The Constitution of the United States of America
We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect
union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the
common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings
of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish
this Constitution for the United States of America.
All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of
the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of
The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every
second year by the people of the several States, and the elector in
each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the
most numerous branch of the State Legislature.
No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that
State in which he shall be chosen.
Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the
several States which may be included within this Union, according to
their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding the
whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a
term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all
other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three
years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States,
and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they
shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed
one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one
Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of
New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight,
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New
York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland
six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and
When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the
Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such
The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other
officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.
The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from
each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each
Senator shall have one vote.
Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three
classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be
vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at
the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the
expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every
second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise,
during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive
thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the
Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.
No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of
thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which
he shall be chosen.
The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the
Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.
The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President
_pro_tempore_, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall
exercise the office of the President of the United States.
The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When
sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When
the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall
preside: and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of
two-thirds of the members present.
Judgement in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office
of honor, trust, or profit under the United States: but the party
convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment,
trial, judgement and punishment, according to law.