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cxref 1.5c-9
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  C Cross Referencing & Documenting tool. Version 1.5.
  Andrew M. Bishop


  1.  C Cross Referencing & Documenting tool. Version 1.5 - cxref

  A program that can automatically generate documentation and cross
  references for a C program.
  The input is any C program with appropriate comments and the output is
  LaTeX, HTML, RTF or SGML files.


  1.1.  Program Options

  The name of the program is cxref.



       Usage: cxref filename [ ... filename]
                    [-Odirname] [-Nbasename] [-Rdirname]
                    [-all-comments] [-no-comments]
                    [-verbatim-comments] [-block-comments]
                    [-xref[-all][-file][-func][-var][-type]]
                    [-warn[-all][-comment][-xref]]
                    [-index[-all][-file][-func][-var][-type]]
                    [-raw]
                    [-latex209|-latex2e]
                    [-html20|-html32][-src]
                    [-rtf]
                    [-sgml]
                    [-Idirname] [-Ddefine] [-Udefine]
                    [-CPP cpp_program] [-- cpp_arg [ ... cpp_arg]]

       Usage: cxref filename [ ... filename] -delete
                    [-Odirname] [-Nbasename] [-Rdirname]



     filename
        The name of the file to document, any number of files may be
        documented at a time.

     -delete
        The files named are to be deleted from the output directory and
        their entries in the cross reference database and main output
        files are to be removed.

     -Odirname
        The name of a directory to use for the output latex files and
        the location of the cross reference files that are created.

     -Nbasename
        The name to use for the first part of the output and cross
        reference files instead of cxref, the file extensions remain the
        same.

     -Rdirname
        When the source files are in more than one directory, set
        dirname to the name of the root directory of the source tree
        (use relative path if easier e.g. `-R../..').  This will then
        run cxref from that root directory and the `-Odirname' must be
        relative to that directory.


     -all-comments
        In case you think that the existing comments might work, (see
        below for description of special comments).
        [Danger! This option can produce weird results.]

     -no-comments
        Ignores all comments, useful if you just want the cross
        references and not the documentation.

     -verbatim-comments
        When the comments that you have in the code are formatted in a
        predetermined style that you want to preserve on the output,
        this option will force them not to be reformatted.
        [Note, this is for file and function comments only.]

     -block-comments
        When the comments in the program are formatted in the `block'
        style (with a leading `*' character on every line), this option
        will remove that character from the output.
        [Works for a single `*', `+', `|' or `:' on each line.]

     -xref
        Produce cross referencing information (see below).

        -all
           All cross references.

        -file
           Cross references for files.

        -func
           Cross references for functions.

        -var
           Cross references for variables.

        -type
           Cross references for types.

     -warn
        Produce warnings, the options must be concatenated together:

        -all
           All warnings.

        -comment
           Warn of missing comments.

        -xref
           Warn of missing cross references.

     -index
        Produce a cross reference index, the options must be
        concatenated together:

        -all
           All indexes.

        -file
           Index of files.

        -func
           Index of functions.

        -var
           Index of variables.
        -type
           Index of types.

     -raw
        Produce a raw form of output, not really of much use except with
        -warn.

     -latex209
        Produce a LaTeX file to document each of the source files and
        also an extra file that includes each of these files.  (Using
        the LaTeX version 2.09 format.)

     -latex2e
        Produce the LaTeX file described above for use with the LaTeX2e
        version of LaTeX.

     -html20
        Produce an HTML file to document each of the source files and a
        main file to reference each of these files.  (using the HTML 2.0
        standard, no tables).

     -html32
        Produce the HTML file described above but using HTML 3.2.

     -rtf
        Produce a Rich Text Format (RTF) file to document the source
        file.

     -html20-src
        Produce the HTML v2.0 output and a HTML version of the source
        file with links into it.

     -html32-src
        Produce the HTML v3.2 output and a HTML version of the source
        file with links into it.

     -sgml
        Produce an SGML file to document the source file.  (Using the
        LinuxDoc DTD).

     -Idirname
        GCC option to specify the path for include files.

     -Ddefine
        GCC option to define a pre-processor symbol.

     -Udefine
        GCC option to undefine a pre-processor symbol.

     -CPP program
        The name of the program to use instead of the compile time
        default.  The program must be able to perform all of the actions
        that `gcc -E -C -dD' does to work. If the program takes
        arguments then the whole thing needs to be in quotes so that it
        is interpreted as a single argument to cxref.

     -- arg ... arg
        Extra arguments to be passed to the pre-processor can be placed
        after the `--' separator.


  1.2.  C Compiler Replacement cxref-cc

  To simplify using cxref on existing source code, there is now a shell
  script that will call the C compiler and then call cxref to process
  the source file.  This means that it can be used as a drop in
  replacement for CC in Makefiles and the like.



       Usage: cxref-cc [usual cc options]



  The name of the source file is extracted from the list of options as
  well as the `-D*', `-I*', `-U*' flags and when the C compiler exits
  succesfully cxref will be called.  The name of the C compiler to use
  is controlled by the CXREFCC environment variable, or if this is not
  set then the CC environment variable, or failing this just gcc.

  Using this script requires the use of a `.cxref' configuration file to
  contain the options since there is nowhere to put the options on the
  command line for the C compiler.

  This will only cross-reference and document the C source files since
  they are the only ones that are compiled, but it will make sure that
  they are cross-referenced with the correct options etc.


  1.3.  Cxref configuration File

  These command line arguments can also be put into a file named
  `.cxref' instead of on the command line.  When cxref is run the
  arguments to the program are interpreted in the following order.


  1. Those on the command line.

  2. Those in the `.cxref' file in the current directory.

  3. Those in the `.cxref' file in the source tree root specified by
     `-R'.

  This means that in a multi-directory source tree, each sub-directory
  can have a `.cxref' file containing just the line `-R..' or
  appropriate.  The main directory can have a `.cxref' file containing
  the remainder of the options.  This removes completely the need to
  have any options on the command line apart from the source file names.

  The format of the `.cxref' file is any number of lines, each one
  containing a single command line argument (equivalent to one of the
  argv).  The only options that cannot be used are the names of source
  files themselves and the `-delete' option.  Blank lines are ignored
  and lines starting with a '#' are comments.


  1.4.  Program Documentation Comments

  The documentation for the program is produced from comments in the
  code that are appropriately formatted.  The cross referencing comes
  from the code itself and requires no extra work.
  The special comments are `/**** ****/' (for a file) and `/*++++
  ++++*/' (for a data object) any number of `*' or `+' can be used
  inside of the standard `/*' and `*/' comment delimiters in the
  comments, they are ignored.
  If a comment line starts with whitespace and is followed by `+html+'
  then the rest of the line is included only in the HTML output, and is
  not processed so it can include HTML markup, `-html-' means that the
  rest of the line is included in all except the HTML output.  The same
  also applies to the other output formats, `+none+' can be used for
  lines not to appear in any output.  The exception to this is that the
  raw output does not do any checking and will output all lines.
  In any situation where a comment follows a `,', `;' or `)' separated
  only by spaces and tabs, the comment is pushed to before the
  punctuation to apply to object there.
  The program is implemented using a full ANSI C grammar parser with
  some GCC extensions, this means that the style of the code is
  unimportant, only the content and comments.


  1.5.  Automated Comment Insertion

  To simplify the insertion of comments that will be parsed by cxref,
  the file cxref.el provides a number of Emacs lisp functions.  To use
  them add the line (load "cxref") to your `.emacs' file or type M-x
  load-file cxref.el from within Emacs.

  The functions and key bindings are:

     Control-C Control-X Control-F
        Adds file comments, a /** **/ header at the top of the file and
        if it is a .h file then it also adds a #ifndef, #define at the
        beginning and #endif at the end to stop multiple inclusions.

     Control-C Control-X f
        Adds comments to a function, the cursor must be on the line
        containing the start of the function definition when this
        function is called.  The /*+ ... +*/ comment that is added is of
        the header type (see the examples) not inline.

     Control-C Control-X v
        Adds a leading comment to the variable or other definition on
        the current line.

     Control-C Control-X e
        Adds a trailing comment at the end of the line.

     Control-C Control-X i
        Adds an inline comment that is ignored by cxref.


  1.6.  C Preprocessor

  To improve the output that is available a modified version of the GNU
  CPP V2.7.2 is supplied (named cxref-cpp).
  This modified C preprocessor allows for a finer control over some
  features of the preprocessing that are not important for a compiler.
  In a standard preprocessor, the preprocessor directives are intended
  for use only by the preprocessor, so passing the information through
  is not important.
  With cxref-cpp, there are two features that are different to the
  standard GNU CPP:

  1. The #include directives from the file are output in the same way as
     the #defines are output.  An extra flag has been added to cpp to do
     this, '-dI', it works in the same way as the existing '-dD' flag
     for #defines.

  2. Comments trailing a #include or a #define are dropped with GNU CPP
     even if -C is used. This is not important while compiling but is
     useful for documenting.


  1.7.  Cross Referencing

  The cross referencing is performed for the following items

     Files

        o  The files that the current file is included in (even when
           included via other files).

     #includes

        o  Files included in the current file.

        o  Files included by these files etc.

     Variables

        o  The location of the definition of external variables.

        o  The files that have visibility of global variables.

        o  The files / functions that use the variable.

     Functions

        o  The file that the function is prototyped in.

        o  The functions that the function calls.

        o  The functions that call the function.

        o  The files and functions that reference the function.

        o  The variables that are used in the function.

  Each of these items is cross referenced in the output.
  The cross referencing uses files `cxref.variable', `cxref.function',
  `cxref.include' and `cxref.typedef' in the output directory.
  These are a complete list of the function and variable usage in the
  program and could be used to generate a function call hierarchy or
  variable usage diagram for example.
  Two cxref passes of each file is needed, the first to build up the
  cross referencing files and the second to use them.
  (The file names are different if the `-N' option is used.)


  1.8.  LaTeX Output

  The default LaTeX output is a file for each of the source files with
  one extra file `cxref.tex' that includes each of the other files.
  This is to allow a makefile to only update the changed files (although
  the references may require all of the files to be checked again).
  When the cxref.tex file has been written it can be modified by the
  user, any new files that are added are added at the end of the source
  code section, the rest of the file being unchanged.
  The index is written to a file called `cxref.apdx.tex' and cxref.tex
  is updated to refer to it.
  Also written out are three LaTeX style files `page.sty', `fonts.sty'
  and `cxref.sty'.  These set up the page to use a smaller margin and
  smaller fonts to allow more to appear on a page and also define the
  new commands for typesetting the cxref output.
  (The file names `cxref.tex' and `cxref.apdx.tex' are different if the
  `-N' option is used.)
  The two different forms of LaTeX output are selected by using the
  -latex209 or the -latex2e options.  These select between two sets of
  output that can be used with those two different versions of LaTeX.



  1.9.  HTML Output

  The default HTML output is a file for each of the source files with
  one extra file `cxref.html' that includes each of the other files.
  This is to allow a makefile to only update the changed files (although
  the references may require all of the files to be checked again).
  When the cxref.html file has been written it can be modified by the
  user, any new files that are added are added at the end before the
  table of contents, the rest of the file being unchanged.
  The index is written to a file called `cxref.apdx.html' and cxref.html
  is updated to refer to it.
  (The file names `cxref.html' and `cxref.apdx.html' are different if
  the `-N' option is used.)
  The two different forms of HTML output are selected by using the
  -html20 or the -html32 options.  These select between two sets of
  output that comply with the HTML 2.0 and 3.2 definitions, they differ
  in their use of tables.


  1.10.  RTF Output

  Rich Text Format is a fairly low level page description format devised
  by Microsoft.  It is not a well defined and easy to understand
  standard as are the other formats, but it is popular for document
  exchange.
  There is a single output file for each of the source files and an
  index file.


  1.11.  SGML Output

  Since SGML is a meta-language it is necessary to define the layout
  elements as well as provide the information.  The cxref output uses
  the LinuxDoc document format and is designed for use with the
  SGMLtools programs (http://www.sgmltools.org/).
  There is a single output file for each of the source files and an
  index file.


  1.12.  Further Information

  There is a list of frequently asked questions and their answers for
  the cxref program in the FAQ file.  A list of improvements planned for
  future versions of the program are listed in the file TODO.

  More up-to-date information can be found on the World Wide Web at the
  cxref homepage, reached via the author's homepage
  http://www.gedanken.demon.co.uk/.

  If you wish to submit bug reports or other comments about the program
  then email the author amb@gedanken.demon.co.uk and put cxref in the
  subject line.


  1.13.  Author and Copyright

  The cxref program was written by Andrew M. Bishop in 1995,96,97,98,99.
  The cxref program is copyright Andrew M. Bishop 1995,96,97,98,99.
  The cxref-cpp program is copyright Free Software Foundation, Inc.
  The cxref and cxref-cpp programs can be freely distributed according
  to the terms of the GNU General Public License (see the file
  `COPYING').