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bristol 0.60.10-3
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Installing Bristol Summary (x.y.z = 0.60.8, for example):

	a. tar -zxvf bristol-x.y.z.tar.gz
	b. cd bristol-x.y.z
	c. ./configure
	d. make
	e. sudo make install
	f. /usr/local/bin/startBristol -mini

Table of Contents:

	1. About Bristol
	2. Installation
	3. Command line options
	4. ALSA Interface Configuration
	5. Jack Interface Configuration
	6. Bristol runcom file
	7. Integration with MIDI Control Surfaces
	8. Keyboard Accelerators
	9. Basics of Subtractive Synthesis
	10. Basics of FM Synthesis

This document is intended to help get bristol running with a minimum of fuss
or effort. The first steps above, a through f, are the shortest possible path
but there are a lot more options and capabilities discussed below that may
change the way bristol operates.

	1. About Bristol.

	1.1 What is it?

Bristol Audio Synthesis is a synth emulation package for a diverse range of
vintage synthesisers, electric pianos and organs. The application consists of
a synthesiser backend and a GUI frontend called Brighton.

	1.2 Who is it by?

Bristol is written by Nick Copeland with additional contributions by others.

	2. Installation

	2.1. System requirements

Bristol does not place a high requirement on the underlying system installation,
the DSP code is all packaged into the engine and the GUI was written for 
bristol. There are a number of optional extra packages that bristol can use to
give a more complete set of binaries. Also refer to section 1.3 below.

	libx11-dev       Bristol GUI requires this package
	libasound2-dev   ALSA support requires this package
	jackd            Jack support requires this package
	libjack-dev      Jack support requires this package

The system will also need libm.so to be installed as well as the build utils 
however this is a part of a normal distribution. The build utility requirements
is a little outside the scope of this document, it is assumed that make/gcc/as
are previously installed.

	2.2. Unpack the archive.

To do this, use the command below, replacing x.y.z with the version number of
the downloaded source code.

tar -zxvf bristol-x.y.z.tar.gz

This will create a subdirectory called bristol-x.y.z

	2.3. cd into the directory and do a 'configure'

cd bristol-x.y.z
./configure

Do bear in mind that if you have another version of Bristol installed, either
through your distribution's package manager or locally installed before, the
configure script will stop and refuse to continue. You can either use the
package manager to remove the version of Bristol installed or just ignore it
and add the --disable-version-check option to the end of configure on the
command-line.

At the end of the configure process there will be a short report on the driver
interfaces that have been auto-detected. Here is an extract of the output:

| Build with OSS support ......................... : true
| Build with ALSA support ........................ : true
| Build with JACK support ........................ : false
| Bristol needs jackd and libjack-dev to be installed for JACK support.
| Build with JACK MIDI support ................... : false
| Build with JACK Session support ................ : false
| Default audio drivers .......................... : alsa
| Default MIDI drivers ........................... : alsa
| X11 include file availability .................. : true

As is visible here it was not possible to find the relevant header files for
the jack audio interface drivers so support will not be included in the eventual
compilation. There is an indication provided as to which packages would be 
required to enable that support. For audio drivers there is a minimum of ALSA
required (OSS is also possible) however if the X11 header files could not be
found then there will be no graphical support in the binaries - a command line
interface only. In this event there will also be a report on which packages
are required to provide that support.

	2.4. Execute a 'make'.

To build Bristol type:

make

This process will produce all the usual verbose output. It will contain some
warnings about unused variables and some potential coding changes however it
should proceed to completion. If you get errors such as the following then you
will need to contact the author or raise a bug report.

gcc -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -I. -I..   -I/usr/X11R6/include -pthread -Wall -g -I./../include/slab -I./../include/bristol -I. -DBRISTOL_VOICECOUNT=32   -DBRISTOL_JACK_MULTI_CLOSE    -D_BRISTOL_DRAIN    -DBRISTOL_HAS_ALSA=1  -I/usr/include/alsa   -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer -O2 -g -O2 -I/usr/X11R6/include -MT bristol.o -MD -MP -MF .deps/bristol.Tpo -c -o bristol.o bristol.c
bristol.c:62: error: expected ‘=’, ‘,’, ‘;’, ‘asm’ or ‘__attribute__’ before ‘asdf’
make[2]: *** [bristol.o] Error 1
make[2]: Leaving directory `/opt/bristol/bristol-0.60.7/bristol'
make[1]: *** [all-recursive] Error 1
make[1]: Leaving directory `/opt/bristol/bristol-0.60.7'
make: *** [all] Error 2

How to contact the author or log a bug are given in the last few lines of the
output from ./configure above.

It is fortunately unusual that such compilation errors will occur on any Linux
distribution, the above was forced to fail just for providing an example.

	2.5. install the application typically requires root permissions

If you get no errors from the 'make' process then the application is ready to
be installed.

sudo make install

This step need to be run as root as, unless you have been very selective with
the ./configure options then parts of bristol will be written to parts of the
/usr filesystem which is typically read-only for user accounts. By default this
should install bristol and associated apps to /usr/local/ with data commponets
into /usr/local/share. To run the application you should now be able to use the
startBristol script however that does depend on /usr/local/bin being in your
path.

	2.6. Run the application

If the binary is placed in a directory in your path then you can typically 
start it directly:

startBristol -mini

If this is not in your path then try the following, this is the default location
for the binaries and may differ if you use alternative --prefix for configure.

/usr/local/bin/startBristol -mini




	3. Some Useful options for starting bristol:

-voices

Sets the number of voices the synth starts with. The default for most of the 
synths is to start with as many voices as their hardware counterparts have. 
In the case of the mini moog, this would be 1 voice.

-mono

Starts the synth with 1 voice (-hnp -lnp can be used to select high/low note
priority respectively)

-hnp

Selects High Note Priority, any notes played higher than the currently held
note will sound and bounce back to the held when released. Notes lower will
be ignored by the engine. Vice versa with -lnp.

-register

Changes the jack and alsa names to the text after it, so it can make more
sense when connecting devices etc.

-ar

Ignores the emulator default aspect ratio. In tiling window managers, bristol
can fight with the tiling for so long that active sensing will close the
emulator. This option stops that behaviour.

Note: Active Sensing is a 'ping' between the GUI frontend and the synth backend,
to ensure that the synth engine hasn't crashed.

-debug [1-16]

Produces debug output to the terminal. 1 is very little debug. 16 is very
verbose debug.

Many more options, along with the full list of synths can be found by doing
'startBristol --help' or 'man bristol'.



	4. ALSA Interface Configuration

To see the MIDI connections that can be built you need to look at aconnect
commmand:

aconnect -io

Here is a sammple of its output:

client 0: 'System' [type=kernel]
0 'Timer '
1 'Announce '
client 14: 'Midi Through' [type=kernel]
0 'Midi Through Port-0'
client 20: 'USB Oxygen 61' [type=kernel]
0 'USB Oxygen 61 MIDI 1'
client 24: 'USB Keystation 88es' [type=kernel]
0 'USB Keystation 88es MIDI 1'
client 129: 'bristol' [type=user]
0 'bristol input

Here we can see two MIDI controllers and the bristol engine. The following
command will link them together so that you can play bristol from your MIDI
master controller:

aconnect 20 129
aconnect 'USB Oxygen 61' bristol

It is possible to connect two master controllers to bristol and this is not
unusual for something like the B3. This emulator also has two manuals and can
accept multiple controllers on different MIDI channels to allow control of
both them.

If ALSA is the default interface (ie, you have not given any flags that imply
another interface type) then bristol will use ALSA for both audio and MIDI. The
default is the 'seq' MIDI interface. It is also possible to use a raw MIDI
interface with the option '-midi raw', the type really depends on your soundcard
and driver options.



	5. Jack Interface Configuration

JACK is a low-latency sound server, similar to ASIO on windows. Any apps that
are 'jack-aware' are able send audio information to one another seamlessly.
Bristol is just one such application that supports JACK. More information can
be found at http://jackaudio.org/

Using the jack audio driver is as simple as appending '-jack' to the
startBristol command.

As of 0.60.7, the following can disable the 'bristoljackstats' app, which can
cause startBristol to fail:

startBristol -jack -jackstats -count <jack periodsize> -rate <jack samplerate>

The count and rate have to match the settings given to the jack daemon. In the
event of mismatch you will get an error condition from bristol with some level
of diagnostic output to indicate the cause.

Unless specifically told otherwise, bristol will use jack drivers for both
audio and midi.

	5.1 Using qjackctl

Using qjackctl you can easily connect midi controlloers by clicking on either
the 'Midi' tab or 'Alsa' tab, depending on which midi driver you've selected to
use with bristol and then clicking the controller you want on the left pane and
the 'Bristol' input on the right and clicking 'connect'.




	6. The Bristol runcom file

Bristol itself has a large range of parameters, each tuning the operation to 
suit specific needs. Having to give so many parameters to get the synth to 
work in a specific environment gives it flexibility but also makes it sometimes
difficult to use. To quote one person, "It can be an inspiration killer".

There are a few third party apps such as monoBristol that provide graphical
front ends to the commandline options to make starting bristol easier. Bristol
itself supports a runcom file where a user can specify common preferred params
that are then included with every invocation.

The bristol runcom file can be found, per default, in $HOME/.bristol/bristolrc
and its function depends on the bristol version.

	6.1 Bristol prior to 0.60.8

The file needs to be created as it does not exist per default. When it exists
then the complete contents are prepended before the command line options. As
an example, consider the following contents:

	-jack
	-jackstats
	-count 256
	-rate 48000

or 

	-jack -jackstats -count 256 -rate 48000

Both of these will have the same affect as they are all summed together. If
bristol is started as 'startBristol -mini' then the actual commmandline will be

	startBristol -jack -jackstats -count 256 -rate 48000 -mini

	6.2 Bristol from 0.60.8

There were some limitations of the initial runcom implementation. A number of
parameters are implied by each emulator: voices, detune, pitchbend and others.
If the runcom includes a -pwd (pitch wheel depth) of 7 it might be lost when
the emulator is selected as the emulator will configure its own desired pitch
wheel sensitivity as most of the emulators will default this value to '2'. To
support such features the runcom was changed to support pre and post parameters.
Consider the following contents:

	PREARGS=-jack -jackstats -count 128 -rate 48000 -as 0 -priority 65 -debug 1
	POSTARGS=-multi 2 -lnp -pwd 7 -glide 10 -rud -lnp -log -gain 2 -host unix:

If bristol is now started with 'startBristol -mini' the final options taken by
the program will be

	startBristol $PREARGS -mini $POSTARGS

This is all expanded out to give a complete command line that, if it was typed
in, would read as follows:

	startBristol -jack -jackstats -count 128 -rate 48000 -as 0 -priority 65 -debug 1 -mini -multi 2 -lnp -pwd 7 -glide -rud -lnp -log -gain 2 -host unix:

Here there are some initial parameter settings, then the emulator is selected.
The emulator will default the pitch wheel depth to '2'. Then the post arguments
are added and they reset the pitchwheel depth to the value '7'.

This whole ugly line of parameters is now called with just

	startBristol -mini

The goal of the runcom file is to reduce to a minimum the number of parameters
that need to be given on the command line whilst still maintaining a completely
customised local configuration.

Questions regarding parameter ordering should be sent to LAU mailing list, the
author, or raised on the bristol sourceforge forum.




	7. Controlling the GUI from a MIDI master controller

It is possible to get the GUI to be controlled from faders on a master 
controller. First connect up the MIDI as described above. Place the mouse
cursor over the GUI control you want to track and push the Middle Mouse Button.
Now move the MIDI control, the GUI should now track that control. Devices can
be unregistered using the same method. The settings will be saved when you
save a memory.

The settings themselves are in the directory listed below, and they can be
edited with a text editor.

    /home/username/.bristol/memory/profiles/<synthname> 

Most of the synths come with a standard GM midi mapping for controlling filter
cutoff/resonance, etc.



	8. Keyboard accelerators

	8.1 Keyboard Mappings.

Bristol supports GUI shortcuts and playing the synths via a QWERTY keyboard.
Playing bristol via the QWERTY on the B3 has C2 starting on '\' and going up
to F3 on '/' on the bottom manual, while the top manual goes from C4 on Q to
G5 on ']'. On a single keyboard synth, such as the polysix, C1 starts on '\'
and goes up F2 on '/' and C3 starts on Q and ends at G4 on ']'.

For alternative mappings such as AZERTY it is necessary to manually edit the
emulator profile files.

	8.2 Keyboard Accelerators

Useful shortcuts are:
Ctrl +
Load next memory
Ctrl - 
Load previous memory
Ctrl l
Load/reload current memory
Ctrl s
Save settings to current memory.

Arrow keys can control pot/slider movement with Shift being an accelerator.
The GUI devices also support VI style j/k up/down with Shift and Control 
options.



	9. Basics of Subtractive Synthesis.

Subtractive synths generally have 5 parts to them:

	1. Oscillators
	2. Filters
	3. Low Frequency Oscillators (LFOs)
	4. ADSR Envelopes
	5. Amplification output

Subtractive synthesis works by taking the waveforms generated by oscillators,
filtering them (or not) to remove specific frequencies, using a LFO to modulate
the sound, applying an ADSR Envelope to them and then sending the sound out the
synth.

	9.1. Oscillators

Oscillators use basic waveforms (saw, square, triangle, sine) to produce sound.
On some synths, these can be combined to produce harmonically rich sounds (saw
and square for example).

The more oscillators a synth has, the greater number of waveforms that can be
layered together to create a quite 'phat' sound.

	9.2. Filters

Filters are used to remove specific frequencies from the oscillators.

Filters generally come in 3 types in the bristol synths:

Low Pass Filter
High Pass
Band Reject

Low Pass filters remove high frequencies (i.e they pass low freqencies).
High Pass filters remove low freqencies
Band Reject filters remove both low and high filters in a specific range and
allow a certain 'mid-range' of frequencies through.

On all filters, there are 2 main controls:
Frequency Cutoff.
Frequency Resonance.

Frequency Cutoff allows you to control how much of the sound gets filtered.
Resonance amplifies the narrow band of frequencies that are close to the cutoff point.

	9.3.Low Frequency Oscillators (LFOs)

LFOs are exactly like normal oscillators (they have waveforms, like sine,
square and triangle), but they sound below what a human can hear.  In this way,
they can modulate various parameters on the synths, without being heard. The
parameters that an LFO modulates is called the destination.

LFOs usually have 2 controls:
Rate
Delay

Rate determines how quickly the LFO oscillates at, low levels modulates the
destination slowly, while high levels will modulate quickly. Delay determines
how quickly the LFO should start modulating the destination.

Common modulation destinations are:
Audible Oscillator's frequency (Vibrato effect)
Filter Cutoff frequency (wah-wah effect)
Amplification output (tremolo effect)

On most of the bristol synths, the LFO 'depth' (how much the LFO affects the
destination) is controlled by the mod-wheel.

	9.4. ADSR Envelopes.

ADSR envelopes shape the sound of the oscillators and filter (where available).
ADSR stands for the 4 parameters that can shape the sound:

Attack - How quickly the sound reaches full volume.
Decay - How quickly the sound falls down to the sustain level
Sustain - Volume of the sound while the key is held
Release - How quickly the sound fades to silence

	9.5. Amplification output
There is usually a control here that controls the overall volume of the synth.



	10. Basics of FM Synthesis.

FM Synthesis stands for Frequency Modulation synthesis.

This means that one oscillator (called a Modulator) modulates the frequency
of another oscillator (called a Carrier). In Bristol there are 3 FM emulators,
2 Rhodes Electric Pianos and a Yamaha DX 6 Operator synth.

FM synthesis works by feeding one signal from one oscillator (a modulator) into
another signal from another oscillator (a carrier). The interesting part is
when a modulator is audible, detuning the modulator will produce bell-like
tones in the output as the carrier's frequency is modulated by an audible
signal. It should be noted that all of the oscillators are sine waves so
stacking them together can produce some nice hammond-esque sounds.

The DX emulation has got 24 different "algorithms" for all 6 of it's operators.
These control which oscillators are modulators and which are carriers
(modulators can be fed into other modulators as well).

All operators have their own ADSR envelope, so sound shaping is possible in
a variety of ways. The ADSR is a 7-stage envelope. This means that it has 7
parts to it:

L1 - First audible stage
Attack1 - Rate at which the operator goes from silence to L1
L2 - Second audible stage
Attack2 - Rate at which the operator goes from L1 to L2
Decay - Rate at which L2 falls to the Sustain stage
Sustain - How loud the sound will be through steady state
Release - Rate at which the sound falls to silence

Input gain - How much the modulator affects the carrier for this specific
operator.
Output gain - How loud the operator is (when it's a carrier) and how much modulation is sent out (when it's a modulator).

Each operator has three buttons: LFO, IGC and OGC.
LFO drops the oscillator by a few octaves and removes pitch tracking.
IGC controls whether the input gain for that operator is affected by velocity.
OGC controls whether the output gain for that operator is affected by velocity.

Initial draft by Andrew Coughlan.
Editing, additional information and suggestions by Nick Copeland.