File: braceexpand.py

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braceexpand 0.1.6-1
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"""Bash-style brace expansion"""
import re
import string
import sys
from itertools import chain, product

__version__ = '0.1.6'

__all__ = ['braceexpand', 'alphabet', 'UnbalancedBracesError']

class UnbalancedBracesError(ValueError): pass

PY3 = sys.version_info[0] >= 3

if PY3:
    xrange = range

alphabet = string.ascii_uppercase + string.ascii_lowercase

int_range_re = re.compile(r'^(-?\d+)\.\.(-?\d+)(?:\.\.-?(\d+))?$')
char_range_re = re.compile(r'^([A-Za-z])\.\.([A-Za-z])(?:\.\.-?(\d+))?$')


def braceexpand(pattern, escape=True):
    """braceexpand(pattern) -> iterator over generated strings

    Returns an iterator over the strings resulting from brace expansion
    of pattern. This function implements Brace Expansion as described in
    bash(1), with the following limitations:

    * A pattern containing unbalanced braces will raise an
      UnbalancedBracesError exception. In bash, unbalanced braces will either
      be partly expanded or ignored.

    * A mixed-case character range like '{Z..a}' or '{a..Z}' will not
      include the characters '[]^_`' between 'Z' and 'a'.

    When escape is True (the default), characters in pattern can be
    prefixed with a backslash to cause them not to be interpreted as
    special characters for brace expansion (such as '{', '}', ',').
    To pass through a a literal backslash, double it ('\\\\').

    When escape is False, backslashes in pattern have no special
    meaning and will be preserved in the output.

    Examples:

    >>> from braceexpand import braceexpand

    # Integer range
    >>> list(braceexpand('item{1..3}'))
    ['item1', 'item2', 'item3']

    # Character range
    >>> list(braceexpand('{a..c}'))
    ['a', 'b', 'c']

    # Sequence
    >>> list(braceexpand('index.html{,.backup}'))
    ['index.html', 'index.html.backup']

    # Nested patterns
    >>> list(braceexpand('python{2.{5..7},3.{2,3}}'))
    ['python2.5', 'python2.6', 'python2.7', 'python3.2', 'python3.3']

    # Prefixing an integer with zero causes all numbers to be padded to
    # the same width.
    >>> list(braceexpand('{07..10}'))
    ['07', '08', '09', '10']

    # An optional increment can be specified for ranges.
    >>> list(braceexpand('{a..g..2}'))
    ['a', 'c', 'e', 'g']

    # Ranges can go in both directions.
    >>> list(braceexpand('{4..1}'))
    ['4', '3', '2', '1']

    # Numbers can be negative
    >>> list(braceexpand('{2..-1}'))
    ['2', '1', '0', '-1']

    # Unbalanced braces raise an exception.
    >>> list(braceexpand('{1{2,3}'))
    Traceback (most recent call last):
        ...
    UnbalancedBracesError: Unbalanced braces: '{1{2,3}'

    # By default, the backslash is the escape character.
    >>> list(braceexpand(r'{1\\{2,3}'))
    ['1{2', '3']

    # Setting 'escape' to False disables backslash escaping.
    >>> list(braceexpand(r'\\{1,2}', escape=False))
    ['\\\\1', '\\\\2']

    """
    return (_flatten(t, escape) for t in parse_pattern(pattern, escape))


def parse_pattern(pattern, escape):
    # pattern -> product(*parts)
    start = 0
    pos = 0
    bracketdepth = 0
    items = []

    #print 'pattern:', pattern
    while pos < len(pattern):
        if escape and pattern[pos] == '\\':
            pos += 2
            continue
        elif pattern[pos] == '{':
            if bracketdepth == 0 and pos > start:
                #print 'literal:', pattern[start:pos]
                items.append([pattern[start:pos]])
                start = pos
            bracketdepth += 1
        elif pattern[pos] == '}':
            bracketdepth -= 1
            if bracketdepth == 0:
                #print 'expression:', pattern[start+1:pos]
                expr = pattern[start+1:pos]
                item = parse_expression(expr, escape)
                if item is None:  # not a range or sequence
                    items.extend([['{'], parse_pattern(expr, escape), ['}']])
                else:
                    items.append(item)
                start = pos + 1 # skip the closing brace
        pos += 1

    if bracketdepth != 0: # unbalanced braces
        raise UnbalancedBracesError("Unbalanced braces: '%s'" % pattern)

    if start < pos:
        #print 'literal:', pattern[start:]
        items.append([pattern[start:]])

    return product(*items)


def parse_expression(expr, escape):
    int_range_match = int_range_re.match(expr)
    if int_range_match:
        return make_int_range(*int_range_match.groups())

    char_range_match = char_range_re.match(expr)
    if char_range_match:
        return make_char_range(*char_range_match.groups())

    return parse_sequence(expr, escape)


def parse_sequence(seq, escape):
    # sequence -> chain(*sequence_items)
    start = 0
    pos = 0
    bracketdepth = 0
    items = []

    #print 'sequence:', seq
    while pos < len(seq):
        if escape and seq[pos] == '\\':
            pos += 2
            continue
        elif seq[pos] == '{':
            bracketdepth += 1
        elif seq[pos] == '}':
            bracketdepth -= 1
        elif seq[pos] == ',' and bracketdepth == 0:
            items.append(parse_pattern(seq[start:pos], escape))
            start = pos + 1 # skip the comma
        pos += 1

    if bracketdepth != 0 or not items: # unbalanced braces or not a sequence
        return None

    # part after the last comma (may be the empty string)
    items.append(parse_pattern(seq[start:], escape))
    return chain(*items)


def make_int_range(start, end, step=None):
    if any([s.startswith(('0', '-0'))
            for s in (start, end) if s not in ('0', '-0')]):
        padding = max(len(start), len(end))
    else:
        padding = 0
    step = (int(step) or 1) if step else 1
    start = int(start)
    end = int(end)
    r = xrange(start, end+1, step) if start < end else \
        xrange(start, end-1, -step)
    fmt = '%0{}d'.format(padding)
    return (fmt % i for i in r)


def make_char_range(start, end, step=None):
    step = (int(step) or 1) if step else 1
    start = alphabet.index(start)
    end = alphabet.index(end)
    if start < end:
        return alphabet[start:end+1:step]
    else:
        end = end or -len(alphabet)
        return alphabet[start:end-1:-step]


escape_re = re.compile(r'\\(.)')

def _flatten(t, escape):
    l = []
    for item in t:
        if isinstance(item, tuple): l.extend(_flatten(item, escape))
        else: l.append(item)
    s = ''.join(l)
    # Strip escape characters from generated strings after expansion.
    return escape_re.sub(r'\1', s) if escape else s


if __name__ == '__main__':
    import doctest
    import sys
    failed, _ = doctest.testmod(optionflags=doctest.IGNORE_EXCEPTION_DETAIL)
    if failed:
        sys.exit(1)