -printf "$FORMAT/\n" \) \
        | sed -e 's#   \([0-9]*\..* /.*\)# 00\1#' -e 's#  \([0-9]*\..* /\)# 0\1#' \
              -e 's#\(\. *\)  \([0-9 ]* /\)#\100\2#' -e 's#\. \([0-9 ]* /\)#\.0\1#' \
        | sort -k 6 \
        > $TMP.list
    IFS=$OLDIFS
    cat $TMP.skipped.dirs $TMP.skipped.files \
        | sed -e 's#   \([0-9]*\..* /.*\)# 00\1#' -e 's#  \([0-9]*\..* /\)# 0\1#' \
              -e 's#\(\. *\)  \([0-9 ]* /\)#\100\2#' -e 's#\. \([0-9 ]* /\)#\.0\1#' \
        | sort -k 6 \
        > $TMP.skipped
          # WORKAROUND: The reason for the two 2-line sed's above is a bug in find 4.1.7, where the format
          #             directives %04x do not produce leading 0's.
    set +f
    if [ $LEVEL != 0 ]; then
        gunzip -c $VOLNAME.$BASE_BID.list.gz | sort -k 6 | diff - $TMP.list > $TMP.diff
          # WORKAROUND: 'sort -k 6' can be removed if sort uses the same options for every user,
          #             which seems to be not the case!!
        if [[ $(( `grep "<" $TMP.diff | tail -n 1 | sed 's# /.*##' | wc -w` )) == 5 ]]; then
            echo "  file '$VOLNAME.$BASE_BID.list.gz' has an old format - using compatibility mode"
            sed 's#[0-9]*\.[0-9 ]* /#- /#' < $TMP.list > $TMP.list.old
            gunzip -c $VOLNAME.$BASE_BID.list.gz | sort -k 5 | diff - $TMP.list.old > $TMP.diff
        fi
        grep "<" $TMP.diff | sed 's/^< //' > $TMP.obsolete
        grep ">" $TMP.diff | sed 's/^> //' > $TMP.new
    else
        # by convention, the *.new and *.obsolete files always exist, although redundant for level-0 backups
        do_symlink $TMP.list $TMP.new
        touch $TMP.obsolete
    fi
    eval "$FILTER_NAME" < $TMP.new | grep -v "/$" > $TMP.files   # extract real files

    # Print statistics...
    echo " " `wc -l < $TMP.files` / `grep -v '/$' $TMP.list | wc -l` "file(s)," \
        `grep '/$' $TMP.new | wc -l` / `grep '/$' $TMP.list | wc -l` "dir(s)," \
        `grep -v '/$' $TMP.new | readable_bytes_sum`"B /" \
        `grep -v '/$' $TMP.list | readable_bytes_sum`"B (uncompressed)"
    echo "  skipping:" `grep -v '/$' $TMP.skipped | wc -l` "file(s)," \
        `grep '/$' $TMP.skipped | wc -l` "dir(s)," \
        `grep -v '/$' $TMP.skipped | readable_bytes_sum`"B (uncompressed)"
}


show_backup_estimates ()
{
    require_tools $COMMON_TOOLS

    mount_dev
    cd $BACKUP_DIR
    rm -fr $TMP.*
    prepare_backup "Estimating" $1
    rm -f $TMP.*
}


do_backup ()
{
    require_tools $COMMON_TOOLS
    require_drivers $CREATE_DRIVER

    # Print time stamp & mount backup drive...
    date
    echo
    mount_dev

    # Run pre-backup
    echo "Running pre-backup procedure..."
    PRE_BACKUP

    # Operate in destination directory
    cd $BACKUP_DIR
    rm -fr $TMP.*

    # Remove old backups...
    echo
    echo "Removing old backups..."
    name_cleanup  # should not do anything in normal cases
    compute_level_and_bids $1
    SAVED_LEVEL=$LEVEL

    # Rotate level-0 backups if necessary...
    TOO_MANY=$(( ${NEW_BID:0:1} - $MAX_FULL ))
    if [[ $TOO_MANY -gt 0 ]]; then
        N=0
        while [[ $N -lt $TOO_MANY ]]; do
            : $[N+=1]
            purge $N
        done
        name_cleanup
        compute_level_and_bids $SAVED_LEVEL
    fi

    # Remove old differential backups...
    if [[ $BASE_BID -gt 0 ]]; then
        ARCH_LIST=(`ls $VOLNAME.*1.list.gz`)
        LV=0
        while [ $LV -le 10 ]; do
            : $[LV+=1]
            MATCHCNT=0
            N=${#ARCH_LIST[*]}
            while [[ $N -gt 0 ]]; do
                : $[N-=1]
                BID=`get_bid_of_name ${ARCH_LIST[$N]}`
                if [[ ${#BID} == $[LV+1] && ${BID:0:$LV} != ${NEW_BID:0:$LV} ]]; then
                    : $[MATCHCNT+=1]
                    if [[ $MATCHCNT -gt $GENERATIONS ]]; then
                        purge $BID
                    fi
                fi
            done
        done
    fi

    # Prepare backup...
    echo
    prepare_backup "Preparing" $SAVED_LEVEL

    # Create and verify archive file...
    echo
    echo "Creating archive using '"$CREATE_DRIVER"'..."
    ARCH_SUFFIX=`$CREATE_DRIVER -suffix`
    $CREATE_DRIVER -create $NEW_BID $TMP.$ARCH_SUFFIX $TMP.files 2>&1 | sed 's/^/  /'
    if [ "$ARCH_SUFFIX" != "" ]; then
        echo "Checking TOC of archive file (< real file, > archive entry)..."
        $CREATE_DRIVER -toc $NEW_BID $TMP.$ARCH_SUFFIX | eval "$FILTER_UNIFY_NAME" > $TMP.toc
        eval "$FILTER_UNIFY_NAME" < $TMP.files | diff - $TMP.toc | tee $TMP.error | sed 's/^/  /'
    fi

    # Move files in place...
    gzip -9 $TMP.list $TMP.skipped $TMP.obsolete $TMP.error
    if [ $LEVEL != 0 ]; then
        gzip -9 $TMP.new
    else
        rm -f $TMP.new
            # Here we don't use the do_symlink function because we need to copy or
            # symlink different files, depending on wether we copy or symlink
        ln -s $VOLNAME.$NEW_BID.list.gz $TMP.new.gz &> /dev/null ||
        cp -af $TMP.list.gz $TMP.new.gz
    fi
    for SUFFIX in skipped.gz new.gz obsolete.gz error.gz $ARCH_SUFFIX list.gz ; do
        # *.list.gz has to be the last for transaction safety
        mv $TMP.$SUFFIX $VOLNAME.$NEW_BID.$SUFFIX
    done

    # Create check file if requested...
    if [[ "$CREATE_CHECK_FILE" == "1" ]]; then
        create_check $NEW_BID
    fi

    # Run post-backup
    echo
    echo "Running post-backup procedure..."
    POST_BACKUP

    # print summary and finish...
    rm -f $TMP.*
    echo
    date
    echo
    echo
    show_summary
}





##################################################
# show_availability


show_availability ()
{
    # parameters: masks

    require_tools $COMMON_TOOLS

    mount_dev 1>&2
    cd $BACKUP_DIR
    rm -fr $TMP.*

    MASK="$@"
    if [ "$MASK" = "" ]; then
        MASK="/"
    fi

    echo "Listing available files..." 1>&2
    for F in $VOLNAME.*.list.gz; do
        BID=`get_bid_of_name $F`
        FBID=$BID
        while [[ ${#FBID} -lt 5 ]]; do
            FBID=$FBID" "
        done
        for X in $MASK; do
           gunzip -c $VOLNAME.$BID.obsolete.gz | grep "$X" | sed "s/^/$VOLNAME.$FBID - /"
           gunzip -c $VOLNAME.$BID.new.gz | grep "$X" | sed "s/^/$VOLNAME.$FBID + /"
        done
    done
    cd /
    umount_dev 1>&2
}





##################################################
# show_location


get_location ()
{
    # parameter 1: BID of snapshot
    # other parameters: masks

    if [[ $1 == "head" ]]; then
        BID=`get_last_bid`
    else
        BID=$1
    fi
    if [[ ! -f $VOLNAME.$BID.list.gz ]]; then
        echo "ERROR: Specified backup archive <$VOLNAME.$BID> does not exist!"
        exit 3
    fi
    shift

    MASK_LIST="$@"
    if [ "$MASK_LIST" = "" ]; then
        MASK_LIST="/"
    fi

    # determine active files...
    for MASK in $MASK_LIST; do
        gunzip -c $VOLNAME.$BID.list.gz | grep "$MASK" | tee $TMP.found | grep '/$' >> $TMP.dirs
            # dirs go to $TMP.dirs WITH attributes
        grep -v '/$' $TMP.found | eval "$FILTER_NAME" >> $TMP.left
            # files go to $TMP.left WITHOUT attributes
    done
    echo "Active files in <$VOLNAME.$BID>:" `wc -l < $TMP.left`

    sort < $TMP.left > $TMP.nowleft
    mv $TMP.nowleft $TMP.left

    # generate location list
    LAST_BID="xxx"
    touch $TMP.located
    touch $TMP.archlist
    touch $TMP.noarch
    while [ ${#LAST_BID} -gt 1 -a `wc -l < $TMP.left` -gt 0 ]; do
        gunzip -c $VOLNAME.$BID.new.gz | eval "$FILTER_NAME" | sort | comm -1 -2 - $TMP.left | tee $TMP.found \
            | comm -1 -3 - $TMP.left > $TMP.nowleft
        local FOUND=`wc -l < $TMP.found`
        printf "  found in %-12s%5i   (%5i left)\n" \
            "$VOLNAME.$BID:" $FOUND `wc -l < $TMP.nowleft`
        if [ "$FOUND" -gt 0 ]; then
            sed "s/^/$VOLNAME.$BID: /" < $TMP.found >> $TMP.located
            mv $TMP.nowleft $TMP.left
            DRIVER=`get_driver $VOLNAME.$BID`
            if [ "$DRIVER" = "" ]; then
                echo $VOLNAME.$BID >> $TMP.noarch
            else
                echo $VOLNAME.$BID:$DRIVER >> $TMP.archlist
            fi
        fi
        LAST_BID=$BID
        BID=`get_base_bid $LAST_BID`
    done
    echo
    # leaves $TMP.left, $TMP.found, $TMP.located, $TMP.dirs, $TMP.archlist, $TMP.noarch
}


show_location ()
{
    # parameter 1: BID of snapshot
    # other parameters: masks

    require_tools $COMMON_TOOLS comm

    mount_dev 1>&2
    cd $BACKUP_DIR
    rm -fr $TMP.*

    get_location "$@" 1>&2
    echo "Listing locations..." 1>&2
    cat $TMP.located
    sed 's#^#NOT FOUND: #' < $TMP.left

    if [ `wc -l < $TMP.noarch` -gt 0 ]; then
        echo -e "\nTo restore, the archive files of the following backups are missing and" \
                "\nhave to be copied or linked into $BACKUP_DIR:" 1>&2
        sed 's#^#  #' < $TMP.noarch 1>&2
    else
        echo -e "\nAll required archive files are present in $BACKUP_DIR." 1>&2
    fi

    rm -f $TMP.*
    cd /
    umount_dev 1>&2
}





##################################################
# do_restore


do_restore ()
{
    # parameter 1: <level>.<version> of snapshot
    # other parameters: masks

    require_tools $COMMON_TOOLS comm

    mount_dev
    pushd $BACKUP_DIR > /dev/null
    rm -fr $TMP.*

    # determine which file to get from which archive
    get_location "$@"

    popd > /dev/null

    if [ `wc -l < $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.noarch` -gt 0 ]; then
        echo "Cannot access archive file(s) of the following backup(s):"
        sed 's#^#  #' < $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.noarch
        echo -e "\nNothing has been restored."
    else

        # check availability of all required drivers in advance...
        require_drivers `sed 's#^.*:##' < $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.archlist`

        # create directories...
        DIRS=`wc -l < $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.dirs`
        if [ $DIRS -gt 0 ]; then
            echo "Restoring" $DIRS "directories..."
            eval "$FILTER_NAME" < $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.dirs | sed 's#^/\(.*\)$#"\1"#' | xargs -l1 mkdir -p
            eval "$FILTER_CHMOD" < $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.dirs | xargs -l1 chmod
            eval "$FILTER_CHOWN" < $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.dirs | xargs -l1 chown
        fi

        # process all archives...
        echo "Restoring files..."
        for ARCH_AND_DRIVER in `cat $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.archlist`; do
            ARCH=${ARCH_AND_DRIVER%%:*}
            BID=${ARCH#$VOLNAME.}
            DRIVER=${ARCH_AND_DRIVER##*:}
            SUFFIX=`$DRIVER -suffix`
            grep "^$ARCH:" $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.located \
                | sed -e "s#^$ARCH: /##" -e 's#\([][*?]\)#\\\1#g' \
                > $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.curlist
                # The second sed expression escapes special glob(7) characters ([]*?).
            FILES=`wc -l < $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.curlist`
            echo "  $ARCH.$SUFFIX:" $FILES "file(s) using '"$DRIVER"'"
            $DRIVER -extract $BID $BACKUP_DIR/$ARCH.$SUFFIX $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.curlist | sed "s/^/    /"
        done
    fi

    # Cleanup...
    rm -f $BACKUP_DIR/$TMP.*
}



##################################################
# External archiving


do_external ()
{
    require_tools $COMMON_TOOLS split tail md5sum

    CTRL_EXPR="$VOLNAME\.[0-9]*\.((list)|(new)|(obsolete)|(skipped)|(error)|(check))"
    mount_dev

    CAPACITY=$(( $1 * 1024 ))
    shift
    MAXFREE=$(( $1 * 1024 ))
    shift

    # determine BID_LIST...
    BID_LIST=`expand_bid_list list.gz "$@"`

    # determine distribution...
    LAST_DISK=1
    REMAINING=$CAPACITY
    rm -f TMP.xdist 2> /dev/null
    touch TMP.xdist
    for BID in $BID_LIST; do
        CTRL_SIZE=`ls -1s $BACKUP_DIR/$VOLNAME.$BID.* | grep -E "$CTRL_EXPR" \
            | awk '{ sum += $1 } END { print sum }'`
        if [ $CTRL_SIZE -gt $REMAINING -a $REMAINING -lt $CAPACITY ]; then
            : $[ LAST_DISK += 1 ]
            REMAINING=$CAPACITY
        fi
        LAST_DISK_DIR=`printf "data-%02d" $LAST_DISK`
        ls -1s $BACKUP_DIR/$VOLNAME.$BID.* | grep -E "$CTRL_EXPR" \
            | sed "s#$BACKUP_DIR#$LAST_DISK_DIR#" >> TMP.xdist
        : $[ REMAINING -= $CTRL_SIZE ]
        for ARCHIVE_PATH in `ls -1d $BACKUP_DIR/$VOLNAME.$BID.* | grep -vE "$CTRL_EXPR"`; do
            ARCHIVE=${ARCHIVE_PATH##*/}
            if [ -f $BACKUP_DIR/$ARCHIVE ]; then
                DATA_SIZE=`ls -1s $BACKUP_DIR/$ARCHIVE | sed 's/ [^ ]*$//'`
                if [ $DATA_SIZE -gt $REMAINING -a $REMAINING -lt $MAXFREE ]; then
                    : $[ LAST_DISK += 1 ]
                    REMAINING=$CAPACITY
                fi
                if [ $DATA_SIZE -le $REMAINING ]; then
                    LAST_DISK_DIR=`printf "data-%02i" $LAST_DISK`
                    ls -1s $BACKUP_DIR/$ARCHIVE | sed "s#$BACKUP_DIR#$LAST_DISK_DIR#" >> TMP.xdist
                    : $[ REMAINING -= $DATA_SIZE ]
                else
                    SPLIT_NO=1
                    while [ $DATA_SIZE -gt $REMAINING ]; do
                        LAST_DISK_DIR=`printf "data-%02i" $LAST_DISK`
                        printf "%4i $LAST_DISK_DIR/$ARCHIVE.%02i\n" $REMAINING $SPLIT_NO >> TMP.xdist
                        : $[ DATA_SIZE -= $REMAINING ]
                        : $[ SPLIT_NO += 1 ]
                        : $[ LAST_DISK += 1 ]
                        REMAINING=$CAPACITY
                    done
                    LAST_DISK_DIR=`printf "data-%02i" $LAST_DISK`
                    printf "%4i $LAST_DISK_DIR/$ARCHIVE.%02i\n" $DATA_SIZE $SPLIT_NO >> TMP.xdist
                    : $[ REMAINING -= $DATA_SIZE ]
                fi
            else
                echo "WARNING: Cannot handle directory: $ARCHIVE (skipping)"
                echo
            fi
        done
    done

    SPACE=$(( (`grep "\.[0-9]*$" TMP.xdist | awk '{ sum += $1 } END { print sum }'` + 1023) / 1024 ))
    cat << EOT
I am about to split and combine the selected backup archives into directories
of equal size, so that they can be stored on a set of removable media
(e. g. CDs). If 'cdlabelgen' is installed, I will create CD covers.
It is up to you to burn the CDs or store the data in whichever way you like.

All files are generated in the current working directory ($PWD).
Make sure it is empty!

In order to save disk space, only symbolic links will be generated wherever
possible. Make sure that they are followed by your CD-burn/storage tool and
that the backup device is mounted!

You have selected a medium capacity of $(( $CAPACITY / 1024 )) MB with a maximum waste of $(( $MAXFREE /1024 )) MB
per medium. The selected BIDs are:

  $BID_LIST

I need about $SPACE MB of disk space in the current directory.
You will get $LAST_DISK volume(s).

EOT
    read -p "Do you want to see details? [y/N] " ANSWER
    if [[ "$ANSWER" == "y" ]]; then
        echo -e "\nSize  Volume/File\n======================================="
        cat TMP.xdist
    fi
    echo
    read -p "Do you want to continue? [y/N] " ANSWER
    if [[ "$ANSWER" != "y" ]]; then
        rm -f TMP.xdist
        return
    fi

    echo -e "\nCreating links..."
    rm -fr data-??

    # create directories...
    sed -e 's#^[ 0-9]*##' -e 's#/.*$##' < TMP.xdist | sort -u | xargs -l1 mkdir -p

    # create links...
    for FILE in `grep -v '\.[0-9]*$' TMP.xdist | sed 's#^[ 0-9]*##'`; do
        do_symlink $BACKUP_DIR/${FILE#data-??/} $FILE
    done

    echo "Splitting large files..."
    for FILE in `grep '\.01$' TMP.xdist | sed -e 's#^[ 0-9]*##' -e 's#.01$##'`; do
        ORG_FILE=${FILE#data-??/}
        echo "  $ORG_FILE"
        HEAD_SIZE=$(( `grep $FILE TMP.xdist | sed 's/ [^ ]*$//'` * 1024 ))
        head $BACKUP_DIR/$ORG_FILE -c $HEAD_SIZE > $FILE.01
        tail $BACKUP_DIR/$ORG_FILE -c +$(( $HEAD_SIZE + 1 )) | split -b $(( $CAPACITY * 1024 )) - TMP.split.
        SPLIT_NO=2
        for SPLIT in `ls -1 TMP.split.*`; do
            DST_FILE=`printf "$ORG_FILE.%02i" $SPLIT_NO`
            DST=`grep $DST_FILE TMP.xdist | sed 's#^[ 0-9]*##'`
            mv $SPLIT $DST
            : $[ SPLIT_NO += 1 ];
        done
    done

    # create self-check files...
    cat << EOT

I can now generate check scripts for each volume that can later be used to
verify the integrity of all files. This is e.g. useful if, in a couple of
years, you want to know whether your backup media are still readable.
Then simply mount your media and type '. check_these_files.sh' inside the
media's main directory.

EOT
    read -p "Create self-check scripts? [Y/n] " ANSWER
    if [[ "$ANSWER" != "n" ]]; then
        echo
        echo "Creating self-check scripts..."
        for DISK in data-??; do
            echo "  $DISK"
            cd $DISK

            DST_FILE="check_these_files.sh"
            rm -f $DST_FILE
            FILES=`find . -follow -type f`
            echo "#!/bin/sh" > $DST_FILE
            echo >> $DST_FILE
            echo "echo \"This script has been auto-generated by backup2l v$VER.\"" >> $DST_FILE
            echo "echo \"Verifying file(s) using md5sum(1)...\"" >> $DST_FILE
            echo >> $DST_FILE
            echo "md5sum -c << EOF" >> $DST_FILE
            md5sum $FILES >> $DST_FILE
            echo "EOF" >> $DST_FILE

            cd ..
        done
    fi

    # create CD labels
    if which cdlabelgen > /dev/null; then
      echo
      echo "Creating CD labels..."
      read -p "  Enter CD title [Backup]: " ANSWER
      if [[ "$ANSWER" == "" ]]; then
          ANSWER="Backup"
      fi
      if [ -r /usr/share/cdlabelgen/penguin.eps ]; then
          TRAYPIC="-e /usr/share/cdlabelgen/penguin.eps -S 0.5"
      else
          TRAYPIC=""
      fi
      for DISK in data-??; do
          DISK_NO=${DISK#data-}
          echo -e "\nContents\n========\n" > contents-$DISK_NO.txt
          grep $DISK TMP.xdist | sed -e 's#^.*/##' -e 's#\.list\.gz# - control files#' \
              | grep -vE "$CTRL_EXPR" >> contents-$DISK_NO.txt
          cdlabelgen -c "$ANSWER" -s "${DISK_NO#0} of $LAST_DISK" -d `date -I` \
              -f contents-$DISK_NO.txt $TRAYPIC -o cd-cover-$DISK_NO.ps
      done
    fi

    # clean up
    rm -f TMP.xdist
}





##################################################
# Usage & banner


banner ()
{
    echo backup2l v$VER by Gundolf Kiefer
    echo
}


usage ()
{
    banner
    cat << EOF
Usage: backup2l [-c <conffile>] [-t <BID>] <command>
Where
    -c | --conf <conffile>         : specifies configuration file [/etc/backup2l.conf]
    -t | --time <BID>              : specifies backup ID as a point-in-time for --locate and --restore

  <command>:
    -h | --help                    : Help
    -b | --backup [<level>]        : Create new backup
    -e | --estimate [<level>]      : Like -b, but nothing is really done
    -s | --get-summary             : Show backup summary

    -a | --get-available <pattern> : Show all files in all backups containing <pattern> in their path names
    -l | --locate [<pattern>]      : Show most recent backup location of all active files matching <pattern>
    -r | --restore [<pattern>]     : Restore active files matching <pattern> into current directory

    -p | --purge <BID-list>        : Remove the specified backup archive(s) and all depending backups

    -v | --verify [<BID-list>]     : Verify the specified / all backup archive(s)
    -m | --make-check [<BID-list>] : Create md5 checksum file for the specified archive(s) / wherever missing

    -x | --extract <volume size> <max free> <BID-list> :
                                     Split and collect files to be stored on removable media (e. g. CDs)

EOF
    echo "Built-in archive drivers:" $BUILTIN_DRIVER_LIST
    if [ "$USER_DRIVER_LIST" != "" ]; then
        echo "User-defined drivers:    " $USER_DRIVER_LIST
    fi
}





##################################################
# Main


shopt -s nullglob
shopt -s extglob
unset LANG LC_ALL LC_COLLATE # otherwise: unpredictable sort order in sort, ls


# Set defaults...
CREATE_DRIVER="DRIVER_TAR_GZ"  # works with last stable version 1.01

# Read & validate setup...
CONF_FILE="/etc/backup2l.conf"
if [ "$1" = "-c" -o "$1" = "--conf" ]; then
    shift
    CONF_FILE=$1
    shift
fi
if [ -f "$CONF_FILE" ]; then
    . $CONF_FILE
else
  echo "Could not open configuration file '$CONF_FILE'. Aborting."
  exit 3
fi

if [ "$UNCONFIGURED" = "1" ]; then
    banner
    echo -e "The configuration file '$CONF_FILE' has to be edited before using ${0##*/}.\n"
    echo -e "For help, look into the comments or read the man page.\n"
    exit 3
fi
if [ "$VOLNAME" = "" -o "$SRCLIST" = "" -o "${SKIPCOND[*]}" = "" -o "$BACKUP_DIR" = "" -o \
     "$MAX_LEVEL" = "" -o "$MAX_PER_LEVEL" = "" -o "$MAX_FULL" = "" ]; then
    echo "ERROR: The configuration file '$CONF_FILE' is missing or incomplete."
    exit 3
fi

if [ "$FOR_VERSION" = "" ]; then
    FOR_VERSION="0.9"
fi
if [[ "$FOR_VERSION" < "1.1" || "$FOR_VERSION" > "${VER%-*}" ]]; then
    banner
    cat << EOF
The configuration file '$CONF_FILE' seems to be written for
version $FOR_VERSION and may be incompatible with this version of backup2l.

The following variables have been added, removed or their syntax may have
changed. Details can be found in first_time.conf and the man page.

  1.1 : CREATE_DRIVER, USER_DRIVER_LIST
  0.93: POST_BACKUP
  0.91: SRCLIST, SKIPCOND, FOR_VERSION

If you think your configuration file is correct, please change the value
of FOR_VERSION.
EOF
    exit 3
fi
TMP="TMP.$VOLNAME"

# Read time point if given
if [ "$1" = "-t" -o "$1" = "--time" ]; then
    shift
    BID=${1#$VOLNAME.}
    shift
else
    BID="head"
fi

# Go ahead...
case $1 in
    -h | --help)
        usage
        ;;
    -e | --estimate)
        banner
        show_backup_estimates "$2"
        ;;
    -b | --backup)
        banner
        do_backup "$2"
        ;;
    -s | --get-summary)
        banner
        mount_dev
        show_summary
        ;;
    -a | --get-available)
        banner 1>&2
        shift
        show_availability "$@"
        ;;
    -l | --locate)
        banner 1>&2
        shift
        show_location $BID "$@"
        ;;
    -r | --restore)
        banner
        shift
        do_restore $BID "$@"
        ;;
    -p | --purge)
        banner
        shift
        do_purge "$@"
        ;;
    -v | --verify)
        banner
        shift
        do_check "$@"
        ;;
    -m | --make-check)
        banner
        shift
        do_create_check "$@"
        ;;
    -x | --extract)
        banner
        shift
        if [[ "$3" == "" ]]; then
            usage
        else
            do_external "$@"
        fi
        ;;
    *)
        if [ "$AUTORUN" = "1" ]; then
            banner
            do_backup
        else
            usage
        fi
        ;;
esac

# Unmount backup device if it was mounted
cd /            # avoid "device is busy" during unmount
umount_dev