File: c-z8k.texi

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@c Copyright (C) 1991-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@c This is part of the GAS manual.
@c For copying conditions, see the file as.texinfo.
@ifset GENERIC
@page
@node Z8000-Dependent
@chapter Z8000 Dependent Features
@end ifset
@ifclear GENERIC
@node Machine Dependencies
@chapter Z8000 Dependent Features
@end ifclear

@cindex Z8000 support
The Z8000 @value{AS} supports both members of the Z8000 family: the
unsegmented Z8002, with 16 bit addresses, and the segmented Z8001 with
24 bit addresses.

When the assembler is in unsegmented mode (specified with the
@code{unsegm} directive), an address takes up one word (16 bit)
sized register.  When the assembler is in segmented mode (specified with
the @code{segm} directive), a 24-bit address takes up a long (32 bit)
register.  @xref{Z8000 Directives,,Assembler Directives for the Z8000},
for a list of other Z8000 specific assembler directives.

@menu
* Z8000 Options::               Command-line options for the Z8000
* Z8000 Syntax::                Assembler syntax for the Z8000
* Z8000 Directives::            Special directives for the Z8000
* Z8000 Opcodes::               Opcodes
@end menu

@node Z8000 Options
@section Options

@cindex Z8000 options
@cindex options, Z8000
@table @option
@cindex @code{-z8001} command line option, Z8000
@item -z8001
Generate segmented code by default.

@cindex @code{-z8002} command line option, Z8000
@item -z8002
Generate unsegmented code by default.
@end table

@node Z8000 Syntax
@section Syntax
@menu
* Z8000-Chars::                Special Characters
* Z8000-Regs::                 Register Names
* Z8000-Addressing::           Addressing Modes
@end menu

@node Z8000-Chars
@subsection Special Characters

@cindex line comment character, Z8000
@cindex Z8000 line comment character
@samp{!} is the line comment character.

If a @samp{#} appears as the first character of a line then the whole
line is treated as a comment, but in this case the line could also be
a logical line number directive (@pxref{Comments}) or a preprocessor
control command (@pxref{Preprocessing}).

@cindex line separator, Z8000
@cindex statement separator, Z8000
@cindex Z8000 line separator
You can use @samp{;} instead of a newline to separate statements.

@node Z8000-Regs
@subsection Register Names

@cindex Z8000 registers
@cindex registers, Z8000
The Z8000 has sixteen 16 bit registers, numbered 0 to 15.  You can refer
to different sized groups of registers by register number, with the
prefix @samp{r} for 16 bit registers, @samp{rr} for 32 bit registers and
@samp{rq} for 64 bit registers.  You can also refer to the contents of
the first eight (of the sixteen 16 bit registers) by bytes.  They are
named @samp{rl@var{n}} and @samp{rh@var{n}}.

@smallexample
@exdent @emph{byte registers}
rl0 rh0 rl1 rh1 rl2 rh2 rl3 rh3
rl4 rh4 rl5 rh5 rl6 rh6 rl7 rh7

@exdent @emph{word registers}
r0 r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 r9 r10 r11 r12 r13 r14 r15

@exdent @emph{long word registers}
rr0 rr2 rr4 rr6 rr8 rr10 rr12 rr14

@exdent @emph{quad word registers}
rq0 rq4 rq8 rq12
@end smallexample

@node Z8000-Addressing
@subsection Addressing Modes

@cindex addressing modes, Z8000
@cindex Z800 addressing modes
@value{AS} understands the following addressing modes for the Z8000:

@table @code
@item rl@var{n}
@itemx rh@var{n}
@itemx r@var{n}
@itemx rr@var{n}
@itemx rq@var{n}
Register direct:  8bit, 16bit, 32bit, and 64bit registers.

@item @@r@var{n}
@itemx @@rr@var{n}
Indirect register:  @@rr@var{n} in segmented mode, @@r@var{n} in unsegmented
mode.

@item @var{addr}
Direct: the 16 bit or 24 bit address (depending on whether the assembler
is in segmented or unsegmented mode) of the operand is in the instruction.

@item address(r@var{n})
Indexed: the 16 or 24 bit address is added to the 16 bit register to produce
the final address in memory of the operand.

@item r@var{n}(#@var{imm})
@itemx rr@var{n}(#@var{imm})
Base Address: the 16 or 24 bit register is added to the 16 bit sign
extended immediate displacement to produce the final address in memory
of the operand.

@item r@var{n}(r@var{m})
@itemx rr@var{n}(r@var{m})
Base Index: the 16 or 24 bit register r@var{n} or rr@var{n} is added to
the sign extended 16 bit index register r@var{m} to produce the final
address in memory of the operand.

@item #@var{xx}
Immediate data @var{xx}.
@end table

@node Z8000 Directives
@section Assembler Directives for the Z8000

@cindex Z8000 directives
@cindex directives, Z8000
The Z8000 port of @value{AS} includes additional assembler directives,
for compatibility with other Z8000 assemblers.  These do not begin with
@samp{.} (unlike the ordinary @value{AS} directives).

@table @code
@kindex segm
@item segm
@kindex .z8001
@itemx .z8001
Generate code for the segmented Z8001.

@kindex unsegm
@item unsegm
@kindex .z8002
@itemx .z8002
Generate code for the unsegmented Z8002.

@kindex name
@item name
Synonym for @code{.file}

@kindex global
@item global
Synonym for @code{.global}

@kindex wval
@item wval
Synonym for @code{.word}

@kindex lval
@item lval
Synonym for @code{.long}

@kindex bval
@item bval
Synonym for @code{.byte}

@kindex sval
@item sval
Assemble a string.  @code{sval} expects one string literal, delimited by
single quotes.  It assembles each byte of the string into consecutive
addresses.  You can use the escape sequence @samp{%@var{xx}} (where
@var{xx} represents a two-digit hexadecimal number) to represent the
character whose @sc{ascii} value is @var{xx}.  Use this feature to
describe single quote and other characters that may not appear in string
literals as themselves.  For example, the C statement @w{@samp{char *a =
"he said \"it's 50% off\"";}} is represented in Z8000 assembly language
(shown with the assembler output in hex at the left) as

@iftex
@begingroup
@let@nonarrowing=@comment
@end iftex
@smallexample
68652073    sval    'he said %22it%27s 50%25 off%22%00'
61696420
22697427
73203530
25206F66
662200
@end smallexample
@iftex
@endgroup
@end iftex

@kindex rsect
@item rsect
synonym for @code{.section}

@kindex block
@item block
synonym for @code{.space}

@kindex even
@item even
special case of @code{.align}; aligns output to even byte boundary.
@end table

@node Z8000 Opcodes
@section Opcodes

@cindex Z8000 opcode summary
@cindex opcode summary, Z8000
@cindex mnemonics, Z8000
@cindex instruction summary, Z8000
For detailed information on the Z8000 machine instruction set, see
@cite{Z8000 Technical Manual}.

@ifset SMALL
@c this table, due to the multi-col faking and hardcoded order, looks silly
@c except in smallbook.  See comments below "@set SMALL" near top of this file.

The following table summarizes the opcodes and their arguments:
@iftex
@begingroup
@let@nonarrowing=@comment
@end iftex
@smallexample

            rs   @r{16 bit source register}
            rd   @r{16 bit destination register}
            rbs   @r{8 bit source register}
            rbd   @r{8 bit destination register}
            rrs   @r{32 bit source register}
            rrd   @r{32 bit destination register}
            rqs   @r{64 bit source register}
            rqd   @r{64 bit destination register}
            addr @r{16/24 bit address}
            imm  @r{immediate data}

adc rd,rs               clrb addr               cpsir @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc
adcb rbd,rbs            clrb addr(rd)           cpsirb @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc
add rd,@@rs              clrb rbd                dab rbd
add rd,addr             com @@rd                 dbjnz rbd,disp7
add rd,addr(rs)         com addr                dec @@rd,imm4m1
add rd,imm16            com addr(rd)            dec addr(rd),imm4m1
add rd,rs               com rd                  dec addr,imm4m1
addb rbd,@@rs            comb @@rd                dec rd,imm4m1
addb rbd,addr           comb addr               decb @@rd,imm4m1
addb rbd,addr(rs)       comb addr(rd)           decb addr(rd),imm4m1
addb rbd,imm8           comb rbd                decb addr,imm4m1
addb rbd,rbs            comflg flags            decb rbd,imm4m1
addl rrd,@@rs            cp @@rd,imm16            di i2
addl rrd,addr           cp addr(rd),imm16       div rrd,@@rs
addl rrd,addr(rs)       cp addr,imm16           div rrd,addr
addl rrd,imm32          cp rd,@@rs               div rrd,addr(rs)
addl rrd,rrs            cp rd,addr              div rrd,imm16
and rd,@@rs              cp rd,addr(rs)          div rrd,rs
and rd,addr             cp rd,imm16             divl rqd,@@rs
and rd,addr(rs)         cp rd,rs                divl rqd,addr
and rd,imm16            cpb @@rd,imm8            divl rqd,addr(rs)
and rd,rs               cpb addr(rd),imm8       divl rqd,imm32
andb rbd,@@rs            cpb addr,imm8           divl rqd,rrs
andb rbd,addr           cpb rbd,@@rs             djnz rd,disp7
andb rbd,addr(rs)       cpb rbd,addr            ei i2
andb rbd,imm8           cpb rbd,addr(rs)        ex rd,@@rs
andb rbd,rbs            cpb rbd,imm8            ex rd,addr
bit @@rd,imm4            cpb rbd,rbs             ex rd,addr(rs)
bit addr(rd),imm4       cpd rd,@@rs,rr,cc        ex rd,rs
bit addr,imm4           cpdb rbd,@@rs,rr,cc      exb rbd,@@rs
bit rd,imm4             cpdr rd,@@rs,rr,cc       exb rbd,addr
bit rd,rs               cpdrb rbd,@@rs,rr,cc     exb rbd,addr(rs)
bitb @@rd,imm4           cpi rd,@@rs,rr,cc        exb rbd,rbs
bitb addr(rd),imm4      cpib rbd,@@rs,rr,cc      ext0e imm8
bitb addr,imm4          cpir rd,@@rs,rr,cc       ext0f imm8
bitb rbd,imm4           cpirb rbd,@@rs,rr,cc     ext8e imm8
bitb rbd,rs             cpl rrd,@@rs             ext8f imm8
bpt                     cpl rrd,addr            exts rrd
call @@rd                cpl rrd,addr(rs)        extsb rd
call addr               cpl rrd,imm32           extsl rqd
call addr(rd)           cpl rrd,rrs             halt
calr disp12             cpsd @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc      in rd,@@rs
clr @@rd                 cpsdb @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc     in rd,imm16
clr addr                cpsdr @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc     inb rbd,@@rs
clr addr(rd)            cpsdrb @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc    inb rbd,imm16
clr rd                  cpsi @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc      inc @@rd,imm4m1
clrb @@rd                cpsib @@rd,@@rs,rr,cc     inc addr(rd),imm4m1
inc addr,imm4m1         ldb rbd,rs(rx)          mult rrd,addr(rs)
inc rd,imm4m1           ldb rd(imm16),rbs       mult rrd,imm16
incb @@rd,imm4m1         ldb rd(rx),rbs          mult rrd,rs
incb addr(rd),imm4m1    ldctl ctrl,rs           multl rqd,@@rs
incb addr,imm4m1        ldctl rd,ctrl           multl rqd,addr
incb rbd,imm4m1         ldd @@rs,@@rd,rr          multl rqd,addr(rs)
ind @@rd,@@rs,ra          lddb @@rs,@@rd,rr         multl rqd,imm32
indb @@rd,@@rs,rba        lddr @@rs,@@rd,rr         multl rqd,rrs
inib @@rd,@@rs,ra         lddrb @@rs,@@rd,rr        neg @@rd
inibr @@rd,@@rs,ra        ldi @@rd,@@rs,rr          neg addr
iret                    ldib @@rd,@@rs,rr         neg addr(rd)
jp cc,@@rd               ldir @@rd,@@rs,rr         neg rd
jp cc,addr              ldirb @@rd,@@rs,rr        negb @@rd
jp cc,addr(rd)          ldk rd,imm4             negb addr
jr cc,disp8             ldl @@rd,rrs             negb addr(rd)
ld @@rd,imm16            ldl addr(rd),rrs        negb rbd
ld @@rd,rs               ldl addr,rrs            nop
ld addr(rd),imm16       ldl rd(imm16),rrs       or rd,@@rs
ld addr(rd),rs          ldl rd(rx),rrs          or rd,addr
ld addr,imm16           ldl rrd,@@rs             or rd,addr(rs)
ld addr,rs              ldl rrd,addr            or rd,imm16
ld rd(imm16),rs         ldl rrd,addr(rs)        or rd,rs
ld rd(rx),rs            ldl rrd,imm32           orb rbd,@@rs
ld rd,@@rs               ldl rrd,rrs             orb rbd,addr
ld rd,addr              ldl rrd,rs(imm16)       orb rbd,addr(rs)
ld rd,addr(rs)          ldl rrd,rs(rx)          orb rbd,imm8
ld rd,imm16             ldm @@rd,rs,n            orb rbd,rbs
ld rd,rs                ldm addr(rd),rs,n       out @@rd,rs
ld rd,rs(imm16)         ldm addr,rs,n           out imm16,rs
ld rd,rs(rx)            ldm rd,@@rs,n            outb @@rd,rbs
lda rd,addr             ldm rd,addr(rs),n       outb imm16,rbs
lda rd,addr(rs)         ldm rd,addr,n           outd @@rd,@@rs,ra
lda rd,rs(imm16)        ldps @@rs                outdb @@rd,@@rs,rba
lda rd,rs(rx)           ldps addr               outib @@rd,@@rs,ra
ldar rd,disp16          ldps addr(rs)           outibr @@rd,@@rs,ra
ldb @@rd,imm8            ldr disp16,rs           pop @@rd,@@rs
ldb @@rd,rbs             ldr rd,disp16           pop addr(rd),@@rs
ldb addr(rd),imm8       ldrb disp16,rbs         pop addr,@@rs
ldb addr(rd),rbs        ldrb rbd,disp16         pop rd,@@rs
ldb addr,imm8           ldrl disp16,rrs         popl @@rd,@@rs
ldb addr,rbs            ldrl rrd,disp16         popl addr(rd),@@rs
ldb rbd,@@rs             mbit                    popl addr,@@rs
ldb rbd,addr            mreq rd                 popl rrd,@@rs
ldb rbd,addr(rs)        mres                    push @@rd,@@rs
ldb rbd,imm8            mset                    push @@rd,addr
ldb rbd,rbs             mult rrd,@@rs            push @@rd,addr(rs)
ldb rbd,rs(imm16)       mult rrd,addr           push @@rd,imm16
push @@rd,rs             set addr,imm4           subl rrd,imm32
pushl @@rd,@@rs           set rd,imm4             subl rrd,rrs
pushl @@rd,addr          set rd,rs               tcc cc,rd
pushl @@rd,addr(rs)      setb @@rd,imm4           tccb cc,rbd
pushl @@rd,rrs           setb addr(rd),imm4      test @@rd
res @@rd,imm4            setb addr,imm4          test addr
res addr(rd),imm4       setb rbd,imm4           test addr(rd)
res addr,imm4           setb rbd,rs             test rd
res rd,imm4             setflg imm4             testb @@rd
res rd,rs               sinb rbd,imm16          testb addr
resb @@rd,imm4           sinb rd,imm16           testb addr(rd)
resb addr(rd),imm4      sind @@rd,@@rs,ra         testb rbd
resb addr,imm4          sindb @@rd,@@rs,rba       testl @@rd
resb rbd,imm4           sinib @@rd,@@rs,ra        testl addr
resb rbd,rs             sinibr @@rd,@@rs,ra       testl addr(rd)
resflg imm4             sla rd,imm8             testl rrd
ret cc                  slab rbd,imm8           trdb @@rd,@@rs,rba
rl rd,imm1or2           slal rrd,imm8           trdrb @@rd,@@rs,rba
rlb rbd,imm1or2         sll rd,imm8             trib @@rd,@@rs,rbr
rlc rd,imm1or2          sllb rbd,imm8           trirb @@rd,@@rs,rbr
rlcb rbd,imm1or2        slll rrd,imm8           trtdrb @@ra,@@rb,rbr
rldb rbb,rba            sout imm16,rs           trtib @@ra,@@rb,rr
rr rd,imm1or2           soutb imm16,rbs         trtirb @@ra,@@rb,rbr
rrb rbd,imm1or2         soutd @@rd,@@rs,ra        trtrb @@ra,@@rb,rbr
rrc rd,imm1or2          soutdb @@rd,@@rs,rba      tset @@rd
rrcb rbd,imm1or2        soutib @@rd,@@rs,ra       tset addr
rrdb rbb,rba            soutibr @@rd,@@rs,ra      tset addr(rd)
rsvd36                  sra rd,imm8             tset rd
rsvd38                  srab rbd,imm8           tsetb @@rd
rsvd78                  sral rrd,imm8           tsetb addr
rsvd7e                  srl rd,imm8             tsetb addr(rd)
rsvd9d                  srlb rbd,imm8           tsetb rbd
rsvd9f                  srll rrd,imm8           xor rd,@@rs
rsvdb9                  sub rd,@@rs              xor rd,addr
rsvdbf                  sub rd,addr             xor rd,addr(rs)
sbc rd,rs               sub rd,addr(rs)         xor rd,imm16
sbcb rbd,rbs            sub rd,imm16            xor rd,rs
sc imm8                 sub rd,rs               xorb rbd,@@rs
sda rd,rs               subb rbd,@@rs            xorb rbd,addr
sdab rbd,rs             subb rbd,addr           xorb rbd,addr(rs)
sdal rrd,rs             subb rbd,addr(rs)       xorb rbd,imm8
sdl rd,rs               subb rbd,imm8           xorb rbd,rbs
sdlb rbd,rs             subb rbd,rbs            xorb rbd,rbs
sdll rrd,rs             subl rrd,@@rs
set @@rd,imm4            subl rrd,addr
set addr(rd),imm4       subl rrd,addr(rs)
@end smallexample
@iftex
@endgroup
@end iftex
@end ifset