File: CHANGES

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bash 2.05a-11
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This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05a-release,
and the previous version, bash-2.05a-rc1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fixed the `printf' builtin so that the variable name supplied as an
    argument to a %n conversion must be a valid shell identifier.

b.  Improved the random number generator slightly.

c.  Changes to configuration to not put -I/usr/include into $CFLAGS, since
    it messes up some includes.

d.  Corrected description of POSIXLY_CORRECT in man page and info manual.

e.  Fixed a couple of cases of incorrect function prototypes that sneaked
    through and caused compilation problems.

f.  A few changes to avoid potential core dumps in the programmable completion
    code.

g.  Fixed a configure problem that could cause a non-existent file to show
    up in LIBOBJS.

h.  Fixed a configure problem that could cause siglist.o to not be built when
    required.

i.  Changes to the strtoimax and strtoumax replacement functions to work
    around buggy compilers.

j.  Fixed a problem with the snprintf replacement function that could
    potentially cause a core dump.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  Fixed a locale-specific problem in the vi-mode `goto mark' command.

b.  Fixed Makefile to not put -I/usr/include into CFLAGS, since it can cause
    include file problems.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05a-rc1,
and the previous version, bash-2.05a-beta1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fixed the snprintf replacement to correctly implement the `alternate form'
    of the %g and %G conversions.

b.  Fixed snprintf to correctly handle the optional precision with the %g and
    %G conversions.

c.  Fixed the arithmetic evaluation code to correct the values of `@' and `_'
    when translating base-64 constants (they were backwards).

d.  New library functions for formatting long and long long ints.

e.  Fixed a few places where negative array subscripts could have occurred,
    mostly as the result of systems using signed characters.

f.  Fixed a few places that assumed a pid_t was no wider than an int.

g.  Fixed the `maildir' mail checking code to work on systems where a
    `struct stat' doesn't include an `st_blocks' member.

h.  Fixed snprintf to make `unsigned long long' conversion formats (%llu)
    work better.

i.  Fixed snprintf to not print a sign when asked to do an unsigned conversion.

j.  Made configure changes to avoid compiling empty source files in lib/sh.

k.  New replacement functions (if necessary) for strtoull, strtoll, strtoimax,
    strtoumax.

l.  The `printf' builtin now handles the `ll' and `j' length modifiers
    directly, since they can affect the type and width of the argument
    passed to printf(3).

m.  Renamed a number of the bash-specific autoconf macros in aclocal.m4 to
    have more sytematic naming, with accompanying changes to configure.in.

n.  Fixed snprintf to handle long doubles and the %a/%A conversions by
    falling back to sprintf, as long as sprintf supports them.

o.  Fixed return value from vsnprintf/snprintf to be the number of characters
    that would have been printed, even if that number exceeds the buffer
    size passed as an argument.

p.  Bash no longer attempts to define its own versions of some ctype macros
    if they are implemented as functions in libc but not as macros in
    <ctype.h>.

q.  Changed the variable printing code (used by `set', `export', etc.) to
    not use the $'...' syntax when in posix mode, since that caused
    interoperability problems with other shells (most notably with autoconf).
    When not in posix mode, it uses $'...' if the string to be printed
    contains non-printing characters and regular single quotes otherwise.

r.  snprintf now recognizes the %F conversion.

s.  Fixed a bug that could cause the wrong status to be returned by a shell
    function when the shell is compiled without job control and a null
    command containing a command substutition was executed in the function.

t.  When in posix mode, the default value for MAILCHECK is 600.

u.  Bash only initializes FUNCNAME, GROUPS, and DIRSTACK as special variables
    if they're not in the initial environment.

v.  If SECONDS appears in the initial environment with a valid integer value,
    bash uses that as the starting value, as if an assignment had been
    performed.

w.  Bash no longer auto-exports HOME, PATH, SHELL, or TERM, even though it
    gives them default values if they don't appear in the initial environment.

x.  Bash no longer auto-exports HOSTNAME, HOSTTYPE, MACHTYPE, or OSTYPE,
    even if it assigns them default values.

y.  Bash no longer removes the export attribute from SSH_CLIENT or SSH2_CLIENT
    if they appear in the initial environment.

z.  Bash no longer attempts to discover if it's being run by sshd in order to
    run the startup files.  If the SSH_SOURCE_BASHRC is uncommented in
    config-top.h it will attempt to do so as previously, but that's commented
    out in the distributed version.

aa. Fixed a typo in the code that tests for LC_NUMERIC.

bb. The POSIXLY_CORRECT shell variable and its effects are now documented.

cc. Some changes to several of the support shell scripts included in the
    definitions to try to avoid race conditions and attacks.

dd. Several changes to avoid warnings from `gcc -Wall'.

ee. Fixed a problem with the `unset' builtin that could cause incorrect
    results if asked to unset a variable and an array subscript in the
    same command.

ff. A few changes to the shell's temporary file creation code to avoid
    potential file descriptor leaks and to prefer the system's idea of
    the temporary directory to use.

gg. Fixes to build with the C alloca in lib/malloc/alloca.c if the system
    requires it but the shell has been configured --without-bash-malloc.

hh. Updated the documentation to note that only interactive shells resend
    SIGHUP to all jobs before exiting.

ii. Fixes to only pass unquoted tilde words to tilde_expand, rather than
    rely on tilde_expand or getpwnam(3) to handle the quotes (MacOS 10.x
    will remove backslashes in any login name passed to getpwnam(3)).

jj. Small change from Paul Eggert to make LINENO right in commands run with
    `bash -c'.

2.  New Features in Bash

a.  The `printf' builtin now handles the %a and %A conversions if they're
    implemented by printf(3).

b.  The `printf' builtin now handles the %F conversion (just about like %f).

c.  The `printf' builtin now handles the %n conversion like printf(3).  The
    corresponding argument is the name of a shell variable to which the
    value is assigned.

3.  Changes to Readline

a.  Fixed a few places where negative array subscripts could have occurred.

b.  Fixed the vi-mode code to use a better method to determine the bounds of
    the array used to hold the marks.

c.  Fixed the defines in chardefs.h to work better when chars are signed.

d.  Fixed configure.in to use the new names for bash autoconf macros.

e.  Readline no longer attempts to define its own versions of some ctype
    macros if they are implemented as functions in libc but not as macros in
    <ctype.h>.

f.  Fixed a problem where rl_backward could possibly set point to before
    the beginning of the line.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05a-beta1,
and the previous version, bash-2.05a-alpha1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fixed a bug in the evalution of arithmetic `for' statements when the
    expanded expression is NULL.

b.  Fixed an unassigned variable problem in the redirection printing code.

c.  Added more prototypes to extern function declarations in the header
    files and to static function declarations in C source files.

d.  Make sure called functions have a prototype in scope, to get the arguments
    and return values right instead of casting.  Removed extern function
    declarations from C source files that were already included in header
    files.

e.  Changed some function arguments to use function typedefs in general.h so
    the prototypes can be checked.  The only use of Function and VFunction
    now is for unwind-protects.

f.  More const changes to function arguments and appropriate variables.

g.  Changed the mail checking support to handle `maildir'-style mail
    directories.

h.  Augmented the bash malloc to pass in the file and line number information
    for each malloc, realloc, and free.  This should result in better error
    messages.

i.  The `old' gnu malloc is no longer a configuration option.

j.  Augmented the bash malloc with optional tracing and registering allocated
    and freed memory.

k.  Prompt string decoding now saves and restores the value of $? when it
    expands the prompt string, so command substitutions don't change $?.

i.  Array indices are now `long', since shell arithmetic is performed as long,
    and the internal arrayind_t type is used consistently.

j.  Some more `unsigned char *' fixes from Paul Eggert.

k.  Fixed a bad call to builtin_error that could cause core dumps when making
    local variables.

l.  `return' may no longer be used to terminate a `select' command, for
    compatibility with ksh.

m.  Changed code that reads octal numbers to do a better job of detecting
    overflows.

n.  The time formatting code no longer uses absolute indices into a buffer,
    because the buffer size changes depending on the size of a `time_t'.

o.  `umask' now prints four digits when printing in octal mode, for
    compatibility with other shells.

p.  Lots of changes to the `printf' builtin from Paul Eggert:  it handles `L'
    formats and long doubles better, and internal functions have been
    simpified where appropriate.

q.  Some `time_t' fixes for machines were a time_t is bigger than a long.

r.  Replaced some bash-specific autoconf macros with standard equivalents.

s.  Improvmed the code that constructs temporary filenames to make the
    generated names a bit more random.

t.  Added code that checks for ascii before calling any of the is* ctype
    functions.

u.  Changed some places where a `char' was used as an array subscript to use
    `unsigned char', since a `char' can be negative if it's signed by default.

v.  Lots of changes to the `ulimit' builtin from Paul Eggert to add support
    for the new POSIX-200x RLIM_SAVED_CUR and RLIM_SAVED_MAX values and
    simplify the code.

w.  `ulimit' now prints the description of a resource in any error message
    relating to fetching or setting that resource's limits.

x.  The `snprintf' replacement now computes maximum values at compile
    time rather than using huge constants for things like long long.

y.  Interactive shells now ignore `set -n'.

z.  Changed the malloc bookkeeping information so that it's now 8 bytes
    instead of 12 on most 32-bit machines (saving 4 bytes per allocation),
    restoring 8-byte alignment.

aa. The malloc error reporting code now attempts to print the file and line
    number of the call that caused the error.

bb. Changed the redirection error reporting code to catch EBADF errors and
    report the file descriptor number rather than the file being redirected
    to or from (e.g., things like `exec 4242<x' where 4242 is an out-of-range
    file descriptor).

cc. `printf', `echo -e', and the $'...' code now process only two hex digits
    after a `\x' escape sequence for compatibility with other shells, and
    the documentation was changed to note that the octal and hex escape
    sequences result in an eight-bit value rather than strict ASCII.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  The completion code now attempts to do a better job of preserving the
    case of the word the user typed if ignoring case in completions.

b.  Readline defaults to not echoing the input and lets the terminal
    initialization code enable echoing if there is a controlling terminal.

c.  The key binding code now processes only two hex digits after a `\x'
    escape sequence, and the documentation was changed to note that the
    octal and hex escape sequences result in an eight-bit value rather
    than strict ASCII.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  The builtin `ulimit' now takes two new non-numeric arguments:  `hard',
    meaning the current hard limit, and `soft', meaning the current soft
    limit, in addition to `unlimited'

b.  `ulimit' now prints the option letter associated with a particular
    resource when printing more than one limit.

c.  `ulimit' prints `hard' or `soft' when a value is not `unlimited' but is
    one of RLIM_SAVED_MAX or RLIM_SAVED_CUR, respectively.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  New bindable variable `history-preserve-point'.  If set, the history
    code attempts to place the user at the same location on each history
    line retrived with previous-history or next-history.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05a-alpha1,
and the previous version, bash-2.05-release.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Better checks in the redirection code for write errors.

b.  bashbug now uses $TMPDIR, defaulting to /tmp, and uses mktemp(1) more
    portably.

c.  System-specific configuration changes for:  Interix, OpenBSD, FreeBSD,
    MacOS X.

d.  Some more `const' cleanups through the code.

e.  Fixed a typo in the /dev/fd redirection code, better checks for valid
    numeric fds in /dev/fd.

f.  Fixed many parts of the shell to handle integer overflow more gracefully
    and to do more stringent checks for valid numbers.

g.  Fixed mksignames to include config.h.

h.  Fixed an uninitialized variable problem that could cause the shell to core
    dump when replacing characters in a string.

i.  New mechanism for updating the patch level when official patches are
    released (patchlevel.h).

j.  configure.in changed to no longer require external files _distribution and
    _patchlevel.

k.  Fixed non-interactive shell initialization problem when bash started as
    `bash -i filename'.

l.  Fixed printf builtin conversion error handling to be POSIX.2-conformant.

m.  autoconf-2.52 is now used to build configure; autoconf-2.50 or newer is
    required.  Some of the bash-specific macros were removed, since they are
    now standard.

n.  Startup files and files read with source or `.' are no longer required to
    be regular files.

o.  Fixed core dump in builtin printf when user-supplied precision or field
    width is 0.

p.  Fixed builtin printf to treat a negative field width as a positive field
    width with left-justification.

r.  New unwind-protect implementation from Paul Eggert.

s.  Fixed an inadvertently-unclosed comment in the bash completion code that
    caused programmable completions to not add trailing slashes or spaces to
    completions.

t.  Fixed the process substitution code to cope better when stdin is closed.

v.  Fixes, mostly from Paul Eggert, for a few possible buffer overflows in
    the shell.

w.  Fixes from Paul Eggert to avoid most of the type casts in the shell code,
    and use more appropriate types for a number of variables.

x.  Command substition no longer inherits the DEBUG trap.

y.  Some fixes to the process substition code on machines without /dev/fd so
    that named pipes are not removed inappropriately.

z.  The loadable `getconf' builtin is now much more complete, and will become
    part of the shell in the future.

aa. The select command no longer terminates on a `return', so it can be used
    to return from an enclosing function (as ksh does it).

bb. Fixed the extended pattern matching code to behave better when presented
    with incorrectly-formed patterns.

cc. Some changes were made with the intent of making cross-compilation easier.

dd. The network code (/dev/tcp and /dev/udp redirections) uses getaddrinfo(3)
    if it's available, which adds support for IPv6.

ee. Subshells of login shells no longer source ~/.bash_logout when they exit.

ff. Fixes so that subshells don't exit inappropriately if the -e option has
    been set.

gg. Restricted shells no longer allow functions to be exported.

hh. Changes to the pattern matching code so extended pattern matching works
    on systems with deficient shared library implementations, like MacOS X.

ii. Better error messages when a script with a leading `#!interp' fails
    to execute because of problems with `interp'.

jj. Fixed `compgen' to handle the `-o default' option better.

kk. Fixed the job control code to force an asynchronous process's standard
    input to /dev/null only if job control is not active.

ll. Fixed a possible infinite recursion problem when `fc ""=abc' (a null
    pattern) is used to re-execute a previous command.

mm. Fixed `declare [-a] var=value' to assign VALUE to element 0 if VAR is an
    array variable.  Similarly for `declare [-a] var[N]=value'.  This is like
    ksh93.

nn. Fixed a bug that caused `read -a aname' to work even if ANAME had been
    declared readonly.

oo. Fixed a possible integer overflow problem when constructing names for
    temporary files.

2.  New Features in Bash

a.  Added support for DESTDIR installation root prefix, so you can do a
    `make install DESTDIR=bash-root' and do easier binary packaging.

b.  Added support for builtin printf "'" flag character as per latest POSIX
    drafts.

c.  Support for POSIX.2 printf(1) length specifiers `j', `t', and `z' (from
    ISO C99).

d.  New autoconf macro, RL_LIB_READLINE_VERSION, for use by other applications
    (bash doesn't use very much of what it returns).

e.  `set [-+]o nolog' is recognized as required by the latest POSIX drafts,
    but ignored.

f.  New read-only `shopt' option:  login_shell.  Set to non-zero value if the
    shell is a login shell.

g.  New `\A' prompt string escape sequence; expands to time in 24 HH:MM format.

h.  New `-A group/-g' option to complete and compgen; does group name
    completion.

i.  New `-t' option to `hash' to list hash values for each filename argument.

j.  New [-+]O invocation option to set and unset `shopt' options at startup.

k.  configure's `--with-installed-readline' option now takes an optional
    `=PATH' suffix to set the root of the tree where readline is installed
    to PATH.

l.  The ksh-like `ERR' trap has been added.  The `ERR' trap will be run
    whenever the shell would have exited if the -e option were enabled.
    It is not inherited by shell functions.

m.  `readonly', `export', and `declare' now print variables which have been
    given attributes but not set by assigning a value as just a command and
    a variable name (like `export foo') when listing, as the latest POSIX
    drafts require.

n.  `bashbug' now requires that the subject be changed from the default.

o.  configure has a new `--enable-largefile' option, like other GNU utilities.

p.  `for' loops now allow empty word lists after `in', like the latest POSIX
    drafts require.

3.  Changes to Readline

a.  More `const' and type casting fixes.

b.  Changed rl_message() to use vsnprintf(3) (if available) to fix buffer
    overflow problems.

c.  The completion code no longer appends a `/' or ` ' to a match when
    completing a symbolic link that resolves to a directory name, unless
    the match does not add anything to the word being completed.  This
    means that a tab will complete the word up to the full name, but not
    add anything, and a subsequent tab will add a slash.

d.  Fixed a trivial typo that made the vi-mode `dT' command not work.

e.  Fixed the tty code so that ^S and ^Q can be inserted with rl_quoted_insert.

f.  Fixed the tty code so that ^V works more than once.

g.  Changed the use of __P((...)) for function prototypes to PARAMS((...))
    because the use of __P in typedefs conflicted g++ and glibc.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  Added extern declaration for rl_get_termcap to readline.h, making it a
    public function (it was always there, just not in readline.h).

b.  New #defines in readline.h:  RL_READLINE_VERSION, currently 0x0402,
    RL_VERSION_MAJOR, currently 4, and RL_VERSION_MINOR, currently 2.

c.  New readline variable:  rl_readline_version, mirrors RL_READLINE_VERSION.

d.  New bindable boolean readline variable:  match-hidden-files.  Controls
    completion of files beginning with a `.' (on Unix).  Enabled by default.

e.  The history expansion code now allows any character to terminate a
    `:first-' modifier, like csh.

f.  The incremental search code remembers the last search string and uses
    it if ^R^R is typed without a search string.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05-release,
and the previous version, bash-2.05-beta2.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Make sure we note that the first line of a multi-line command was not
    saved in the history if the tests for HISTCONTROL succeed, but the
    HISTIGNORE check fails.

b.  Fixed a bug in the pattern matching code that caused `[' to be treated
    as a special character inside a `[...]' bracket expression.

c.  Fixed a bug in the pattern matching code that caused `]' to terminate
    a bracket expression even if it was the first character after the `['
    (or a leading `!' or `^').

d.  Made a small change to report a more user-friendly error message if
    execve(2) fails because of an error with the interpreter in a script
    with a leading `#! interpreter'.

e.  If the OS does not support an exec(2) magic number of `#!', make sure we
    have a non-null interpreter name before attempting to execute it.

f.  Fixed a bug that caused the shell process to end up in a different
    process group than the controlling terminal if a job-control shell was
    run with `exec' in the startup files.

g.  When started in POSIX mode, either by `bash --posix', `bash -o posix', or
    `sh', $SHELLOPTS includes `posix' and POSIXLY_CORRECT is set.

h.  Fixed a problem that caused the `\W' prompt string escape sequence to
    expand to nothing when $PWD was `//'.

i.  The `bashbug' shell script no longer uses $(...) command substitution.

j.  When `set' is invoked without options in POSIX mode, it no longer prints
    the names and definitions of shell functions.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  rl_set_paren_blink_timeout() is now documented.

b.  Corrected history.3 man page: `$' is not in the default value of
    history_word_delimiters.

c.  If a hook function assigned to rl_event_hook sets rl_done to a non-zero
    value, rl_read_key() now immediately returns '\n' (which is assumed to
    be bound to accept-line).

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  The `>&word' redirection now works in POSIX mode as it does by default,
    since POSIX.2 leaves it unspecified.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05-beta2,
and the previous version, bash-2.05-beta1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fixed a bug in the arithmetic evaluation code so that a^=b is supported.

b.  Fixed startup so posixly_correct is retained across subshells begun to
    execute scripts without a leading `#!'.

c.  Fixed a bug that caused $(< file) to not work in a (...) subshell.

d.  Added config support for Linux running on the IBM S390.

e.  Fixed a bug that caused bash to get its input pointer out of sync when
    reading commands through a pipe and running a command with standard
    input redirected from a file.

f.  Made a change so that command completion now makes about half as many
    stat(2) calls when searching the $PATH.

g.  Fixed a bug that caused variable assignments preceding `return' to not
    be propagated to the shell environment in POSIX mode.

h.  Fixed a bug with ${parameter[:]?word} -- tilde expansion was not performed
    on `word'.

i.  In POSIX mode, `break' and `continue' do not complain and return success
    if called when the shell is not executing a loop.

j.  Fixed `bash -o posix' to work the same as `bash --posix'.

k.  Fixed a bug where variable assignments preceding `eval' or `source/.'
    would not show up in the environment exported to subshells run by the
    commands.

l.  In POSIX mode, shells started to execute command substitutions inherit
    the value of the `-e' option from their parent shell.

m.  In POSIX mode, aliases are expanded even in non-interactive shells.

n.  Changed some of the job control messages to display the text required by
    POSIX.2 when the shell is in POSIX mode.

o.  Fixed a bug in `test' that caused it to occasionally return incorrect
    results when non-numeric arguments were supplied to `-t'.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  Some changes were made to avoid gcc warnings with -Wall.

b.  rl_get_keymap_by_name now finds keymaps case-insensitively, so
    `set keymap EMACS' works.

c.  The history file writing and truncation functions now return a useful
    status on error.

d.  Fixed a bug that could cause applications to dereference a NULL pointer
    if a NULL second argument was passed to history_expand().

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  doc/readline.3 has been moved to the readline distribution.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  New function, rl_get_screen_size (int *rows, int *columns), returns
    readline's idea of the screen dimensions.

b.  The timeout in rl_gather_tyi (readline keyboard input polling function)
    is now settable via a function (rl_set_keyboard_input_timeout()).

c.  Renamed the max_input_history variable to history_max_entries; the old
    variable is maintained for backwards compatibility.

d.  The list of characters that separate words for the history tokenizer is
    now settable with a variable:  history_word_delimiters.  The default
    value is as before.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05-beta1,
and the previous version, bash-2.05-alpha1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Changes to allow shared library and object building on the GNU Hurd.

b.  Fixes to the way exported functions are placed into the environment and
    cached.

c.  The globbing library once again respects locales when processing ranges
    in bracket expressions while doing pattern matching.

d.  System-specific configuration changes for:  Tru 64, Interix

e.  Bashbug now uses /usr/bin/editor as one of the editing alternatives, and
    will use mktemp(1) or tempfile(1), if present, for temporary file creation.

f.  Bash no longer performs a binary file check on a script argument that's
    really a tty (like /dev/fd/0 or /dev/stdin).

g.  Fixed a bug in the execution of shell scripts that caused the effects of
    $BASH_ENV to be undone in some cases.

h.  Fixed several bugs that made `bash [-i] /dev/stdin' not work correctly.

i.  Several changes to the job control code to avoid some signal state
    manipulation.

j.  The Bash malloc no longer blocks signals as often, which should make it
    faster.

k.  Fixed a parsing bug that did not allow backslash to escape a single quote
    inside a $'...' construct.

l.  Fixed a bug that caused things like ${var:=$'value'} to be parsed
    incorrectly.  This showed up in newer versions of autoconf.

m.  Fixed a bug in the bash-specific readline initialization that caused
    key bindings to bash-specific function names appearing in .inputrc to
    not be honored.

n.  Bash now sets the file descriptor it uses to save the file descriptor
    opened on a shell script to close on exec.

o.  Fixed a bug in the prompt string decoding that caused it to misbehave
    when presented an octal sequence of fewer than three characters.

p.  Fixed the `test' builtin to return an error if `[' is supplied a single
    argument that is not `]'.

q.  Fixed a bug that caused subshells started to run executable shell scripts
    without a leading `#!' to incorrectly inherit an argument list preceding
    a shell builtin (like such a script called from a script sourced with `.',
    where there were variable assignments preceding the `.' command)

r.  Fixed a bug that caused changes to variables supplied in an assignment
    statement preceding a shell builtin to not be honored (like a script
    run with `.').

s.  HOSTTYPE, OSTYPE, and MACHTYPE are set only if they do not have values
    when the shell is started.

t.  Fixed a bug that caused SIGINT to kill shell scripts after the script
    called `wait'.

u.  The `fc' builtin now tries to create its temporary files in the directory
    named by $TMPDIR.

v.  Bash no longer calls any Readline functions or uses any Readline variables
    not declared in readline.h.

w.  Fixed a bug that caused some substitutions involving $@ to not be split
    correctly, especially expansions of the form ${paramterOPword}.

x.  SSH2_CLIENT is now treated like SSH_CLIENT and not auto-exported if it
    appears in the initial environment.

y.  Fixed a couple of problems with shell scripts without a leading `#!'
    being executed out of shell functions that could cause core dumps if
    such a script attempted to execute `return'.

z.  Fixed a problem with the `-nt' and `-ot' binary operators for the
    `test/[' builtin and the `[[' conditional command that caused wrong
    return values if one of the file arguments did not exist.

aa. Fixed a bug that caused non-interactive shells which had previously
    executed `shopt -s expand_aliases' to fail to expand aliases in a
    command like `(command) &'.
 
2.  Changes to Readline

a.  Changes to make most (but not yet all -- there is still crlf()) of the
    exported readline functions declared in readline.h have an rl_ prefix.

b.  More `const' changes in function arguments, mostly for completion
    functions.

c.  Fixed a bug in rl_forward that could cause the point to be set to before
    the beginning of the line in vi mode.

d.  Fixed a bug in the callback read-char interface to make it work when a
    readline function pushes some input onto the input stream with
    rl_execute_next (like the incremental search functions).

e.  Fixed a file descriptor leak in the history file manipulation code that
    was tripped when attempting to truncate a non-regular file (like
    /dev/null).

f.  Some existing variables are now documented and part of the public
    interface (declared in readline.h):  rl_explict_arg, rl_numeric_arg,
    rl_editing_mode, rl_last_func.

g.  Renamed rltty_set_default_bindings to rl_tty_set_default_bindings and
    crlf to rl_crlf, so there are no public functions declared in readline.h
    without an `rl_' prefix.  The old functions still exist for backwards
    compatibility.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  A new loadable builtin, realpath, which canonicalizes and expands symlinks
    in pathname arguments.

b.  When `set' is called without options, it prints function defintions in a
    way that allows them to be reused as input.  This affects `declare' and
    `declare -p' as well.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  New application-callable function rl_set_prompt(const char *prompt):
    expands its prompt string argument and sets rl_prompt to the result.

b.  New application-callable function rl_set_screen_size(int rows, int cols):
    public method for applications to set readline's idea of the screen
    dimensions.

c.  The history example program (examples/histexamp.c) is now built as one
    of the examples.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.05-alpha1,
and the previous version, bash-2.04-release.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  A fix was made to allow newlines in compond array assignments.

b.  configure now checks for real-time signals with unusable values.

c.  Interactive shells no longer exit if a substitution fails because of an
    unset variable within a sourced file.

d.  Fixed a problem with incorrect matching of extended glob patterns when
    doing pattern substitution.

e.  `{' is now quoted by the completion code when it appears in a filename.

f.  Fixed an error in pattern matching that caused the matcher to not
    correctly skip the rest of a bracket expression after a character
    matched.

g.  Fixed a bug in the IFS word splitting code to make a non-whitespace IFS
    character preceded by IFS whitespace part of the current delimiter rather
    than generating a separate field.

h.  The {!prefix@} expansion now generates separate words, analogous to $@,
    when double-quoted.

i.  Command substitution now ignores NUL bytes in the command output, and the
    parser ignores them on input.

j.  A fix was made to the job control code to prevent hanging processes when
    the shell thinks background processes are running but the kernel returns
    -1/ECHILD from waitpid().

k.  `pwd' now prints an error message if the write fails when displaying the
    current directory.

l.  When in POSIX mode, the shell prints trap dispostions without a leading
    `SIG' in the signal specification.

m.  Fixed a parser bug that caused the current command's line count to be
    messed up by a compound array assignment.

n.  Fixed a bug in the unwind-protect code that caused bad behavior on machines
    where ints and pointers are not the same size.

o.  System-specific configure changes for:  MacOS X.

p.  Changes for Cygwin to translate \r\n and \r to \n and to set file
    descriptors used for reading input to text mode in various places.

q.  Fixed a bug that caused `!' to occasionally not be honored when in
    a (...) subshell.

r.  Bash no longer assumes that getcwd() will return any useful error message
    in the buffer passed as an argument if the call fails.

s.  The `source', `.', and `fc' builtins no longer check whether a file is
    binary before reading commands from it.

t.  Subshells no longer turn off job control when they exit, since that
    sometimes resulted in the terminal being reset to the wrong process
    group.

u.  The history code no longer tries to save the second and subsequent lines
    of a multi-line command if the first line was not saved.

v.  The history saving code now does a better job of saving blank lines in a
    multi-line command.

w.  Removed a `feature' that made `ulimit' silently translate `unlimited' to
    the current hard limit, which obscured some kernel error returns.

x.  Fixed the grammar so that `}' is recognized as a reserved word after
    another reserved word, rather than requiring a `;' or newline.  This
    means that constructs like

	{ { echo a b c ; } }

    work as expected.

y.  Conditional commands ([[...]]) now perform tilde expansion on their
    arguments.

z.  Noted in the documentation that `set -a' will cause functions to be
    exported if they are defined after `set -a' is executed.

aa. When an interactive login shell starts, if $PWD and $HOME refer to the
    same directory but are not the same string, $PWD is set to $HOME.

bb. Fixed `printf' to handle invalid floating point numbers better.

cc. Temporary files are now created with random filenames, to improve security.

dd. The readline initialization code now binds the custom bash functions and
    key bindings after the readline defaults are set up.

ee. Fixed the `source' builtin to no longer overwrite a shell function's
    argument list, even if the sourced file changes the positional parameters.

ff. A bug fix was made in the expansion of `$*' in contexts where it should
    not be split, like assignment statements.

gg. Fixed a bug in the parameter substring expansion to handle conditional
    arithmetic expressions ( exp ? val1 : val2 ) without cutting the expression
    off at the wrong `:'.

hh. The `<>' redirection is no longer subject to the current setting of
    `noclobber', as POSIX.2 specifies.

ii. Fixed a bug in the conditional command parsing code that caused expressions
    in parentheses to occasionally be parsed incorrectly.

jj. Fixed a bug in the ((...)) arithmetic command to allow do...done or
    {...} to follow the )) without an intervening list terminator.

kk. `printf' now treats `\E' the same as `\e' when performing backslash escape
    expansion for the `%b' format specifier.

ll. When in POSIX mode, the shell no longer searches the current directory for
    a file to be sourced with `.' or `source' if `.' is not in $PATH.

mm. Interactive comments are no longer turned off when POSIX mode is disabled.

nn. The UID, EUID, HOSTNAME variables are not set if they are in the shell's
    environment when it starts up.

oo. Fixed a bug in the `command' builtin so the effect of a command like
    `command exec 4<file' is as if the `command' had been omitted.

pp. ${foo[@]} and ${foo[*]} now work as in ksh93 if `foo' is not an array
    variable.

qq. ${#foo[X]}, where X is 0, @, or *, now work as in ksh93 if `foo' is not
    an array variable.

rr. The shell's idea of an absolute pathname now takes into account a
    possible drive specification on Cygwin and other Windows systems.

ss. Fixed a bug which caused incorrect parsing of some multi-character
    constructs if they were split across input lines with backslash-newline
    line continuation.

tt. Fixed a bug that caused restricted shell mode to be set inappropriately
    when trying to execute a shell script without a leading `#!'.

uu. Shell function definitions no longer require that the body be a group
    command ( {...} ), as POSIX.2 requires.

vv. The `cd' and `pwd' builtins now process symlinks in pathnames internally
    and should require many fewer calls to getcwd().

ww. Fixed a bug that caused a pipeline's process group to be set incorrectly
    if one of the pipeline elements contained a command substitution.

xx. Fixed a bug that caused core dumps when expanding the value of HISTIGNORE.

yy. The output of `set' is now quoted using $'...' so invisible characters are
    displayed as escape sequences.

zz. Fixed the help text for `unset', since PATH and IFS may both be unset.

aaa. The shell no longer puts directory names into the command hash table.

bbb. Fixed a bug in `read' that caused it to occasionally free memory twice if
     it was interrupted after reading a large amount of data.

ccc. Assignment statements that attempt to assign values to readonly variables
     now cause the command to return an error status.

ddd. Fixed a bug that could cause incorrect output if a $(<file) construct was
     interrupted.

eee. GROUPS and FUNCNAME now return an error status when assignment is
     attempted, but may be unset (in which case they lose their special
     properties).  In all respects except unsetting, they are readonly.

fff. The string-to-integer conversion code now ignores trailing whitespace in
     the string, even if strtol(3) does not.

ggg. The tcsh magic-space function now does a better job of inserting the
     space close to where the point was before the history expansion, rather
     than just appending it.

hhh. Fixed a bug which caused a file sourced from an interactive shell to
     fill up the jobs table if it ran lots of jobs.

iii. Fixed a bug in the parameter pattern substitution code to avoid infinite
     recursion on zero-length matches.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  When setting the terminal attributes on systems using `struct termio',
    readline waits for output to drain before changing the attributes.

b.  A fix was made to the history word tokenization code to avoid attempts to
    dereference a null pointer.

c.  Readline now defaults rl_terminal_name to $TERM if the calling application
    has left it unset, and tries to initialize with the resultant value.

d.  Instead of calling (*rl_getc_function)() directly to get input in certain
    places, readline now calls rl_read_key() consistently.

e.  Fixed a bug in the completion code that allowed a backslash to quote a
    single quote inside a single-quoted string.

f.  rl_prompt is no longer assigned directly from the argument to readline(),
    but uses memory allocated by readline.  This allows constant strings to
    be passed to readline without problems arising when the prompt processing
    code wants to modify the string.

g.  Fixed a bug that caused non-interactive history searches to return the
    wrong line when performing multiple searches backward for the same string.

h.  Many variables, function arguments, and function return values are now
    declared `const' where appropriate, to improve behavior when linking with
    C++ code.

i.  The control character detection code now works better on systems where
    `char' is unsigned by default.

j.  The vi-mode numeric argument is now capped at 999999, just like emacs mode.

k.  The Function, CPFunction, CPPFunction, and VFunction typedefs have been
    replaced with a set of specific prototyped typedefs, though they are
    still in the readline header files for backwards compatibility.

m.  Nearly all of the (undocumented) internal global variables in the library
    now have an _rl_ prefix -- there were a number that did not, like
    screenheight, screenwidth, alphabetic, etc.

n.  The ding() convenience function has been renamed to rl_ding(), though the
    old function is still defined for backwards compatibility.

o.  The completion convenience functions filename_completion_function,
    username_completion_function, and completion_matches now have an rl_
    prefix, though the old names are still defined for backwards compatibility.

p.  The functions shared by readline and bash (linkage is satisfied from bash
    when compiling with bash, and internally otherwise) now have an sh_ prefix.

q.  Changed the shared library creation procedure on Linux and BSD/OS 4.x so
    that the `soname' contains only the major version number rather than the
    major and minor numbers.

r.  Fixed a redisplay bug that occurred when the prompt spanned more than one
    physical line and contained invisible characters.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  Added a new `--init-file' invocation argument as a synonym for `--rcfile',
    per the new GNU coding standards.

b.  The /dev/tcp and /dev/udp redirections now accept service names as well as
    port numbers.

c.  `complete' and `compgen' now take a `-o value' option, which controls some
    of the aspects of that compspec.  Valid values are:

	default - perform bash default completion if programmable
		  completion produces no matches
	dirnames - perform directory name completion if programmable
		   completion produces no matches
	filenames - tell readline that the compspec produces filenames,
		    so it can do things like append slashes to
		    directory names and suppress trailing spaces

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  The blink timeout for paren matching is now settable by applications.

b.  _rl_executing_macro has been renamed to rl_executing_macro, which means
    it's now part of the public interface.

c.  Readline has a new variable, rl_readline_state, which is a bitmap that
    encapsulates the current state of the library; intended for use by
    callbacks and hook functions.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.04-release,
and the previous version, bash-2.04-beta5.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Better compile-time and configure-time checks for the necessity of
    inet_aton().

b.  A bug was fixed in the expansion of "${@:-}" when there are positional
    parameters.

c.  A typo was fixed in the output of `complete'.

d.  The matches generated for a word by the `-W' argument to complete and
    compgen are now matched against the word being completed, and only
    matches are returned as the result.

e.  Some fixes were made for systems which do not restart read(2) when a
    signal caught by bash is received.

f.  A bug was fixed which caused the umask to be set to 0 when an invalid
    symbolic mode mask was parsed.

g.  Fixed a bug that could cause a core dump if a SIGCHLD was received while
    performing an assignment statement using command substitution.

h.  Changed the word splitting function for programmable completion so cases
    in which the cursor is between words are handled a bit better.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  rl_funmap_names() is now documented.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  The LC_NUMERIC variable is now treated specially, and used to set the
    LC_NUMERIC locale category for number formatting, e.g., when `printf'
    displays floating-point numbers.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.04-beta5,
and the previous version, bash-2.04-beta4.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  A couple of changes were made to the Makefiles for easier building on
    non-Unix systems.

b.  Fixed a bug where the current prompt would be set to $PS2 at startup.

c.  The shell script that tests an already-installed version was changed to
    remove the directory it created its test programs in at exit.

d.  Several changes were made to the code that tokenizes an input line for
    the programmable completion code.  Shell metacharacters will now appear
    as individual words in the word list passed to the completion functions.
    Some of the example completion shell functions were changed to understand
    redirection operators.

e.  A bug was fixed that, under obscure circumstances, could confuse the
    parser when a shell function was run by the programmable completion code.

f.  A bug was fixed in the ulimit builtin for systems not using getrlimit().

g.  The execution code now propagates the correct exit status back to the rest
    of the code if the return value of a subshell command was being inverted.
    Some new test cases for inverting return values with the `!' reserved
    word have been added.

h.  Negative exponents in the arithmetic evaluation of v**e now return an
    evaluation error.

i.  A bug that caused bash to check the wrong process in a pipeline for
    abnormal termination (and consequently resetting the terminal attributes)
    was fixed.

j.  Fixed a bug that caused $PS2 to be displayed after PROMPT_COMMAND was
    executed.

2.  Changes to Readline

1.  Fixed a bug in a C preprocessor define that caused the keypad control
    functions to be compiled out for all platforms except DJGPP.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.04-beta4,
and the previous version, bash-2.04-beta3.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  A couple of changes were made to the redirection to attempt to avoid
    race conditions and malicious file replacement.

2.  A change was made to the string evaluation code (used for command 
    substitution, `eval', and the `.' builtin) to fix an obscure core
    dump on alpha machines.

3.  A bug that caused $LINENO to be wrong when executing arithmetic for
    commands was fixed.

4.  A couple of memory leaks in the programmable completion code were fixed.

5.  A bug that could cause a core dump by freeing memory twice during a call
    to `eval' if `set -u' had been enabled and an undefined variable was
    referenced was fixed.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.04-beta3,
and the previous version, bash-2.04-beta2.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Bash should run the appropriate startup files when invoked by ssh2.

b.  Fixed a bug in the parsing of conditional commands that could cause a
    core dump.

c.  Fixed a bug in parsing job specifications that occasionally caused
    core dumps when an out-of-range job was referenced.

d.  Fixed the `type' and `command' builtins to do better reporting of
    commands that are not found in $PATH or the hash table.

e.  Fixed a POSIX.2 compliance problem in the command builtin -- commands
    are supposed to be reported as full pathnames.

f.  The `echo' builtin now returns failure if a write error occurs.

g.  Fixed a bug which caused the locale to not be reset correctly when
    LC_ALL was unset.

h.  Changed description of `getopts' in man page and reference manual to make
    it clear that option characters may be characters other than letters.

i.  If the shell exits while in a function, make sure that any trap on EXIT
    doesn't think the function is still executing.

j.  Bashbug now tries harder to find a usable editor if $EDITOR is not set,
    rather than simply defaulting to `emacs'.

k.  Changes to the scripts that guess and canonicalize the system type, from
    the latest `automake' distribution via Debian.

l.  When using named pipes for process substitution, make sure the file
    descriptors opened for reading are set to non-blocking mode.

m.  Fixed a bug that caused termination of pipelines that are killed by a
    signal to not be reported in some cases.

n.  When not in literal-history mode, shell comment lines are not added to
    the history list.

o.  When running in POSIX.2 mode, bash no longer performs word splitting on
    the expanded value of the word supplied as the filename argument to
    redirection operators.

p.  The prompt string decoding code now backslash-quotes only characters that
    are special within double quotes when expanding the \w and \W escape
    sequences.

q.  Fixed a bug in the prompt decoding code that could cause a non-interactive
    shell to seg fault if `\u' was used in PS4 and the shell was in xtrace
    mode.

r.  Fixed a bug that caused function definitions to be printed with any
    redirections that should be attached to the entire function before the
    closing brace.

s.  Changed the tilde expansion code for Cygwin systems to avoid creating
    pathnames beginning with `//' if $HOME == `/'.

t.  Fixed a couple of autoconf tests to avoid creating files with fixed names
    in /tmp.

u.  The `trap' and `kill' builtins now know the names of the POSIX.1b real-
    time signals on systems which support them.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  Fixed a problem with the single-quote quoting function that could cause
    buffer overflows.

b.  Fixed a bug that caused incorrect `stat characters' to be printed if
    the files being completed were in the root directory and visible-stats
    was enabled.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  There is a new `rbash.1' manual page, from the Debian release.

b.  The `--enable-usg-echo-default' option to `configure' has been renamed to
    `--enable-xpg-echo-default'.  The old option is still there for backwards
    compatibility.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.04-beta2,
and the previous version, bash-2.04-beta1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fixed a bug that could cause pipes to be closed inappropriately in
    some obscure cases.

b.  Fixed a bug that caused creation of the exported environment to clobber
    the current command string if there were any exported shell functions.

c.  Some changes were made to reduce bash's memory usage.

d.  Fixed a problem with programmable completion and filenames to be
    completed containing quote characters.

e.  Changed the code the removes named pipes created for the <(...) and >(...)
    expansions to defer removal until after any current shell function has
    finished executing.

f.  Fixed a bug in `select' which caused it to not handle the `continue'
    builtin correctly.

g.  Autoconf tests added for cygwin32 and mingw32.

2.  New Features in Bash

a.  The `--with-bash-malloc' configure option replaces `--with-gnu-malloc'
    (which is still there for backwards compatibility).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.04-beta1,
and the previous version, bash-2.04-alpha1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fixed a bug in the programmable completion code that occurred when
    trying to complete command lines containing a `;' or `@'.

b.  The file descriptor from which the shell is reading a script is now
    moved to a file descriptor above the user-addressible range.

c.  Changes to `printf' so that it can handle integers beginning with 0
    or 0x as octal and hex, respectively.

d.  Fixes to the programmable completion code so it handles nonsense like
    `compgen -C xyz' gracefully.

e.  The shell no longer modifies the signal handler for SIGPROF, allowing
    profiling again on certain systems.

f.  The shell checks for a new window size, if the user has requested it,
    after a process exits due to a signal.

g.  Fixed a bug with variables with null values in a program's temporary
    environment and the bash getenv() replacement.

h.  `declare' and the other builtins that take variable assignments as
    arguments now honor `set -a' and mark modified variables for export.

i.  Some changes were made for --dump-po-strings mode when writing strings
    with embedded newlines.

j.  The code that caches export strings from the initial environment now
    duplicates the string rather than just pointing into the environment.

k.  The filename completion quoting code now uses single quotes by default
    if the filename being completed contains newlines, since \<newline>
    has a special meaning to the parser.

l.  Bash now uses typedefs bits32_t and u_bits32_t instead of int32_t and
    u_int32_t, respectively to avoid conflicts on certain Unix versions.

m.  Configuration changes were made for: Rhapsody, Mac OS, FreeBSD-3.x.

n.  Fixed a problem with hostname-to-ip-address translation in the
    /dev/(tcp|udp)/hostname/port redirection code.

o.  The texinfo manual has been reorganized slightly.

p.  Filename generation (globbing) range comparisons in bracket expressions
    no longer use strcoll(3) even if it is available, since it has unwanted
    effects in certain locales.

q.  Fixed a cosmetic problem in the source that caused the shell to not
    compile if DPAREN_ARITHMETIC was not defined but ARITH_FOR_COMMAND was.

r.  Fixed a bug in the here-document code tripped when the file descriptor
    opened to the file containing the text of the here document was the
    same as a redirector specified by the user.

s.  Fixed a bug where the INVERT_RETURN flag was not being set for `pipeline'
    in `time ! pipeline'.

t.  Fixed a bug with the `wait' builtin which manifested itself when an
    interrupt was received while the shell was waiting for asynchronous
    processes in a shell script.

u.  Fixed the DEBUG trap code so that it has the correct value of $?.

v.  Fixed a bug in the parameter pattern substitution code that could cause
    the shell to attempt to free unallocated memory if the pattern started
    with `/' and an expansion error occurs.

w.  Fixed a bug in the positional parameter substring code that could
    cause the shell to loop freeing freed memory.

x.  Fixed a bug in the positional parameter pattern substitution code so
    that it correctly handles null replacement strings with a pattern
    string prefixed with `%' or `#'.

y.  The shell no longer attempts to import functions from the environment if
    started with `-n'.

z.  Fixed a bug that caused `return' in a command substitution executed in
    a shell function to return from the function in a subshell and continue
    execution.

aa. `hash -p /pathname/with/slashes name' is no longer allowed when the shell
    is restricted.

bb. The wait* job control functions now behave better if called when there
    are no unwaited-for children.

cc. Command substitution no longer unconditionally disables job control in
    the subshell started to run the command.

dd. A bug was fixed that occasionally caused traps to mess up the parser
    state.

ee. `bashbug' now honors user headers in the mail message it sends.

ff. A bug was fixed that caused the `:p' history modifier to not print the
    history expansion if the `histverify' option was set.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  Fixed a bug in the redisplay code for lines with more than 256 line
    breaks.

b.  A bug was fixed which caused invisible character markers to not be
    stripped from the prompt string if the terminal was in no-echo mode.

c.  Readline no longer tries to get the variables it needs for redisplay
    from the termcap entry if the calling application has specified its
    own redisplay function.  Readline treats the terminal as `dumb' in
    this case.

d.  Fixes to the SIGWINCH code so that a multiple-line prompt with escape
    sequences is redrawn correctly.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  `bashbug' now accepts `--help' and `--version' options.

b.  There is a new `xpg_echo' option to `shopt' that controls the behavior
    of echo with respect to backslash-escaped characters at runtime.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.04-alpha1,
and the previous version, bash-2.04-devel.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fixed a bug that could cause core dumps when performing substring
    expansion.

b.  Shared object configuration changes for:  Solaris, OSF/1

c.  The POSIX_GLOB_LIBRARY code that uses the POSIX.2 globbing facilities
    for pathname expansion now understands GLOBIGNORE.

d.  The code that implements `eval' was changed to save the value of the
    current prompt, so an eval in a shell function called by the programmable
    completion code will not change the prompt to $PS2.

e.  Restored the undocumented NON_INTERACTIVE_LOGIN_SHELLS #define to
    config-top.h.  If this is defined, all login shells will read the
    startup files, not just interactive and non-interactive started with
    the `--login' option.

f.  Fixed a bug that caused the expansion code to occasionally dump core if
    IFS contained characters > 128.

g.  Fixed a problem with the grammar so that a newline is not required
    after the `))' in the new-style arithmetic for statement; a semicolon
    may be used as expected.

h.  Variable indirection may now reference the shell's special variables.

i.  The $'...' and $"..." constructs are now added to the history correctly
    if they contain newlines and command-oriented history is enabled.

j.  It is now an error to try to assign a value to a function-local copy
    of a readonly shell variable (declared with the `local' builtin).

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  The history file code now uses O_BINARY mode when reading and writing
    the history file on cygwin32.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  A new programmable completion facility, with two new builtin commands:
    complete and compgen.

b.  configure has a new option, `--enable-progcomp', to compile in the
    programmable completion features (enabled by default).

c.  `shopt' has a new option, `progcomp', to enable and disable programmable
    completion at runtime.

d.  Unsetting HOSTFILE now clears the list of hostnames used for completion.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  A new variable, rl_gnu_readline_p, always 1.  The intent is that an
    application can verify whether or not it is linked with the `real'
    readline library or some substitute.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.04-devel,
and the previous version, bash-2.03-release.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  System-specific configuration and source changes for:  Interix, Rhapsody

b.  Fixed a bug in execute_cmd.c that resulted in a compile-time error if
    JOB_CONTROL was not defined.

c.  An obscure race condition in the trap code was fixed.

d.  The string resulting from $'...' is now requoted to avoid any further
    expansion.

e.  The $'...' quoting syntax now allows backslash to escape a single quote,
    for ksh-93 compatibility.

f.  The $"..." quoting syntax now escapes backslashes and double quotes in
    the translated string when displaying them with the --dump-po-strings
    option.

g.  `echo -e' no longer converts \' to '.

h.  Fixes were made to the extended globbing code to handle embedded (...)
    patterns better.

i.  Some improvements were made to the code that unsets `nodelay' mode on
    the file descriptor from which bash is reading input.

j.  Some changes were made to the replacement termcap library for better
    operation on MS-DOS.

k.  Some changes were made to the tilde expansion code to handle backslash
    as a pathname separator on MS-DOS.

l.  The source has been reorganized a little bit -- there is now an `include'
    subdirectory, and lib/posixheaders has been removed.

m.  Improvements were made to the `read' builtin so that it makes many
    fewer read(2) system calls.

n.  The expansion of $- will include `c' and `s' when those options are
    supplied at shell invocation.

o.  Several improvments were made to the completion code:  variable completion
    now works better when there are unterminated expansions, command
    completion understands quotes better, and completion now works in certain
    unclosed $(... constructs.

p.  The arithmetic expansion code was fixed to not need the value of a
    variable being assigned a value (fixes the "ss=09; let ss=10" bug).

q.  Some changes were made to make exported environment creation faster.

r.  The html documentation will be installed into $(htmldir) if that variable
    has a value when `make install' is run.

s.  Fixed a bug that would cause the bashrc file to be sourced inappropriately
    when bash is started by sshd.

t.  The SSH_CLIENT environment variable is no longer auto-exported.

u.  A bug that caused redirections with (...) subshells to be performed in
    the wrong order was fixed.

v.  A bug that occasionally caused inappropriate expansion of assignment
    statements in compound array assignments was fixed.

w.  The code that parses the words in a compound array assignment was
    simplified considerably and should work better now.

x.  Fixes to the non-job-control code in nojobs.c to make it POSIX.2-compliant
    when a user attempts to retrieve the status of a terminated background
    process.

y.  Fixes to the `printf' builtin so that it doesn't try to expand all
    backslash escape sequences in the format string before parsing it for
    % format specifiers.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  The history library tries to truncate the history file only if it is a
    regular file.

b.  A bug that caused _rl_dispatch to address negative array indices on
    systems with signed chars was fixed.

c.  rl-yank-nth-arg now leaves the history position the same as when it was
    called.

d.  Changes to the completion code to handle MS-DOS drive-letter:pathname
    filenames.

e.  Completion is now case-insensitive by default on MS-DOS.

f.  Fixes to the history file manipulation code for MS-DOS.

g.  Readline attempts to bind the arrow keys to appropriate defaults on MS-DOS.

h.  Some fixes were made to the redisplay code for better operation on MS-DOS.

i.  The quoted-insert code will now insert tty special chars like ^C.

j.  A bug was fixed that caused the display code to reference memory before
    the start of the prompt string.

k.  More support for __EMX__ (OS/2).

l.  A bug was fixed in readline's signal handling that could cause infinite
    recursion in signal handlers.

m.  A bug was fixed that caused the point to be less than zero when rl_forward
    was given a very large numeric argument.

n.  The vi-mode code now gets characters via the application-settable value
    of rl_getc_function rather than calling rl_getc directly.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  The history builtin has a `-d offset' option to delete the history entry
    at position `offset'.

b.  The prompt expansion code has two new escape sequences: \j, the number of
    active jobs; and \l, the basename of the shell's tty device name.

c.  The `bind' builtin has a new `-x' option to bind key sequences to shell
    commands.

d.  There is a new shell option, no_empty_command_completion, which, when
    enabled, disables command completion when TAB is typed on an empty line.

e.  The `help' builtin has a `-s' option to just print a builtin's usage
    synopsys.

f.  There are several new arithmetic operators:  id++, id-- (variable
    post-increment/decrement), ++id, --id (variabl pre-increment/decrement),
    expr1 , expr2 (comma operator).

g.  There is a new ksh-93 style arithmetic for command:
	for ((expr1 ; expr2; expr3 )); do list; done

h.  The `read' builtin has a number of new options:
	-t timeout	only wait timeout seconds for input
	-n nchars	only read nchars from input instead of a full line
	-d delim	read until delim rather than newline
	-s		don't echo input chars as they are read

i.  The redirection code now handles several filenames specially:
    /dev/fd/N, /dev/stdin, /dev/stdout, and /dev/stderr, whether or
    not they are present in the file system.

j.  The redirection code now recognizes pathnames of the form
    /dev/tcp/host/port and /dev/udp/host/port, and tries to open a socket
    of the appropriate type to the specified port on the specified host.

k.  The ksh-93 ${!prefix*} expansion, which expands to the names of all
    shell variables whose names start with prefix, has been implemented.

l.  There is a new dynamic variable, FUNCNAME, which expands to the name of
    a currently-executing function.  Assignments to FUNCNAME have no effect.

m.  The GROUPS variable is no longer readonly; assignments to it are silently
    discarded.  This means it can be unset.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  Parentheses matching is now always compiled into readline, and enabled
    or disabled when the value of the `blink-matching-paren' variable is
    changed.

b.  MS-DOS systems now use ~/_inputrc as the last-ditch inputrc filename.

c.  MS-DOS systems now use ~/_history as the default history file.

d.  history-search-{forward,backward} now leave the point at the end of the
    line when the string to search for is empty, like
    {reverse,forward}-search-history.

e.  history-search-{forward,backward} now leave the last history line found
    in the readline buffer if the second or subsequent search fails.

f.  New function for use by applications:  rl_on_new_line_with_prompt, used
    when an application displays the prompt itself before calling readline().

g.  New variable for use by applications:  rl_already_prompted.  An application
    that displays the prompt itself before calling readline() must set this to
    a non-zero value.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.03-release,
and the previous version, bash-2.03-beta2.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  A file descriptor leak in the `fc' builtin was fixed.

b.  A bug was fixed in the `read' builtin that caused occasional spurious
    failures when using `read -e'.

c.  The version code needed to use the value of the cpp variable
    CONF_MACHTYPE rather than MACHTYPE.

d.  A new test was added to exercise the command printing and copying code.

e.  A bug was fixed that caused `time' to be recognized as a reserved word
    if it was the first pattern in a `case' statement pattern list.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.03-beta2,
and the previous version, bash-2.03-beta1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Slight additions to support/shobj-conf, mostly for the benefit of AIX 4.2.

b.  config.{guess,sub} support added for the NEC SX4.

c.  Changed some of the cross-compiling sections of the configure macros in
    aclocal.m4 so that configure won't abort.

d.  Slight changes to how the HTML versions of the bash and readline manuals
    are generated.

e.  Fixed conditional command printing to avoid interpreting printf `%'-escapes
    in arguments to [[.

f.  Don't include the bash malloc on all variants of the alpha processor.

g.  Changes to configure to make --enable-profiling work on Solaris 2.x.

h.  Fixed a bug that manifested itself when shell functions were called
    between calls to `getopts'.

i.  Fixed pattern substitution so that a bare `#'as a pattern causes the
    replacement string to be prefixed to the search string, and a bare
    `%' causes the replacement string to be appended to the search string.

j.  Fixed a bug in the command execution code that caused child processes
    to occasionally have the wrong value for $!.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  Added code to the history library to catch history substitutions using
    `&' without a previous history substitution or search having been
    performed.

3.  New Features in Bash

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  New bindable variable: `isearch-terminators'.

b.  New bindable function: `forward-backward-delete-char' (unbound by default).

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.03-beta1,
and the previous version, bash-2.03-alpha.
    
1.  Changes to Bash

a.  A change was made to the help text for `{...}' to make it clear that a
    semicolon is required before the closing brace.

b.  A fix was made to the `test' builtin so that syntax errors cause test
    to return an exit status > 1.

c.  Globbing is no longer performed on assignment statements that appear as
    arguments to `assignment builtins' such as `export'.

d.  System-specific configuration changes were made for:  Rhapsody,
    AIX 4.2/gcc, BSD/OS 4.0.

e.  New loadable builtins: ln, unlink.

f.  Some fixes were made to the globbing code to handle extended glob patterns
    which immediately follow a `*'.

g.  A fix was made to the command printing code to ensure that redirections
    following compound commands have a space separating them from the rest
    of the command.

h.  The pathname canonicalization code was changed to produce fewer leading
    `//' sequences, since those are interpreted as network file system
    pathnames on some systems.

i.  A fix was made so that loops containing `eval' commands in commands passed
    to `bash -c' would not exit prematurely.

j.  Some changes were made to the job reaping code when the shell is not
    interactive, so the shell will retain exit statuses longer for examination
    by `wait'.

k.  A fix was made so that `jobs | command' works again.

l.  The erroneous compound array assignment var=((...)) is now a syntax error.

m.  A change was made to the dynamic loading code in `enable' to support
    Tenon's MachTen.

n.  A fix was made to the globbing code so that extended globbing patterns
    will correctly match `.' in a bracket expression.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  A fix was made to the completion code in which a typo caused the wrong
    value to be passed to the function that computed the longest common
    prefix of the list of matches.

b.  The completion code now checks the value of rl_filename_completion_desired,
    which is set by application-supplied completion functions to indicate
    that filename completion is being performed, to decide whether or not to
    call an application-supplied `ignore completions' function.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  A change was made to the startup file code so that any shell begun with
    the `--login' option, even non-interactive shells, will source the login
    shell startup files.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  A new variable, rl_erase_empty_line, which, if set by an application using
    readline, will cause readline to erase, prompt and all, lines on which the
    only thing typed was a newline.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.03-alpha,
and the previous version, bash-2.02.1-release.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  System-specific configuration changes were made for: Irix 6.x, Unixware 7.

b.  The texi2dvi and texi2html scripts were updated to the latest versions
    from the net.

c.  The configure tests that determine which native type is 32 bits were
    changed to not require a compiled program.

d.  Fixed a bug in shell_execve that could cause memory to be freed twice
    after a failed exec.

e.  The `printf' test uses `diff -a' if it's available to prevent confusion
    due to the non-ascii output.

f.  Shared object configuration is now performed by a shell script,
    support/shobj-conf, which generates values to be substituted into
    makefiles by configure.

g.  Some changes were made to `ulimit' to avoid the use of RLIM_INVALID as a
    return value.

h.  Changes were made to `ulimit' to work around HPUX 9.x's peculiar
    handling of RLIMIT_FILESIZE.

i.  Some new loadable builtins were added: id, printenv, sync, whoami, push,
    mkdir.  `pushd', `popd', and `dirs' can now be built as regular or
    loadable builtins from the same source file.

j.  Changes were made to `printf' to handle NUL bytes in the expanded format
    string.

k.  The various `make clean' Makefile targets now descend into lib/sh.

l.  The `type' builtin was changed to use the internal `getopt' so that things
    like `type -ap' work as expected.

m.  There is a new configuration option, --with-installed-readline, to link
    bash with a locally-installed version of readline.  Only readline version
    4.0 and later releases can support this.  Shared and static libraries
    are supported.  The installed include files are used.

n.  There is a new autoconf macro used to find which basic type is 64 bits.

o.  Dynamic linking and loadable builtins should now work on SCO 3.2v5*,
    AIX 4.2 with gcc, Unixware 7, and many other systems using gcc, where
    the `-shared' options works correctly.

p.  A bug was fixed in the bash filename completion code that caused memory to
    be freed twice if a directory name containing an unset variable was
    completed and the -u option was set.

q.  The prompt expansion code now quotes the `$' in the `\$' expansion so it
    is not processed by subsequent parameter expansion.

r.  Fixed a parsing bug that caused a single or double quote after a `$$' to
    trigger ANSI C expansion or locale translation.

s.  Fixed a bug in the globbing code that caused quoted filenames containing
    no globbing characters to sometimes be incorrectly expanded.

t.  Changes to the default prompt strings if prompt string decoding is not
    compiled into the shell.

u.  Added `do', `then', `else', `{', and `(' to the list of keywords that may
    precede the `time' reserved word.

v.  The shell may now be cross-built for BeOS as well as cygwin32.

w.  The conditional command execution code now treats `=' the same as `=='
    for deciding when to perform pattern matching.

x.  The `-e' option no longer causes the shell to exit if a command exits
    with a non-zero status while running the startup files.

y.  The `printf' builtin no longer dumps core if a modifier is supplied in
    the format string without a conversion character (e.g. `%h').

z.  Array assignments of the form a=(...) no longer show up in the history
    list.

aa. The parser was fixed to obey the POSIX.2 rules for finding the closing
    `}' in a ${...} expression.

bb. The history file is now opened with mode 0600 rather than 0666, so bash
    no longer relies on the user's umask being set appropriately.

cc. Setting LANG no longer causes LC_ALL to be assigned a value; bash now
    relies on proper behavior from the C library.

dd. Minor changes were made to allow quoted variable expansions using
    ${...} to be completed correctly if there is no closing `"'.

ee. Changes were made to builtins/Makefile.in so that configuring the shell
    with `--enable-profiling' works right and builtins/mkbuiltins is
    generated.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  The version number is now 4.0.

b.  There is no longer any #ifdef SHELL code in the source files.

c.  Some changes were made to the key binding code to fix memory leaks and
    better support Win32 systems.

d.  Fixed a silly typo in the paren matching code -- it's microseconds, not
    milliseconds.

e.  The readline library should be compilable by C++ compilers.

f.  The readline.h public header file now includes function prototypes for
    all readline functions, and some changes were made to fix errors in the
    source files uncovered by the use of prototypes.

g.  The maximum numeric argument is now clamped at 1000000.

h.  Fixes to rl_yank_last_arg to make it behave better.

i.  Fixed a bug in the display code that caused core dumps if the prompt
    string length exceeded 1024 characters.

j.  The menu completion code was fixed to properly insert a single completion
    if there is only one match.

k.  A bug was fixed that caused the display code to improperly display tabs
    after newlines.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  New `shopt' option, `restricted_shell', indicating whether or not the
    shell was started in restricted mode, for use in startup files.

b.  Filename generation is now performed on the words between ( and ) in
    array assignments (which it probably should have done all along).

c.  OLDPWD is now auto-exported, as POSIX.2 seems to require.

d.  ENV and BASH_ENV are read-only variables in a restricted shell.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  Many changes to the signal handling:
	o Readline now catches SIGQUIT and cleans up the tty before returning;
	o A new variable, rl_catch_signals, is available to application writers 
	  to indicate to readline whether or not it should install its own
	  signal handlers for SIGINT, SIGTERM, SIGQUIT, SIGALRM, SIGTSTP,
	  SIGTTIN, and SIGTTOU;
	o A new variable, rl_catch_sigwinch, is available to application
	  writers to indicate to readline whether or not it should install its
	  own signal handler for SIGWINCH, which will chain to the calling
	  applications's SIGWINCH handler, if one is installed;
	o There is a new function, rl_free_line_state, for application signal
	  handlers to call to free up the state associated with the current
	  line after receiving a signal;
	o There is a new function, rl_cleanup_after_signal, to clean up the
	  display and terminal state after receiving a signal;
	o There is a new function, rl_reset_after_signal, to reinitialize the
	  terminal and display state after an application signal handler
	  returns and readline continues

b.  There is a new function, rl_resize_terminal, to reset readline's idea of
    the screen size after a SIGWINCH.

c.  New public functions: rl_save_prompt and rl_restore_prompt.  These were
    previously private functions with a `_' prefix.

d.  New function hook: rl_pre_input_hook, called just before readline starts
    reading input, after initialization.

e.  New function hook: rl_display_matches_hook, called when readline would
    display the list of completion matches.  The new function
    rl_display_match_list is what readline uses internally, and is available
    for use by application functions called via this hook.

f.  New bindable function, delete-char-or-list, like tcsh.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.02.1-release,
and the previous version, bash-2.02-release.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  A bug that caused the bash readline support to not compile unless aliases
    and csh-style history were configured into the shell was fixed.

b.  Fixed a bug that could cause a core dump when here documents contained
    more than 1000 characters.

c.  Fixed a bug that caused a CDPATH entry of "" to not be treated the same
    as the current directory when in POSIX mode.

d.  Fixed an alignment problem with the memory returned by the bash malloc,
    so returned memory is now 64-bit aligned.

e.  Fixed a bug that caused command substitutions executed within pipelines
    to put the terminal in the wrong process group.

f.  Fixes to support/config.sub for: alphas, SCO Open Server and Open Desktop,
    Unixware 2, and Unixware 7.

g.  Fixes to the pattern matching code to make it work correctly for eight-bit
    characters.

h.  Fixed a problem that occasionally caused the shell to display the wrong
    value for the new working directory when changing to a directory found
    in $CDPATH when in physical mode.

i.  Fixed a bug that caused core dumps when using conditional commands in
    shell functions.

j.  Fixed a bug that caused the printf builtin to loop forever if the format
    string did not consume any of the arguments.

k.  Fixed a bug in the parameter expansion code that caused "$@" to be
    incorrectly split if $IFS did not contain a space character.

l.  Fixed a bug that could cause a core dump when completing hostnames if
    the number of matching hostnames was an exact multiple of 16.

m.  Fixed a bug that caused the shell to fork too early when a command
    such as `%2 &' was given.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  Fixed a problem with redisplay that showed up when the prompt string was
    longer than the screen width and the prompt contained invisible characters.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.02-release,
and the previous version, bash-2.02-beta2.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  A bug was fixed that caused the terminal process group to be set
    incorrectly when performing command substitution of builtins in a
    pipeline.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.02-beta2,
and the previous version, bash-2.02-beta1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Attempting to `wait' for stopped jobs now generates a warning message.

b.  Pipelines which exit due to SIGPIPE in non-interactive shells are now
    not reported if the shell is compiled -DDONT_REPORT_SIGPIPE.

c.  Some changes were made to builtins/psize.sh and support/bashbug.sh to
    attempt to avoid some /tmp file races and surreptitious file
    substitutions.

d.  Fixed a bug that caused the shell not to compile if configured with
    dparen arithmetic but without aliases.

e.  Fixed a bug that caused the input stream to be switched when assigning
    empty arrays with `bash -c'.

f.  A bug was fixed in the readline expansion glue code that caused bash to
    dump core when expanding lines with an unclosed single quote.

g.  A fix was made to the `cd' builtin so that using a non-empty directory
    from $CDPATH results in an absolute pathname of the new current working
    directory to be displayed after the current directory is changed.

h.  Fixed a bug in the variable assignment code that caused the shell to
    dump core when referencing an unset variable with `set -u' enabled in
    an assignment statement preceding a command.

i.  Fixed a bug in the exit trap code that caused reserved words to not be
    recognized under certain circumstances.

j.  Fixed a bug in the parameter pattern substitution code so that quote
    removal is performed.

k.  The shell should now configure correctly on Apple Rhapsody systems.

l.  The `kill' builtin now prints a usage message if it is not passed any
    arguments.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.02-beta1,
and the previous version, bash-2.02-alpha1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  A few compilation bugs were fixed in the new extended globbing code.

b.  Executing arithmetic commands now sets the command name to `((' so
    error messages look right.

c.  Fixed some build problems with various configuration options.

d.  The `printf' builtin now aborts immediately if an illegal format
    character is encountered.

e.  The code that creates here-documents now behaves better if the file it's
    trying to create already exists for some reason.

f.  Fixed a problem with the extended globbing code that made patterns like
    `x+*' expand incorrectly.

g.  The prompt string expansion code no longer quotes tildes with backslashes.

h.  The bash getcwd() implementation in lib/sh/getcwd.c now behaves better in
    the presence of lstat(2) failures.

i.  Fixed a bug with strsub() that caused core dumps when executing `fc -s'.

j.  The mail checking code now ensures that it has a valid default mailpath.

k.  A bug was fixed that caused local variables to be unset inappropriately
    when sourcing a script from within another sourced script.

l.  A bug was fixed in the history saving code so that functions are saved
    in the history list correctly if `cmdhist' is enabled, but `lithist'
    is not.

m.  A bug was fixed that caused printf overflows when displaying error
    messages.

n.  It should be easier to build the loadble builtins in examples/loadables,
    though some manual editing of the generated Makefile is still required.

o.  The user's primary group is now always ${GROUPS[0]}.

p.  Some updates were made to support/config.guess from the GNU master copy.

q.  Some changes were made to the autoconf support for Solaris 2.6 large
    files.

r.  The `command' builtins now does the right thing when confstr(3) cannot
    find a value for _CS_PATH.

s.  Extended globbing expressions like `*.!(c)' are not history expanded if
    `extglob' is enabled.

t.  Using the `-P' option to `cd' will force the value that is assigned to
    PWD to not contain any symbolic links.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  The code that prints completion listings now behaves better if one or
    more of the filenames contains non-printable characters.

b.  The time delay when showing matching parentheses is now 0.5 seconds.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.02-alpha1,
and the previous version, bash-2.01.1-release.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  OS-specific configuration changes for:  BSD/OS 3.x, Minix 2.x,
    Solaris 2.6, SINIX SVR4.

b.  Changes were made to the generated `info' files so that `install-info'
    works correctly.

c.  PWD is now auto-exported.

d.  A fix was made to the pipeline code to make sure that the shell forks
    to execute simple commands consisting solely of assignment statements.

e.  Changes to the test suite for systems with 14-character filenames.

f.  The default sizes of some internal hash tables have been made smaller
    to reduce the shell's memory footprint.

g.  The `((...))' arithmetic command is now executed directly instead of
    being translated into `let "..."'.

h.  Fixes were made to the expansion code so that "$*", "$@", "${array[@]}",
    and "${array[@]}" expand correctly when IFS does not contain a space
    character, is unset, or is set to NULL.

i.  The indirect expansion code (${!var}) was changed so that the only
    valid values of `var' are variable names, positional parameters, `#',
    `@', and `*'.

j.  An arithmetic expression error in a $((...)) expansion now causes a
    non-interactive shell running in posix mode to exit.

k.  Compound array assignment now splits the words within the parentheses
    on shell metacharacters like the parser would before expansing them
    and performing the assignment.  This is for compatibility with ksh-93.

l.  The internal shell backslash-quoting code (used in the output of `set'
    and completion) now quotes tildes if they appear at the start of the
    string or after a `=' or `:'.

m.  A couple of bugs with `shopt -o' were fixed.

n.  `bash +o' now displays the same output as `set +o' before starting an
    interactive shell.

o.  A bug that caused command substitution and the `eval' builtin to
    occasionally free memory twice when an error was encountered was fixed.

p.  The filename globbing code no longer requires read permission for a
    directory when the filename to be matched does not contain any globbing
    characters, as POSIX.2 specifies.

q.  A bug was fixed so that the job containing the last asynchronous
    process is not removed from the job table until a `wait' is executed
    for that process or another asynchronous process is started.  This
    satisfies a POSIX.2 requirement.

r.  A `select' bug was fixed so that a non-numeric user response is treated
    the same as a numeric response that is out of range.

s.  The shell no longer parses the value of SHELLOPTS from the environment
    if it is restricted, running setuid, or running in `privileged mode'.

t.  Fixes were made to enable large file support on systems such as
    Solaris 2.6, where the size of a file may be larger than can be held
    in an `int'.

u.  The filename hashing code was fixed to not add `./' to the beginning of
    filenames which already begin with `./'.

v.  The configure script was changed so that the GNU termcap library is not
    compiled in if `prefer-curses' has been specified.

w.  HISTCONTROL and HISTIGNORE are no longer applied to the second and
    subsequent lines of a multi-line command.

x.  A fix was made to `disown' so that it does a better job of catching
    out-of-range jobs.

y.  Non-interactive shells no longer report the status of processes terminated
    due to SIGINT, even if the standard output is a terminal.

z.  A bug that caused the output of `jobs' to have extra carriage returns
    was fixed.

aa. A bug that caused PIPESTATUS to not be set when builtins or shell
    functions were executed in the foreground was fixed.

bb. Bash now attempts to detect when it is being run by sshd, and treats
    that case identically to being run by rshd.

cc. A bug that caused `set -a' to export SHELLOPTS when one of the shell
    options was changed was fixed.

dd. The `kill' builtin now disallows empty or missing process id arguments
    instead of treating them as identical to `0', which means the current
    process.

ee. `var=value declare -x var' now behaves identically to
    `var=value export var'.  Similarly for `var=value declare -r var' and
    `var=value readonly var'.

ff. A few memory leaks were fixed.

gg. `alias' and `unalias' now print error messages when passed an argument
    that is not an alias for printing or deletion, even when the shell is
    not interactive, as POSIX.2 specifies.

hh. `alias' and `alias -p' now return a status of 0 when no aliases are
    defined, as POSIX.2 specifes.

ii. `cd -' now prints the pathname of the new working directory if the shell
    is interactive.

jj. A fix was made so that the code that binds $PWD now copes with getcwd()
    returning NULL.

kk. `unset' now checks whether or not a function name it's trying to unset
    is a valid shell identifier only when the shell is running in posix mode.

ll. A change was made to the code that generates filenames for here documents
    to make them less prone to name collisions.

mm. The parser was changed so that `time' is recognized as a reserved word
    only at the beginning of a pipeline.

nn. The pathname canonicalization code was changed so that `//' is converted
    into `/', but all other pathnames beginning with `//' are left alone, as
    POSIX.2 specifies.

oo. The `logout' builtin will no longer exit a non-interactive non-login
    shell.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  Fixed a problem in the readline test program rltest.c that caused a core
    dump.

b.  The code that handles parser directives in inputrc files now displays
    more error messages.

c.  The history expansion code was fixed so that the appearance of the
    history comment character at the beginning of a word inhibits history
    expansion for that word and the rest of the input line.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  A new version of malloc, based on the older GNU malloc, that has many
    changes, is more page-based, is more conservative with memory usage,
    and does not `orphan' large blocks when they are freed.

b.  A new version of gmalloc, based on the old GLIBC malloc, with many
    changes and range checking included by default.

c.  A new implementation of fnmatch(3) that includes full POSIX.2 Basic
    Regular Expression matching, including character classes, collating
    symbols, equivalence classes, and support for case-insensitive pattern
    matching.

d.  ksh-88 egrep-style extended pattern matching ([@+*?!](patlist)) has been
    implemented, controlled by a new `shopt' option, `extglob'.

e.  There is a new ksh-like `[[' compound command, which implements
    extended `test' functionality.

f.  There is a new `printf' builtin, implemented according to the POSIX.2
    specification.

g.  There is a new feature for command substitution: $(< filename) now expands
    to the contents of `filename', with any trailing newlines removed
    (equivalent to $(cat filename)).

h.  There are new tilde prefixes which expand to directories from the
    directory stack.

i.  There is a new `**' arithmetic operator to do exponentiation.

j.  There are new configuration options to control how bash is linked:
    `--enable-profiling', to allow bash to be profiled with gprof, and
    `--enable-static-link', to allow bash to be linked statically.

k.  There is a new configuration option, `--enable-cond-command', which
    controls whether or not the `[[' command is included.  It is on by
    default.

l.  There is a new configuration option, `--enable-extended-glob', which
    controls whether or not the ksh extended globbing feature is included.
    It is enabled by default.

m.  There is a new configuration #define in config.h.top that, when enabled,
    will cause all login shells to source /etc/profile and one of the user-
    specific login shell startup files, whether or not the shell is
    interactive.

n.  There is a new invocation option, `--dump-po-strings', to dump
    a shell script's translatable strings ($"...") in GNU `po' format.

o.  There is a new `shopt' option, `nocaseglob', to enable case-insensitive
    pattern matching when globbing filenames and using the `case' construct.

p.  There is a new `shopt' option, `huponexit', which, when enabled, causes
    the shell to send SIGHUP to all jobs when an interactive login shell
    exits.

q.  `bind' has a new `-u' option, which takes a readline function name as an
    argument and unbinds all key sequences bound to that function in a
    specified keymap.

r.  `disown' now has `-a' and `-r' options, to limit operation to all jobs
    and running jobs, respectively.

s.  The `shopt' `-p' option now causes output to be displayed in a reusable
    format.

t.  `test' has a new `-N' option, which returns true if the filename argument
    has been modified since it was last accessed.

u.  `umask' now has a `-p' option to print output in a reusable format.

v.  A new escape sequence, `\xNNN', has been added to the `echo -e' and $'...'
    translation code.  It expands to the character whose ascii code is NNN
    in hexadecimal.

w.  The prompt string expansion code has a new `\r' escape sequence.

x.  The shell may now be cross-compiled for the CYGWIN32 environment on
    a Unix machine.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  There is now an option for `iterative' yank-last-arg handline, so a user
    can keep entering `M-.', yanking the last argument of successive history
    lines.

b.  New variable, `print-completions-horizontally', which causes completion
    matches to be displayed across the screen (like `ls -x') rather than up
    and down the screen (like `ls').

c.  New variable, `completion-ignore-case', which causes filename completion
    and matching to be performed case-insensitively.

d.  There is a new bindable command, `magic-space', which causes history
    expansion to be performed on the current readline buffer and a space to
    be inserted into the result.

e.  There is a new bindable command, `menu-complete', which enables tcsh-like
    menu completion (successive executions of menu-complete insert a single
    completion match, cycling through the list of possible completions).

f.  There is a new bindable command, `paste-from-clipboard', for use on Win32
    systems, to insert the text from the Win32 clipboard into the editing
    buffer.

g.  The key sequence translation code now understands printf-style backslash
    escape sequences, including \NNN octal escapes.  These escape sequences
    may be used in key sequence definitions or macro values.

h.  An `$include' inputrc file parser directive has been added.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.01.1-release,
and the previous version, bash-2.01-release.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  The select command was fixed to check the validity of the user's
    input more strenuously.

b.  A bug was fixed that prevented `time' from timing commands correctly
    when supplied as an argument to `bash -c'.

c.  A fix was made to the mail checking code to keep from adding the same
    mail file to the list of files to check multiple times when parsing
    $MAILPATH.

d.  Fixed an off-by-one error in the tilde expansion library.

e.  When using the compound array assignment syntax, the old value of
    the array is cleared before assigning the new value.

f.  Fixed a bug that could cause a core dump when a trap handler was reset
    to the default in the trap command associated with that signal.

g.  Fixed a bug in the locale code that occurred when assigning a value
    to LC_ALL.

h.  A change was made to the parser so that words of the form xxx=(...)
    are not considered compound assignment statements unless there are
    characters before the `='.

i.  A fix was made to the command tracing code to correctly quote each
    word of output.

j.  Some changes were made to the bash-specific autoconf tests to make them
    more portable.

k.  Completion of words with globbing characters now correctly quotes the
    result.

l.  The directory /var/spool/mail is now preferred to /usr/spool/mail when
    configure is deciding on the default mail directory.

m.  The brace completion code was fixed to not quote the `{' and `}'.

n.  Some fixes were made to make $RANDOM more random in subshells.

o.  System-specific changes were made to configure for: SVR4.2

p.  Changes were made so that completion of words containing globbing chars
    substitutes the result only if a single filename was matched.

q.  The window size is now recomputed after a job is stopped with SIGTSTP if
    the user has set `checkwinsize' with `shopt'.

r.  When doing substring expansion, out-of-range substring specifiers now
    cause nothing to be substituted rather than an expansion error.

s.  A fix was made so that you can no longer trap `SIGEXIT' or `SIGDEBUG' --
    only `EXIT' and `DEBUG' are accepted.

t.  The display of trapped signals now uses the signal number if signals
    for which bash does not know the name are trapped.

u.  A fix was made so that `bash -r' does not turn on restricted mode until
    after the startup files are executed.

v.  A bug was fixed that occasionally caused a core dump when a variable
    found in the temporary environment of export/declare/readonly had a
    null value.

w.  A bug that occasionally caused unallocated memory to be passed to free()
    when doing arithmetic substitution was fixed.

x.  A bug that caused a buffer overrun when expanding a prompt string
    containing `\w' and ${#PWD} exceeded PATH_MAX was fixed.

y.  A problem with the completion code that occasionally caused it to
    refer to a character before the beginning of the readline line buffer
    was fixed.

z.  A bug was fixed so that the `read' builtin restarts reads when
    interrupted by signals other than SIGINT.

aa. Fixed a bug that caused a command to be freed twice when there was
    an evaluation error in the `eval' command.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  Added a missing `extern' to a declaration in readline.h that kept
    readline from compiling cleanly on some systems.

b.  The history file is now opened with mode 0600 when it is written for
    better security.

c.  Changes were made to the SIGWINCH handling code so that prompt redisplay
    is done better.

d.  ^G now interrupts incremental searches correctly.

e.  A bug that caused a core dump when the set of characters to be quoted
    when completing words was empty was fixed.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.01-release,
and the previous version, bash-2.01-beta2.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  The `distclean' target should remove the `printenv' executable if it
    has been created.

b.  The test suite was changed slightly to ensure that the error messages
    are printed in English.

c.  A bug that caused the shell to dump core when a filename containing a
    `/' was passed to `hash' was fixed.

d.  Pathname canonicalization now leaves a leading `//' intact, as POSIX.1
    requires.

e.  A memory leak when completing commands was fixed.

f.  A memory leak that occurred when checking the hash table for commands
    with relative paths was fixed.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.01-beta2,
and the previous version, bash-2.01-beta1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  The `ulimit' builtin translates RLIM_INFINITY to the hard limit only if
    the current (soft) limit is less than or equal to the hard limit.

b.  Fixed a bug that caused the bash emulation of strcasecmp to produce
    incorrect results.

c.  A bug that caused memory to be freed twice when a trap handler resets
    the trap more than once was fixed.

d.  A bug that caused machines where sizeof (pointer) > sizeof (int) to
    fail (and possibly dump core) when trying to unwind-protect a null
    pointer was fixed.

e.  The startup files should not be run with job control enabled.  This fix
    allows SIGINT to once again interrupt startup file execution.

f.  Bash should not change the SIGPROF handler if it is set to something
    other than SIG_DFL.

g.  The completion code that provides bash-specific completions for readline
    now quotes characters that the readline code would treat as word break
    characters if they appear in a file name.

h.  The completion code now correctly quotes filenames containing a `!',
    even if the user attempted to use double quotes when attempting
    completion.

i.  A bug that caused the shell to dump core when `disown' was called without
    arguments and there was no current job was fixed.

j.  A construct like $((foo);bar) is now processed as a command substitution
    rather than as a bad arithmetic substitution.

k.  A couple of bugs that caused `fc' to not obey the `cmdhist' and `lithist'
    shell options when editing and re-executing a series of commands were
    fixed.

l.  A fix was made to the grammar -- the list of commands between `do' and
    `done' in the body of a `for' command should be treated the same as a
    while loop.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  A couple of bugs that caused the history search functions to attempt to
    free a NULL pointer were fixed.

b.  If the C library provides setlocale(3), readline does not need to look
    at various environment variables to decide whether or not to go into
    eight-bit mode automatically -- just check whether the current locale
    is not `C' or `POSIX'.

c.  If the filename completion function finds that a directory was not closed
    by a previous (interrupted) completion, it closes the directory with
    closedir().

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  New bindable readline commands:  history-and-alias-expand-line and
    alias-expand-line.  The code was always in there, there was just no
    way to execute it.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.01-beta1,
and the previous version, bash-2.01-alpha1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fixed a problem that could cause file descriptors used for process
    substitution to conflict with those used explicitly in redirections.

b.  Made it easier to regenerate configure if the user changes configure.in.

c.  ${GROUPS[0]} should always be the primary group, even on systems without
    multiple groups.

d.  Spelling correction is no longer enabled by default.

e.  Fixes to quoting problems in `bashbug'.

f.  OS-specific configuration changes were made for: Irix 6.

g.  OS-specific code changes were made for: QNX.

h.  A more meaningful message is now printed when the file in /tmp for a
    here document cannot be created.

i.  Many changes to the shell's variable initialization code to speed
    non-interactive startup.

j.  Changes to the non-job-control code so that it does not try to open
    /dev/tty.

k.  The output of `set' and `export' is once again sorted, as POSIX wants.

l.  Fixed a problem caused by a recursive call reparsing the value of
    $SHELLOPTS.

m.  The tilde code no longer calls getenv() when it's compiled as part of
    the shell, which should eliminate problems on systems that cannot
    redefine getenv(), like the NeXT OS.

n.  Fixed a problem that caused `bash -o' or `bash +o' to not list all
    the shell options.

o.  Fixed `ulimit' to convert RLIM_INFINITY to the appropriate hard limit
    only if the hard limit is greater than the current (soft) limit.

p.  Fixed a problem that arose when building bash in a different directory
    than the source and y.tab.[ch] were remade with something other than
    bison.  This came up most often on NetBSD.

q.  Fixed a problem with completion -- it thought that `pwd`/[TAB] indicated
    an unfinished command completion (`/), which generated errors.

r.  The bash special tilde expansions (~-, ~+) are now attempted before
    calling the standard tilde expansion code, which should eliminate the
    problems people have been seeing with this on Solaris 2.5.1.

s.  Added support for <stdarg.h> to places where it was missing.

t.  Changed the code that reads the output of a command substitution to not
    go through stdio.  This reduces the memory requirements and is faster.

u.  A number of changes to speed up export environment creation were made.

v.  A number of memory leaks were fixed as the result of running the test
    scripts through Purify.

w.  Fixed a bug that caused subshells forked to interpret executable
    scripts without a leading `#!' to not reinitialize the values of
    the shell options.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  History library has less `#ifdef SHELL' code -- abstracted stuff out
    into application-specific function hooks.

b.  Readline no longer calls getenv() if it's compiled as part of the shell,
    which should eliminate problems on systems that cannot redefine getenv(),
    like the NeXT OS.

c.  Fixed translation of ESC when `untranslating' macro values.

d.  The region kill operation now fixes the mark if it ends up beyond the
    boundaries of the line after the region is deleted.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  New argument for `configure':  `--with-curses'.  This can be used to
    override the selection of the termcap library on systems where it is
    deficient.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.01-alpha1,
and the previous version, bash-2.0-release.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  System-specific configuration changes for: FreeBSD, SunOS4, Irix,
    MachTen, QNX 4.2, Harris Night Hawk, SunOS5.

b.  System-specific code changes were made for: Linux, 4.4 BSD, QNX 4.2,
    HP-UX, AIX 4.2.

c.  A bug that caused the exec builtin to fail because the full pathname of
    the command could not be found was fixed.

d.  The code that performs output redirections is now more resistant to
    race conditions and possible security exploits.

e.  A bug that caused the shell to dump core when performing pattern
    substitutions on variable values was fixed.

f.  More hosts are now recognized by the auto-configuration mechanism
    (OpenBSD, QNX, others).

g.  Assignments to read-only variables that attempt to convert them to
    arrays are now errors.

h.  A bug that caused shell scripts using array assignments in POSIX mode
    to exit after the assignment was performed was fixed.

i.  The substring expansion code is now more careful about running off the
    ends of the expanded variable value.

j.  A bug that caused completion to fail if a backquoted command substitution
    appeared anywhere on the line was fixed.

k.  The `source' builtin no longer turns off history if it has been enabled
    in a non-interactive shell.

l.  A bug that caused the shell to crash when `disown' was given a pid
    instead of a job number was fixed.

m.  The `cd' spelling correction code will not try to change to `.' if no
    directory entries match a single-character argument.

n.  A bad variable name supplied to `declare', `export', or `readonly' no
    longer causes a non-interactive shell in POSIX mode to exit.

o.  Some fixes were made to the test suite to handle peculiarities of
    various Unix versions.

p.  The bash completion code now quotes characters that readline would
    treat as word breaks for completion but are not shell metacharacters.

q.  Bad options supplied at invocation now cause a usage message to be
    displayed.

r.  Fixes were made to the code that handles DEBUG traps so that the trap
    string is not freed inappropriately.

s.  Some changes were made to the bash debugger in examples/bashdb -- it
    should be closer to working now.

t.  A problem that caused the default filename used for mail checking to be
    wrong was fixed.

u.  A fix was made to the `echo' builtin so that NUL characters printed with
    `echo -e' do not cause the output to be truncated.

v.  A fix was made to the job control code so that the shell behaves better
    when monitor mode is enabled in a non-interactive shell.

w.  Bash no longer catches all of the terminating signals in a non-
    interactive shell until a trap is set on EXIT, which should result in
    quicker startup.

x.  A fix was made to the command timing code so that `time' can be used in
    a loop.

y.  A fix was made to the parser so that `((cmd); cmd2)' is now parsed as
    a nested subshell rather than strictly as an (erroneous) arithmetic
    command.

z.  A fix was made to the globbing code so that it correctly matches quoted
    filenames beginning with a `.'.

aa. A bug in `fc' that caused some multi-line commands to not be stored as
    one command in the history when they were re-executed after editing
    (with `fc -e') was fixed.

bb. The `ulimit' builtin now attempts to catch some classes of integer
    overflows.

cc. The command-oriented-history code no longer attempts to add `;'
    inappropriately when a newline appears while reading a $(...) command
    substitution.

dd. A bug that caused the shell to dump core when `help --' was executed
    was fixed.

ee. A bug that caused the shell to crash when an unset variable appeared
    in the body of a here document after `set -u' had been executed was
    fixed.

ff. Implicit input redirections from /dev/null for asynchronous commands
    are now handled better.

gg. A bug that caused the shell to fail to compile when configured with
    `--disable-readline' was fixed.

hh. The globbing code should now be interruptible.

ii. Bash now notices when the `kill' builtin is used to send SIGCONT to a
    stopped job and adjusts the data structures accordingly, as if `bg' had
    been executed instead.

jj. A bug that caused the shell to crash when mixing calls to `getopts'
    and `shift' on the same set of positional parameters was fixed.

kk. The command printing code now preserves the `-p' flag to `time'.

ll. The command printing code now handles here documents better when there
    are other redirections associated with the command.

mm. The special glibc environment variable (NNN_GNU_nonoption_argv_flags_)
    is no longer placed into the environment of executed commands -- users
    of glibc had too many problems with it.

nn. Reorganized the code that generates signames.h.  The signal_names list
    is now more complete but may be slightly different (SIGABRT is favored
    over SIGIOT, for example).  The preferred signal names are those
    listed in the POSIX.2 standard.

oo. `bashbug' now uses a filename shorter than 14 characters for its
    temporary file, and asks for confirmation before sending the bug
    report.

pp. A bug that caused TAB completion in vi editing mode to not be turned
    off when `set -o posix' was executed or back on when `set +o posix'
    was executed was fixed.

qq. A bug in the brace expansion code that caused brace expansions appearing
    in new-style $(...) command substitutions to be inappropriately expanded
    was fixed.

rr. A bug in the readline hook shell-expand-line that could cause memory to
    be inappropriately freed was fixed.

ss. A bug that caused some arithmetic expressions containing `&&' and `||'
    to be parsed with the wrong precedence has been fixed.

tt. References to unbound variables after `set -u' has been executed now
    cause the shell to exit immediately, as they should.

uu. A bug that caused the shell to exit inappropriately when `set -e' had
    been executed and a command's return status was being inverted with the
    `!' reserved word was fixed.

vv. A bug that could occasionally cause the shell to crash with a
    divide-by-zero error when timing a command was fixed.

ww. A bug that caused parameter pattern substitution to leave stray
    backslashes in the replacement string when the expression is in
    double quotes was fixed.

xx. The `break' and `continue' builtins now break out of all loops when an
    invalid count argument is supplied.

yy. Fixed a bug that caused PATH to be set to the empty string if
    `command -p' is executed with PATH unset.

zz. Fixed `kill -l signum' to print the signal name without the `SIG' prefix,
    as POSIX specifies.

aaa. Fixed a bug that caused the shell to crash while setting $SHELLOPTS
     if there were no shell options set.

bbb. Fixed `export -p' and `readonly -p' so that when the shell is in POSIX
     mode, their output is as POSIX.2 specifies.

ccc. Fixed a bug in `readonly' so that `readonly -a avar=(...)' actually
     creates an array variable.

ddd. Fixed a bug that prevented `time' from correctly timing background
     pipelines.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  A bug that caused an extra newline to be printed when the cursor was on
    an otherwise empty line was fixed.

b.  An instance of memory being used after it was freed was corrected.

c.  The redisplay code now works when the prompt is longer than the screen
    width.

d.  `dump-macros' is now a bindable name, as it should have been all along.

e.  Non-printable characters are now expanded when displaying macros and
    their values.

f.  The `dump-variables' and `dump-macros' commands now output a leading
    newline if they're called as the result of a key sequence, rather
    than directly by an application.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  There is a new builtin array variable: GROUPS, the set of groups to which
    the user belongs.  This is used by the test suite.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  If a key sequence bound to `universal-argument' is read while reading a
    numeric argument started with `universal-argument', it terminates the
    argument but is otherwise ignored.  This provides a way to insert multiple
    instances of a digit string, and is how GNU emacs does it.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.0-release,
and the previous version, bash-2.0-beta3.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  Fix to the `getopts' builtin so that it does the right thing when a
    required option argument is not present.

b.  The completion code now updates the common prefix of matched names
    after FIGNORE processing is done, since any names that were removed
    may have changed the common prefix.

c.  Fixed a bug that made messages in MAILPATH entries not work correctly.

d.  Fixed a serious documentation error in the description of the new
    ${parameter:offset[:length]} expansion.

e.  Fixes to make parameter substring expansion ({$param:offset[:length]})
    work when within double quotes.

f.  Fixes to make ^A (CTLESC) survive an unquoted expansion of positional
    parameters.

g.  Corrected a misspelling of `unlimited' in the output of `ulimit'.

h.  Fixed a bug that caused executable scripts without a leading `#!' to
    occasionally pick up the wrong set of positional parameters.

i.  Linux systems now have a working `ulimit -v', using RLIMIT_AS.

j.  Updated config.guess so that many more machine types are recognized.

k.  Fixed a bug with backslash-quoted slashes in the ${param/pat[/sub]}
    expansion.

l.  If the shell is named `-su', and `-c command' is supplied, read and
    execute the login shell startup files even though the shell is not
    interactive.  This is to support the `-' option to `su'.

m.  Fixed a bug that caused core dumps when the DEBUG trap was ignored
    with `trap "" DEBUG' and a shell function was subsequently executed.

n.  Fixed a bug that caused core dumps in the read builtin when IFS was
    set to the null string and the input had leading whitespace.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  Fixed a bug that caused a numeric argument of 1024 to be ignored when
    inserting text.

b.  Fixed the display code so that the numeric argument is displayed as it's
    being entered.

c.  Fixed the numeric argument reading code so that `M-- command' is
    equivalent to `M--1 command', as the prompt implies.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  `ulimit' now sets both hard and soft limits and reports the soft limit
    by default (when neither -H nor -S is specified).  This is compatible
    with versions of sh and ksh that implement `ulimit'.

b.  Integer constants have been extended to base 64.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  The `home' and `end' keys are now bound to beginning-of-line and
    end-of-line, respectively, if the corresponding termcap capabilities
    are present.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.0-beta3,
and the previous version, bash-2.0-beta2.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  System-specific changes for: AIX 4.2, SCO 3.2v[45], HP-UX.

b.  When in POSIX mode, variable assignments preceding a special builtin
    persist in the shell environment after the builtin completes.

c.  Changed all calls to getwd() to getcwd().  Improved check for systems
    where the libc getcwd() calls popen(), since that breaks on some
    systems when job control is being used.

d.  Fixed a bug that caused seg faults when executing scripts with the
    execute bit set but without a leading `#!'.

e.  The environment passed to executed commands is never sorted.

f.  A bug was fixed in the code that expands ${name[@]} to the number of
    elements in an array variable.

g.  A bug was fixed in the array compound assignment code ( A=( ... ) ).

h.  Window size changes now correctly propagate down to readline if
    the shopt `checkwinsize' option is enabled.

i.  A fix was made in the code that expands to the length of a variable
    value (${#var}).

j.  A fix was made to the command builtin so that it did not turn on the
    `no fork' flag inappropriately.

k.  A fix was made to make `set -n' work more reliably.

l.  A fix was made to the job control initialization code so that the
    terminal process group is set to the shell's process group if the
    shell changes its own process group.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  System-specific changes for: SCO 3.2v[45].

b.  The behavior of the vi-mode `.' when redoing an `i' command was changed
    to insert the text previously inserted by the `i' command rather than
    simply entering insert mode.

3.  New features in Bash

a.  There is a new version of the autoload function package, in
    examples/functions/autoload.v2, that uses arrays and provides more
    functionality.

b.  Support for LC_COLLATE and locale-specific sorting of the results of
    pathname expansion if strcoll() is available.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  Support for locale-specific sorting of completion possibilities if
    strcoll() is available.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.0-beta2,
and the previous version, bash-2.0-beta1.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  `pushd -' is once again equivalent to `pushd $OLDPWD'.

b.  OS-specific changes for: SCO 3.2v[45].

c.  A change was made to the fix for the recently-reported security hole
    when reading characters with octal value 255 to make it work better on
    systems with restartable system calls when not using readline.

d.  Some changes were made to the test suite so that it works if you
    configure bash with --enable-usg-echo-default.

e.  A fix was made to the parsing of conditional arithmetic expressions.

f.  Illegal arithmetic bases now cause an arithmetic evaluation error rather
    than being silently reset.

g.  Multiple arithmetic bases now cause an arithmetic evaluation error
    instead of being ignored.

h.  A fix was made to the evaluation of ${param?word} to conform to POSIX.2.

i.  A bug that sometimes caused array indices to be evaluated twice (which
    would cause errors when they contained assignment statements) was fixed.

j.  `ulimit' was rewritten to avoid problems with getrlimit(2) returning
    unsigned values and to simplify the code.

k.  A bug in the command-oriented-history code that caused it to sometimes
    put semicolons after right parens inappropriately was fixed.

l.  The values inserted into the prompt by the \w and \W escape sequences
    are now quoted to prevent further expansion.

m.  An interactive shell invoked as `sh' now reads and executes commands
    from the file named by $ENV when it starts up.  If it's a login shell,
    it does this after reading /etc/profile and ~/.profile.

n.  The file named by $ENV is never read by non-interactive shells.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  A few changes were made to hide some macros and functions that should not
    be public.

b.  An off-by-one error that caused seg faults in the history expansion code
    was fixed.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  The ksh-style ((...)) arithmetic command was implemented.  It is exactly
    identical to let "...".  This is controlled by a new option to configure,
    `--enable-dparen-arithmetic', which is on by default.

b.  There is a new #define available in config.h.top: SYS_BASH_LOGOUT.  If
    defined to a filename, bash reads and executes commands from that file
    when a login shell exits.  It's commented out by default.

c.  `ulimit' has a `-l' option that reports the maximum amount of data that
    may be locked into memory on 4.4BSD-based systems.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.0-beta1,
and the previous version, bash-2.0-alpha4.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  A bug that sometimes caused traps to be ignored on signals the
    shell treats specially was fixed.

b.  The internationalization code was changed to track the values of
    LC_* variables and call setlocale() as appropriate.  The TEXTDOMAIN
    and TEXTDOMAINDIR variables are also tracked; changes cause calls
    to textdomain() and bindtextdomain(), if available.

c.  A bug was fixed that sometimes caused double-quoted strings to be
    parsed incorrectly.

d.  Changes were made so that the siglist code compiles correctly on
    Solaris 2.5.

e.  Added `:' to the set of characters that cause word breaks for the
    completion code so that pathnames in assignments to $PATH can be
    completed.

f.  The `select' command was fixed to print $PS3 to stderr.

g.  Fixed an error in the manual page section describing the effect that
    setting and unsetting GLOBIGNORE has on the setting of the `dotglob'
    option.

h.  The time conversion code now uses CLK_TCK rather than CLOCKS_PER_SEC
    on systems without gettimeofday() and resources.

i.  The getopt static variables are now initialized each time a subshell
    is started, so subshells using `getopts' work right.

j.  A sign-extension bug that caused a possible security hole was fixed.

k.  The parser now reads characters between backquotes within a double-
    quoted string as a single word, so double quotes in the backquoted
    string don't terminate the enclosing double-quoted string.

l.  A bug that caused `^O' to work incorrectly when typed as the first
    thing to an interactive shell was fixed.

m.  A rarely-exercised off-by-one error in the code that quotes variable
    values was fixed.

n.  Some memory and file descriptor leaks encountered when running a
    shell script that is executable but does not have a leading `#!'
    were plugged.

2.  Changes to Readline

a.  A bug that sometimes caused incorrect results when trying to read
    typeahead on systems without FIONREAD was fixed.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  The command timing code now uses the value of the TIMEFORMAT variable
    to format and display timing statistics.

b.  The `time' reserved word now accepts a `-p' option to force the
    POSIX.2 output format.

c.  There are a couple of new and updated scripts to convert csh startup
    files to bash format.

d.  There is a new builtin array variable: BASH_VERSINFO.  The various
    members hold the parts of the version information in BASH_VERSION,
    plus the value of MACHTYPE.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  Setting LANG to `en_US.ISO8859-1' now causes readline to enter
    eight-bit mode.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.0-alpha4,
and the previous version, bash-2.0-alpha3.

1.  Changes to Bash

a.  There is better detection of rsh connections on Solaris 2.

b.  Assignments to read-only variables preceding a command name are now
    variable assignment errors.  Variable assignment errors cause
    non-interactive shells running in posix mode to exit.

c.  The word tokenizer was rewritten to handle nested quotes and pairs
    ('', "", ``, ${...}, $(...), $[...], $'...', $"...", <(...), >(...))
    correctly.  Some of the parameter expansion code was updated as a
    consequence.

d.  A fix was made to `test' when given three arguments so that a binary
    operator is checked for first, before checking that the first argument
    is `!'.

e.  2''>/dev/null is no longer equivalent to 2>/dev/null.

f.  Parser error messages were regularized, and in most cases the name of
    the shell script being read by a non-interactive shell is not printed
    twice.

g.  A fix was made to the completion code so that it no longer removes the
    text the user typed in some cases.

h.  The special glibc `getopt' environment variable is no longer put into
    the environment on machines with small values of ARG_MAX.

i.  The expansion of ${...} now follows the POSIX.2 rules for finding the
    closing `}'.

j.  The shell no longer displays spurious status messages for background
    jobs in shell scripts that complete successfully when the script is
    run from a terminal.

k.  `shopt -o' now correctly updates $SHELLOPTS.

l.  A bug that caused the $PATH searching code to return a non-executable
    file even when an executable file with the same name appeared later in
    $PATH was fixed.

m.  The shell now does tilde expansions on unquoted `:~' in assignment
    statements when not in posix mode.

n.  Variable assignment errors when a command consists only of assignments
    now cause non-interactive shells to exit when in posix mode.

o.  If the variable in a `for' or `select' command is read-only, or not a
    legal shell identifier, a variable assignment error occurs.

p.  `test' now handles `-a' and `-o' as binary operators when three arguments
    are supplied, and correctly parses `( word )' as equivalent to `word'.

q.  `test' was fixed so that file names of the form /dev/fd/NN mean the same
    thing on all systems, even Linux.

r.  Fixed a bug in the globbing code that caused patterns with multiple
    consecutive `*'s to not be matched correctly.

s.  Fixed a bug that caused $PS2 to not be printed when an interactive shell
    not using readline is reading a here document.

t.  Fixed a bug that caused history expansion to be performed inappropriately
    when a single-quoted string spanned more than one line.

u.  `getopts' now checks that the variable name passed by the user as the
    second argument is a legal shell identifier and that the variable is
    not read-only.

v.  Fixed `getopts' to obey POSIX.2 rules for setting $OPTIND when it
    encounters an error.

w.  Fixed `set' to display variable values in a form that can be re-read.

x.  Fixed a bug in the code that keeps track of whether or not local variables
    have been declared at the current level of function nesting.

y.  Non-interactive shells in posix mode now exit if the name in a function
    declaration is not a legal identifier.

z.  The job control code now ignores stopped children when the shell is not
    interactive.

aa. The `cd' builtin no longer attempts spelling correction on the directory
    name if the shell is not interactive, regardless of the setting of the
    `cdspell' option.

bb. Some OS-specific changes were made for SCO 3.2v[45] and AIX 4.2.

cc. `time' now prints its output to stderr, as POSIX.2 specifies.

2.  Fixes to Readline

a.  After printing possible completions, all lines of a multi-line prompt
    are redisplayed.

b.  Some changes were made to the terminal handling code in rltty.c to
    work around AIX 4.2 bugs.

3.  New Features in Bash

a.  There is a new loadable builtin: sprintf, with calling syntax
		sprintf var format [args]
    This provides an easy way to simulate ksh left- and right-justified
    variable values.

b.  The expansions of \h and \H in prompt strings were swapped.  \h now
    expands to the hostname up to the first `.', as in bash-1.14.

4.  New Features in Readline

a.  The bash-1.14 behavior when ^M is typed while doing an incremental
    search was restored.  ^J may now be used to terminate the search without
    accepting the line.

b.  There is a new bindable variable: disable-completion.  This inhibits
    word completion and causes the completion character to be inserted as
    if it had been bound to self-insert.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This document details the changes between this version, bash-2.0-alpha3,
and the previous version, bash-2.0-alpha2.

There is now a file `COMPAT' included in the distribution that lists the
user-visible incompatibilities between 1.14 and 2.0.

1. Changes to Bash

a. Some work was done so that word splitting of the rhs of assignment
   statements conforms more closely to historical practice.

b. A couple of errant memory frees were fixed.

c. A fix was made to the test builtin so it recognizes `<' and `>' as
   binary operators.

d. The GNU malloc in lib/malloc/malloc.c now scrambles memory as it's
   allocated and freed.  This is to catch callers that refer to freed
   memory or assume something about newly-allocated memory.

e. Fixed a problem with conversion to 12-hour time in the prompt
   expansion code.

f. Fixed a problem with configure's argument parsing order.  Now you can
   correctly turn on specific options after using --enable-minimal-config.

g. The configure script now automatically disables the use of GNU malloc
   on systems where it's appropriate (better than having people read the
   NOTES file and do it manually).

h. There are new prompt expansions (\v and \V) to insert version information
   into the prompt strings.

i. The default prompt string now includes the version number.

j. Most of the builtins that take no options were changed to use the
   internal getopt so they can produce proper error messages for -?
   and incorrect options.

k. Some system-specific changes were made for SVR4.2 and Solaris 2.5.

l. Bash now uses PATH_MAX instead of MAXPATHLEN and NAME_MAX instead of
   MAXNAMLEN.

m. A couple of problems caused by uninitialized variables were fixed.

n. There are a number of new loadable builtin examples: logname, basename,
   dirname, tty, pathchk, tee, head, and rmdir.  All of these conform to
   POSIX.2.

o. Bash now notices changes in TZ and calls tzset() if present, so
   changing TZ will alter the time printed by prompt expansions.

p. The source was reorganized a bit so I don't have to wait so long for
   some files to compile, and to facilitate the creation of a `shell
   library' at some future point.

q. Bash no longer turns off job control if called as `sh', since the
   POSIX.2 spec includes job control as a standard feature.

r. `bash -o posix' now works as intended.

s. Fixed a problem with the completion code: when completing a filename
   that contained globbing characters, if show-all-if-ambiguous was set,
   the completion code would remove the user's text.

t. Fixed ulimit so that (hopefully) the full range of limits is available
   on HPUX systems.

u. A new `shopt' option (`hostcomplete') enables and disables hostname
   completion.

v. The shell no longer attempts to save the history on an abort(),
   which is usually called by programming_error().

w. The `-s' option to `fc' was changed to echo the command to be executed
   to stderr instead of stdout.

x. If the editor invoked by `fc -e' exits with a non-zero status, no
   commands are executed.

y. Fixed a bug that made the shopt `histverify' option work incorrectly.

z. There is a new variable `MACHTYPE' whose value is the GNU-style
   `cpu-company-system' system description as set by configure.  (The
   values of MACHTYPE and HOSTTYPE should really be swapped.)

aa. The `ulimit' builtin now allows the maximum virtual memory size to be
    set via setrlimit(2) if RLIMIT_VMEM is defined.

bb. `bash -nc 'command'' no longer runs `command'.

2. Changes to Readline

a. Fixed a typo in the code that checked for FIONREAD in input.c.

b. Fixed a bug in the code that outputs keybindings, so things like C-\
   are quoted properly.

c. Fixed a bug in the inputrc file parsing code to handle the problems
   caused by inputrc files created from the output of `bind -p' in
   previous versions of bash.  The problem was due to the bug fixed
   in item b above.

d. Readline no longer turns off the terminal's meta key, and turns it on
   once the first time it's called.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
This file documents the changes between this version, bash-2.0-alpha2,
and the previous version, bash-2.0-alpha.

1. Changes to Bash

a. The shell no longer thinks directories are executable.

b. `disown' has a new option, `h', which inhibits the resending of SIGHUP
   but does not remove the job from the jobs table.

c. The varargs functions in error.c now use ANSI-C `stdarg' if available.

d. The build process now treats the `build version' in .build as local to
   the build directory, so different versions built from the same source
   tree have different `build versions'.

e. Some problems with the grammar have been fixed. (It used `list' in a few
   productions where `compound_list' was needed.  A `list' must be terminated
   with a newline or semicolon; a `compound_list' need not be.)

f. A fix was made to keep `wait' from hanging when waiting for all background
   jobs.

g. `bash --help' now writes its output to stdout, like the GNU Coding Standards
   specify, and includes the machine type (the value of MACHTYPE).

h. `bash --version' now prints more information and exits successfully, like
   the GNU Coding Standards specify.

i. The output of `time' and `times' now prints fractional seconds with three
   places after the decimal point.

j. A bug that caused process substitutions to screw up the pipeline printed
   by `jobs' was fixed.

k. Fixes were made to the code that implements $'...' and $"..." so they
   work as documented.

l. The process substitution code now opens named pipes for reading with
   O_NONBLOCK to avoid hanging.

m. Fixes were made to the trap code so the shell cleans up correctly if the
   trap command contains a `return' and we're executing a function or
   sourcing a script with `.'.

n. Fixes to doc/Makefile.in so that it doesn't try to remake all of the
   documentation (ps, dvi, etc.) on a `make install'.

o. Fixed an auto-increment error that caused bash -c args to sometimes dump
   core.

p. Fixed a bug that caused $HISTIGNORE to fail when the history line
   contained globbing characters.

2. Changes to Readline

a. There is a new string variable, rl_library_version, available for use by
   applications.  The current value is "2.1".

b. A bug encountered when expand-tilde was enabled and file completion was
   attempted on a word beginning with `~/' was fixed.

c. A slight change was made to the incremental search termination behavior.
   ESC still terminates the search, but if input is pending or arrives
   within 0.1 seconds (on systems with select(2)), it is used as a prefix
   character.  This is intented to allow users to terminate searches with
   the arrow keys and get the behavior they expect.