File: CHANGES.md

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coq 8.9.0-1
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Changes from 8.9+beta1 to 8.9.0
===============================

Assorted bug fixes.

Changes from 8.8.2 to 8.9+beta1
===============================

Kernel

- Mutually defined records are now supported.

Notations

- New support for autonomous grammars of terms, called "custom
  entries" (see chapter "Syntax extensions" of the reference manual).

- Deprecated compatibility notations will actually be removed in the
  next version of Coq.  Uses of these notations are generally easy to
  fix thanks to the hint contained in the deprecation warnings. For
  projects that require more than a handful of such fixes, there is [a
  script](https://gist.github.com/JasonGross/9770653967de3679d131c59d42de6d17#file-replace-notations-py)
  that will do it automatically, using the output of coqc. The script
  contains documentation on its usage in a comment at the top.

Tactics

- Added toplevel goal selector `!` which expects a single focused goal.
  Use with `Set Default Goal Selector` to force focusing before tactics
  are called.

- The undocumented "nameless" forms `fix N`, `cofix` that were
  deprecated in 8.8 have been removed from Ltac's syntax; please use
  `fix ident N/cofix ident` to explicitly name the (co)fixpoint
  hypothesis to be introduced.

- Introduction tactics `intro`/`intros` on a goal that is an
  existential variable now force a refinement of the goal into a
  dependent product rather than failing.

- Support for `fix`/`cofix` added in Ltac `match` and `lazymatch`.

- Ltac backtraces now include trace information about tactics
  called by OCaml-defined tactics.

- Option `Ltac Debug` now applies also to terms built using Ltac functions.

- Deprecated the `Implicit Tactic` family of commands.

- The default program obligation tactic uses a bounded proof search
  instead of an unbounded and potentially non-terminating one now
  (source of incompatibility).

- The `simple apply` tactic now respects the `Opaque` flag when called from
  Ltac (`auto` still does not respect it).

- Tactic `constr_eq` now adds universe constraints needed for the
  identity to the context (it used to ignore them). New tactic
  `constr_eq_strict` checks that the required constraints already hold
  without adding new ones. Preexisting tactic `constr_eq_nounivs` can
  still be used if you really want to ignore universe constraints.

- Tactics and tactic notations now understand the `deprecated` attribute.
- The `fourier` tactic has been removed. Please now use `lra` instead. You
  may need to add `Require Import Lra` to your developments. For compatibility,
  we now define `fourier` as a deprecated alias of `lra`.

- The `romega` tactics have been deprecated; please use `lia` instead.

Focusing

- Focusing bracket `{` now supports named goal selectors,
  e.g. `[x]: {` will focus on a goal (existential variable) named `x`.
  As usual, unfocus with `}` once the sub-goal is fully solved.

Specification language

- A fix to unification (which was sensitive to the ascii name of
  variables) may occasionally change type inference in incompatible
  ways, especially regarding the inference of the return clause of `match`.

Standard Library

- Added `Ascii.eqb` and `String.eqb` and the `=?` notation for them,
  and proved some lemmas about them.  Note that this might cause
  incompatibilities if you have, e.g., `string_scope` and `Z_scope` both
  open with `string_scope` on top, and expect `=?` to refer to `Z.eqb`.
  Solution: wrap `_ =? _` in `(_ =? _)%Z` (or whichever scope you
  want).

- Added `Ndigits.N2Bv_sized`, and proved some lemmas about it.
  Deprecated `Ndigits.N2Bv_gen`.

- The scopes `int_scope` and `uint_scope` have been renamed to
  `dec_int_scope` and `dec_uint_scope`, to clash less with ssreflect
  and other packages.  They are still delimited by `%int` and `%uint`.

- Syntax notations for `string`, `ascii`, `Z`, `positive`, `N`, `R`,
  and `int31` are no longer available merely by `Require`ing the files
  that define the inductives.  You must `Import` `Coq.Strings.String`,
  `Coq.Strings.Ascii`, `Coq.ZArith.BinIntDef`, `Coq.PArith.BinPosDef`,
  `Coq.NArith.BinNatDef`, `Coq.Reals.Rdefinitions`, and
  `Coq.Numbers.Cyclic.Int31.Int31`, respectively, to be able to use
  these notations.  Note that passing `-compat 8.8` or issuing
  `Require Import Coq.Compat.Coq88` will make these notations
  available.  Users wishing to port their developments automatically
  may download `fix.py` from
  <https://gist.github.com/JasonGross/5d4558edf8f5c2c548a3d96c17820169>
  and run a command like `while true; do make -Okj 2>&1 |
  /path/to/fix.py; done` and get a cup of coffee.  (This command must
  be manually interrupted once the build finishes all the way though.
  Note also that this method is not fail-proof; you may have to adjust
  some scopes if you were relying on string notations not being
  available even when `string_scope` was open.)

- Numeral syntax for `nat` is no longer available without loading the
  entire prelude (`Require Import Coq.Init.Prelude`).  This only
  impacts users running Coq without the init library (`-nois` or
  `-noinit`) and also issuing `Require Import Coq.Init.Datatypes`.

Tools

- Coq_makefile lets one override or extend the following variables from
  the command line: `COQFLAGS`, `COQCHKFLAGS`, `COQDOCFLAGS`.
  `COQFLAGS` is now entirely separate from `COQLIBS`, so in custom Makefiles
  `$(COQFLAGS)` should be replaced by `$(COQFLAGS) $(COQLIBS)`.

- Removed the `gallina` utility (extracts specification from Coq vernacular files).
  If you would like to maintain this tool externally, please contact us.

- Removed the Emacs modes distributed with Coq. You are advised to
  use [Proof-General](https://proofgeneral.github.io/) (and optionally
  [Company-Coq](https://github.com/cpitclaudel/company-coq)) instead.
  If your use case is not covered by these alternative Emacs modes,
  please open an issue. We can help set up external maintenance as part
  of Proof-General, or independently as part of coq-community.

Vernacular Commands

- Removed deprecated commands `Arguments Scope` and `Implicit Arguments`
  (not the option). Use the `Arguments` command instead.
- Nested proofs may be enabled through the option `Nested Proofs Allowed`.
  By default, they are disabled and produce an error. The deprecation
  warning which used to occur when using nested proofs has been removed.
- Added option `Uniform Inductive Parameters` which abstracts over parameters
  before typechecking constructors, allowing to write for example
  `Inductive list (A : Type) := nil : list | cons : A -> list -> list.`
- New `Set Hint Variables/Constants Opaque/Transparent` commands for setting
  globally the opacity flag of variables and constants in hint databases,
  overwritting the opacity set of the hint database.
- Added generic syntax for "attributes", as in:
  `#[local] Lemma foo : bar.`
- Added the `Numeral Notation` command for registering decimal numeral
  notations for custom types
- The `Set SsrHave NoTCResolution` command no longer has special global
  scope. If you want the previous behavior, use `Global Set SsrHave
  NoTCResolution`.
- Multiple sections with the same name are allowed.

Coq binaries and process model

- Before 8.9, Coq distributed a single `coqtop` binary and a set of
  dynamically loadable plugins that used to take over the main loop
  for tasks such as IDE language server or parallel proof checking.

  These plugins have been turned into full-fledged binaries so each
  different process has associated a particular binary now, in
  particular `coqidetop` is the CoqIDE language server, and
  `coq{proof,tactic,query}worker` are in charge of task-specific and
  parallel proof checking.

SSReflect

- The implementation of delayed clear switches in intro patterns
  is now simpler to explain:
  1. The immediate effect of a clear switch like `{x}` is to rename the
     variable `x` to `_x_` (i.e. a reserved identifier that cannot be mentioned
     explicitly)
  2. The delayed effect of `{x}` is that `_x_` is cleared at the end of the intro
     pattern
  3. A clear switch immediately before a view application like `{x}/v` is
     translated to `/v{x}`.

  In particular, the third rule lets one write `{x}/v` even if `v` uses the variable `x`:
  indeed the view is executed before the renaming.

- An empty clear switch is now accepted in intro patterns before a
  view application whenever the view is a variable.
  One can now write `{}/v` to mean `{v}/v`.  Remark that `{}/x` is very similar
  to the idiom `{}e` for the rewrite tactic (the equation `e` is used for
  rewriting and then discarded).

Standard Library

- There are now conversions between `string` and `positive`, `Z`,
  `nat`, and `N` in binary, octal, and hex.

Display diffs between proof steps

- `coqtop` and `coqide` can now highlight the differences between proof steps
  in color. This can be enabled from the command line or the
  `Set Diffs "on"/"off"/"removed"` command. Please see the documentation for
  details.  Showing diffs in Proof General requires small changes to PG
  (under discussion).

Notations

- Added `++` infix for `VectorDef.append`.
  Note that this might cause incompatibilities if you have, e.g., `list_scope`
  and `vector_scope` both open with `vector_scope` on top, and expect `++` to
  refer to `app`.
  Solution: wrap `_ ++ _` in `(_ ++ _)%list` (or whichever scope you want).

Changes from 8.8.1 to 8.8.2
===========================

Documentation

- A PDF version of the reference manual is available once again.

Tools

- The coq-makefile targets `print-pretty-timed`, `print-pretty-timed-diff`,
  and `print-pretty-single-time-diff` now correctly label the "before" and
  "after" columns, rather than swapping them.

Kernel

- The kernel does not tolerate capture of global universes by
  polymorphic universe binders, fixing a soundness break (triggered
  only through custom plugins)

Windows installer

- The Windows installer now includes many more external packages that can be
  individually selected for installation.

Many other bug fixes and lots of documentation improvements (for details,
see the 8.8.2 milestone at https://github.com/coq/coq/milestone/15?closed=1).

Changes from 8.8.0 to 8.8.1
===========================

Kernel

- Fix a critical bug with cofixpoints and `vm_compute`/`native_compute` (#7333).
- Fix a critical bug with modules and algebraic universes (#7695)
- Fix a critical bug with inlining of polymorphic constants (#7615).
- Fix a critical bug with universe polymorphism and `vm_compute` (#7723). Was
  present since 8.5.

Notations

- Fixed unexpected collision between only-parsing and only-printing
  notations (issue #7462).

Windows installer

- The Windows installer now includes external packages Ltac2 and Equations
  (it included the Bignums package since 8.8+beta1).

Many other bug fixes, documentation improvements (including fixes of
regressions due to the Sphinx migration), and user message improvements
(for details, see the 8.8.1 milestone at
https://github.com/coq/coq/milestone/13?closed=1).

Changes from 8.8+beta1 to 8.8.0
===============================

Tools

- Asynchronous proof delegation policy was fixed. Since version 8.7
  Coq was ignoring previous runs and the `-async-proofs-delegation-threshold`
  option did not have the expected behavior.

Tactic language

- The undocumented "nameless" forms `fix N`, `cofix` have been
  deprecated; please use `fix ident N /cofix ident` to explicitely
  name the (co)fixpoint hypothesis to be introduced.

Documentation

- The reference manual is now fully ported to Sphinx.

Other small deprecations and bug fixes.

Changes from 8.7.2 to 8.8+beta1
===============================

Kernel

- Support for template polymorphism for definitions was removed. May trigger
  more "universe inconsistency" errors in rare occasions.
- Fixpoints are no longer allowed on non-recursive inductive types.

Notations

- Recursive notations with the recursive pattern repeating on the
  right (e.g. "( x ; .. ; y ; z )") now supported.
- Notations with a specific level for the leftmost nonterminal,
  when printing-only, are supported.
- Notations can now refer to the syntactic category of patterns (as in
  "fun 'pat =>" or "match p with pat => ... end"). Two variants are
  available, depending on whether a single variable is considered as a
  pattern or not.
- Recursive notations now support ".." patterns with several
  occurrences of the recursive term or binder, possibly mixing terms
  and binders, possibly in reverse left-to-right order.
- "Locate" now working also on notations of the form "x + y" (rather
  than "_ + _").

Specification language

- When printing clauses of a "match", clauses with same right-hand
  side are factorized and the last most factorized clause with no
  variables, if it exists, is turned into a default clause.
  Use "Unset Printing Allow Default Clause" do deactivate printing
  of a default clause.
  Use "Unset Printing Factorizable Match Patterns" to deactivate
  factorization of clauses with same right-hand side.

Tactics

- On Linux, "native_compute" calls can be profiled using the "perf"
  utility. The command "Set NativeCompute Profiling" enables
  profiling, and "Set NativeCompute Profile Filename" customizes
  the profile filename.
- The tactic "omega" is now aware of the bodies of context variables
  such as "x := 5 : Z" (see #1362). This could be disabled via
  Unset Omega UseLocalDefs.
- The tactic "romega" is also aware now of the bodies of context variables.
- The tactic "zify" resp. "omega with N" is now aware of N.pred.
- Tactic "decide equality" now able to manage constructors which
  contain proofs.
- Added tactics reset ltac profile, show ltac profile (and variants)
- Added tactics restart_timer, finish_timing, and time_constr as an
  experimental way of timing Ltac's evaluation phase
- Added tactic optimize_heap, analogous to the Vernacular Optimize
  Heap, which performs a major garbage collection and heap compaction
  in the OCaml run-time system.
- The tactics "dtauto", "dintuition", "firstorder" now handle inductive types
  with let bindings in the parameters.
- The tactic "dtauto" now handles some inductives such as
  "@sigT A (fun _ => B)" as non-dependent conjunctions.
- A bug fixed in "rewrite H in *" and "rewrite H in * |-" may cause a
  few rare incompatibilities (it was unintendedly recursively
  rewriting in the side conditions generated by H).
- Added tactics "assert_succeeds tac" and "assert_fails tac" to ensure
  properties of the executation of a tactic without keeping the effect
  of the execution.
- `vm_compute` now supports existential variables.
- Calls to `shelve` and `give_up` within calls to tactic `refine` now working.
- Deprecated tactic `appcontext` was removed.

Focusing

- Focusing bracket `{` now supports single-numbered goal selector,
  e.g. `2: {` will focus on the second sub-goal. As usual, unfocus
  with `}` once the sub-goal is fully solved.
  The `Focus` and `Unfocus` commands are now deprecated.

Vernacular Commands

- Proofs ending in "Qed exporting ident, .., ident" are not supported
  anymore. Constants generated during `abstract` are kept private to the
  local environment.
- The deprecated Coercion Local, Open Local Scope, Notation Local syntax
  was removed. Use Local as a prefix instead.
- For the Extraction Language command, "OCaml" is spelled correctly.
  The older "Ocaml" is still accepted, but deprecated.
- Using “Require” inside a section is deprecated.
- An experimental command "Show Extraction" allows to extract the content
  of the current ongoing proof (grant wish #4129).
- Coercion now accepts the type of its argument to be "Prop" or "Type".
- The "Export" modifier can now be used when setting and unsetting options, and
  will result in performing the same change when the module corresponding the
  command is imported.
- The `Axiom` command does not automatically declare axioms as instances when
  their type is a class. Previous behavior can be restored using `Set
  Typeclasses Axioms Are Instances`.

Universes

- Qualified naming of global universes now works like other namespaced
  objects (e.g. constants), with a separate namespace, inside and across
  module and library boundaries. Global universe names introduced in an
  inductive / constant / Let declaration get qualified with the name of
  the declaration.
- Universe cumulativity for inductive types is now specified as a
  variance for each polymorphic universe. See the reference manual for
  more information.
- Inference of universe constraints with cumulative inductive types
  produces more general constraints. Unsetting new option Cumulativity
  Weak Constraints produces even more general constraints (but may
  produce too many universes to be practical).
- Fix #5726: Notations that start with `Type` now support universe instances
  with `@{u}`.
- `with Definition` now understands universe declarations
  (like `@{u| Set < u}`).

Tools

- Coq can now be run with the option -mangle-names to change the auto-generated
  name scheme. This is intended to function as a linter for developments that
  want to be robust to changes in auto-generated names. This feature is experimental,
  and may change or disappear without warning.
- GeoProof support was removed.

Checker

- The checker now accepts filenames in addition to logical paths.

CoqIDE

- Find and Replace All report the number of occurrences found; Find indicates
  when it wraps.

coqdep

- Learned to read -I, -Q, -R and filenames from _CoqProject files.
  This is used by coq_makefile when generating dependencies for .v
  files (but not other files).

Documentation

- The Coq FAQ, formerly located at https://coq.inria.fr/faq, has been
  moved to the GitHub wiki section of this repository; the main entry
  page is https://github.com/coq/coq/wiki/The-Coq-FAQ.
- Documentation: a large community effort resulted in the migration
  of the reference manual to the Sphinx documentation tool. The result
  is partially integrated in this version.

Standard Library

- New libraries Coq.Init.Decimal, Coq.Numbers.DecimalFacts,
  Coq.Numbers.DecimalNat, Coq.Numbers.DecimalPos,
  Coq.Numbers.DecimalN, Coq.Numbers.DecimalZ,
  Coq.Numbers.DecimalString providing a type of decimal numbers, some
  facts about them, and conversions between decimal numbers and nat,
  positive, N, Z, and string.
- Added [Coq.Strings.String.concat] to concatenate a list of strings
  inserting a separator between each item
- Notation `'` for Zpos in QArith was removed.

- Some deprecated aliases are now emitting warnings when used.

Compatibility support

- Support for compatibility with versions before 8.6 was dropped.

Options

- The following deprecated options have been removed:

  + `Refolding Reduction`
  + `Standard Proposition Elimination`
  + `Dependent Propositions Elimination`
  + `Discriminate Introduction`
  + `Shrink Abstract`
  + `Tactic Pattern Unification`
  + `Intuition Iff Unfolding`
  + `Injection L2R Pattern Order`
  + `Record Elimination Schemes`
  + `Match Strict`
  + `Tactic Compat Context`
  + `Typeclasses Legacy Resolution`
  + `Typeclasses Module Eta`
  + `Typeclass Resolution After Apply`

Changes from 8.7.1 to 8.7.2
===========================

Fixed a critical bug in the VM handling of universes (#6677). This bug
affected all releases since 8.5.

Improved support for building with OCaml 4.06.0 and external num package.

Many other bug fixes, documentation improvements, and user
message improvements (for details, see the 8.7.2 milestone at
https://github.com/coq/coq/milestone/11?closed=1).

Changes from 8.7.0 to 8.7.1
===========================

Compatibility with OCaml 4.06.0.

Many bug fixes, documentation improvements, and user message improvements (for
details see the 8.7.1 milestone at https://github.com/coq/coq/milestone/10?closed=1).

Changes from 8.7+beta2 to 8.7.0
===============================

OCaml

- Users can pass specific flags to the OCaml optimizing compiler by
  -using the flambda-opts configure-time option.

  Beware that compiling Coq with a flambda-enabled compiler is
  experimental and may require large amounts of RAM and CPU, see
  INSTALL for more details.

Changes from 8.7+beta1 to 8.7+beta2
===================================

Tools

- In CoqIDE, the "Compile Buffer" command takes account of flags in
  _CoqProject or other project file.

Improvements around some error messages.

Many bug fixes including two important ones:

- Bug #5730: CoqIDE becomes unresponsive on file open.
- coq_makefile: make sure compile flags for Coq and coq_makefile are in sync
  (in particular, make sure the `-safe-string` option is used to compile plugins).

Changes from 8.6.1 to 8.7+beta1
===============================

Tactics

- New tactic "extensionality in H" which applies (possibly dependent)
  functional extensionality in H supposed to be a quantified equality
  until giving a bare equality.
- New tactic "inversion_sigma" which turns equalities of dependent
  pairs (e.g., "existT P x p = existT P y q", frequently left over by
  "inversion" on a dependent type family) into pairs of equalities
  (e.g., a hypothesis "H : x = y" and a hypothesis of type "rew H in p
  = q"); these hypotheses can subsequently be simplified using
  "subst", without ever invoking any kind of axiom asserting
  uniqueness of identity proofs. If you want to explicitly specify the
  hypothesis to be inverted, or name the generated hypotheses, you can
  invoke "induction H as [H1 H2] using eq_sigT_rect".  The tactic also
  works for "sig", "sigT2", and "sig2", and there are similar
  "eq_sig*_rect" induction lemmas.
- Tactic "specialize with ..." now accepts any partial bindings.
  Missing bindings are either solved by unification or left quantified
  in the hypothesis.
- New representation of terms that statically ensure stability by
  evar-expansion. This has several consequences.
  * In terms of performance, this adds a cost to every term destructuration,
    but at the same time most eager evar normalizations were removed, which
    couterbalances this drawback and even sometimes outperforms the old
    implementation. For instance, many operations that would require O(n)
    normalization of the term are now O(1) in tactics. YMMV.
  * This triggers small changes in unification, which was not evar-insensitive.
    Most notably, the new implementation recognizes Miller patterns that were
    missed before because of a missing normalization step. Hopefully this should
    be fairly uncommon.
- Tactic "auto with real" can now discharge comparisons of literals.
- The types of variables in patterns of "match" are now
  beta-iota-reduced after type-checking. This has an impact on the
  type of the variables that the tactic "refine" introduces in the
  context, producing types a priori closer to the expectations.
- In "Tactic Notation" or "TACTIC EXTEND", entry "constr_with_bindings"
  now uses type classes and rejects terms with unresolved holes, like
  entry "constr" does. To get the former behavior use
  "open_constr_with_bindings" (possible source of incompatibility).
- New e-variants eassert, eenough, epose proof, eset, eremember, epose
  which behave like the corresponding variants with no "e" but turn
  unresolved implicit arguments into existential variables, on the
  shelf, rather than failing.
- Tactic injection has become more powerful (closes bug #4890) and its
  documentation has been updated.
- New variants of the `first` and `solve` tacticals that do not rely
  on parsing rules, meant to define tactic notations.
- Added support for side effects hooks in `cbv`, `cbn` and `simpl`.
  The side effects are provided via a plugin:
  https://github.com/herbelin/reduction-effects/
- It is now possible to take hint database names as parameters in a
  Ltac definition or a Tactic Notation.
- New option `Set Ltac Batch Debug` on top of `Set Ltac Debug` for
  non-interactive Ltac debug output.

Gallina

- Now supporting all kinds of binders, including 'pat, in syntax of record fields.

Vernacular Commands

- Goals context can be printed in a more compact way when `Set
  Printing Compact Contexts` is activated.
- Unfocused goals can be printed with the `Set Printing Unfocused`
  option.
- `Print` now shows the types of let-bindings.
- The compatibility options for printing primitive projections
  (`Set Printing Primitive Projection Parameters` and
  `Set Printing Primitive Projection Compatibility`) are now off by default.
- Possibility to unset the printing of notations in a more fine grained
  fashion than `Unset Printing Notations` is provided without any
  user-syntax. The goal is that someone creates a plugin to experiment
  such a user-syntax, to be later integrated in Coq when stabilized.
- `About` now tells if a reference is a coercion.
- The deprecated `Save` vernacular and its form `Save Theorem id` to
  close proofs have been removed from the syntax. Please use `Qed`.
- `Search` now sorts results by relevance (the relevance metric is a
  weighted sum of number of distinct symbols and size of the term).

Standard Library

- New file PropExtensionality.v to explicitly work in the axiomatic
  context of propositional extensionality.
- New file SetoidChoice.v axiomatically providing choice over setoids,
  and, consequently, choice of representatives in equivalence classes.
  Various proof-theoretic characterizations of choice over setoids in
  file ChoiceFacts.v.
- New lemmas about iff and about orders on positive and Z.
- New lemmas on powerRZ.
- Strengthened statement of JMeq_eq_dep (closes bug #4912).
- The BigN, BigZ, BigZ libraries are no longer part of the Coq standard
  library, they are now provided by a separate repository
    https://github.com/coq/bignums
  The split has been done just after the Int31 library.

- IZR (Reals) has been changed to produce a compact representation of
  integers. As a consequence, IZR is no longer convertible to INR and
  lemmas such as INR_IZR_INZ should be used instead.
- Real constants are now represented using IZR rather than R0 and R1;
  this might cause rewriting rules to fail to apply to constants.
- Added new notation {x & P} for sigT (without a type for x)

Plugins

- The Ssreflect plugin is now distributed with Coq. Its documentation has
  been integrated as a chapter of the reference manual. This chapter is
  work in progress so feedback is welcome.
- The mathematical proof language (also known as declarative mode) was removed.
- A new command Extraction TestCompile has been introduced, not meant
  for the general user but instead for Coq's test-suite.
- The extraction plugin is no longer loaded by default. It must be
  explicitly loaded with [Require Extraction], which is backwards
  compatible.
- The functional induction plugin (which provides the [Function]
  vernacular) is no longer loaded by default. It must be explicitly
  loaded with [Require FunInd], which is backwards compatible.


Dependencies

- Support for camlp4 has been removed.

Tools

- coq_makefile was completely redesigned to improve its maintainability and
  the extensibility of generated Makefiles, and to make _CoqProject files
  more palatable to IDEs.  Overview:
  * _CoqProject files contain only Coq specific data (i.e. the list of
    files, -R options, ...)
  * coq_makefile translates _CoqProject to Makefile.conf and copies in the
    desired location a standard Makefile (that reads Makefile.conf)
  * Makefile extensions can be implemented in a Makefile.local file (read
    by the main Makefile) by installing a hook in the extension points
    provided by the standard Makefile
  The current version contains code for retro compatibility that prints
  warnings when a deprecated feature is used.  Please upgrade your _CoqProject
  accordingly.
  * Additionally, coq_makefile-made Makefiles now support experimental timing
    targets `pretty-timed`, `pretty-timed-before`, `pretty-timed-after`,
    `print-pretty-timed-diff`, `print-pretty-single-time-diff`,
    `all.timing.diff`, and the variable `TIMING=1` (or `TIMING=before` or
    `TIMING=after`); see the documentation for more details.

Build Infrastructure

- Note that 'make world' does not build the bytecode binaries anymore.
  For that, you can use 'make byte' (and 'make install-byte' afterwards).
  Warning: native and byte compilations should *not* be mixed in the same
  instance of 'make -j', otherwise both ocamlc and ocamlopt might race for
  access to the same .cmi files. In short, use "make -j && make -j byte"
  instead of "make -j world byte".

Universes

- Cumulative inductive types. see prefixes "Cumulative", "NonCumulative"
  for inductive definitions and the option "Set Polymorphic Inductive Cumulativity"
  in the reference manual.
- New syntax `foo@{_}` to instantiate a polymorphic definition with
  anonymous universes (can also be used with `Type`).

XML Protocol and internal changes

See dev/doc/changes.txt

Many bugfixes including #1859, #2884, #3613, #3943, #3994,
#4250, #4709, #4720, #4824, #4844, #4911, #5026, #5233,
#5275, #5315, #5336, #5360, #5390, #5414, #5417, #5420,
#5439, #5449, #5475, #5476, #5482, #5501, #5507, #5520,
#5523, #5524, #5553, #5577, #5578, #5589, #5597, #5598,
#5607, #5618, #5619, #5620, #5641, #5648, #5651, #5671.

Many bugfixes on OS X and Windows (now the test-suite passes on these
platforms too).

Many optimizations.

Many documentation improvements.

Changes from 8.6 to 8.6.1
=========================

- Fix #5380: Default colors for CoqIDE are actually applied.
- Fix plugin warnings
- Document named evars (including Show ident)
- Fix Bug #5574, document function scope
- Adding a test case as requested in bug 5205.
- Fix Bug #5568, no dup notation warnings on repeated module imports
- Fix documentation of Typeclasses eauto :=
- Refactor documentation of records.
- Protecting from warnings while compiling 8.6
- Fixing an inconsistency between configure and configure.ml
- Add test-suite checks for coqchk with constraints
- Fix bug #5019 (looping zify on dependent types)
- Fix bug 5550: "typeclasses eauto with" does not work with section variables.
- Bug 5546, qualify datatype constructors when needed in Show Match
- Bug #5535, test for Show with -emacs
- Fix bug #5486, don't reverse ids in tuples
- Fixing #5522 (anomaly with free vars of pat)
- Fix bug #5526, don't check for nonlinearity in notation if printing only
- Fix bug #5255
- Fix bug #3659: -time should understand multibyte encodings.
- FIx bug #5300: Anomaly: Uncaught exception Not_found" in "Print Assumptions".
- Fix outdated description in RefMan.
- Repairing `Set Rewriting Schemes`
- Fixing #5487 (v8.5 regression on ltac-matching expressions with evars).
- Fix description of command-line arguments for Add (Rec) LoadPath
- Fix bug #5377: @? patterns broken.
- add XML protocol doc
- Fix anomaly when doing [all:Check _.] during a proof.
- Correction of bug #4306
- Fix #5435: [Eval native_compute in] raises anomaly.
- Instances should obey universe binders even when defined by tactics.
- Intern names bound in match patterns
- funind: Ignore missing info for current function
- Do not typecheck twice the type of opaque constants.
- show unused intro pattern warning
- [future] Be eager when "chaining" already resolved future values.
- Opaque side effects
- Fix #5132: coq_makefile generates incorrect install goal
- Run non-tactic comands without resilient_command
- Univs: fix bug #5365, generation of u+k <= v constraints
- make `emit' tail recursive
- Don't require printing-only notation to be productive
- Fix the way setoid_rewrite handles bindings.
- Fix for bug 5244 - set printing width ignored when given enough space
- Fix bug 4969, autoapply was not tagging shelved subgoals correctly

Changes from V8.6beta1 to V8.6
==============================

Kernel

- Fixed critical bug #5248 in VM long multiplication on 32-bit
  architectures. Was there only since 8.6beta1, so no stable release impacted.

Other bug fixes in universes, type class shelving,...

Changes from V8.5 to V8.6beta1
==============================

Kernel

- A new, faster state-of-the-art universe constraint checker.

Specification language

- Giving implicit arguments explicitly to a constant with multiple
  choices of implicit arguments does not break any more insertion of
  further maximal implicit arguments.
- Ability to put any pattern in binders, prefixed by quote, e.g.
  "fun '(a,b) => ...", "λ '(a,(b,c)), ...", "Definition foo '(x,y) := ...".
  It expands into a "let 'pattern := ..."

Tactics

- Flag "Bracketing Last Introduction Pattern" is now on by default.
- Flag "Regular Subst Tactic" is now on by default: it respects the
  initial order of hypothesis, it contracts cycles, it unfolds no
  local definitions (common source of incompatibilities, fixable by
  "Unset Regular Subst Tactic").
- New flag "Refolding Reduction", now disabled by default, which turns
  on refolding of constants/fixpoints (as in cbn) during the reductions
  done during type inference and tactic retyping. Can be extremely
  expensive. When set off, this recovers the 8.4 behaviour of unification
  and type inference. Potential source of incompatibility with 8.5 developments
  (the option is set on in Compat/Coq85.v).
- New flag "Shrink Abstract" that minimalizes proofs generated by the abstract
  tactical w.r.t. variables appearing in the body of the proof.
  On by default and deprecated. Minor source of incompatibility
  for code relying on the precise arguments of abstracted proofs.
- Serious bugs are fixed in tactic "double induction" (source of
  incompatibilities as soon as the inductive types have dependencies in
  the type of their constructors; "double induction" remains however
  deprecated).
- In introduction patterns of the form (pat1,...,patn), n should match
  the exact number of hypotheses introduced (except for local definitions
  for which pattern can be omitted, as in regular pattern-matching).
- Tactic scopes in Ltac like constr: and ltac: now require parentheses around
  their argument.
- Every generic argument type declares a tactic scope of the form "name:(...)"
  where name is the name of the argument. This generalizes the constr: and ltac:
  instances.
- When in strict mode (i.e. in a Ltac definition), if the "intro" tactic is
  given a free identifier, it is not bound in subsequent tactics anymore.
  In order to introduce a binding, use e.g. the "fresh" primitive instead
  (potential source of incompatibilities).
- New tactics is_ind, is_const, is_proj, is_constructor for use in Ltac.
- New goal selectors.  Sets of goals can be selected by listing integers
  ranges. Example: "1,4-7,24: tac" focuses "tac" on goals 1,4,5,6,7,24.
- For uniformity with "destruct"/"induction" and for a more natural
  behavior, "injection" can now work in place by activating option
  "Structural Injection". In this case, hypotheses are also put in the
  context in the natural left-to-right order and the hypothesis on
  which injection applies is cleared.
- Tactic "contradiction" (hence "easy") now also solve goals with
  hypotheses of the form "~True" or "t<>t" (possible source of
  incompatibilities because of more successes in automation, but
  generally a more intuitive strategy).
- Option "Injection On Proofs" was renamed "Keep Proof Equalities". When
  enabled, injection and inversion do not drop equalities between objects
  in Prop. Still disabled by default.
- New tactics "notypeclasses refine" and "simple notypeclasses refine" that
  disallow typeclass resolution when typechecking their argument, for use
  in typeclass hints.
- Integration of LtacProf, a profiler for Ltac.
- Reduction tactics now accept more fine-grained flags: iota is now a shorthand
  for the new flags match, fix and cofix.
- The ssreflect subterm selection algorithm is now accessible to tactic writers
  through the ssrmatching plugin.
- When used as an argument of an ltac function, "auto" without "with"
  nor "using" clause now correctly uses only the core hint database by
  default.

Hints

- Revised the syntax of [Hint Cut] to follow standard notation for regexps.
- Hint Mode now accepts "!" which means that the mode matches only if the
  argument's head is not an evar (it goes under applications, casts, and
  scrutinees of matches and projections).
- Hints can now take an optional user-given pattern, used only by
  [typeclasses eauto] with the [Filtered Unification] option on.

Typeclasses

- Many new options and new engine based on the proof monad. The
  [typeclasses eauto] tactic is now a multi-goal, multi-success tactic.
  See reference manual for more information. It is planned to
  replace auto and eauto in the following version. The 8.5 resolution
  engine is still available to help solve compatibility issues.

Program

- The "Shrink Obligations" flag now applies to all obligations, not only
  those solved by the automatic tactic.
- "Shrink Obligations" is on by default and deprecated. Minor source of
  incompatibility for code relying on the precise arguments of
  obligations.

Notations

- "Bind Scope" can once again bind "Funclass" and "Sortclass".

General infrastructure

- New configurable warning system which can be controlled with the vernacular
  command "Set Warnings", or, under coqc/coqtop, with the flag "-w". In
  particular, the default is now that warnings are printed by coqc.
- In asynchronous mode, Coq is now capable of recovering from errors and
  continue processing the document.

Tools

- coqc accepts a -o option to specify the output file name
- coqtop accepts --print-version to print Coq and OCaml versions in
  easy to parse format
- Setting [Printing Dependent Evars Line] can be unset to disable the
  computation associated with printing the "dependent evars: " line in
  -emacs mode
- Removed the -verbose-compat-notations flag and the corresponding Set
  Verbose Compat vernacular, since these warnings can now be silenced or
  turned into errors using "-w".

XML protocol

- message format has changed, see dev/doc/changes.txt for more details.

Many bug fixes, minor changes and documentation improvements are not mentioned
here.

Changes from V8.5pl2 to V8.5pl3
===============================

Critical bugfix

- #4876: Guard checker incompleteness when using primitive projections

Other bugfixes

- #4780: Induction with universe polymorphism on was creating ill-typed terms.
- #4673: regression in setoid_rewrite, unfolding let-ins for type unification.
- #4754: Regression in setoid_rewrite, allow postponed unification problems to remain.
- #4769: Anomaly with universe polymorphic schemes defined inside sections.
- #3886: Program: duplicate obligations of mutual fixpoints.
- #4994: Documentation typo.
- #5008: Use the "md5" command on OpenBSD.
- #5007: Do not assume the "TERM" environment variable is always set.
- #4606: Output a break before a list only if there was an empty line.
- #5001: metas not cleaned properly in clenv_refine_in.
- #2336: incorrect glob data for module symbols (bug #2336).
- #4832: Remove extraneous dot in error message.
- Anomaly in printing a unification error message.
- #4947: Options which take string arguments are not backwards compatible.
- #4156: micromega cache files are now hidden files.
- #4871: interrupting par:abstract kills coqtop.
- #5043: [Admitted] lemmas pick up section variables.
- Fix name of internal refine ("simple refine").
- #5062: probably a typo in Strict Proofs mode.
- #5065: Anomaly: Not a proof by induction.
- Restore native compiler optimizations, they were disabled since 8.5!
- #5077: failure on typing a fixpoint with evars in its type.
- Fix recursive notation bug.
- #5095: non relevant too strict test in let-in abstraction.
- Ensuring that the evar name is preserved by "rename".
- #4887: confusion between using and with in documentation of firstorder.
- Bug in subst with let-ins.
- #4762: eauto weaker than auto.
- Remove if_then_else (was buggy). Use tryif instead.
- #4970: confusion between special "{" and non special "{{" in notations.
- #4529: primitive projections unfolding.
- #4416: Incorrect "Error: Incorrect number of goals".
- #4863: abstract in typeclass hint fails.
- #5123: unshelve can impact typeclass resolution
- Fix a collision about the meta-variable ".." in recursive notations.
- Fix printing of info_auto.
- #3209: Not_found due to an occur-check cycle.
- #5097: status of evars refined by "clear" in ltac: closed wrt evars.
- #5150: Missing dependency of the test-suite subsystems in prerequisite.
- Fix a bug in error printing of unif constraints
- #3941: Do not stop propagation of signals when Coq is busy.
- #4822: Incorrect assertion in cbn.
- #3479 parsing of "{" and "}" when a keyword starts with "{" or "}".
- #5127: Memory corruption with the VM.
- #5102: bullets parsing broken by calls to parse_entry.

Various documentation improvements


Changes from V8.5pl1 to V8.5pl2
===============================

Critical bugfix
- Checksums of .vo files dependencies were not correctly checked.
- Unicode-to-ASCII translation was not injective, leading in a soundness bug in
  the native compiler.

Other bugfixes

- #4097: more efficient occur-check in presence of primitive projections
- #4398: type_scope used consistently in "match goal".
- #4450: eauto does not work with polymorphic lemmas
- #4677: fix alpha-conversion in notations needing eta-expansion.
- Fully preserve initial order of hypotheses in "Regular Subst Tactic" mode.
- #4644: a regression in unification.
- #4725: Function (Error: Conversion test raised an anomaly) and Program
  (Error: Cannot infer this placeholder of type)
- #4747: Problem building Coq 8.5pl1 with OCaml 4.03.0: Fatal warnings
- #4752: CoqIDE crash on files not ended by ".v".
- #4777: printing inefficiency with implicit arguments
- #4818: "Admitted" fails due to undefined universe anomaly after calling
  "destruct"
- #4823: remote counter: avoid thread race on sockets
- #4841: -verbose flag changed semantics in 8.5, is much harder to use
- #4851: [nsatz] cannot handle duplicated hypotheses
- #4858: Anomaly: Uncaught exception Failure("hd"). Please report. in variant
  of nsatz
- #4880: [nsatz_compute] generates invalid certificates if given redundant
  hypotheses
- #4881: synchronizing "Declare Implicit Tactic" with backtrack.
- #4882: anomaly with Declare Implicit Tactic on hole of type with evars
- Fix use of "Declare Implicit Tactic" in refine.
  triggered by CoqIDE
- #4069, #4718: congruence fails when universes are involved.

Universes
- Disallow silently dropping universe instances applied to variables
  (forward compatible)
- Allow explicit universe instances on notations, when they can apply
  to the head reference of their expansion.

Build infrastructure
- New update on how to find camlp5 binary and library at configure time.

Changes from V8.5 to V8.5pl1
============================

Critical bugfix
- The subterm relation for the guard condition was incorrectly defined on
  primitive projections (#4588)

Plugin development tools
- add a .merlin target to the makefile

Various performance improvements (time, space used by .vo files)

Other bugfixes

- Fix order of arguments to Big.compare_case in ExtrOcamlZBigInt.v
- Added compatibility coercions from Specif.v which were present in Coq 8.4.
- Fixing a source of inefficiency and an artificial dependency in the printer in the congruence tactic.
- Allow to unset the refinement mode of Instance in ML
- Fixing an incorrect use of prod_appvect on a term which was not a product in setoid_rewrite.
- Add -compat 8.4 econstructor tactics, and tests
- Add compatibility Nonrecursive Elimination Schemes
- Fixing the "No applicable tactic" non informative error message regression on apply.
- Univs: fix get_current_context (bug #4603, part I)
- Fix a bug in Program coercion code
- Fix handling of arity of definitional classes.
- #4630: Some tactics are 20x slower in 8.5 than 8.4.
- #4627: records with no declared arity can be template polymorphic.
- #4623: set tactic too weak with universes (regression)
- Fix incorrect behavior of CS resolution
- #4591: Uncaught exception in directory browsing.
- CoqIDE is more resilient to initialization errors.
- #4614: "Fully check the document" is uninterruptable.
- Try eta-expansion of records only on non-recursive ones
- Fix bug when a sort is ascribed to a Record
- Primitive projections: protect kernel from erroneous definitions.
- Fixed bug #4533 with previous Keyed Unification commit
- Win: kill unreliable hence do not waitpid after kill -9 (Close #4369)
- Fix strategy of Keyed Unification
- #4608: Anomaly "output_value: abstract value (outside heap)".
- #4607: do not read native code files if native compiler was disabled.
- #4105: poor escaping in the protocol between CoqIDE and coqtop.
- #4596: [rewrite] broke in the past few weeks.
- #4533 (partial): respect declared global transparency of projections in unification.ml
- #4544: Backtrack on using full betaiota reduction during keyed unification.
- #4540: CoqIDE bottom progress bar does not update.
- Fix regression from 8.4 in reflexivity
- #4580: [Set Refine Instance Mode] also used for Program Instance.
- #4582: cannot override notation [ x ]. MAY CREATE INCOMPATIBILITIES, see #4683.
- STM: Print/Extraction have to be skipped if -quick
- #4542: CoqIDE: STOP button also stops workers
- STM: classify some variants of Instance as regular `Fork nodes.
- #4574: Anomaly: Uncaught exception Invalid_argument("splay_arity").
- Do not give a name to anonymous evars anymore. See bug #4547.
- STM: always stock in vio files the first node (state) of a proof
- STM: not delegate proofs that contain Vernac(Module|Require|Import), #4530
- Don't fail fatally if PATH is not set.
- #4537: Coq 8.5 is slower in typeclass resolution.
- #4522: Incorrect "Warning..." on windows.
- #4373: coqdep does not know about .vio files.
- #3826: "Incompatible module types" is uninformative.
- #4495: Failed assertion in metasyntax.ml.
- #4511: evar tactic can create non-typed evars.
- #4503: mixing universe polymorphic and monomorphic variables and definitions in sections is unsupported.
- #4519: oops, global shadowed local universe level bindings.
- #4506: Anomaly: File "pretyping/indrec.ml", line 169, characters 14-20: Assertion failed.
- #4548: Coqide crashes when going back one command

Changes from V8.5beta3 to V8.5
==============================

Tools

- Flag "-compat 8.4" now loads Coq.Compat.Coq84. The standard way of
  putting Coq in v8.4 compatibility mode is to pass the command line flag
  "-compat 8.4". It can be followed by "-require Coq.Compat.AdmitAxiom"
  if the 8.4 behavior of admit is needed, in which case it uses an axiom.

Specification language

- Syntax "$(tactic)$" changed to "ltac:(tactic)".

Tactics

- Syntax "destruct !hyp" changed to "destruct (hyp)", and similarly
  for induction (rare source of incompatibilities easily solvable by
  removing parentheses around "hyp" when not for the purpose of keeping
  the hypothesis).
- Syntax "p/c" for on-the-fly application of a lemma c before
  introducing along pattern p changed to p%c1..%cn. The feature and
  syntax are in experimental stage.
- "Proof using" does not clear unused section variables.
- Tactic "refine" has been changed back to the 8.4 behavior of shelving subgoals
  that occur in other subgoals. The "refine" tactic of 8.5beta3 has been
  renamed "simple refine"; it does not shelve any subgoal.
- New tactical "unshelve tac" which grab existential variables put on
  the tactic shelve by the execution of "tac".

Changes from V8.5beta2 to V8.5beta3
===================================

Vernacular commands

- New command "Redirect" to redirect the output of a command to a file.
- New command "Undelimit Scope" to remove the delimiter of a scope.
- New option "Strict Universe Declaration", set by default. It enforces the
  declaration of all polymorphic universes appearing in a definition when
  introducing it.
- New command "Show id" to show goal named id.
- Option "Virtual Machine" removed.

Tactics

- New flag "Regular Subst Tactic" which fixes "subst" in situations where
  it failed to substitute all substitutable equations or failed to simplify
  cycles, or accidentally unfolded local definitions (flag is off by default).
- New flag "Loose Hint Behavior" to handle hints loaded but not imported in a
  special way. It accepts three distinct flags:
  * "Lax", which is the default one, sets the old behavior, i.e. a non-imported
  hint behaves the same as an imported one.
  * "Warn" outputs a warning when a non-imported hint is used. Note that this is
  an over-approximation, because a hint may be triggered by an eauto run that
  will eventually fail and backtrack.
  * "Strict" changes the behavior of an unloaded hint to the one of the fail
  tactic, allowing to emulate the hopefully future import-scoped hint mechanism.
- New compatibility flag "Universal Lemma Under Conjunction" which
  let tactics working under conjunctions apply sublemmas of the form
  "forall A, ... -> A".
- New compatibility flag "Bracketing Last Introduction Pattern" which can be
  set so that the last disjunctive-conjunctive introduction pattern given to
  "intros" automatically complete the introduction of its subcomponents, as the
  the disjunctive-conjunctive introduction patterns in non-terminal position
  already do.
- New flag "Shrink Abstract" that minimalizes proofs generated by the abstract
  tactical w.r.t. variables appearing in the body of the proof.

Program

- The "Shrink Obligations" flag now applies to all obligations, not only those
solved by the automatic tactic.
- Importing Program no longer overrides the "exists" tactic (potential source
  of incompatibilities).
- Hints costs are now correctly taken into account (potential source of
  incompatibilities).
- Documented the Hint Cut command that allows control of the
  proof-search during typeclass resolution (see reference manual).

API

- Some functions from pretyping/typing.ml and their derivatives were potential
  source of evarmap leaks, as they dropped their resulting evarmap. The
  situation was clarified by renaming them according to a unsafe_* scheme. Their
  sound variant is likewise renamed to their old name. The following renamings
  were made.
  * Typing.type_of -> unsafe_type_of
  * Typing.e_type_of -> type_of
  * A new e_type_of function that matches the e_ prefix policy
  * Tacmach.pf_type_of -> pf_unsafe_type_of
  * A new safe pf_type_of function.
  All uses of unsafe_* functions should be eventually eliminated.

Tools

- Added an option -w to control the output of coqtop warnings.
- Configure now takes an optional -native-compiler (yes|no) flag replacing
  -no-native-compiler. The new flag is set to no by default under Windows.
- Flag -no-native-compiler was removed and became the default for coqc. If
  precompilation of files for native conversion test is desired, use
  -native-compiler.
- The -compile command-line option now takes the full path of the considered
  file, including the ".v" extension, and outputs a warning if such an extension
  is lacking.
- The -require and -load-vernac-object command-line options now take a logical
  path of a given library rather than a physical path, thus they behave like
  Require [Import] path.
- The -vm command-line option has been removed.

Standard Library

 - There is now a Coq.Compat.Coq84 library, which sets the various compatibility
   options and does a few redefinitions to make Coq behave more like Coq v8.4.
   The standard way of putting Coq in v8.4 compatibility mode is to pass the command
   line flags "-require Coq.Compat.Coq84 -compat 8.4".

Changes from V8.5beta1 to V8.5beta2
===================================

Logic

- The VM now supports inductive types with up to 8388851 non-constant
  constructors and up to 8388607 constant ones.

Specification language

- Syntax "$(tactic)$" changed to "ltac: tactic".

Tactics

- A script using the admit tactic can no longer be concluded by either
  Qed or Defined. In the first case, Admitted can be used instead. In
  the second case, a subproof should be used.
- The easy tactic and the now tactical now have a more predictable
  behavior, but they might now discharge some previously unsolved goals.

Extraction

- Definitions extracted to Haskell GHC should no longer randomly
  segfault when some Coq types cannot be represented by Haskell types.
- Definitions can now be extracted to Json for post-processing.

Tools

- Option -I -as has been removed, and option -R -as has been
  deprecated. In both cases, option -R can be used instead.
- coq_makefile now generates double-colon rules for rules such as clean.

API

- The interface of [change] has changed to take a [change_arg], which
  can be built from a [constr] using [make_change_arg].

Changes from V8.4 to V8.5beta1
==============================

Logic

- Primitive projections for records allow for a compact representation
  of projections, without parameters and avoid the behavior of defined
  projections that can unfold to a case expression. To turn the use of
  native projections on, use [Set Primitive Projections]. Record,
  Class and Structure types defined while this option is set will be
  defined with primitive projections instead of the usual encoding as
  a case expression. For compatibility, when p is a primitive
  projection, @p can be used to refer to the projection with explicit
  parameters, i.e. [@p] is definitionally equal to [λ params r. r.(p)].
  Records with primitive projections have eta-conversion, the
  canonical form being [mkR pars (p1 t) ... (pn t)].
- New universe polymorphism (see reference manual)
- New option -type-in-type to collapse the universe hierarchy (this makes the
  logic inconsistent).
- The guard condition for fixpoints is now a bit stricter. Propagation
  of subterm value through pattern matching is restricted according to
  the return predicate. Restores compatibility of Coq's logic with the
  propositional extensionality axiom. May create incompatibilities in
  recursive programs heavily using dependent types.
- Trivial inductive types are no longer defined in Type but in Prop, which
  leads to a non-dependent induction principle being generated in place of
  the dependent one. To recover the old behavior, explicitly define your
  inductive types in Set.

Vernacular commands

- A command "Variant" allows to define non-recursive variant types.
- The command "Record foo ..." does not generate induction principles
  (foo_rect, foo_rec, foo_ind) anymore by default (feature wish
  #2693). The command "Variant foo ..." does not either. A flag
  "Set/Unset Nonrecursive Elimination Schemes" allows changing this.
  The tactic "induction" on a "Record" or a "Variant" is now actually
  doing "destruct".
- The "Open Scope" command can now be given also a delimiter (e.g. Z).
- The "Definition" command now allows the "Local" modifier, allowing
  for non-importable definitions. The same goes for "Axiom" and "Parameter".
- Section-specific commands such as "Let" (resp. "Variable", "Hypothesis") used
  out of a section now behave like the corresponding "Local" command, i.e.
  "Local Definition" (resp. "Local Parameter", "Local Axiom"). (potential source
  of rare incompatibilities).
- The "Let" command can now define local (co)fixpoints.
- Command "Search" has been renamed into "SearchHead". The command
  name "Search" now behaves like former "SearchAbout". The latter name
  is deprecated.
- "Search", "About", "SearchHead", "SearchRewrite" and "SearchPattern"
  now search for hypothesis (of the current goal by default) first.
  They now also support the goal selector prefix to specify another
  goal to search: e.g. "n:Search id". This is also true for
  SearchAbout although it is deprecated.
- The coq/user-contrib directory and the XDG directories are no longer
  recursively added to the load path, so files from installed libraries
  now need to be fully qualified for the "Require" command to find them.
  The tools/update-require script can be used to convert a development.
- A new Print Strategies command allows visualizing the opacity status
  of the whole engine.
- The "Locate" command now searches through all sorts of qualified namespaces of
  Coq: terms, modules, tactics, etc. The old behavior of the command can be
  retrieved using the "Locate Term" command.
- New "Derive" command to help writing program by derivation.
- New "Refine Instance Mode" option that allows to deactivate the generation of
  obligations in incomplete typeclass instances, raising an error instead.
- "Collection" command to name sets of section hypotheses.  Named collections
  can be used in the syntax of "Proof using" to assert which section variables
  are used in a proof.
- The "Optimize Proof" command can be placed in the middle of a proof to
  force the compaction of the data structure used to represent the ongoing
  proof (evar map). This may result in a lower memory footprint and speed up
  the execution of the following tactics.
- "Optimize Heap" command to tell the OCaml runtime to perform a major
  garbage collection step and heap compaction.
- "Instance" no longer treats the {|...|} syntax specially; it handles it
  in the same way as other commands, e.g. "Definition". Use the {...}
  syntax (no pipe symbols) to recover the old behavior.

Specification Language

- Slight changes in unification error messages.
- Added a syntax $(...)$ that allows putting tactics in terms (may
  break user notations using "$(", fixable by inserting a space or
  rewriting the notation).
- Constructors in pattern-matching patterns now respect the same rules
  regarding implicit arguments as in applicative position. The old
  behavior can be recovered by the command "Set Asymmetric
  Patterns". As a side effect, notations for constructors explicitly
  mentioning non-implicit parameters can now be used in patterns.
  Considering that the pattern language is already rich enough, binding
  local definitions is however now forbidden in patterns (source of
  incompatibilities for local definitions that delta-reduce to a constructor).
- Type inference algorithm now granting opacity of constants. This might also
  affect behavior of tactics (source of incompatibilities, solvable by
  re-declaring transparent constants which were set opaque).
- Existential variables are now referred to by an identifier and the
  relevant part of their instance is displayed by default. They can be
  reparsed. The naming policy is yet unstable and subject to changes
  in future releases.

Tactics

- New tactic engine allowing dependent subgoals, fully backtracking
  (also known as multiple success) tactics, as well as tactics which
  can consider multiple goals together. In the new tactic engine,
  instantiation information of existential variables is always
  propagated to tactics, removing the need to manually use the
  "instantiate" tactics to mark propagation points.
  * New tactical (a+b) inserts a backtracking point. When (a+b);c fails
    during the execution of c, it can backtrack and try b instead of a.
  * New tactical (once a) removes all the backtracking points from a
    (i.e. it selects the first success of a).
  * Tactic "constructor" is now fully backtracking. In case of
    incompatibilities (e.g. combinatoric explosion), the former
    behavior of "constructor" can be retrieved by using instead
    "[> once constructor ..]". Thanks to backtracking, undocumented
    "constructor <tac>" syntax is now equivalent to
    "[> once (constructor; tac) ..]".
  * New "multimatch" variant of "match" tactic which backtracks to
    new branches in case of a later failure. The "match" tactic is
    equivalent to "once multimatch".
  * New selector "all:" such that "all:tac" applies tactic "tac" to
    all the focused goals, instead of just the first one as is the
    default.
  * A corresponding new option Set Default Goal Selector "all" makes
    the tactics in scripts be applied to all the focused goal by default
  * New selector "par:" such that "par:tac" applies the (terminating)
    tactic "tac" to all the focused goal in parallel. The number of worker
    can be selected with -async-proofs-tac-j and also limited using the
    coqworkmgr utility.
  * New tactics "revgoals", "cycle" and "swap" to reorder goals.
  * The semantics of recursive tactics (introduced with "Ltac t := ..."
    or "let rec t := ... in ...") changed slightly as t is now
    applied to every goal, not each goal independently. In particular
    it may be applied when no goals are left. This may cause tactics
    such as "let rec t := constructor;t" to loop indefinitely. The
    simple fix is to rewrite the recursive calls as follows:
    "let rec t := constructor;[t..]" which recovers the earlier behavior
    (source of rare incompatibilities).
  * New tactic language feature "numgoals" to count number of goals. It is
    accompanied by a "guard" tactic which fails if a Boolean test over
    integers does not pass.
  * New tactical "[> ... ]" to apply tactics to individual goals.
  * New tactic "gfail" which works like "fail" except it will also
    fail if every goal has been solved.
  * The refine tactic is changed not to use an ad hoc typing algorithm
    to generate subgoals. It also uses the dependent subgoal feature
    to generate goals to materialize every existential variable which
    is introduced by the refinement (source of incompatibilities).
  * A tactic shelve is introduced to manage the subgoals which may be
    solved by unification: shelve removes every goal it is applied to
    from focus. These goals can later be called back into focus by the
    Unshelve command.
  * A variant shelve_unifiable only removes those goals which appear
    as existential variables in other goals. To emulate the old
    refine, use "refine c;shelve_unifiable". This can still cause
    incompatibilities in rare occasions.
  * New "give_up" tactic to skip over a goal.  A proof containing
    given up goals cannot be closed with "Qed", but only with "Admitted".
- The implementation of the admit tactic has changed: no axiom is
  generated for the admitted sub proof. "admit" is now an alias for
  "give_up".  Code relying on this specific behavior of "admit"
  can be made to work by:
  * Adding an "Axiom" for each admitted subproof.
  * Adding a single "Axiom proof_admitted : False." and the Ltac definition
    "Ltac admit := case proof_admitted.".
- Matching using "lazymatch" was fundamentally modified. It now behaves
  like "match" (immediate execution of the matching branch) but without
  the backtracking mechanism in case of failure.
- New "tryif t then u else v" tactical which executes "u" in case of success
  of "t" and "v" in case of failure.
- New conversion tactic "native_compute": evaluates the goal (or an hypothesis)
  with a call-by-value strategy, using the OCaml native compiler. Useful on
  very intensive computations.
- New "cbn" tactic, a well-behaved simpl.
- Repeated identical calls to omega should now produce identical proof terms.
- Tactics btauto, a reflexive Boolean tautology solver.
- Tactic "tauto" was exceptionally able to destruct other connectives
  than the binary connectives "and", "or", "prod", "sum", "iff". This
  non-uniform behavior has been fixed (bug #2680) and tauto is
  slightly weaker (possible source of incompatibilities). On the
  opposite side, new tactic "dtauto" is able to destruct any
  record-like inductive types, superseding the old version of "tauto".
- Similarly, "intuition" has been made more uniform and, where it now
  fails, "dintuition" can be used (possible source of incompatibilities).
- New option "Unset Intuition Negation Unfolding" for deactivating automatic
  unfolding of "not" in intuition.
- Tactic notations can now be defined locally to a module (use "Local" prefix).
- Tactic "red" now reduces head beta-iota redexes (potential source of
  rare incompatibilities).
- Tactic "hnf" now reduces inner beta-iota redexes
  (potential source of rare incompatibilities).
- Tactic "intro H" now reduces beta-iota redexes if these hide a product
  (potential source of rare incompatibilities).
- In Ltac matching on patterns of the form "_ pat1 ... patn" now
  behaves like if matching on "?X pat1 ... patn", i.e. accepting "_"
  to be instantiated by an applicative term (experimental at this
  stage, potential source of incompatibilities).
- In Ltac matching on goal, types of hypotheses are now interpreted in
  the %type scope (possible source of incompatibilities).
- "change ... in ..." and "simpl ... in ..." now properly consider nested
  occurrences (possible source of incompatibilities since this alters
  the numbering of occurrences), but do not support nested occurrences.
- Tactics simpl, vm_compute and native_compute can be given a notation string
  to a constant as argument.
- When given a reference as argument, simpl, vm_compute and
  native_compute now strictly interpret it as the head of a pattern
  starting with this reference.
- The "change p with c" tactic semantics changed, now type-checking
  "c" at each matching occurrence "t" of the pattern "p", and
  converting "t" with "c".
- Now "appcontext" and "context" behave the same. The old buggy behavior of
  "context" can be retrieved at parse time by setting the
  "Tactic Compat Context" flag (possible source of incompatibilities).
- New introduction pattern p/c which applies lemma c on the fly on the
  hypothesis under consideration before continuing with introduction pattern p.
- New introduction pattern [= x1 .. xn] applies "injection as [x1 .. xn]"
  on the fly if injection is applicable to the hypothesis under consideration
  (idea borrowed from Georges Gonthier). Introduction pattern [=] applies
  "discriminate" if a discriminable equality.
- New introduction patterns * and ** to respectively introduce all forthcoming
  dependent variables and all variables/hypotheses dependent or not.
- Tactic "injection c as ipats" now clears c if c refers to an
  hypothesis and moves the resulting equations in the hypotheses
  independently of the number of ipats, which has itself to be less
  than the number of new hypotheses (possible source of incompatibilities;
  former behavior obtainable by "Unset Injection L2R Pattern Order").
- Tactic "injection" now automatically simplifies subgoals
  "existT n p = existT n p'" into "p = p'" when "n" is in an inductive type for
  which a decidable equality scheme has been generated with "Scheme Equality"
  (possible source of incompatibilities).
- New tactic "rewrite_strat" for generalized rewriting with user-defined
  strategies, subsuming autorewrite.
- Injection can now also deduce equality of arguments of sort Prop, by using
  the option "Set Injection On Proofs" (disabled by default). Also improved the
  error messages.
- Tactic "subst id" now supports id occurring in dependent local definitions.
- Bugs fixed about intro-pattern "*" might lead to some rare incompatibilities.
- New tactical "time" to display time spent executing its argument.
- Tactics referring or using a constant dependent in a section variable which
  has been cleared or renamed in the current goal context now fail
  (possible source of incompatibilities solvable by avoiding clearing
  the relevant hypotheses).
- New construct "uconstr:c" and "type_term c" to build untyped terms.
- Binders in terms defined in Ltac (either "constr" or "uconstr") can
  now take their names from identifiers defined in Ltac. As a
  consequence, a name cannot be used in a binder "constr:(fun x =>
  ...)" if an Ltac variable of that name already exists and does not
  contain an identifier. Source of occasional incompatibilities.
- The "refine" tactic now accepts untyped terms built with "uconstr"
  so that terms with holes can be constructed piecewise in Ltac.
- New bullets --, ++, **, ---, +++, ***, ... made available.
- More informative messages when wrong bullet is used.
- Bullet suggestion when a subgoal is solved.
- New tactic "enough", symmetric to "assert", but with subgoals
  swapped, as a more friendly replacement of "cut".
- In destruct/induction, experimental modifier "!" prefixing the
  hypothesis name to tell not erasing the hypothesis.
- Bug fixes in "inversion as" may occasionally lead to incompatibilities.
- Behavior of introduction patterns -> and <- made more uniform
  (hypothesis is cleared, rewrite in hypotheses and conclusion and
  erasing the variable when rewriting a variable).
- New experimental option "Set Standard Proposition Elimination Names"
  so that case analysis or induction on schemes in Type containing
  propositions now produces "H"-based names.
- Tactics from plugins are now active only when the corresponding module
  is imported (source of incompatibilities, solvable by adding an "Import";
  in the particular case of Omega, use "Require Import OmegaTactic").
- Semantics of destruct/induction has been made more regular in some
  edge cases, possibly leading to incompatibilities:
  - new goals are now opened when the term does not match a subterm of
    the goal and has unresolved holes, while in 8.4 these holes were
    turned into existential variables
  - when no "at" option is given, the historical semantics which
    selects all subterms syntactically identical to the first subterm
    matching the given pattern is used
  - non-dependent destruct/induction on an hypothesis with premises in
    an inductive type with indices is fixed
  - residual local definitions are now correctly removed.
- The rename tactic may now replace variables in parallel.
- A new "Info" command replaces the "info" tactical discontinued in
  v8.4. It still gives informative results in many cases.
- The "info_auto" tactic is known to be broken and does not print a
  trace anymore. Use "Info 1 auto" instead. The same goes for
  "info_trivial". On the other hand "info_eauto" still works fine,
  while "Info 1 eauto" prints a trivial trace.
- When using a lemma of the prototypical form "forall A, {a:A & P a}",
  "apply" and "apply in" do not instantiate anymore "A" with the
  current goal and use "a" as the proof, as they were sometimes doing,
  now considering that it is a too powerful decision.

Program

- "Solve Obligations using" changed to "Solve Obligations with",
  consistent with "Proof with".
- Program Lemma, Definition now respect automatic introduction.
- Program Lemma, Definition, etc.. now interpret "->" like Lemma and
  Definition as a non-dependent arrow (potential source of
  incompatibility).
- Add/document "Set Hide Obligations" (to hide obligations in the final
  term inside an implicit argument) and "Set Shrink Obligations" (to
  minimize dependencies of obligations defined by tactics).

Notations

- The syntax "x -> y" is now declared at level 99. In particular, it has
  now a lower priority than "<->": "A -> B <-> C" is now "A -> (B <-> C)"
  (possible source of incompatibilities)
- Notations accept term-providing tactics using the $(...)$ syntax.
- "Bind Scope" can no longer bind "Funclass" and "Sortclass".
- A notation can be given a (compat "8.x") annotation, making it behave
  like a "only parsing" notation, but the annotation may lead to eventually
  issue warnings or errors in further versions when this notation is used.
- More systematic insertion of spaces as a default for printing
  notations ("format" still available to override the default).
- In notations, a level modifier referring to a non-existent variable is
  now considered an error rather than silently ignored.

Tools

- Option -I now only adds directories to the ml path.
- Option -Q behaves as -R, except that the logical path of any loaded file has
  to be fully qualified.
- Option -R no longer adds recursively to the ml path; only the root
  directory is added. (Behavior with respect to the load path is
  unchanged.)
- Option -nois prevents coq/theories and coq/plugins to be recursively
  added to the load path. (Same behavior as with coq/user-contrib.)
- coqdep accepts a -dumpgraph option generating a dot file.
- Makefiles generated through coq_makefile have three new targets "quick"
  "checkproofs" and "vio2vo", allowing respectively to asynchronously compile
  the files without playing the proof scripts, asynchronously checking
  that the quickly generated proofs are correct and generating the object
  files from the quickly generated proofs.
- The XML plugin was discontinued and removed from the source.
- A new utility called coqworkmgr can be used to limit the number of
  concurrent workers started by independent processes, like make and CoqIDE.
  This is of interest for users of the par: goal selector.

Interfaces

- CoqIDE supports asynchronous edition of the document, ongoing tasks and
  errors are reported in the bottom right window.  The number of workers
  taking care of processing proofs can be selected with -async-proofs-j.
- CoqIDE highlights in yellow "unsafe" commands such as axiom
  declarations, and tactics like "give_up".
- CoqIDE supports Proof General like key bindings;
  to activate the PG mode go to Edit -> Preferences -> Editor.
  For the documentation see Help -> Help for PG mode.
- CoqIDE automatically retracts the locked area when one edits the
  locked text.
- CoqIDE search and replace got regular expressions power. See the
  documentation of OCaml's Str module for the supported syntax.
- Many CoqIDE windows, including the query one, are now detachable to
  improve usability on multi screen work stations.
- Coqtop/coqc outputs highlighted syntax. Colors can be configured thanks
  to the COQ_COLORS environment variable, and their current state can
  be displayed with the -list-tags command line option.
- Third party user interfaces can install their main loop in $COQLIB/toploop
  and call coqtop with the -toploop flag to select it.

Internal Infrastructure

- Many reorganizations in the ocaml source files. For instance,
  many internal a.s.t. of Coq are now placed in mli files in
  a new directory intf/, for instance constrexpr.mli or glob_term.mli.
  More details in dev/doc/changes.
- The file states/initial.coq does not exist anymore. Instead, coqtop
  initially does a "Require" of Prelude.vo (or nothing when given
  the options -noinit or -nois).
- The format of vo files has slightly changed: cf final comments in
  checker/cic.mli.
- The build system does not produce anymore programs named coqtop.opt
  and a symbolic link to coqtop. Instead, coqtop is now directly
  an executable compiled with the best OCaml compiler available.
  The bytecode program coqtop.byte is still produced. Same for other
  utilities.
- Some options of the ./configure script slightly changed:
  * The -coqrunbyteflags and its blank-separated argument is replaced
    by option -vmbyteflags which expects a comma-separated argument.
  * The -coqtoolsbyteflags option is discontinued, see -no-custom instead.

Miscellaneous

- ML plugins now require a "DECLARE PLUGIN \"foo\"" statement. The "foo" name
  must be exactly the name of the ML module that will be loaded through a
  "Declare ML \"foo\"" command.

Changes from V8.4beta2 to V8.4
==============================

Vernacular commands

- The "Reset" command is now supported again in files given to coqc or Load.
- "Show Script" now indents again the displayed scripts. It can also work
  correctly across Load'ed files if the option "Unset Atomic Load" is used.
- "Open Scope" can now be given the delimiter (e.g. Z) instead of the full
  scope name (e.g. Z_scope).

Notations

- Most compatibility notations of the standard library are now tagged as
  (compat xyz), where xyz is a former Coq version, for instance "8.3".
  These notations behave as (only parsing) notations, except that they may
  triggers warnings (or errors) when used while Coq is not in a corresponding
  -compat mode.
- To activate these compatibility warnings, use "Set Verbose Compat Notations"
  or the command-line flag -verbose-compat-notations.
- For a strict mode without these compatibility notations, use
  "Unset Compat Notations" or the command-line flag -no-compat-notations.

Tactics

- An annotation "eqn:H" or "eqn:?" can be added to a "destruct"
  or "induction" to make it generate equations in the spirit of "case_eq".
  The former syntax "_eqn" is discontinued.
- The name of the hypothesis introduced by tactic "remember" can be
  set via the new syntax "remember t as x eqn:H" (wish #2489).

Libraries

- Reals: changed definition of PI, no more axiom about sin(PI/2).
- SetoidPermutation: a notion of permutation for lists modulo a setoid equality.
- BigN: fixed the ocaml code doing the parsing/printing of big numbers.
- List: a couple of lemmas added especially about no-duplication, partitions.
- Init: Removal of the coercions between variants of sigma-types and
  subset types (possible source of incompatibility).

Changes from V8.4beta to V8.4beta2
==================================

Vernacular commands

- Commands "Back" and "BackTo" are now handling the proof states. They may
  perform some extra steps of backtrack to avoid states where the proof
  state is unavailable (typically a closed proof).
- The commands "Suspend" and "Resume" have been removed.
- A basic Show Script has been reintroduced (no indentation).
- New command "Set Parsing Explicit" for deactivating parsing (and printing)
  of implicit arguments (useful for teaching).
- New command "Grab Existential Variables" to transform the unresolved evars
  at the end of a proof into goals.

Tactics

- Still no general "info" tactical, but new specific tactics info_auto,
  info_eauto, info_trivial which provides information on the proofs found
  by auto/eauto/trivial. Display of these details could also be activated by
  "Set Info Auto"/"Set Info Eauto"/"Set Info Trivial".
- Details on everything tried by auto/eauto/trivial during a proof search
  could be obtained by "debug auto", "debug eauto", "debug trivial" or by a
  global "Set Debug Auto"/"Set Debug Eauto"/"Set Debug Trivial".
- New command "r string" in Ltac debugger that interprets "idtac
  string" in Ltac code as a breakpoint and jumps to its next use.
- Tactics from the Dp plugin (simplify, ergo, yices, cvc3, z3, cvcl,
  harvey, zenon, gwhy) have been removed, since Why2 has not been
  maintained for the last few years. The Why3 plugin should be a suitable
  replacement in most cases.

Libraries

- MSetRBT: a new implementation of MSets via Red-Black trees (initial
  contribution by Andrew Appel).
- MSetAVL: for maximal sharing with the new MSetRBT, the argument order
  of Node has changed (this should be transparent to regular MSets users).

Module System

- The names of modules (and module types) are now in a fully separated
  namespace from ordinary definitions: "Definition E:=0. Module E. End E."
  is now accepted.

CoqIDE

- Coqide now supports the "Restart" command, and "Undo" (with a warning).
  Better support for "Abort".

Changes from V8.3 to V8.4beta
=============================

Logic

- Standard eta-conversion now supported (dependent product only).
- Guard condition improvement: subterm property is propagated through beta-redex
  blocked by pattern-matching, as in "(match v with C .. => fun x => u end) x";
  this allows for instance to use "rewrite ... in ..." without breaking
  the guard condition.

Specification language and notations

- Maximal implicit arguments can now be set locally by { }. The registration
  traverses fixpoints and lambdas. Because there is conversion in types,
  maximal implicit arguments are not taken into account in partial
  applications (use eta expanded form with explicit { } instead).
- Added support for recursive notations with binders (allows for instance
  to write "exists x y z, P").
- Structure/Record printing can be disable by "Unset Printing Records".
  In addition, it can be controlled on type by type basis using
  "Add Printing Record" or "Add Printing Constructor".
- Pattern-matching compilation algorithm: in "match x, y with ... end",
  possible dependencies of x (or of the indices of its type) in the type
  of y are now taken into account.

Tactics

- New proof engine.
- Scripts can now be structured thanks to bullets - * + and to subgoal
  delimitation via { }. Note: for use with Proof General, a cvs version of
  Proof General no older than mid-July 2011 is currently required.
- Support for tactical "info" is suspended.
- Support for command "Show Script" is suspended.
- New tactics constr_eq, is_evar and has_evar for use in Ltac (DOC TODO).
- Removed the two-argument variant of "decide equality".
- New experimental tactical "timeout <n> <tac>". Since <n> is a time
  in second for the moment, this feature should rather be avoided
  in scripts meant to be machine-independent.
- Fix in "destruct": removal of unexpected local definitions in context might
  result in some rare incompatibilities (solvable by adapting name hypotheses).
- Introduction pattern "_" made more robust.
- Tactic (and Eval command) vm_compute can now be interrupted via Ctrl-C.
- Unification in "apply" supports unification of patterns of the form
  ?f x y = g(x,y) (compatibility ensured by using
  "Unset Tactic Pattern Unification"). It also supports (full) betaiota.
- Tactic autorewrite does no longer instantiate pre-existing
  existential variables (theoretical source of possible incompatibilities).
- Tactic "dependent rewrite" now supports equality in "sig".
- Tactic omega now understands Zpred (wish #1912) and can prove any goal
  from a context containing an arithmetical contradiction (wish #2236).
- Using "auto with nocore" disables the use of the "core" database (wish #2188).
  This pseudo-database "nocore" can also be used with trivial and eauto.
- Tactics "set", "destruct" and "induction" accepts incomplete terms and
  use the goal to complete the pattern assuming it is non ambiguous.
- When used on arguments with a dependent type, tactics such as
  "destruct", "induction", "case", "elim", etc. now try to abstract
  automatically the dependencies over the arguments of the types
  (based on initial ideas from Chung-Kil Hur, extension to nested
   dependencies suggested by Dan Grayson)
- Tactic "injection" now failing on an equality showing no constructors while
  it was formerly generalizing again the goal over the given equality.
- In Ltac, the "context [...]" syntax has now a variant "appcontext [...]"
  allowing to match partial applications in larger applications.
- When applying destruct or inversion on a fixpoint hiding an inductive
  type, recursive calls to the fixpoint now remain folded by default (rare
  source of incompatibility generally solvable by adding a call to simpl).
- In an ltac pattern containing a "match", a final "| _ => _" branch could be
  used now instead of enumerating all remaining constructors. Moreover, the
  pattern "match _ with _ => _ end" now allows to match any "match". A "in"
  annotation can also be added to restrict to a precise inductive type.
- The behavior of "simpl" can be tuned using the "Arguments" vernacular.
  In particular constants can be marked so that they are always/never unfolded
  by "simpl", or unfolded only when a set of arguments evaluates to a
  constructor. Last one can mark a constant so that it is unfolded only if the
  simplified term does not expose a match in head position.

Vernacular commands

- It is now mandatory to have a space (or tabulation or newline or end-of-file)
  after a "." ending a sentence.
- In SearchAbout, the [ ] delimiters are now optional.
- New command "Add/Remove Search Blacklist <substring> ...":
  a Search or SearchAbout or similar query will never mention lemmas
  whose qualified names contain any of the declared substrings.
  The default blacklisted substrings are "_subproof" "Private_".
- When the output file of "Print Universes" ends in ".dot" or ".gv",
  the universe graph is printed in the DOT language, and can be
  processed by Graphviz tools.
- New command "Print Sorted Universes".
- The undocumented and obsolete option "Set/Unset Boxed Definitions" has
  been removed, as well as syntaxes like "Boxed Fixpoint foo".
- A new option "Set Default Timeout n / Unset Default Timeout".
- Qed now uses information from the reduction tactics used in proof script
  to avoid conversion at Qed time to go into a very long computation.
- New command "Show Goal ident" to display the statement of a goal, even
  a closed one (available from Proof General).
- Command "Proof" accept a new modifier "using" to force generalization
  over a given list of section variables at section ending (DOC TODO).
- New command "Arguments" generalizing "Implicit Arguments" and
  "Arguments Scope" and that also allows to rename the parameters of a
  definition and to tune the behavior of the tactic "simpl".

Module System

- During subtyping checks, an opaque constant in a module type could now
  be implemented by anything of the right type, even if bodies differ.
  Said otherwise, with respect to subtyping, an opaque constant behaves
  just as a parameter. Coqchk was already implementing this, but not coqtop.
- The inlining done during application of functors can now be controlled
  more precisely, by the annotations (no inline) or (inline at level XX).
  With the latter annotation, only functor parameters whose levels
  are lower or equal than XX will be inlined.
  The level of a parameter can be fixed by "Parameter Inline(30) foo".
  When levels aren't given, the default value is 100. One can also use
  the flag "Set Inline Level ..." to set a level (DOC TODO).
- Print Assumptions should now handle correctly opaque modules (#2168).
- Print Module (Type) now tries to print more details, such as types and
  bodies of the module elements. Note that Print Module Type could be
  used on a module to display only its interface. The option
  "Set Short Module Printing" could be used to switch back to the earlier
  behavior were only field names were displayed.

Libraries

- Extension of the abstract part of Numbers, which now provide axiomatizations
  and results about many more integer functions, such as pow, gcd, lcm, sqrt,
  log2 and bitwise functions. These functions are implemented for nat, N, BigN,
  Z, BigZ. See in particular file NPeano for new functions about nat.
- The definition of types positive, N, Z is now in file BinNums.v
- Major reorganization of ZArith. The initial file ZArith/BinInt.v now contains
  an internal module Z implementing the Numbers interface for integers.
  This module Z regroups:
  * all functions over type Z : Z.add, Z.mul, ...
  * the minimal proofs of specifications for these functions : Z.add_0_l, ...
  * an instantation of all derived properties proved generically in Numbers :
    Z.add_comm, Z.add_assoc, ...
  A large part of ZArith is now simply compatibility notations, for instance
  Zplus_comm is an alias for Z.add_comm. The direct use of module Z is now
  recommended instead of relying on these compatibility notations.
- Similar major reorganization of NArith, via a module N in NArith/BinNat.v
- Concerning the positive datatype, BinPos.v is now in a specific directory
  PArith, and contains an internal submodule Pos. We regroup there functions
  such as Pos.add Pos.mul etc as well as many results about them. These results
  are here proved directly (no Number interface for strictly positive numbers).
- Note that in spite of the compatibility layers, all these reorganizations
  may induce some marginal incompatibilies in scripts. In particular:
  * the "?=" notation for positive now refers to a binary function Pos.compare,
    instead of the infamous ternary Pcompare (now Pos.compare_cont).
  * some hypothesis names generated by the system may changed (typically for
    a "destruct Z_le_gt_dec") since naming is done after the short name of
    the head predicate (here now "le" in module Z instead of "Zle", etc).
  * the internals of Z.add has changed, now relying of Z.pos_sub.
- Also note these new notations:
  * "<?" "<=?" "=?" for boolean tests such as Z.ltb Z.leb Z.eqb.
  * "÷" for the alternative integer division Z.quot implementing the Truncate
    convention (former ZOdiv), while the notation for the Coq usual division
    Z.div implementing the Flooring convention remains "/". Their corresponding
    modulo functions are Z.rem (no notations) for Z.quot and Z.modulo (infix
    "mod" notation) for Z.div.
- Lemmas about conversions between these datatypes are also organized
  in modules, see for instance modules Z2Nat, N2Z, etc.
- When creating BigN, the macro-generated part NMake_gen is much smaller.
  The generic part NMake has been reworked and improved. Some changes
  may introduce incompatibilities. In particular, the order of the arguments
  for BigN.shiftl and BigN.shiftr is now reversed: the number to shift now
  comes first. By default, the power function now takes two BigN.
- Creation of Vector, an independent library for lists indexed by their length.
  Vectors' names overwrite lists' one so you should not "Import" the library.
  All old names changed: function names follow the ocaml ones and, for example,
  Vcons becomes Vector.cons. You can get [..;..;..]-style notations by importing
  Vector.VectorNotations.
- Removal of TheoryList. Requiring List instead should work most of the time.
- New syntax "rew Heq in H" and "rew <- Heq in H" for eq_rect and
  eq_rect_r (available by importing module EqNotations).
- Wf.iter_nat is now Peano.nat_iter (with an implicit type argument).

Internal infrastructure

- Opaque proofs are now loaded lazily by default. This allows to be almost as
  fast as -dont-load-proofs, while being safer (no creation of axioms) and
  avoiding feature restrictions (Print and Print Assumptions work ok).
- Revised hash-consing code allowing more sharing of memory
- Experimental support added for camlp4 (the one provided alongside ocaml),
  simply pass option -usecamlp4 to ./configure. By default camlp5 is used.
- Revised build system: no more stages in Makefile thanks to some recursive
  aspect of recent gnu make, use of vo.itarget files containing .v to compile
  for both make and ocamlbuild, etc.
- Support of cross-compilation via mingw from unix toward Windows,
  contact P. Letouzey for more informations.
- New Makefile rules mli-doc to make html of mli in dev/doc/html and
  full-stdlib to get a (huge) pdf reflecting the whole standard library.

Extraction

- By default, opaque terms are now truly considered opaque by extraction:
  instead of accessing their body, they are now considered as axioms.
  The previous behaviour can be reactivated via the option
  "Set Extraction AccessOpaque".
- The pretty-printer for Haskell now produces layout-independent code
- A new command "Separate Extraction cst1 cst2 ..." that mixes a
  minimal extracted environment a la "Recursive Extraction" and the
  production of several files (one per coq source) a la "Extraction Library"
  (DOC TODO).
- New option "Set/Unset Extraction KeepSingleton" for preventing the
  extraction to optimize singleton container types (DOC TODO).
- The extraction now identifies and properly rejects a particular case of
  universe polymorphism it cannot handle yet (the pair (I,I) being Prop).
- Support of anonymous fields in record (#2555).

CoqIDE

- Coqide now runs coqtop as separated process, making it more robust:
  coqtop subprocess can be interrupted, or even killed and relaunched
  (cf button "Restart Coq", ex-"Go to Start"). For allowing such
  interrupts, the Windows version of coqide now requires Windows >= XP
  SP1.
- The communication between CoqIDE and Coqtop is now done via a dialect
  of XML (DOC TODO).
- The backtrack engine of CoqIDE has been reworked, it now uses the
  "Backtrack" command similarly to Proof General.
- The Coqide parsing of sentences has be reworked and now supports
  tactic delimitation via { }.
- Coqide now accepts the Abort command (wish #2357).
- Coqide can read coq_makefile files as "project file" and use it to
  set automatically options to send to coqtop.
- Preference files have moved to $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/coq and accelerators
  are not stored as a list anymore.

Tools

- Coq now searches directories specified in COQPATH, $XDG_DATA_HOME/coq,
  $XDG_DATA_DIRS/coq, and user-contribs before the standard library.
- Coq rc file has moved to $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/coq.
- Major changes to coq_makefile:
  * mli/mlpack/mllib taken into account, ml not preproccessed anymore, ml4 work;
  * mlihtml generates doc of mli, install-doc install the html doc in DOCDIR
    with the same policy as vo in COQLIB;
  * More variables are given by coqtop -config, others are defined only if the
    users doesn't have defined them elsewhere. Consequently, generated makefile
    should work directly on any architecture;
  * Packagers can take advantage of $(DSTROOT) introduction. Installation can
    be made in $XDG_DATA_HOME/coq;
  * -arg option allows to send option as argument to coqc.

Changes from V8.2 to V8.3
=========================

Rewriting tactics

- Tactic "rewrite" now supports rewriting on ad hoc equalities such as eq_true.
- "Hint Rewrite" now checks that the lemma looks like an equation.
- New tactic "etransitivity".
- Support for heterogeneous equality (JMeq) in "injection" and "discriminate".
- Tactic "subst" now supports heterogeneous equality and equality
  proofs that are dependent (use "simple subst" for preserving compatibility).
- Added support for Leibniz-rewriting of dependent hypotheses.
- Renamed "Morphism" into "Proper" and "respect" into "proper_prf"
  (possible source of incompatibility). A partial fix is to define
  "Notation Morphism R f := (Proper (R%signature) f)."
- New tactic variants "rewrite* by" and "autorewrite*" that rewrite
  respectively the first and all matches whose side-conditions are
  solved.
- "Require Import Setoid" does not export all of "Morphisms" and
  "RelationClasses" anymore (possible source of incompatibility, fixed
  by importing "Morphisms" too).
- Support added for using Chung-Kil Hur's Heq library for rewriting over
  heterogeneous equality (courtesy of the library's author).
- Tactic "replace" supports matching terms with holes.

Automation tactics

- Tactic "intuition" now preserves inner "iff" and "not" (exceptional
  source of incompatibilities solvable by redefining "intuition" as
  "unfold iff, not in *; intuition", or, for iff only, by using
  "Set Intuition Iff Unfolding".)
- Tactic "tauto" now proves classical tautologies as soon as classical logic
  (i.e. library Classical_Prop or Classical) is loaded.
- Tactic "gappa" has been removed from the Dp plugin.
- Tactic "firstorder" now supports the combination of its "using" and
  "with" options.
- New "Hint Resolve ->" (or "<-") for declaring iff's as oriented
  hints (wish #2104).
- An inductive type as argument of the "using" option of "auto/eauto/firstorder"
  is interpreted as using the collection of its constructors.
- New decision tactic "nsatz" to prove polynomial equations
  by computation of Groebner bases.

Other tactics

- Tactic "discriminate" now performs intros before trying to discriminate an
  hypothesis of the goal (previously it applied intro only if the goal
  had the form t1<>t2) (exceptional source of incompatibilities - former
  behavior can be obtained by "Unset Discriminate Introduction").
- Tactic "quote" now supports quotation of arbitrary terms (not just the
  goal).
- Tactic "idtac" now displays its "list" arguments.
- New introduction patterns "*" for introducing the next block of dependent
  variables and "**" for introducing all quantified variables and hypotheses.
- Pattern Unification for existential variables activated in tactics and
  new option "Unset Tactic Evars Pattern Unification" to deactivate it.
- Resolution of canonical structure is now part of the tactic's unification
  algorithm.
- New tactic "decide lemma with hyp" for rewriting decidability lemmas
  when one knows which side is true.
- Improved support of dependent goals over objects in dependent types for
  "destruct" (rare source of incompatibility that can be avoided by unsetting
  option "Dependent Propositions Elimination").
- Tactic "exists", "eexists", "destruct" and "edestruct" supports iteration
  using comma-separated arguments.
- Tactic names "case" and "elim" now support clauses "as" and "in" and become
  then synonymous of "destruct" and "induction" respectively.
- A new tactic name "exfalso" for the use of 'ex-falso quodlibet' principle.
  This tactic is simply a shortcut for "elimtype False".
- Made quantified hypotheses get the name they would have if introduced in
  the context (possible but rare source of incompatibilities).
- When applying a component of a conjunctive lemma, "apply in" (and
  sequences of "apply in") now leave the side conditions of the lemmas
  uniformly after the main goal (possible source of rare incompatibilities).
- In "simpl c" and "change c with d", c can be a pattern.
- Tactic "revert" now preserves let-in's making it the exact inverse of
  "intro".
- New tactics "clear dependent H" and "revert dependent H" that
  clears (resp. reverts) H and all the hypotheses that depend on H.
- Ltac's pattern-matching now supports matching metavariables that
  depend on variables bound upwards in the pattern.

Tactic definitions

- Ltac definitions support Local option for non-export outside modules.
- Support for parsing non-empty lists with separators in tactic notations.
- New command "Locate Ltac" to get the full name of an Ltac definition.

Notations

- Record syntax "{|x=...; y=...|}" now works inside patterns too.
- Abbreviations from non-imported module now invisible at printing time.
- Abbreviations now use implicit arguments and arguments scopes for printing.
- Abbreviations to pure names now strictly behave like the name they refer to
  (make redirections of qualified names easier).
- Abbreviations for applied constant now propagate the implicit arguments
  and arguments scope of the underlying reference (possible source of
  incompatibilities generally solvable by changing such abbreviations from
  e.g. "Notation foo' := (foo x)" to "Notation foo' y := (foo x (y:=y))").
- The "where" clause now supports multiple notations per defined object.
- Recursive notations automatically expand one step on the left for better
  factorization; recursion notations inner separators now ensured being tokens.
- Added "Reserved Infix" as a specific shortcut of the corresponding
  "Reserved Notation".
- Open/Close Scope command supports Global option in sections.

Specification language

- New support for local binders in the syntax of Record/Structure fields.
- Fixpoint/CoFixpoint now support building part or all of bodies using tactics.
- Binders given before ":" in lemmas and in definitions built by tactics are
  now automatically introduced (possible source of incompatibility that can
  be resolved by invoking "Unset Automatic Introduction").
- New support for multiple implicit arguments signatures per reference.

Module system

- Include Type is now deprecated since Include now accept both modules and
  module types.
- Declare ML Module supports Local option.
- The sharing between non-logical object and the management of the
  name-space has been improved by the new "Delta-equivalence" on
  qualified name.
- The include operator has been extended to high-order structures
- Sequences of Include can be abbreviated via new syntax "<+".
- A module (or module type) can be given several "<:" signatures.
- Interactive proofs are now permitted in module type. Functors can hence
  be declared as Module Type and be used later to type themselves.
- A functor application can be prefixed by a "!" to make it ignore any
  "Inline" annotation in the type of its argument(s) (for examples of
  use of the new features, see libraries Structures and Numbers).
- Coercions are now active only when modules are imported (use "Set Automatic
  Coercions Import" to get the behavior of the previous versions of Coq).

Extraction

- When using (Recursive) Extraction Library, the filenames are directly the
  Coq ones with new appropriate extensions : we do not force anymore
  uncapital first letters for Ocaml and capital ones for Haskell.
- The extraction now tries harder to avoid code transformations that can be
  dangerous for the complexity. In particular many eta-expansions at the top
  of functions body are now avoided, clever partial applications will likely
  be preserved, let-ins are almost always kept, etc.
- In the same spirit, auto-inlining is now disabled by default, except for
  induction principles, since this feature was producing more frequently
  weird code than clear gain. The previous behavior can be restored via
  "Set Extraction AutoInline".
- Unicode characters in identifiers are now transformed into ascii strings
  that are legal in Ocaml and other languages.
- Harsh support of module extraction to Haskell and Scheme: module hierarchy
  is flattened, module abbreviations and functor applications are expanded,
  module types and unapplied functors are discarded.
- Less unsupported situations when extracting modules to Ocaml. In particular
  module parameters might be alpha-renamed if a name clash is detected.
- Extract Inductive is now possible toward non-inductive types (e.g. nat => int)
- Extraction Implicit: this new experimental command allows to mark
  some arguments of a function or constructor for removed during
  extraction, even if these arguments don't fit the usual elimination
  principles of extraction, for instance the length n of a vector.
- Files ExtrOcaml*.v in plugins/extraction try to provide a library of common
  extraction commands: mapping of basics types toward Ocaml's counterparts,
  conversions from/to int and big_int, or even complete mapping of nat,Z,N
  to int or big_int, or mapping of ascii to char and string to char list
  (in this case recognition of ascii constants is hard-wired in the extraction).

Program

- Streamlined definitions using well-founded recursion and measures so
  that they can work on any subset of the arguments directly (uses currying).
- Try to automatically clear structural fixpoint prototypes in
  obligations to avoid issues with opacity.
- Use return type clause inference in pattern-matching as in the standard
  typing algorithm.
- Support [Local Obligation Tactic] and [Next Obligation with tactic].
- Use [Show Obligation Tactic] to print the current default tactic.
- [fst] and [snd] have maximal implicit arguments in Program now (possible
  source of incompatibility).

Type classes

- Declaring axiomatic type class instances in Module Type should be now
  done via new command "Declare Instance", while the syntax "Instance"
  now always provides a concrete instance, both in and out of Module Type.
- Use [Existing Class foo] to declare foo as a class a posteriori.
  [foo] can be an inductive type or a constant definition. No
  projections or instances are defined.
- Various bug fixes and improvements: support for defined fields,
  anonymous instances, declarations giving terms, better handling of
  sections and [Context].

Vernacular commands

- New command "Timeout <n> <command>." interprets a command and a timeout
  interrupts the interpretation after <n> seconds.
- New command "Compute <expr>." is a shortcut for "Eval vm_compute in <expr>".
- New command "Fail <command>." interprets a command and is successful iff
  the command fails on an error (but not an anomaly). Handy for tests and
  illustration of wrong commands.
- Most commands referring to constant (e.g. Print or About) now support
  referring to the constant by a notation string.
- New option "Boolean Equality Schemes" to make generation of boolean
  equality automatic for datatypes (together with option "Decidable
  Equality Schemes", this replaces deprecated option "Equality Scheme").
- Made support for automatic generation of case analysis schemes available
  to user (governed by option "Set Case Analysis Schemes").
- New command "(Global?) Generalizable [All|No] Variable(s)? ident(s)?" to
  declare which identifiers are generalizable in `{} and `() binders.
- New command "Print Opaque Dependencies" to display opaque constants in
  addition to all variables, parameters or axioms a theorem or
  definition relies on.
- New command "Declare Reduction <id> := <conv_expr>", allowing to write
  later "Eval <id> in ...". This command accepts a Local variant.
- Syntax of Implicit Type now supports more than one block of variables of
  a given type.
- Command "Canonical Structure" now warns when it has no effects.
- Commands of the form "Set X" or "Unset X" now support "Local" and "Global"
  prefixes.

Library

- Use "standard" Coq names for the properties of eq and identity
  (e.g. refl_equal is now eq_refl). Support for compatibility is provided.
- The function Compare_dec.nat_compare is now defined directly,
  instead of relying on lt_eq_lt_dec. The earlier version is still
  available under the name nat_compare_alt.
- Lemmas in library Relations and Reals have been homogenized a bit.
- The implicit argument of Logic.eq is now maximally inserted, allowing
  to simply write "eq" instead of "@eq _" in morphism signatures.
- Wrongly named lemmas (Zlt_gt_succ and Zlt_succ_gt) fixed (potential source
  of incompatibilities)
- List library:
  - Definitions of list, length and app are now in Init/Datatypes.
    Support for compatibility is provided.
  - Definition of Permutation is now in Sorting/Permtation.v
  - Some other light revisions and extensions (possible source
    of incompatibilities solvable by qualifying names accordingly).
- In ListSet, set_map has been fixed (source of incompatibilities if used).
- Sorting library:
  - new mergesort of worst-case complexity O(n*ln(n)) made available in
    Mergesort.v;
  - former notion of permutation up to setoid from Permutation.v is
    deprecated and moved to PermutSetoid.v;
  - heapsort from Heap.v of worst-case complexity O(n*n) is deprecated;
  - new file Sorted.v for some definitions of being sorted.
- Structure library. This new library is meant to contain generic
  structures such as types with equalities or orders, either
  in Module version (for now) or Type Classes (still to do):
  - DecidableType.v and OrderedType.v: initial notions for FSets/FMaps,
    left for compatibility but considered as deprecated.
  - Equalities.v and Orders.v: evolutions of the previous files,
    with fine-grain Module architecture, many variants, use of
    Equivalence and other relevant Type Classes notions.
  - OrdersTac.v: a generic tactic for solving chains of (in)equalities
    over variables. See {Nat,N,Z,P}OrderedType.v for concrete instances.
  - GenericMinMax.v: any ordered type can be equipped with min and max.
    We derived here all the generic properties of these functions.
- MSets library: an important evolution of the FSets library.
  "MSets" stands for Modular (Finite) Sets, by contrast with a forthcoming
  library of Class (Finite) Sets contributed by S. Lescuyer which will be
  integrated with the next release of Coq. The main features of MSets are:
  - The use of Equivalence, Proper and other Type Classes features
    easing the handling of setoid equalities.
  - The interfaces are now stated in iff-style. Old specifications
    are now derived properties.
  - The compare functions are now pure, and return a "comparison" value.
    Thanks to the CompSpec inductive type, reasoning on them remains easy.
  - Sets structures requiring invariants (i.e. sorted lists) are
    built first as "Raw" sets (pure objects and separate proofs) and
    attached with their proofs thanks to a generic functor. "Raw" sets
    have now a proper interface and can be manipulated directly.
  Note: No Maps yet in MSets. The FSets library is still provided
  for compatibility, but will probably be considered as deprecated in the
  next release of Coq.
- Numbers library:
  - The abstract layer (NatInt, Natural/Abstract, Integer/Abstract) has
    been simplified and enhance thanks to new features of the module
    system such as Include (see above). It has been extended to Euclidean
    division (three flavors for integers: Trunc, Floor and Math).
  - The arbitrary-large efficient numbers (BigN, BigZ, BigQ) has also
    been reworked. They benefit from the abstract layer improvements
    (especially for div and mod). Note that some specifications have
    slightly changed (compare, div, mod, shift{r,l}). Ring/Field should
    work better (true recognition of constants).

Tools

- Option -R now supports binding Coq root read-only.
- New coqtop/coqc option -beautify to reformat .v files (usable
  e.g. to globally update notations).
- New tool beautify-archive to beautify a full archive of developments.
- New coqtop/coqc option -compat X.Y to simulate the general behavior
  of previous versions of Coq (provides e.g. support for 8.2 compatibility).

Coqdoc

- List have been revamped.  List depth and scope is now determined by
  an "offside" whitespace rule.
- Text may be italicized by placing it in _underscores_.
- The "--index <string>" flag changes the filename of the index.
- The "--toc-depth <int>" flag limits the depth of headers which are
  included in the table of contents.
- The "--lib-name <string>" flag prints "<string> Foo" instead of
  "Library Foo" where library titles are called for.  The
  "--no-lib-name" flag eliminates the extra title.
- New option "--parse-comments" to allow parsing of regular "(* *)"
  comments.
- New option "--plain-comments" to disable interpretation inside comments.
- New option "--interpolate" to try and typeset identifiers in Coq escapings
  using the available globalization information.
- New option "--external url root" to refer to external libraries.
- Links to section variables and notations now supported.

Internal infrastructure

- To avoid confusion with the repository of user's contributions,
  the subdirectory "contrib" has been renamed into "plugins".
  On platforms supporting ocaml native dynlink, code located there
  is built as loadable plugins for coqtop.
- An experimental build mechanism via ocamlbuild is provided.
  From the top of the archive, run ./configure as usual, and
  then ./build. Feedback about this build mechanism is most welcome.
  Compiling Coq on platforms such as Windows might be simpler
  this way, but this remains to be tested.
- The Makefile system has been simplified and factorized with
  the ocamlbuild system. In particular "make" takes advantage
  of .mllib files for building .cma/.cmxa. The .vo files to
  compile are now listed in several vo.itarget files.

Changes from V8.1 to V8.2
=========================

Language

- If a fixpoint is not written with an explicit { struct ... }, then
  all arguments are tried successively (from left to right) until one is
  found that satisfies the structural decreasing condition.
- New experimental typeclass system giving ad-hoc polymorphism and
  overloading based on dependent records and implicit arguments.
- New syntax "let 'pat := b in c" for let-binding using irrefutable patterns.
- New syntax "forall {A}, T" for specifying maximally inserted implicit
  arguments in terms.
- Sort of Record/Structure, Inductive and CoInductive defaults to Type
  if omitted.
- (Co)Inductive types can be defined as records
  (e.g. "CoInductive stream := { hd : nat; tl : stream }.")
- New syntax "Theorem id1:t1 ... with idn:tn" for proving mutually dependent
  statements.
- Support for sort-polymorphism on constants denoting inductive types.
- Several evolutions of the module system (handling of module aliases,
  functorial module types, an Include feature, etc).
- Prop now a subtype of Set (predicative and impredicative forms).
- Recursive inductive types in Prop with a single constructor of which
  all arguments are in Prop is now considered to be a singleton
  type. It consequently supports all eliminations to Prop, Set and Type.
  As a consequence, Acc_rect has now a more direct proof [possible source
  of easily fixed incompatibility in case of manual definition of a recursor
  in a recursive singleton inductive type].

Vernacular commands

- Added option Global to "Arguments Scope" for section surviving.
- Added option "Unset Elimination Schemes" to deactivate the automatic
  generation of elimination schemes.
- Modification of the Scheme command so you can ask for the name to be
  automatically computed (e.g. Scheme Induction for nat Sort Set).
- New command "Combined Scheme" to build combined mutual induction
  principles from existing mutual induction principles.
- New command "Scheme Equality" to build a decidable (boolean) equality
  for simple inductive datatypes and a decision property over this equality
  (e.g.  Scheme Equality for nat).
- Added option "Set Equality Scheme" to make automatic the declaration
  of the boolean equality when possible.
- Source of universe inconsistencies now printed when option
  "Set Printing Universes" is activated.
- New option "Set Printing Existential Instances" for making the display of
  existential variable instances explicit.
- Support for option "[id1 ... idn]", and "-[id1 ... idn]", for the
  "compute"/"cbv" reduction strategy, respectively meaning reduce only, or
  everything but, the constants id1 ... idn. "lazy" alone or followed by
  "[id1 ... idn]", and "-[id1 ... idn]" also supported, meaning apply
  all of beta-iota-zeta-delta, possibly restricting delta.
- New command "Strategy" to control the expansion of constants during
  conversion tests. It generalizes commands Opaque and Transparent by
  introducing a range of levels. Lower levels are assigned to constants
  that should be expanded first.
- New options Global and Local to Opaque and Transparent.
- New command "Print Assumptions" to display all variables, parameters
  or axioms a theorem or definition relies on.
- "Add Rec LoadPath" now provides references to libraries using partially
  qualified names (this holds also for coqtop/coqc option -R).
- SearchAbout supports negated search criteria, reference to logical objects
  by their notation, and more generally search of subterms.
- "Declare ML Module" now allows to import .cmxs files when Coq is
  compiled in native code with a version of OCaml that supports native
  Dynlink (>= 3.11).
- Specific sort constraints on Record now taken into account.
- "Print LoadPath" supports a path argument to filter the display.

Libraries

- Several parts of the libraries are now in Type, in particular FSets,
  SetoidList, ListSet, Sorting, Zmisc. This may induce a few
  incompatibilities. In case of trouble while fixing existing development,
  it may help to simply declare Set as an alias for Type (see file
  SetIsType).
- New arithmetical library in theories/Numbers. It contains:
  * an abstract modular development of natural and integer arithmetics
    in Numbers/Natural/Abstract and Numbers/Integer/Abstract
  * an implementation of efficient computational bounded and unbounded
    integers that can be mapped to processor native arithmetics.
    See Numbers/Cyclic/Int31 for 31-bit integers and Numbers/Natural/BigN
    for unbounded natural numbers and Numbers/Integer/BigZ for unbounded
    integers.
  * some proofs that both older libraries Arith, ZArith and NArith and
    newer BigN and BigZ implement the abstract modular development.
    This allows in particular BigN and BigZ to already come with a
    large database of basic lemmas and some generic tactics (ring),
  This library has still an experimental status, as well as the
  processor-acceleration mechanism, but both its abstract and its
  concrete parts are already quite usable and could challenge the use
  of nat, N and Z in actual developments. Moreover, an extension of
  this framework to rational numbers is ongoing, and an efficient
  Q structure is already provided (see Numbers/Rational/BigQ), but
  this part is currently incomplete (no abstract layer and generic
  lemmas).
- Many changes in FSets/FMaps. In practice, compatibility with earlier
  version should be fairly good, but some adaptations may be required.
  * Interfaces of unordered ("weak") and ordered sets have been factorized
    thanks to new features of Coq modules (in particular Include), see
    FSetInterface. Same for maps. Hints in these interfaces have been
    reworked (they are now placed in a "set" database).
  * To allow full subtyping between weak and ordered sets, a field
    "eq_dec" has been added to OrderedType. The old version of OrderedType
    is now called MiniOrderedType and functor MOT_to_OT allow to
    convert to the new version. The interfaces and implementations
    of sets now contain also such a "eq_dec" field.
  * FSetDecide, contributed by Aaron Bohannon, contains a decision
    procedure allowing to solve basic set-related goals (for instance,
    is a point in a particular set ?). See FSetProperties for examples.
  * Functors of properties have been improved, especially the ones about
    maps, that now propose some induction principles. Some properties
    of fold need less hypothesis.
  * More uniformity in implementations of sets and maps: they all use
    implicit arguments, and no longer export unnecessary scopes (see
    bug #1347)
  * Internal parts of the implementations based on AVL have evolved a
    lot. The main files FSetAVL and FMapAVL are now much more
    lightweight now. In particular, minor changes in some functions
    has allowed to fully separate the proofs of operational
    correctness from the proofs of well-balancing: well-balancing is
    critical for efficiency, but not anymore for proving that these
    trees implement our interfaces, hence we have moved these proofs
    into appendix files FSetFullAVL and FMapFullAVL. Moreover, a few
    functions like union and compare have been modified in order to be
    structural yet efficient. The appendix files also contains
    alternative versions of these few functions, much closer to the
    initial Ocaml code and written via the Function framework.
- Library IntMap, subsumed by FSets/FMaps, has been removed from
  Coq Standard Library and moved into a user contribution Cachan/IntMap
- Better computational behavior of some constants (eq_nat_dec and
  le_lt_dec more efficient, Z_lt_le_dec and Positive_as_OT.compare
  transparent, ...) (exceptional source of incompatibilities).
- Boolean operators moved from module Bool to module Datatypes (may need
  to rename qualified references in script and force notations || and &&
  to be at levels 50 and 40 respectively).
- The constructors xI and xO of type positive now have postfix notations
  "~1" and "~0", allowing to write numbers in binary form easily, for instance
  6 is 1~1~0 and 4*p is p~0~0 (see BinPos.v).
- Improvements to NArith (Nminus, Nmin, Nmax), and to QArith (in particular
  a better power function).
- Changes in ZArith: several additional lemmas (used in theories/Numbers),
  especially in Zdiv, Znumtheory, Zpower. Moreover, many results in
  Zdiv have been generalized: the divisor may simply be non-null
  instead of strictly positive (see lemmas with name ending by
  "_full"). An alternative file ZOdiv proposes a different behavior
  (the one of Ocaml) when dividing by negative numbers.
- Changes in Arith: EqNat and Wf_nat now exported from Arith, some
  constructions on nat that were outside Arith are now in (e.g. iter_nat).
- In SetoidList, eqlistA now expresses that two lists have similar elements
  at the same position, while the predicate previously called eqlistA
  is now equivlistA (this one only states that the lists contain the same
  elements, nothing more).
- Changes in Reals:
  * Most statement in "sigT" (including the
    completeness axiom) are now in "sig" (in case of incompatibility,
    use proj1_sig instead of projT1, sig instead of sigT, etc).
  * More uniform naming scheme (identifiers in French moved to English,
    consistent use of 0 -- zero -- instead of O -- letter O --, etc).
  * Lemma on prod_f_SO is now on prod_f_R0.
  * Useless hypothesis of ln_exists1 dropped.
  * New Rlogic.v states a few logical properties about R axioms.
  * RIneq.v extended and made cleaner.
- Slight restructuration of the Logic library regarding choice and classical
  logic. Addition of files providing intuitionistic axiomatizations of
  descriptions: Epsilon.v, Description.v and IndefiniteDescription.v.
- Definition of pred and minus made compatible with the structural
  decreasing criterion for use in fixpoints.
- Files Relations/Rstar.v and Relations/Newman.v moved out to the user
  contribution repository (contribution CoC_History). New lemmas about
  transitive closure added and some bound variables renamed (exceptional
  risk of incompatibilities).
- Syntax for binders in terms (e.g. for "exists") supports anonymous names.

Notations, coercions, implicit arguments and type inference

- More automation in the inference of the return clause of dependent
  pattern-matching problems.
- Experimental allowance for omission of the clauses easily detectable as
  impossible in pattern-matching problems.
- Improved inference of implicit arguments.
- New options "Set Maximal Implicit Insertion", "Set Reversible Pattern
  Implicit", "Set Strongly Strict Implicit" and "Set Printing Implicit
  Defensive" for controlling inference and use of implicit arguments.
- New modifier in "Implicit Arguments" to force an implicit argument to
  be maximally inserted.
- New modifier of "Implicit Arguments" to enrich the set of implicit arguments.
- New options Global and Local to "Implicit Arguments" for section
  surviving or non export outside module.
- Level "constr" moved from 9 to 8.
- Structure/Record now printed as Record (unless option Printing All is set).
- Support for parametric notations defining constants.
- Insertion of coercions below product types refrains to unfold
  constants (possible source of incompatibility).
- New support for fix/cofix in notations.

Tactic Language

- Second-order pattern-matching now working in Ltac "match" clauses
  (syntax for second-order unification variable is "@?X").
- Support for matching on let bindings in match context using syntax
  "H := body" or "H := body : type".
- Ltac accepts integer arguments (syntax is "ltac:nnn" for nnn an integer).
- The general sequence tactical "expr_0 ; [ expr_1 | ... | expr_n ]"
  is extended so that at most one expr_i may have the form "expr .."
  or just "..". Also, n can be different from the number of subgoals
  generated by expr_0. In this case, the value of expr (or idtac in
  case of just "..") is applied to the intermediate subgoals to make
  the number of tactics equal to the number of subgoals.
- A name used as the name of the parameter of a lemma (like f in
  "apply f_equal with (f:=t)") is now interpreted as a ltac variable
  if such a variable exists (this is a possible source of
  incompatibility and it can be fixed by renaming the variables of a
  ltac function into names that do not clash with the lemmas
  parameter names used in the tactic).
- New syntax "Ltac tac ::= ..." to rebind a tactic to a new expression.
- "let rec ... in ... " now supported for expressions without explicit
  parameters; interpretation is lazy to the contrary of "let ... in ...";
  hence, the "rec" keyword can be used to turn the argument of a
  "let ... in ..." into a lazy one.
- Patterns for hypotheses types in "match goal" are now interpreted in
  type_scope.
- A bound variable whose name is not used elsewhere now serves as
  metavariable in "match" and it gets instantiated by an identifier
  (allow e.g. to extract the name of a statement like "exists x, P x").
- New printing of Ltac call trace for better debugging.

Tactics

- New tactics "apply -> term", "apply <- term", "apply -> term in
  ident", "apply <- term in ident" for applying equivalences (iff).
- Slight improvement of the hnf and simpl tactics when applied on
  expressions with explicit occurrences of match or fix.
- New tactics "eapply in", "erewrite", "erewrite in".
- New tactics "ediscriminate", "einjection", "esimplify_eq".
- Tactics "discriminate", "injection", "simplify_eq" now support any
  term as argument. Clause "with" is also supported.
- Unfoldable references can be given by notation's string rather than by name
  in unfold.
- The "with" arguments are now typed using informations from the current goal:
  allows support for coercions and more inference of implicit arguments.
- Application of "f_equal"-style lemmas works better.
- Tactics elim, case, destruct and induction now support variants eelim,
  ecase, edestruct and einduction.
- Tactics destruct and induction now support the "with" option and the
  "in" clause option. If the option "in" is used, an equality is added
  to remember the term to which the induction or case analysis applied
  (possible source of parsing incompatibilities when destruct or induction is
   part of a let-in expression in Ltac; extra parentheses are then required).
- New support for "as" clause in tactics "apply in" and "eapply in".
- Some new intro patterns:
  * intro pattern "?A" genererates a fresh name based on A.
    Caveat about a slight loss of compatibility:
    Some intro patterns don't need space between them. In particular
    intros ?a?b used to be legal and equivalent to intros ? a ? b. Now it
    is still legal but equivalent to intros ?a ?b.
  * intro pattern "(A & ... & Y & Z)" synonym to "(A,....,(Y,Z)))))"
    for right-associative constructs like /\ or exists.
- Several syntax extensions concerning "rewrite":
  * "rewrite A,B,C" can be used to rewrite A, then B, then C. These rewrites
    occur only on the first subgoal: in particular, side-conditions of the
    "rewrite A" are not concerned by the "rewrite B,C".
  * "rewrite A by tac" allows to apply tac on all side-conditions generated by
    the "rewrite A".
  * "rewrite A at n" allows to select occurrences to rewrite: rewrite only
    happen at the n-th exact occurrence of the first successful matching of
    A in the goal.
  * "rewrite 3 A" or "rewrite 3!A" is equivalent to "rewrite A,A,A".
  * "rewrite !A" means rewriting A as long as possible (and at least once).
  * "rewrite 3?A" means rewriting A at most three times.
  * "rewrite ?A" means rewriting A as long as possible (possibly never).
  * many of the above extensions can be combined with each other.
- Introduction patterns better respect the structure of context in presence of
  missing or extra names in nested disjunction-conjunction patterns [possible
  source of rare incompatibilities].
- New syntax "rename a into b, c into d" for "rename a into b; rename c into d"
- New tactics "dependent induction/destruction H [ generalizing id_1 .. id_n ]"
  to do induction-inversion on instantiated inductive families à la BasicElim.
- Tactics "apply" and "apply in" now able to reason modulo unfolding of
  constants (possible source of incompatibility in situations where apply
  may fail, e.g. as argument of a try or a repeat and in a ltac function);
  versions that do not unfold are renamed into "simple apply" and
  "simple apply in" (usable for compatibility or for automation).
- Tactics "apply" and "apply in" now able to traverse conjunctions and to
  select the first matching lemma among the components of the conjunction;
  tactic "apply" also able to apply lemmas of conclusion an empty type.
- Tactic "apply" now supports application of several lemmas in a row.
- Tactics "set" and "pose" can set functions using notation "(f x1..xn := c)".
- New tactic "instantiate" (without argument).
- Tactic firstorder "with" and "using" options have their meaning swapped for
  consistency with auto/eauto (source of incompatibility).
- Tactic "generalize" now supports "at" options to specify occurrences
  and "as" options to name the quantified hypotheses.
- New tactic "specialize H with a" or "specialize (H a)" allows to transform
  in-place a universally-quantified hypothesis (H : forall x, T x) into its
  instantiated form (H : T a). Nota: "specialize" was in fact there in earlier
  versions of Coq, but was undocumented, and had a slightly different behavior.
- New tactic "contradict H" can be used to solve any kind of goal as long as
  the user can provide afterwards a proof of the negation of the hypothesis H.
  If H is already a negation, say ~T, then a proof of T is asked.
  If the current goal is a negation, say ~U, then U is saved in H afterwards,
  hence this new tactic "contradict" extends earlier tactic "swap", which is
  now obsolete.
- Tactics f_equal is now done in ML instead of Ltac: it now works on any
  equality of functions, regardless of the arity of the function.
- New options "before id", "at top", "at bottom" for tactics "move"/"intro".
- Some more debug of reflexive omega (romega), and internal clarifications.
  Moreover, romega now has a variant "romega with *" that can be also used
  on non-Z goals (nat, N, positive) via a call to a translation tactic named
  zify (its purpose is to Z-ify your goal...). This zify may also be used
  independently of romega.
- Tactic "remember" now supports an "in" clause to remember only selected
  occurrences of a term.
- Tactic "pose proof" supports name overwriting in case of specialization of an
  hypothesis.
- Semi-decision tactic "jp" for first-order intuitionistic logic moved to user
  contributions (subsumed by "firstorder").

Program

- Moved useful tactics in theories/Program and documented them.
- Add Program.Basics which contains standard definitions for functional
  programming (id, apply, flip...)
- More robust obligation handling, dependent pattern-matching and
  well-founded definitions.
- New syntax " dest term as pat in term " for destructing objects using
  an irrefutable pattern while keeping equalities (use this instead of
  "let" in Programs).
- Program CoFixpoint is accepted, Program Fixpoint uses the new way to infer
  which argument decreases structurally.
- Program Lemma, Axiom etc... now permit to have obligations in the statement
  iff they can be automatically solved by the default tactic.
- Renamed "Obligations Tactic" command to "Obligation Tactic".
- New command "Preterm [ of id ]" to see the actual term fed to Coq for
  debugging purposes.
- New option "Transparent Obligations" to control the declaration of
  obligations as transparent or opaque. All obligations are now transparent
  by default, otherwise the system declares them opaque if possible.
- Changed the notations "left" and "right" to "in_left" and "in_right" to hide
  the proofs in standard disjunctions, to avoid breaking existing scripts when
  importing Program. Also, put them in program_scope.

Type Classes

- New "Class", "Instance" and "Program Instance" commands to define
  classes and instances documented in the reference manual.
- New binding construct " [ Class_1 param_1 .. param_n, Class_2 ... ] "
  for binding type classes, usable everywhere.
- New command " Print Classes " and " Print Instances some_class " to
  print tables for typeclasses.
- New default eauto hint database "typeclass_instances" used by the default
  typeclass instance search tactic.
- New theories directory "theories/Classes" for standard typeclasses
  declarations. Module Classes.RelationClasses is a typeclass port of
  Relation_Definitions plus a generic development of algebra on
  n-ary heterogeneous predicates.

Setoid rewriting

- Complete (and still experimental) rewrite of the tactic
  based on typeclasses. The old interface and semantics are
  almost entirely respected, except:

  - Import Setoid is now mandatory to be able to call setoid_replace
  and declare morphisms.

  - "-->", "++>" and "==>" are now right associative notations
  declared at level 55 in scope signature_scope.
  Their introduction may break existing scripts that defined
  them as notations with different levels.

  - One needs to use [Typeclasses unfold [cst]] if [cst] is used
  as an abbreviation hiding products in types of morphisms,
  e.g. if ones redefines [relation] and declares morphisms
  whose type mentions [relation].

  - The [setoid_rewrite]'s semantics change when rewriting with
  a lemma: it can rewrite two different instantiations of the lemma
  at once. Use [setoid_rewrite H at 1] for (almost) the usual semantics.
  [setoid_rewrite] will also try to rewrite under binders now, and can
  succeed on different terms than before. In particular, it will unify under
  let-bound variables. When called through [rewrite], the semantics are
  unchanged though.

  - [Add Morphism term : id] has different semantics when used with
  parametric morphism: it will try to find a relation on the parameters
  too. The behavior has also changed with respect to default relations:
  the most recently declared Setoid/Relation will be used, the documentation
  explains how to customize this behavior.

  - Parametric Relation and Morphism are declared differently, using the
  new [Add Parametric] commands, documented in the manual.

  - Setoid_Theory is now an alias to Equivalence, scripts building objects
  of type Setoid_Theory need to unfold (or "red") the definitions
  of Reflexive, Symmetric and Transitive in order to get the same goals
  as before. Scripts which introduced variables explicitely will not break.

  - The order of subgoals when doing [setoid_rewrite] with side-conditions
  is always the same: first the new goal, then the conditions.

- New standard library modules Classes.Morphisms declares
  standard morphisms on refl/sym/trans relations.
  Classes.Morphisms_Prop declares morphisms on propositional
  connectives and Classes.Morphisms_Relations on generalized predicate
  connectives. Classes.Equivalence declares notations and tactics
  related to equivalences and Classes.SetoidTactics defines the
  setoid_replace tactics and some support for the "Add *" interface,
  notably the tactic applied automatically before each "Add Morphism"
  proof.

- User-defined subrelations are supported, as well as higher-order morphisms
  and rewriting under binders. The tactic is also extensible entirely in Ltac.
  The documentation has been updated to cover these features.

- [setoid_rewrite] and [rewrite] now support the [at] modifier to select
  occurrences to rewrite, and both use the [setoid_rewrite] code, even when
  rewriting with leibniz equality if occurrences are specified.

Extraction

- Improved behavior of the Caml extraction of modules: name clashes should
  not happen anymore.
- The command Extract Inductive has now a syntax for infix notations. This
  allows in particular to map Coq lists and pairs onto Caml ones:
    Extract Inductive list => list [ "[]" "(::)" ].
    Extract Inductive prod => "(*)" [ "(,)" ].
- In pattern matchings, a default pattern "| _ -> ..." is now used whenever
  possible if several branches are identical. For instance, functions
  corresponding to decidability of equalities are now linear instead of
  quadratic.
- A new instruction Extraction Blacklist id1 .. idn allows to prevent filename
  conflits with existing code, for instance when extracting module List
  to Ocaml.

CoqIDE

- CoqIDE font defaults to monospace so as indentation to be meaningful.
- CoqIDE supports nested goals and any other kind of declaration in the middle
  of a proof.
- Undoing non-tactic commands in CoqIDE works faster.
- New CoqIDE menu for activating display of various implicit informations.
- Added the possibility to choose the location of tabs in coqide:
  (in Edit->Preferences->Misc)
- New Open and Save As dialogs in CoqIDE which filter *.v files.

Tools

- New stand-alone .vo files verifier "coqchk".
- Extended -I coqtop/coqc option to specify a logical dir: "-I dir -as coqdir".
- New coqtop/coqc option -exclude-dir to exclude subdirs for option -R.
- The binary "parser" has been renamed to "coq-parser".
- Improved coqdoc and dump of globalization information to give more
  meta-information on identifiers. All categories of Coq definitions are
  supported, which makes typesetting trivial in the generated documentation.
  Support for hyperlinking and indexing developments in the tex output
  has been implemented as well.

Miscellaneous

- Coq installation provides enough files so that Ocaml's extensions need not
  the Coq sources to be compiled (this assumes O'Caml 3.10 and Camlp5).
- New commands "Set Whelp Server" and "Set Whelp Getter" to customize the
  Whelp search tool.
- Syntax of "Test Printing Let ref" and "Test Printing If ref" changed into
  "Test Printing Let for ref" and "Test Printing If for ref".
- An overhauled build system (new Makefiles); see dev/doc/build-system.txt.
- Add -browser option to configure script.
- Build a shared library for the C part of Coq, and use it by default on
  non-(Windows or MacOS) systems. Bytecode executables are now pure. The
  behaviour is configurable with -coqrunbyteflags, -coqtoolsbyteflags and
  -custom configure options.
- Complexity tests can be skipped by setting the environment variable
  COQTEST_SKIPCOMPLEXITY.

Changes from V8.1gamma to V8.1
==============================

Bug fixes

- Many bugs have been fixed (cf coq-bugs web page)

Tactics

- New tactics ring, ring_simplify and new tactic field now able to manage
  power to a positive integer constant. Tactic ring on Z and R, and
  field on R manage power (may lead to incompatibilities with V8.1gamma).
- Tactic field_simplify now applicable in hypotheses.
- New field_simplify_eq for simplifying field equations into ring equations.
- Tactics ring, ring_simplify, field, field_simplify and field_simplify_eq
  all able to apply user-given equations to rewrite monoms on the fly
  (see documentation).

Libraries

- New file ConstructiveEpsilon.v defining an epsilon operator and
  proving the axiom of choice constructively for a countable domain
  and a decidable predicate.

Changes from V8.1beta to V8.1gamma
==================================

Syntax

- changed parsing precedence of let/in and fun constructions of Ltac:
  let x := t in e1; e2 is now parsed as let x := t in (e1;e2).

Language and commands

- Added sort-polymorphism for definitions in Type (but finally abandonned).
- Support for implicit arguments in the types of parameters in
  (co-)fixpoints and (co-)inductive declarations.
- Improved type inference: use as much of possible general information.
  before applying irreversible unification heuristics (allow e.g. to
  infer the predicate in "(exist _ 0 (refl_equal 0) : {n:nat | n=0 })").
- Support for Miller-Pfenning's patterns unification in type synthesis
  (e.g. can infer P such that P x y = phi(x,y)).
- Support for "where" clause in cofixpoint definitions.
- New option "Set Printing Universes" for making Type levels explicit.

Tactics

- Improved implementation of the ring and field tactics. For compatibility
  reasons, the previous tactics are renamed as legacy ring and legacy field,
  but should be considered as deprecated.
- New declarative mathematical proof language.
- Support for argument lists of arbitrary length in Tactic Notation.
- [rewrite ... in H] now fails if [H] is used either in an hypothesis
  or in the goal.
- The semantics of [rewrite ... in *] has been slightly modified (see doc).
- Support for "as" clause in tactic injection.
- New forward-reasoning tactic "apply in".
- Ltac fresh operator now builds names from a concatenation of its arguments.
- New ltac tactic "remember" to abstract over a subterm and keep an equality
- Support for Miller-Pfenning's patterns unification in apply/rewrite/...
  (may lead to few incompatibilities - generally now useless tactic calls).

Bug fixes

- Fix for notations involving basic "match" expressions.
- Numerous other bugs solved (a few fixes may lead to incompatibilities).


Changes from V8.0 to V8.1beta
=============================

Logic

- Added sort-polymorphism on inductive families
- Allowance for recursively non uniform parameters in inductive types

Syntax

- No more support for version 7 syntax and for translation to version 8 syntax.
- In fixpoints, the { struct ... } annotation is not mandatory any more when
  only one of the arguments has an inductive type
- Added disjunctive patterns in match-with patterns
- Support for primitive interpretation of string literals
- Extended support for Unicode ranges

Vernacular commands

- Added "Print Ltac qualid" to print a user defined tactic.
- Added "Print Rewrite HintDb" to print the content of a DB used by
  autorewrite.
- Added "Print Canonical Projections".
- Added "Example" as synonym of "Definition".
- Added "Proposition" and "Corollary" as extra synonyms of "Lemma".
- New command "Whelp" to send requests to the Helm database of proofs
  formalized in the Calculus of Inductive Constructions.
- Command "functional induction" has been re-implemented from the new
  "Function" command.

Ltac and tactic syntactic extensions

- New primitive "external" for communication with tool external to Coq
- New semantics for "match t with": if a clause returns a
  tactic, it is now applied to the current goal. If it fails, the next
  clause or next matching subterm is tried (i.e. it behaves as "match
  goal with" does). The keyword "lazymatch" can be used to delay the
  evaluation of tactics occurring in matching clauses.
- Hint base names can be parametric in auto and trivial.
- Occurrence values can be parametric in unfold, pattern, etc.
- Added entry constr_may_eval for tactic extensions.
- Low-priority term printer made available in ML-written tactic extensions.
- "Tactic Notation" extended to allow notations of tacticals.

Tactics

- New implementation and generalization of [setoid_]* (setoid_rewrite,
  setoid_symmetry, setoid_transitivity, setoid_reflexivity and autorewite).
  New syntax for declaring relations and morphisms (old syntax still working
  with minor modifications, but deprecated).
- New implementation (still experimental) of the ring tactic with a built-in
  notion of coefficients and a better usage of setoids.
- New conversion tactic "vm_compute": evaluates the goal (or an hypothesis)
  with a call-by-value strategy, using the compiled version of terms.
- When rewriting H where H is not directly a Coq equality, search first H for
  a registered setoid equality before starting to reduce in H. This is unlikely
  to break any script. Should this happen nonetheless, one can insert manually
  some "unfold ... in H" before rewriting.
- Fixed various bugs about (setoid) rewrite ... in ... (in particular bug #5941)
- "rewrite ... in" now accepts a clause as place where to rewrite instead of
  juste a simple hypothesis name. For instance:
   rewrite H in H1,H2 |- * means rewrite H in H1; rewrite H in H2; rewrite H
   rewrite H in * |-  will do try rewrite H in Hi for all hypothesis Hi <> H.
- Added "dependent rewrite term" and "dependent rewrite term in hyp".
- Added "autorewrite with ... in hyp [using ...]".
- Tactic "replace" now accepts a "by" tactic clause.
- Added "clear - id" to clear all hypotheses except the ones depending in id.
- The argument of Declare Left Step and Declare Right Step is now a term
  (it used to be a reference).
- Omega now handles arbitrary precision integers.
- Several bug fixes in Reflexive Omega (romega).
- Idtac can now be left implicit in a [...|...] construct: for instance,
  [ foo | | bar ] stands for [ foo | idtac | bar ].
- Fixed a "fold" bug (non critical but possible source of incompatibilities).
- Added classical_left and classical_right which transforms |- A \/ B into
  ~B |- A and ~A |- B respectively.
- Added command "Declare Implicit Tactic" to set up a default tactic to be
  used to solve unresolved subterms of term arguments of tactics.
- Better support for coercions to Sortclass in tactics expecting type
  arguments.
- Tactic "assert" now accepts "as" intro patterns and "by" tactic clauses.
- New tactic "pose proof" that generalizes "assert (id:=p)" with intro patterns.
- New introduction pattern "?" for letting Coq choose a name.
- Introduction patterns now support side hypotheses (e.g. intros [|] on
  "(nat -> nat) -> nat" works).
- New introduction patterns "->" and "<-" for immediate rewriting of
  introduced hypotheses.
- Introduction patterns coming after non trivial introduction patterns now
  force full introduction of the first pattern (e.g. "intros [[|] p]" on
  "nat->nat->nat" now behaves like "intros [[|?] p]")
- Added "eassumption".
- Added option 'using lemmas' to auto, trivial and eauto.
- Tactic "congruence" is now complete for its intended scope (ground
  equalities and inequalities with constructors). Furthermore, it
  tries to equates goal and hypotheses.
- New tactic "rtauto" solves pure propositional logic and gives a
  reflective version of the available proof.
- Numbering of "pattern", "unfold", "simpl", ... occurrences in "match
  with" made consistent with the printing of the return clause after
  the term to match in the "match-with" construct (use "Set Printing All"
  to see hidden occurrences).
- Generalization of induction "induction x1...xn using scheme" where
  scheme is an induction principle with complex predicates (like the
  ones generated by function induction).
- Some small Ltac tactics has been added to the standard library
  (file Tactics.v):
  * f_equal : instead of using the different f_equalX lemmas
  * case_eq : a "case" without loss of information. An equality
     stating the current situation is generated in every sub-cases.
  * swap : for a negated goal ~B and a negated hypothesis H:~A,
     swap H asks you to prove A from hypothesis B
  * revert : revert H is generalize H; clear H.

Extraction

- All type parts should now disappear instead of sometimes producing _
  (for instance in Map.empty).
- Haskell extraction: types of functions are now printed, better
  unsafeCoerce mechanism, both for hugs and ghc.
- Scheme extraction improved, see http://www.pps.jussieu.fr/~letouzey/scheme.
- Many bug fixes.

Modules

- Added "Locate Module qualid" to get the full path of a module.
- Module/Declare Module syntax made more uniform.
- Added syntactic sugar "Declare Module Export/Import" and
  "Module Export/Import".
- Added syntactic sugar "Module M(Export/Import X Y: T)" and
  "Module Type M(Export/Import X Y: T)"
  (only for interactive definitions)
- Construct "with" generalized to module paths:
   T with (Definition|Module) M1.M2....Mn.l := l'.

Notations

- Option "format" aware of recursive notations.
- Added insertion of spaces by default in recursive notations w/o separators.
- No more automatic printing box in case of user-provided printing "format".
- New notation "exists! x:A, P" for unique existence.
- Notations for specific numerals now compatible with generic notations of
  numerals (e.g. "1" can be used to denote the unit of a group without
  hiding 1%nat)

Libraries

- New library on String and Ascii characters (contributed by L. Thery).
- New library FSets+FMaps of finite sets and maps.
- New library QArith on rational numbers.
- Small extension of Zmin.V, new Zmax.v, new Zminmax.v.
- Reworking and extension of the files on classical logic and
  description principles (possible incompatibilities)
- Few other improvements in ZArith potentially exceptionally breaking the
  compatibility (useless hypothesys of Zgt_square_simpl and
  Zlt_square_simpl removed; fixed names mentioning letter O instead of
  digit 0; weaken premises in Z_lt_induction).
- Restructuration of Eqdep_dec.v and Eqdep.v: more lemmas in Type.
- Znumtheory now contains a gcd function that can compute within Coq.
- More lemmas stated on Type in Wf.v, removal of redundant Acc_iter and
  Acc_iter2.
- Change of the internal names of lemmas in OmegaLemmas.
- Acc in Wf.v and clos_refl_trans in Relation_Operators.v now rely on
  the allowance for recursively non uniform parameters (possible
  source of incompatibilities: explicit pattern-matching on these
  types may require to remove the occurrence associated to their
  recursively non uniform parameter).
- Coq.List.In_dec has been set transparent (this may exceptionally break
  proof scripts, set it locally opaque for compatibility).
- More on permutations of lists in List.v and Permutation.v.
- List.v has been much expanded.
- New file SetoidList.v now contains results about lists seen with
  respect to a setoid equality.
- Library NArith has been expanded, mostly with results coming from
  Intmap (for instance a bitwise xor), plus also a bridge between N and
  Bitvector.
- Intmap has been reorganized. In particular its address type "addr" is
  now N. User contributions known to use Intmap have been adapted
  accordingly. If you're using this library please contact us.
  A wrapper FMapIntMap now presents Intmap as a particular implementation
  of FMaps. New developments are strongly encouraged to use either this
  wrapper or any other implementations of FMap instead of using directly
  this obsolete Intmap.

Tools

- New semantics for coqtop options ("-batch" expects option "-top dir"
  for loading vernac file that contains definitions).
- Tool coq_makefile now removes custom targets that are file names in
  "make clean"
- New environment variable COQREMOTEBROWSER to set the command invoked
  to start the remote browser both in Coq and coqide. Standard syntax:
  "%s" is the placeholder for the URL.


Changes from V8.0beta to V8.0
=============================

Vernacular commands

- New option "Set Printing All" to deactivate all high-level forms of
  printing (implicit arguments, coercions, destructing let,
  if-then-else, notations, projections)
- "Functional Scheme" and "Functional Induction" extended to polymorphic
  types and dependent types
- Notation now allows recursive patterns, hence recovering parts of the
  fonctionalities of pre-V8 Grammar/Syntax commands
- Command "Print." discontinued.
- Redundant syntax "Implicit Arguments On/Off" discontinued

New syntax

- Semantics change of the if-then-else construction in new syntax:
  "if c then t1 else t2" now stands for
  "match c with c1 _ ... _ => t1 | c2 _ ... _ => t2 end"
  with no dependency of t1 and t2 in the arguments of the constructors;
  this may cause incompatibilities for files translated using coq 8.0beta

Interpretation scopes

- Delimiting key %bool for bool_scope added
- Import no more needed to activate argument scopes from a module

Tactics and the tactic Language

- Semantics of "assert" is now consistent with the reference manual
- New tactics stepl and stepr for chaining transitivity steps
- Tactic "replace ... with ... in" added
- Intro patterns now supported in Ltac (parsed with prefix "ipattern:")

Executables and tools

- Added option -top to change the name of the toplevel module "Top"
- Coqdoc updated to new syntax and now part of Coq sources
- XML exportation tool now exports the structure of vernacular files
  (cf chapter 13 in the reference manual)

User contributions

- User contributions have been updated to the new syntax

Bug fixes

- Many bugs have been fixed (cf coq-bugs web page)

Changes from V8.0beta old syntax to V8.0beta
============================================

New concrete syntax

- A completely new syntax for terms
- A more uniform syntax for tactics and the tactic language
- A few syntactic changes for vernacular commands
- A smart automatic translator translating V8.0 files in old syntax to
  files valid for V8.0

Syntax extensions

- "Grammar" for terms disappears
- "Grammar" for tactics becomes "Tactic Notation"
- "Syntax" disappears
- Introduction of a notion of interpretation scope allowing to use the
  same notations in various contexts without using specific delimiters
  (e.g the same expression "4<=3+x" is interpreted either in "nat",
  "positive", "N" (previously "entier"), "Z", "R", depending on which
  interpretation scope is currently open) [see documentation for details]
- Notation now mandatorily requires a precedence and associativity
  (default was to set precedence to 1 and associativity to none)

Revision of the standard library

- Many lemmas and definitions names have been made more uniform mostly
  in Arith, NArith, ZArith and Reals (e.g : "times" -> "Pmult",
  "times_sym" -> "Pmult_comm", "Zle_Zmult_pos_right" ->
  "Zmult_le_compat_r", "SUPERIEUR" -> "Gt", "ZERO" -> "Z0")
- Order and names of arguments of basic lemmas on nat, Z, positive and R
  have been made uniform.
- Notions of Coq initial state are declared with (strict) implicit arguments
- eq merged with eqT: old eq disappear, new eq (written =) is old eqT
  and new eqT is syntactic sugar for new eq (notation == is an alias
  for = and is written as it, exceptional source of incompatibilities)
- Similarly, ex, ex2, all, identity are merged with exT, exT2, allT, identityT
- Arithmetical notations for nat, positive, N, Z, R, without needing
  any backquote or double-backquotes delimiters.
- In Lists: new concrete notations; argument of nil is now implicit
- All changes in the library are taken in charge by the translator

Semantical changes during translation

- Recursive keyword set by default (and no longer needed) in Tactic Definition
- Set Implicit Arguments is strict by default in new syntax
- reductions in hypotheses of the form "... in H" now apply to the type
  also if H is a local definition
- etc

Gallina

- New syntax of the form "Inductive bool : Set := true, false : bool." for
  enumerated types
- Experimental syntax of the form p.(fst) for record projections
  (activable with option "Set Printing Projections" which is
   recognized by the translator)

Known problems of the automatic translation

- iso-latin-1 characters are no longer supported: move your files to
  7-bits ASCII or unicode before translation (swith to unicode is
  automatically done if a file is loaded and saved again by coqide)
- Renaming in ZArith: incompatibilities in Coq user contribs due to
  merging names INZ, from Reals, and inject_nat.
- Renaming and new lemmas in ZArith: may clash with names used by users
- Restructuration of ZArith: replace requirement of specific modules
  in ZArith by "Require Import ZArith_base" or "Require Import ZArith"
- Some implicit arguments must be made explicit before translation: typically
  for "length nil", the implicit argument of length must be made explicit
- Grammar rules, Infix notations and V7.4 Notations must be updated wrt the
  new scheme for syntactic extensions (see translator documentation)
- Unsafe for annotation Cases when constructors coercions are used or when
  annotations are eta-reduced predicates


Changes from V7.4 to V8.0beta old syntax
========================================

Logic

- Set now predicative by default
- New option -impredicative-set to set Set impredicative
- The standard library doesn't need impredicativity of Set and is
  compatible with the classical axioms which contradict Set impredicativity

Syntax for arithmetic

- Notation "=" and "<>" in Z and R are no longer implicitly in Z or R
  (with possible introduction of a coercion), use <Z>...=... or
  <Z>...<>... instead
- Locate applied to a simple string (e.g. "+") searches for all
  notations containing this string

Vernacular commands

- "Declare ML Module" now allows to import .cma files. This avoids to use a
   bunch of "Declare ML Module" statements when using several ML files.
- "Set Printing Width n" added, allows to change the size of width printing.
- "Implicit Variables Type x,y:t" (new syntax: "Implicit Types x y:t")
  assigns default types for binding variables.
- Declarations of Hints and Notation now accept a "Local" flag not to
  be exported outside the current file even if not in section
- "Print Scopes" prints all notations
- New command "About name" for light printing of type, implicit arguments, etc.
- New command "Admitted" to declare incompletely proven statement as axioms
- New keyword "Conjecture" to declare an axiom intended to be provable
- SearchAbout can now search for lemmas referring to more than one constant
  and on substrings of the name of the lemma
- "Print Implicit" displays the implicit arguments of a constant
- Locate now searches for all names having a given suffix
- New command "Functional Scheme" for building an induction principle
  from a function defined by case analysis and fix.

Commands

- new coqtop/coqc option -dont-load-proofs not to load opaque proofs in memory

Implicit arguments

- Inductive in sections declared with implicits now "discharged" with
  implicits (like constants and variables)
- Implicit Arguments flags are now synchronous with reset
- New switch "Unset/Set Printing Implicits" (new syntax: "Unset/Set Printing
  Implicit") to globally control printing of implicits

Grammar extensions

- Many newly supported UTF-8 encoded unicode blocks
  - Greek letters (0380-03FF), Hebrew letters (U05D0-05EF), letter-like
  symbols (2100-214F, that includes double N,Z,Q,R), prime
  signs (from 2080-2089) and characters from many written languages
  are valid in identifiers
  - mathematical operators (2200-22FF), supplemental mathematical
  operators (2A00-2AFF), miscellaneous technical (2300-23FF that
  includes sqrt symbol), miscellaneous symbols (2600-26FF), arrows
  (2190-21FF and 2900-297F), invisible mathematical operators (from
  2080-2089), ... are valid symbols

Library

- New file about the factorial function in Arith
- An additional elimination Acc_iter for Acc, simplier than Acc_rect.
  This new elimination principle is used for definition well_founded_induction.
- New library NArith on binary natural numbers
- R is now of type Set
- Restructuration in ZArith library
  - "true_sub" used in Zplus now a definition, not a local one (source
  of incompatibilities in proof referring to true_sub, may need extra Unfold)
  - Some lemmas about minus moved from fast_integer to Arith/Minus.v
  (le_minus, lt_mult_left) (theoretical source of incompatibilities)
  - Several lemmas moved from auxiliary.v and zarith_aux.v to
  fast_integer.v (theoretical source of incompatibilities)
  - Variables names of iff_trans changed (source of incompatibilities)
  - ZArith lemmas named OMEGA something or fast_ something, and lemma new_var
    are now out of ZArith (except OMEGA2)
  - Redundant ZArith lemmas have been renamed: for the following pairs,
  use the second name (Zle_Zmult_right2, Zle_mult_simpl), (OMEGA2,
  Zle_0_plus), (Zplus_assoc_l, Zplus_assoc), (Zmult_one, Zmult_1_n),
  (Zmult_assoc_l, Zmult_assoc), (Zmult_minus_distr, Zmult_Zminus_distr_l)
  (add_un_double_moins_un_xO, is_double_moins_un),
  (Rlt_monotony_rev,Rlt_monotony_contra) (source of incompatibilities)
- Few minor changes (no more implicit arguments in
  Zmult_Zminus_distr_l and Zmult_Zminus_distr_r, lemmas moved from
  Zcomplements to other files) (rare source of incompatibilities)
- New lemmas provided by users added

Tactic language

- Fail tactic now accepts a failure message
- Idtac tactic now accepts a message
- New primitive tactic "FreshId" (new syntax: "fresh") to generate new names
- Debugger prints levels of calls

Tactics

- Replace can now replace proofs also
- Fail levels are now decremented at "Match Context" blocks only and
  if the right-hand-side of "Match term With" are tactics, these
  tactics are never evaluated immediately and do not induce
  backtracking (in contrast with "Match Context")
- Quantified names now avoid global names of the current module (like
  Intro names did) [source of rare incompatibilities: 2 changes in the set of
  user contribs]
- NewDestruct/NewInduction accepts intro patterns as introduction names
- NewDestruct/NewInduction now work for non-inductive type using option "using"
- A NewInduction naming bug for inductive types with functional
  arguments (e.g. the accessibility predicate) has been fixed (source
  of incompatibilities)
- Symmetry now applies to hypotheses too
- Inversion now accept option "as [ ... ]" to name the hypotheses
- Contradiction now looks also for contradictory hypotheses stating ~A and A
  (source of incompatibility)
- "Contradiction c" try to find an hypothesis in context which
  contradicts the type of c
- Ring applies to new library NArith (require file NArithRing)
- Field now works on types in Set
- Auto with reals now try to replace le by ge (Rge_le is no longer an
  immediate hint), resulting in shorter proofs
- Instantiate now works in hyps (syntax : Instantiate in ...)
- Some new tactics : EConstructor, ELeft, Eright, ESplit, EExists
- New tactic "functional induction" to perform case analysis and
  induction following the definition of a function.
- Clear now fails when trying to remove a local definition used by
  a constant appearing in the current goal

Extraction (See details in plugins/extraction/CHANGES)

- The old commands: 	(Recursive) Extraction Module M.
  are now:              (Recursive) Extraction Library M.
  To use these commands, M should come from a library M.v
- The other syntax Extraction & Recursive Extraction now accept
  module names as arguments.

Bugs

- see coq-bugs server for the complete list of fixed bugs

Miscellaneous

- Implicit parameters of inductive types definition now taken into
  account for infering other implicit arguments

Incompatibilities

- Persistence of true_sub (4 incompatibilities in Coq user contributions)
- Variable names of some constants changed for a better uniformity (2 changes
  in Coq user contributions)
- Naming of quantified names in goal now avoid global names (2 occurrences)
- NewInduction naming for inductive types with functional arguments
  (no incompatibility in Coq user contributions)
- Contradiction now solve more goals (source of 2 incompatibilities)
- Merge of eq and eqT may exceptionally result in subgoals now
  solved automatically
- Redundant pairs of ZArith lemmas may have different names: it may
  cause "Apply/Rewrite with" to fail if using the first name of a pair
  of redundant lemmas (this is solved by renaming the variables bound by
  "with"; 3 incompatibilities in Coq user contribs)
- ML programs referring to constants from fast_integer.v must use
  "Coqlib.gen_constant_modules Coqlib.zarith_base_modules" instead

Changes from V7.3.1 to V7.4
===========================

Symbolic notations

- Introduction of a notion of scope gathering notations in a consistent set;
  a notation sets has been developed for nat, Z and R (undocumented)
- New command "Notation" for declaring notations simultaneously for
  parsing and printing (see chap 10 of the reference manual)
- Declarations with only implicit arguments now handled (e.g. the
  argument of nil can be set implicit; use !nil to refer to nil
  without arguments)
- "Print Scope sc" and "Locate ntn" allows to know to what expression a
  notation is bound
- New defensive strategy for printing or not implicit arguments to ensure
  re-type-checkability of the printed term
- In Grammar command, the only predefined non-terminal entries are ident,
  global, constr and pattern (e.g. nvar, numarg disappears); the only
  allowed grammar types are constr and pattern; ast and ast list are no
  longer supported; some incompatibilities in Grammar: when a syntax is a
  initial segment of an other one,  Grammar does not work, use Notation

Library

- Lemmas in Set from Compare_dec.v (le_lt_dec, ...) and Wf_nat.v
  (lt_wf_rec, ...) are now transparent. This may be source of
  incompatibilities.
- Syntactic Definitions Fst, Snd, Ex, All, Ex2, AllT, ExT, ExT2,
  ProjS1, ProjS2, Error, Value and Except are turned to
  notations. They now must be applied (incompatibilities only in
  unrealistic cases).
- More efficient versions of Zmult and times (30% faster)
- Reals: the library is now divided in 6 parts (Rbase, Rfunctions,
  SeqSeries, Rtrigo, Ranalysis, Integration). New tactics: Sup and
  RCompute. See Reals.v for details.

Modules

- Beta version, see doc chap 2.5 for commands and chap 5 for theory

Language

- Inductive definitions now accept ">" in constructor types to declare
  the corresponding constructor as a coercion.
- Idem for assumptions declarations and constants when the type is mentionned.
- The "Coercion" and "Canonical Structure" keywords now accept the
  same syntax as "Definition", i.e. "hyps :=c (:t)?" or "hyps :t".
- Theorem-like declaration now accepts the syntax "Theorem thm [x:t;...] : u".
- Remark's and Fact's now definitively behave as Theorem and Lemma: when
  sections are closed, the full name of a Remark or a Fact has no longer a
  section part (source of incompatibilities)
- Opaque Local's (i.e. built by tactics and ended by Qed), do not
  survive section closing any longer; as a side-effect, Opaque Local's
  now appear in the local context of proofs; their body is hidden
  though (source of incompatibilities); use one of Remark/Fact/Lemma/Theorem
  instead to simulate the old behaviour of Local (the section part of
  the name is not kept though)

ML tactic and vernacular commands

- "Grammar tactic" and "Grammar vernac" of type "ast" are no longer
  supported (only "Grammar tactic simple_tactic" of type "tactic"
  remains available).
- Concrete syntax for ML written vernacular commands and tactics is
  now declared at ML level using camlp4 macros TACTIC EXTEND et VERNAC
  COMMAND EXTEND.
- "Check n c" now "n:Check c", "Eval n ..." now "n:Eval ..."
- "Proof with T" (* no documentation *)
-  SearchAbout id - prints all theorems which contain id in their type

Tactic definitions

- Static globalisation of identifiers and global references (source of
  incompatibilities, especially, Recursive keyword is required for
  mutually recursive definitions).
- New evaluation semantics: no more partial evaluation at definition time;
  evaluation of all Tactic/Meta Definition, even producing terms, expect
  a proof context to be evaluated (especially "()" is no longer needed).
- Debugger now shows the nesting level and the reasons of failure

Tactics

- Equality tactics (Rewrite, Reflexivity, Symmetry, Transitivity) now
  understand JM equality
- Simpl and Change now apply to subterms also
- "Simpl f" reduces subterms whose head constant is f
- Double Induction now referring to hypotheses like "Intros until"
- "Inversion" now applies also on quantified hypotheses (naming as
  for Intros until)
- NewDestruct now accepts terms with missing hypotheses
- NewDestruct and NewInduction now accept user-provided elimination scheme
- NewDestruct and NewInduction now accept user-provided introduction names
- Omega could solve goals such as ~`x<y` |- `x>=y` but failed when the
  hypothesis was unfolded to `x < y` -> False. This is fixed. In addition,
  it can also recognize 'False' in the hypothesis and use it to solve the
  goal.
- Coercions now handled in "with" bindings
- "Subst x" replaces all ocurrences of x by t in the goal and hypotheses
   when an hypothesis x=t or x:=t or t=x exists
- Fresh names for Assert and Pose now based on collision-avoiding
  Intro naming strategy (exceptional source of incompatibilities)
- LinearIntuition (* no documentation *)
- Unfold expects a correct evaluable argument
- Clear expects existing hypotheses

Extraction (See details in plugins/extraction/CHANGES and README):

- An experimental Scheme extraction is provided.
- Concerning Ocaml, extracted code is now ensured to always type-check,
  thanks to automatic inserting of Obj.magic.
- Experimental extraction of Coq new modules to Ocaml modules.

Proof rendering in natural language

- Export of theories to XML for publishing and rendering purposes now
  includes proof-trees (see http://www.cs.unibo.it/helm)

Miscellaneous

- Printing Coercion now used through the standard keywords Set/Add, Test, Print
- "Print Term id" is an alias for "Print id"
- New switch "Unset/Set Printing Symbols" to control printing of
  symbolic notations
- Two new variants of implicit arguments are available
   - "Unset/Set Contextual Implicits" tells to consider implicit also the
     arguments inferable from the context (e.g. for nil or refl_eq)
   - "Unset/Set Strict Implicits" tells to consider implicit only the
     arguments that are inferable in any case (i.e. arguments that occurs
     as argument of rigid constants in the type of the remaining arguments;
     e.g. the witness of an existential is not strict since it can vanish when
     applied to a predicate which does not use its argument)

Incompatibilities

- "Grammar tactic ... : ast" and "Grammar vernac ... : ast" are no
  longer supported, use TACTIC EXTEND and VERNAC COMMAND EXTEND on the
  ML-side instead
- Transparency of le_lt_dec and co (leads to some simplification in
  proofs; in some cases, incompatibilites is solved by declaring locally
  opaque the relevant constant)
- Opaque Local do not now survive section closing (rename them into
  Remark/Lemma/... to get them still surviving the sections; this
  renaming allows also to solve incompatibilites related to now
  forbidden calls to the tactic Clear)
- Remark and Fact have no longer (very) long names (use Local instead in case
  of name conflict)

Bugs

- Improved localisation of errors in Syntactic Definitions
- Induction principle creation failure in presence of let-in fixed (#1459)
- Inversion bugs fixed (#1427 and #1437)
- Omega bug related to Set fixed (#1384)
- Type-checking inefficiency of nested destructuring let-in fixed (#1435)
- Improved handling of let-in during holes resolution phase (#1460)

Efficiency

- Implementation of a memory sharing strategy reducing memory
  requirements by an average ratio of 3.

Changes from V7.3 to V7.3.1
===========================

Bug fixes

  - Corrupted Field tactic and Match Context tactic construction fixed
  - Checking of names already existing in Assert added (#1386)
  - Invalid argument bug in Exact tactic solved (#1387)
  - Colliding bound names bug fixed (#1412)
  - Wrong non-recursivity test for Record fixed (#1394)
  - Out of memory/seg fault bug related to parametric inductive fixed (#1404)
  - Setoid_replace/Setoid_rewrite bug wrt "==" fixed

Misc

  - Ocaml version >= 3.06 is needed to compile Coq from sources
  - Simplification of fresh names creation strategy for Assert, Pose and
    LetTac (#1402)

Changes from V7.2 to V7.3
=========================

Language

- Slightly improved compilation of pattern-matching (slight source of
  incompatibilities)
- Record's now accept anonymous fields "_" which does not build projections
- Changes in the allowed elimination sorts for certain class of inductive
  definitions : an inductive definition without constructors
  of Sort Prop can be eliminated on sorts Set and Type A "singleton"
  inductive definition (one constructor with arguments in the sort Prop
  like conjunction of two propositions or equality) can be eliminated
  directly on sort Type (In V7.2, only the sorts Prop and Set were allowed)

Tactics

- New tactic "Rename x into y" for renaming hypotheses
- New tactics "Pose x:=u" and "Pose u" to add definitions to local context
- Pattern now working on partially applied subterms
- Ring no longer applies irreversible congruence laws of mult but
  better applies congruence laws of plus (slight source of incompatibilities).
- Field now accepts terms to be simplified as arguments (as for Ring). This
  extension has been also implemented using the toplevel tactic language.
- Intuition does no longer unfold constants except "<->" and "~". It
  can be parameterized by a tactic. It also can introduce dependent
  product if needed (source of incompatibilities)
- "Match Context" now matching more recent hypotheses first and failing only
  on user errors and Fail tactic (possible source of incompatibilities)
- Tactic Definition's without arguments now allowed in Coq states
- Better simplification and discrimination made by Inversion (source
  of incompatibilities)

Bugs

- "Intros H" now working like "Intro H" trying first to reduce if not a product
- Forward dependencies in Cases now taken into account
- Known bugs related to Inversion and let-in's fixed
- Bug unexpected Delta with let-in now fixed

Extraction (details in plugins/extraction/CHANGES or documentation)

- Signatures of extracted terms are now mostly expunged from dummy arguments.
- Haskell extraction is now operational (tested & debugged).

Standard library

- Some additions in [ZArith]: three files (Zcomplements.v, Zpower.v
  and Zlogarithms.v) moved from plugins/omega in order to be more
  visible, one Zsgn function, more induction principles (Wf_Z.v and
  tail of Zcomplements.v), one more general Euclid theorem
- Peano_dec.v and Compare_dec.v now part of Arith.v

Tools

- new option -dump-glob to coqtop to dump globalizations (to be used by the
  new documentation tool coqdoc; see http://www.lri.fr/~filliatr/coqdoc)

User Contributions

- CongruenceClosure (congruence closure decision procedure)
  [Pierre Corbineau, ENS Cachan]
- MapleMode (an interface to embed Maple simplification procedures over
  rational fractions in Coq)
  [David Delahaye, Micaela Mayero, Chalmers University]
- Presburger: A formalization of Presburger's algorithm
  [Laurent Thery, INRIA Sophia Antipolis]
- Chinese has been rewritten using Z from ZArith as datatype
  ZChinese is the new version, Chinese the obsolete one
  [Pierre Letouzey, LRI Orsay]

Incompatibilities

- Ring: exceptional incompatibilities (1 above 650 in submitted user
  contribs, leading to a simplification)
- Intuition: does not unfold any definition except "<->" and "~"
- Cases: removal of some extra Cases in configurations of the form
  "Cases ... of C _ => ... | _ D => ..."  (effects on 2 definitions of
  submitted user contributions necessitating the removal of now superfluous
  proof steps in 3 different proofs)
- Match Context, in case of incompatibilities because of a now non
  trapped error (e.g. Not_found or Failure), use instead tactic Fail
  to force Match Context trying the next clause
- Inversion: better simplification and discrimination may occasionally
  lead to less subgoals and/or hypotheses and different naming of hypotheses
- Unification done by Apply/Elim has been changed and may exceptionally lead
  to incompatible instantiations
- Peano_dec.v and Compare_dec.v parts of Arith.v make Auto more
  powerful if these files were not already required (1 occurrence of
  this in submitted user contribs)

Changes from V7.1 to V7.2
=========================

Language

- Automatic insertion of patterns for local definitions in the type of
  the constructors of an inductive types (for compatibility with V6.3
  let-in style)
- Coercions allowed in Cases patterns
- New declaration "Canonical Structure id = t : I" to help resolution of
  equations of the form (proj ?)=a; if proj(e)=a then a is canonically
  equipped with the remaining fields in e, i.e. ? is instantiated by e

Tactics

- New tactic "ClearBody H" to clear the body of definitions in local context
- New tactic "Assert H := c" for forward reasoning
- Slight improvement in naming strategy for NewInduction/NewDestruct
- Intuition/Tauto do not perform useless unfolding and work up to conversion

Extraction (details in plugins/extraction/CHANGES or documentation)

- Syntax changes: there are no more options inside the extraction commands.
  New commands for customization and options have been introduced instead.
- More optimizations on extracted code.
- Extraction tests are now embedded in 14 user contributions.

Standard library

- In [Relations], Rstar.v and Newman.v now axiom-free.
- In [Sets], Integers.v now based on nat
- In [Arith], more lemmas in Min.v, new file Max.v, tail-recursive
  plus and mult added to Plus.v and Mult.v respectively
- New directory [Sorting] with a proof of heapsort (dragged from 6.3.1 lib)
- In [Reals], more lemmas in Rbase.v, new lemmas on square, square root and
  trigonometric functions (R_sqr.v - Rtrigo.v); a complementary approach
  and new theorems about continuity and derivability in Ranalysis.v;  some
  properties in plane geometry such as translation, rotation or similarity
  in Rgeom.v; finite sums and Chasles property in Rsigma.v

Bugs

- Confusion between implicit args of locals and globals of same base name fixed
- Various incompatibilities wrt inference of "?" in V6.3.1 fixed
- Implicits in infix section variables bug fixed
- Known coercions bugs fixed

- Apply "universe anomaly" bug fixed
- NatRing now working
- "Discriminate 1", "Injection 1", "Simplify_eq 1" now working
- NewInduction bugs with let-in and recursively dependent hypotheses fixed
- Syntax [x:=t:T]u now allowed as mentioned in documentation

- Bug with recursive inductive types involving let-in fixed
- Known pattern-matching bugs fixed
- Known Cases elimination predicate bugs fixed
- Improved errors messages for pattern-matching and projections
- Better error messages for ill-typed Cases expressions

Incompatibilities

- New naming strategy for NewInduction/NewDestruct may affect 7.1 compatibility
- Extra parentheses may exceptionally be needed in tactic definitions.
- Coq extensions written in Ocaml need to be updated (see dev/changements.txt
  for a description of the main changes in the interface files of V7.2)
- New behaviour of Intuition/Tauto may exceptionally lead to incompatibilities

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Changes from V6.3.1 and V7.0 to V7.1
====================================

Notes:

- items followed by (**) are important sources of incompatibilities
- items followed by (*) may exceptionally be sources of incompatibilities
- items followed by (+) have been introduced in version 7.0


Main novelties
==============

References are to Coq V7.1 reference manual

- New primitive let-in construct (see sections 1.2.8 and )
- Long names (see sections 2.6 and 2.7)
- New high-level tactic language (see chapter 10)
- Improved search facilities (see section 5.2)
- New extraction algorithm managing the Type level (see chapter 17)
- New rewriting tactic for arbitrary equalities (see chapter 19)
- New tactic Field to decide equalities on commutative fields (see 7.11)
- New tactic Fourier to solve linear inequalities on reals numbers (see 7.11)
- New tactics for induction/case analysis in "natural" style (see 7.7)
- Deep restructuration of the code (safer, simpler and more efficient)
- Export of theories to XML for publishing and rendering purposes
  (see http://www.cs.unibo.it/helm)


Details of changes
==================

Language: new "let-in" construction
-----------------------------------

- New construction for local definitions (let-in) with syntax [x:=u]t (*)(+)

- Local definitions allowed in Record (a.k.a. record à la Randy Pollack)


Language: long names
--------------------

- Each construction has a unique absolute names built from a base
  name, the name of the module in which they are defined (Top if in
  coqtop), and possibly an arbitrary long sequence of directory (e.g.
  "Coq.Lists.PolyList.flat_map" where "Coq" means that "flat_map" is part
  of Coq standard library, "Lists" means it is defined in the Lists
  library and "PolyList" means it is in the file Polylist) (+)

- Constructions can be referred by their base name, or, in case of
  conflict, by a "qualified" name, where the base name is prefixed
  by the module name (and possibly by a directory name, and so
  on). A fully qualified name is an absolute name which always refer
  to the construction it denotes (to preserve the visibility of
  all constructions, no conflict is allowed for an absolute name) (+)

- Long names are available for modules with the possibility of using
  the directory name as a component of the module full name (with
  option -R to coqtop and coqc, or command Add LoadPath) (+)

- Improved conflict resolution strategy (the Unix PATH model),
  allowing more constructions to be referred just by their base name


Language: miscellaneous
-----------------------

- The names of variables for Record projections _and_ for induction principles
  (e.g. sum_ind) is now based on the first letter of their type (main
  source of incompatibility) (**)(+)

- Most typing errors have now a precise location in the source (+)

- Slightly different mechanism to solve "?" (*)(+)

- More arguments may be considered implicit at section closing (*)(+)

- Bug with identifiers ended by a number greater than 2^30 fixed (+)

- New visibility discipline for Remark, Fact and Local: Remark's and
  Fact's now survive at the end of section, but are only accessible using a
  qualified names as soon as their strength expires; Local's disappear and
  are moved into local definitions for each construction persistent at
  section closing


Language: Cases
---------------

- Cases no longer considers aliases inferable from dependencies in types (*)(+)

- A redundant clause in Cases is now an error (*)


Reduction
---------

- New reduction flags "Zeta" and "Evar" in Eval Compute, for inlining of
  local definitions and instantiation of existential variables

- Delta reduction flag does not perform Zeta and Evar reduction any more (*)

- Constants declared as opaque (using Qed) can no longer become
  transparent (a constant intended to be alternatively opaque and
  transparent must be declared as transparent (using Defined)); a risk
  exists (until next Coq version) that Simpl and Hnf reduces opaque
  constants (*)


New tactics
-----------

- New set of tactics to deal with types equipped with specific
  equalities (a.k.a. Setoids, e.g. nat equipped with eq_nat) [by C. Renard]

- New tactic Assert, similar to Cut but expected to be more user-friendly

- New tactic NewDestruct and NewInduction intended to replace Elim
  and Induction, Case and Destruct in a more user-friendly way (see
  restrictions in the reference manual)

- New tactic ROmega: an experimental alternative (based on reflexion) to Omega
  [by P. Crégut]

- New tactic language Ltac (see reference manual) (+)

- New versions of Tauto and Intuition, fully rewritten in the new Ltac
  language; they run faster and produce more compact proofs; Tauto is
  fully compatible but, in exchange of a better uniformity, Intuition
  is slightly weaker (then use Tauto instead) (**)(+)

- New tactic Field to decide equalities on commutative fields (as a
  special case, it works on real numbers) (+)

- New tactic Fourier to solve linear inequalities on reals numbers
  [by L. Pottier] (+)

- New tactics dedicated to real numbers: DiscrR, SplitRmult, SplitAbsolu (+)


Changes in existing tactics
---------------------------

- Reduction tactics in local definitions apply only to the body

- New syntax of the form "Compute in Type of H." to require a reduction on
  the types of local definitions

- Inversion, Injection, Discriminate, ... apply also on the
  quantified premises of a goal (using the "Intros until" syntax)

- Decompose has been fixed but hypotheses may get different names (*)(+)

- Tauto now manages uniformly hypotheses and conclusions of the form
  "t=t" which all are considered equivalent to "True". Especially,
  Tauto now solves goals of the form "H : ~ t = t |- A".

- The "Let" tactic has been renamed "LetTac" and is now based on the
  primitive "let-in" (+)

- Elim can no longer be used with an elimination schema different from
  the one defined at definition time of the inductive type. To overload
  an elimination schema, use "Elim <hyp> using <name of the new schema>"
  (*)(+)

- Simpl no longer unfolds the recursive calls of a mutually defined
  fixpoint (*)(+)

- Intro now fails if the hypothesis name already exists (*)(+)

- "Require Prolog" is no longer needed (i.e. it is available by default) (*)(+)

- Unfold now fails on a non unfoldable identifier (*)(+)

- Unfold also applies on definitions of the local context

- AutoRewrite now deals only with the main goal and it is the purpose of
  Hint Rewrite to deal with generated subgoals (+)

- Redundant or incompatible instantiations in Apply ... with ... are now
  correctly managed (+)


Efficiency
----------

- Excessive memory uses specific to V7.0 fixed

- Sizes of .vo files vary a lot compared to V6.3 (from -30% to +300%
  depending on the developments)

- An improved reduction strategy for lazy evaluation

- A more economical mechanism to ensure logical consistency at the Type level;
  warning: this is experimental and may produce "universes" anomalies
  (please report)


Concrete syntax of constructions
--------------------------------

- Only identifiers starting with "_" or a letter, and followed by letters,
  digits, "_" or "'" are allowed (e.g. "$" and "@" are no longer allowed) (*)

- A multiple binder like (a:A)(a,b:(P a))(Q a) is no longer parsed as
  (a:A)(a0:(P a))(b:(P a))(Q a0) but as (a:A)(a0:(P a))(b:(P a0))(Q a0) (*)(+)

- A dedicated syntax has been introduced for Reals (e.g ``3+1/x``) (+)

- Pretty-printing of Infix notations fixed. (+)


Parsing and grammar extension
-----------------------------

- More constraints when writing ast

  - "{...}" and the macros $LIST, $VAR, etc. now expect a metavariable
    (an identifier starting with $) (*)
  - identifiers should starts with a letter or "_" and be followed
     by letters, digits, "_" or "'" (other characters are still
     supported but it is not advised to use them) (*)(+)

- Entry "command" in "Grammar" and quotations (<<...>> stuff) is
  renamed "constr" as in "Syntax" (+)

- New syntax "[" sentence_1 ... sentence_n"]." to group sentences (useful
  for Time and to write grammar rules abbreviating several commands) (+)

- The default parser for actions in the grammar rules (and for
  patterns in the pretty-printing rules) is now the one associated to
  the grammar (i.e. vernac, tactic or constr); no need then for
  quotations as in <:vernac:<...>>; to return an "ast", the grammar
  must be explicitly typed with tag ": ast" or ": ast list", or if a
  syntax rule, by using <<...>> in the patterns (expression inside
  these angle brackets are parsed as "ast"); for grammars other than
  vernac, tactic or constr, you may explicitly type the action with
  tags ": constr", ": tactic", or ":vernac" (**)(+)

- Interpretation of names in Grammar rule is now based on long names,
  which allows to avoid problems (or sometimes tricks;) related to
  overloaded names (+)


New commands
------------

- New commands "Print XML All", "Show XML Proof", ... to show or
  export theories to XML to be used with Helm's publishing and rendering
  tools (see http://www.cs.unibo.it/helm) (by Claudio Sacerdoti Coen) (+)

- New commands to manually set implicit arguments (+)

  - "Implicits ident." to activate the implicit arguments mode just for ident
  - "Implicits ident [num1 num2 ...]." to explicitly give which
     arguments have to be considered as implicit

- New SearchPattern/SearchRewrite (by Yves Bertot) (+)

- New commands "Debug on"/"Debug off" to activate/deactivate the tactic
  language debugger (+)

- New commands to map physical paths to logical paths (+)
  - Add LoadPath physical_dir as logical_dir
  - Add Rec LoadPath physical_dir as logical_dir


Changes in existing commands
----------------------------

- Generalization of the usage of qualified identifiers in tactics
  and commands about globals, e.g. Decompose, Eval Delta;
  Hints Unfold, Transparent, Require

- Require synchronous with Reset; Require's scope stops at Section ending (*)

- For a module indirectly loaded by a "Require" but not exported,
  the command "Import module" turns the constructions defined in the
  module accessible by their short name, and activates the Grammar,
  Syntax, Hint, ... declared in the module (+)

- The scope of the "Search" command can be restricted to some modules (+)

- Final dot in command (full stop/period) must be followed by a blank
  (newline, tabulation or whitespace) (+)

- Slight restriction of the syntax for Cbv Delta: if present, option [-myconst]
  must immediately follow the Delta keyword (*)(+)

- SearchIsos currently not supported

- Add ML Path is now implied by Add LoadPath (+)

- New names for the following commands (+)

  AddPath -> Add LoadPath
  Print LoadPath -> Print LoadPath
  DelPath -> Remove LoadPath
  AddRecPath -> Add Rec LoadPath
  Print Path -> Print Coercion Paths

  Implicit Arguments On -> Set Implicit Arguments
  Implicit Arguments Off -> Unset Implicit Arguments

  Begin Silent -> Set Silent
  End Silent -> Unset Silent.


Tools
-----

- coqtop (+)

  - Two executables: coqtop.byte and coqtop.opt (if supported by the platform)
  - coqtop is a link to the more efficient executable (coqtop.opt if present)
  - option -full is obsolete (+)

- do_Makefile renamed into coq_makefile (+)

- New option -R to coqtop and coqc to map a physical directory to a logical
  one (+)

- coqc no longer needs to create a temporary file

- No more warning if no initialization file .coqrc exists


Extraction
----------

- New algorithm for extraction able to deal with "Type" (+)
  (by J.-C. Filliâtre and P. Letouzey)


Standard library
----------------

- New library on maps on integers (IntMap, contributed by Jean Goubault)

- New lemmas about integer numbers [ZArith]

- New lemmas and a "natural" syntax for reals [Reals] (+)

- Exc/Error/Value renamed into Option/Some/None (*)


New user contributions
----------------------

- Constructive complex analysis and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra [FTA]
  (Herman Geuvers, Freek Wiedijk, Jan Zwanenburg, Randy Pollack,
   Henk Barendregt, Nijmegen)

- A new axiomatization of ZFC set theory [Functions_in_ZFC]
  (C. Simpson, Sophia-Antipolis)

- Basic notions of graph theory [GRAPHS-BASICS] (Jean Duprat, Lyon)

- A library for floating-point numbers [Float] (Laurent Théry, Sylvie Boldo,
  Sophia-Antipolis)

- Formalisation of CTL and TCTL temporal logic [CtlTctl] (Carlos
  Daniel Luna,Montevideo)

- Specification and verification of the Railroad Crossing Problem
  in CTL and TCTL [RailroadCrossing] (Carlos Daniel Luna,Montevideo)

- P-automaton and the ABR algorithm [PAutomata]
  (Christine Paulin, Emmanuel Freund, Orsay)

- Semantics of a subset of the C language [MiniC]
  (Eduardo Giménez, Emmanuel Ledinot, Suresnes)

- Correctness proofs of the following imperative algorithms:
  Bresenham line drawing algorithm [Bresenham], Marché's minimal edition
  distance algorithm [Diff] (Jean-Christophe Filliâtre, Orsay)

- Correctness proofs of Buchberger's algorithm [Buchberger] and RSA
  cryptographic algorithm [Rsa] (Laurent Théry, Sophia-Antipolis)

- Correctness proof of Stalmarck tautology checker algorithm
  [Stalmarck] (Laurent Théry, Pierre Letouzey, Sophia-Antipolis)