File: COMPAT

package info (click to toggle)
bash 4.4-5
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: stretch
  • size: 36,372 kB
  • sloc: ansic: 103,485; sh: 7,655; yacc: 5,214; makefile: 4,357; perl: 4,227; asm: 48; awk: 23; sed: 16
file content (459 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 20,607 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
Compatibility with previous versions
====================================

This document details the incompatibilities between this version of bash,
bash-4.4, and the previous widely-available versions, bash-3.x (which is
still the `standard' version for Mac OS X), 4.1/4.2 (which are still
standard on a few Linux distributions), and bash-4.3, the current
widely-available version.  These were discovered by users of bash-2.x
through 4.x, so this list is not comprehensive.  Some of these
incompatibilities occur between the current version and versions 2.0 and
above. 

1.  Bash uses a new quoting syntax, $"...", to do locale-specific
    string translation.  Users who have relied on the (undocumented)
    behavior of bash-1.14 will have to change their scripts.  For
    instance, if you are doing something like this to get the value of
    a variable whose name is the value of a second variable:

	eval var2=$"$var1"

    you will have to change to a different syntax.

    This capability is directly supported by bash-2.0:

	var2=${!var1}

    This alternate syntax will work portably between bash-1.14 and bash-2.0:

	eval var2=\$${var1}

2.  One of the bugs fixed in the YACC grammar tightens up the rules
    concerning group commands ( {...} ).  The `list' that composes the
    body of the group command must be terminated by a newline or
    semicolon.  That's because the braces are reserved words, and are
    recognized as such only when a reserved word is legal.  This means
    that while bash-1.14 accepted shell function definitions like this:

	foo() { : }

    bash-2.0 requires this:

	foo() { :; }

    This is also an issue for commands like this:

	mkdir dir || { echo 'could not mkdir' ; exit 1; }

    The syntax required by bash-2.0 is also accepted by bash-1.14.

3.  The options to `bind' have changed to make them more consistent with
    the rest of the bash builtins.  If you are using `bind -d' to list
    the readline key bindings in a form that can be re-read, use `bind -p'
    instead.  If you were using `bind -v' to list the key bindings, use
    `bind -P' instead.

4.  The `long' invocation options must now be prefixed by `--' instead
    of `-'.  (The old form is still accepted, for the time being.)

5.  There was a bug in the version of readline distributed with bash-1.14
    that caused it to write badly-formatted key bindings when using 
    `bind -d'.  The only key sequences that were affected are C-\ (which
    should appear as \C-\\ in a key binding) and C-" (which should appear
    as \C-\").  If these key sequences appear in your inputrc, as, for
    example,

	"\C-\": self-insert

    they will need to be changed to something like the following:

	"\C-\\": self-insert

6.  A number of people complained about having to use ESC to terminate an
    incremental search, and asked for an alternate mechanism.  Bash-2.03
    uses the value of the settable readline variable `isearch-terminators'
    to decide which characters should terminate an incremental search.  If
    that variable has not been set, ESC and Control-J will terminate a
    search.

7.  Some variables have been removed:  MAIL_WARNING, notify, history_control,
    command_oriented_history, glob_dot_filenames, allow_null_glob_expansion,
    nolinks, hostname_completion_file, noclobber, no_exit_on_failed_exec, and
    cdable_vars.  Most of them are now implemented with the new `shopt'
    builtin; others were already implemented by `set'.  Here is a list of
    correspondences:

	MAIL_WARNING			shopt mailwarn
	notify				set -o notify
	history_control			HISTCONTROL
	command_oriented_history	shopt cmdhist
	glob_dot_filenames		shopt dotglob
	allow_null_glob_expansion	shopt nullglob
	nolinks				set -o physical
	hostname_completion_file	HOSTFILE
	noclobber			set -o noclobber
	no_exit_on_failed_exec		shopt execfail
	cdable_vars			shopt cdable_vars

8. `ulimit' now sets both hard and soft limits and reports the soft limit
    by default (when neither -H nor -S is specified).  This is compatible
    with versions of sh and ksh that implement `ulimit'.  The bash-1.14
    behavior of, for example,

		ulimit -c 0

    can be obtained with

		ulimit -S -c 0

    It may be useful to define an alias:

		alias ulimit="ulimit -S"

9.  Bash-2.01 uses a new quoting syntax, $'...' to do ANSI-C string
    translation.  Backslash-escaped characters in ... are expanded and
    replaced as specified by the ANSI C standard.

10. The sourcing of startup files has changed somewhat.  This is explained
    more completely in the INVOCATION section of the manual page.

    A non-interactive shell not named `sh' and not in posix mode reads
    and executes commands from the file named by $BASH_ENV.  A
    non-interactive shell started by `su' and not in posix mode will read
    startup files.  No other non-interactive shells read any startup files.

    An interactive shell started in posix mode reads and executes commands
    from the file named by $ENV.

11. The <> redirection operator was changed to conform to the POSIX.2 spec.
    In the absence of any file descriptor specification preceding the `<>',
    file descriptor 0 is used.  In bash-1.14, this was the behavior only
    when in POSIX mode.  The bash-1.14 behavior may be obtained with

	<>filename 1>&0

12. The `alias' builtin now checks for invalid options and takes a `-p'
    option to display output in POSIX mode.  If you have old aliases beginning
    with `-' or `+', you will have to add the `--' to the alias command
    that declares them:

	alias -x='chmod a-x' --> alias -- -x='chmod a-x'

13. The behavior of range specificiers within bracket matching expressions
    in the pattern matcher (e.g., [A-Z]) depends on the current locale,
    specifically the value of the LC_COLLATE environment variable.  Setting
    this variable to C or POSIX will result in the traditional ASCII behavior
    for range comparisons.  If the locale is set to something else, e.g.,
    en_US (specified by the LANG or LC_ALL variables), collation order is
    locale-dependent.  For example, the en_US locale sorts the upper and
    lower case letters like this:

	AaBb...Zz

    so a range specification like [A-Z] will match every letter except `z'.
    Other locales collate like

        aAbBcC...zZ

    which means that [A-Z] matches every letter except `a'.

    The portable way to specify upper case letters is [:upper:] instead of
    A-Z; lower case may be specified as [:lower:] instead of a-z.

    Look at the manual pages for setlocale(3), strcoll(3), and, if it is
    present, locale(1).

    You can find your current locale information by running locale(1):

	caleb.ins.cwru.edu(2)$ locale
	LANG=en_US
	LC_CTYPE="en_US"
	LC_NUMERIC="en_US"
	LC_TIME="en_US"
	LC_COLLATE="en_US"
	LC_MONETARY="en_US"
	LC_MESSAGES="en_US"
	LC_ALL=en_US

    My advice is to put

	export LC_COLLATE=C

    into /etc/profile and inspect any shell scripts run from cron for
    constructs like [A-Z].  This will prevent things like

	rm [A-Z]*

    from removing every file in the current directory except those beginning
    with `z' and still allow individual users to change the collation order.
    Users may put the above command into their own profiles as well, of course.

14. Bash versions up to 1.14.7 included an undocumented `-l' operator to
    the `test/[' builtin.  It was a unary operator that expanded to the
    length of its string argument.  This let you do things like

	test -l $variable -lt 20

    for example.

    This was included for backwards compatibility with old versions of the
    Bourne shell, which did not provide an easy way to obtain the length of
    the value of a shell variable.

    This operator is not part of the POSIX standard, because one can (and
    should) use ${#variable} to get the length of a variable's value.
    Bash-2.x does not support it.

15. Bash no longer auto-exports the HOME, PATH, SHELL, TERM, HOSTNAME,
    HOSTTYPE, MACHTYPE, or OSTYPE variables.  If they appear in the initial
    environment, the export attribute will be set, but if bash provides a
    default value, they will remain local to the current shell.

16. Bash no longer initializes the FUNCNAME, GROUPS, or DIRSTACK variables
    to have special behavior if they appear in the initial environment.

17. Bash no longer removes the export attribute from the SSH_CLIENT or
    SSH2_CLIENT variables, and no longer attempts to discover whether or
    not it has been invoked by sshd in order to run the startup files.

18. Bash no longer requires that the body of a function be a group command;
    any compound command is accepted.

19. As of bash-3.0, the pattern substitution operators no longer perform
    quote removal on the pattern before attempting the match.  This is the
    way the pattern removal functions behave, and is more consistent.

20. After bash-3.0 was released, I reimplemented tilde expansion, incorporating
    it into the mainline word expansion code.  This fixes the bug that caused
    the results of tilde expansion to be re-expanded.  There is one
    incompatibility:  a ${paramOPword} expansion within double quotes will not
    perform tilde expansion on WORD.  This is consistent with the other
    expansions, and what POSIX specifies.

21. A number of variables have the integer attribute by default, so the +=
    assignment operator returns expected results: RANDOM, LINENO, MAILCHECK,
    HISTCMD, OPTIND.

22. Bash-3.x is much stricter about $LINENO correctly reflecting the line
    number in a script; assignments to LINENO have little effect.

23. By default, readline binds the terminal special characters to their
    readline equivalents.  As of bash-3.1/readline-5.1, this is optional and
    controlled by the bind-tty-special-chars readline variable.

24. The \W prompt string expansion abbreviates $HOME as `~'.  The previous
    behavior is available with ${PWD##/*/}.

25. The arithmetic exponentiation operator is right-associative as of bash-3.1.

26. The rules concerning valid alias names are stricter, as per POSIX.2.

27. The Readline key binding functions now obey the convert-meta setting active
    when the binding takes place, as the dispatch code does when characters
    are read and processed.

28. The historical behavior of `trap' reverting signal disposition to the
    original handling in the absence of a valid first argument is implemented
    only if the first argument is a valid signal number.

29. In versions of bash after 3.1, the ${parameter//pattern/replacement}
    expansion does not interpret `%' or `#' specially.  Those anchors don't
    have any real meaning when replacing every match.

30. Beginning with bash-3.1, the combination of posix mode and enabling the
    `xpg_echo' option causes echo to ignore all options, not looking for `-n'

31. Beginning with bash-3.2, bash follows the Bourne-shell-style (and POSIX-
    style) rules for parsing the contents of old-style backquoted command
    substitutions.  Previous versions of bash attempted to recursively parse
    embedded quoted strings and shell constructs; bash-3.2 uses strict POSIX
    rules to find the closing backquote and simply passes the contents of the
    command substitution to a subshell for parsing and execution.

32. Beginning with bash-3.2, bash uses access(2) when executing primaries for
    the test builtin and the [[ compound command, rather than looking at the
    file permission bits obtained with stat(2).  This obeys restrictions of
    the file system (e.g., read-only or noexec mounts) not available via stat.

33. Bash-3.2 adopts the convention used by other string and pattern matching
    operators for the `[[' compound command, and matches any quoted portion
    of the right-hand-side argument to the =~ operator as a string rather
    than a regular expression.

34. Bash-4.0 allows the behavior in the previous item to be modified using
    the notion of a shell `compatibility level'.  If the compat31 shopt
    option is set, quoting the pattern has no special effect.

35. Bash-3.2 (patched) and Bash-4.0 fix a bug that leaves the shell in an
    inconsistent internal state following an assignment error.  One of the
    changes means that compound commands or { ... } grouping commands are
    aborted under some circumstances in which they previously were not.
    This is what Posix specifies.

36. Bash-4.0 now allows process substitution constructs to pass unchanged
    through brace expansion, so any expansion of the contents will have to be
    separately specified, and each process subsitution will have to be
    separately entered.

37. Bash-4.0 now allows SIGCHLD to interrupt the wait builtin, as Posix
    specifies, so the SIGCHLD trap is no longer always invoked once per
    exiting child if you are using `wait' to wait for all children.  As
    of bash-4.2, this is the status quo only when in posix mode.

38. Since bash-4.0 now follows Posix rules for finding the closing delimiter
    of a $() command substitution, it will not behave as previous versions
    did, but will catch more syntax and parsing errors before spawning a
    subshell to evaluate the command substitution.

39. The programmable completion code uses the same set of delimiting characters
    as readline when breaking the command line into words, rather than the
    set of shell metacharacters, so programmable completion and readline
    should be more consistent.

40. When the read builtin times out, it attempts to assign any input read to
    specified variables, which also causes variables to be set to the empty
    string if there is not enough input.  Previous versions discarded the
    characters read.

41. Beginning with bash-4.0, when one of the commands in a pipeline is killed
    by a SIGINT while executing a command list, the shell acts as if it
    received the interrupt.  This can be disabled by setting the compat31 or
    compat32 shell options.

42. Bash-4.0 changes the handling of the set -e option so that the shell exits
    if a pipeline fails (and not just if the last command in the failing
    pipeline is a simple command).  This is not as Posix specifies.  There is
    work underway to update this portion of the standard; the bash-4.0
    behavior attempts to capture the consensus at the time of release.

43. Bash-4.0 fixes a Posix mode bug that caused the . (source) builtin to
    search the current directory for its filename argument, even if "." is
    not in $PATH.  Posix says that the shell shouldn't look in $PWD in this
    case.

44. Bash-4.1 uses the current locale when comparing strings using the < and
    > operators to the `[[' command.  This can be reverted to the previous
    behavior (ASCII collating and strcmp(3)) by setting one of the
    `compatNN' shopt options, where NN is less than 41.

45. Bash-4.1 conforms to the current Posix specification for `set -u':
    expansions of $@ and $* when there are no positional parameters do not
    cause the shell to exit.

46. Bash-4.1 implements the current Posix specification for `set -e' and
    exits when any command fails, not just a simple command or pipeline.

47. Command substitutions now remove the caller's trap strings when trap is
    run to set a new trap in the subshell.  Previous to bash-4.2, the old
    trap strings persisted even though the actual signal handlers were reset.

48. When in Posix mode, a single quote is not treated specially in a
    double-quoted ${...} expansion, unless the expansion operator is
    # or % or the new `//', `^', or `,' expansions.  In particular, it
    does not define a new quoting context.  This is from Posix interpretation
    221.

49. Posix mode shells no longer exit if a variable assignment error occurs
    with an assignment preceding a command that is not a special builtin.

50. Bash-4.2 attempts to preserve what the user typed when performing word
    completion, instead of, for instance, expanding shell variable
    references to their value.

51. When in Posix mode, bash-4.2 exits if the filename supplied as an argument
    to `.' is not found and the shell is not interactive.

52. When compiled for strict Posix compatibility, bash-4.3 does not enable
    history expansion by default in interactive shells, since it results in
    a non-conforming environment.

53. Bash-4.3 runs the replacement string in the pattern substitution word
    expansion through quote removal.  The code already treats quote
    characters in the replacement string as special; if it treats them as
    special, then quote removal should remove them.

54. Bash-4.4 no longer considers a reference to ${a[@]} or ${a[*]}, where `a'
    is an array without any elements set, to be a reference to an unset
    variable.  This means that such a reference will not cause the shell to
    exit when the `-u' option is enabled.

55. Bash-4.4 allows double quotes to quote the history expansion character (!)
    when in Posix mode, since Posix specifies the effects of double quotes.

56. Bash-4.4 does not inherit $PS4 from the environment if running as root.

57. Bash-4.4 doesn't allow a `break' or `continue' in a function to affect
    loop execution in the calling context.

58. Bash-4.4 no longer expands tildes in $PATH elements when in Posix mode.

59. Bash-4.4 does not attempt to perform a compound array assignment if an
    argument to `declare' or a similar builtin expands to a word that looks
    like a compound array assignment (e.g. declare w=$x where x='(foo)').

Shell Compatibility Level
=========================

Bash-4.0 introduced the concept of a `shell compatibility level', specified
as a set of options to the shopt builtin (compat31, compat32, compat40, 
compat41, and compat42 at this writing).  There is only one current
compatibility level -- each option is mutually exclusive.  This list does not
mention behavior that is standard for a particular version (e.g., setting
compat32 means that quoting the rhs of the regexp matching operator quotes
special regexp characters in the word, which is default behavior in bash-3.2
and above).

Bash-4.3 introduces a new shell variable: BASH_COMPAT.  The value assigned
to this variable (a decimal version number like 4.2, or an integer
corresponding to the compatNN option, like 42) determines the compatibility
level.

Bash-4.4 has begun deprecating older compatibility levels.  Eventually, the
options will be removed in favor of the BASH_COMPAT variable.

compat31 set
	- the < and > operators to the [[ command do not consider the current
	  locale when comparing strings; they use ASCII ordering
	- quoting the rhs of the regexp matching operator (=~) has no
	  special effect

compat32 set
	- the < and > operators to the [[ command do not consider the current
	  locale when comparing strings; they use ASCII ordering

compat40 set
	- the < and > operators to the [[ command do not consider the current
	  locale when comparing strings; they use ASCII ordering
	- interrupting a command list such as "a ; b ; c" causes the execution
	  of the entire list to be aborted (in versions before bash-4.0,
	  interrupting one command in a list caused the next to be executed)

compat41 set
	- interrupting a command list such as "a ; b ; c" causes the execution
	  of the entire list to be aborted (in versions before bash-4.0,
	  interrupting one command in a list caused the next to be executed)
	- when in posix mode, single quotes in the `word' portion of a
	  double-quoted parameter expansion define a new quoting context and
	  are treated specially

compat42 set
	- the replacement string in double-quoted pattern substitution is not
	  run through quote removal, as in previous versions

compat43 set
	- the shell does not print a warning message if an attempt is made to
	  use a quoted compound assignment as an argument to declare
	  (declare -a foo='(1 2)')
	- word expansion errors are considered non-fatal errors that cause the
	  current command to fail, even in Posix mode
	- when executing a shell function, the loop state (while/until/etc.) is
	  not reset, so `break' or `continue' in a shell function will break or
	  continue loops in the calling context.  Bash-4.4 and later reset the
	  loop state to prevent this.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
notice and this notice are preserved.  This file is offered as-is,
without any warranty.