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Last modified: Fri Sep  4 13:28:51 EDT 2015

Quick start:

	Edit config/site.p-def to set your UID root (a la UseClunieID, to be
	selected with a UseXXXXID define on the imake command line).
	
	NB. Don't ever use any UseClunie*ID or your instances
	will conflict with mine !

	./Configure
	setenv IMAKEINCLUDE -I./config		# only needed for suns
	imake -I./config -DInstallInTopDir -DUseXXXXID
	make World
	make install		# into ./bin
	make install.man	# into ./man

Assuming that imake, makedepend, and mkdirhier (not to mention the C and C++
compilers) are in your PATH, and that your system isn't too far off then:

	1. ./Configure

	   This checks for certain things and makes config/generic.cf
	   which is subsequently used in the imake process.

	   It chooses gnu tools and compilers by preference over native
	   tools or compilers, if they are in the current execution path,
	   and it also tries to figure out the appropriate include paths
	   to feed to later makedepend's. If you want to suppress the
	   choice of gnu over the native compiler and both are in the
	   PATH, say "notgcc" as an argument to ./Configure.

	   Configure will warn if it does not find gcc and g++; if this
	   happens and you were not planning on using other compilers,
	   you will need to install them. If your proceed despite these
	   warnings, chances are make World will fail and report an
	   error like "CC not found".

	   Configure uses whatever is the first compiler found in
	   the PATH, so be sure to set the path to find gcc, g++,
	   (or CC, cc or acc if you are not using gcc/g++).

	   If Configure fails with a syntax error, you may have a wierd
	   /bin/sh ... try changing the first line of config/Configure
	   to "#!/bin/sh5" (eg. under Ultrix).

	2. Make the (absent) top level Makefile, either:

		imake -I./config

	   Note that -I./config is VERY important, otherwise imake
	   will go looking for "standard" config files in "standard"
	   places which will not work. Note that the version of imake
	   supplied with OpenWindows ALWAYS looks in standard places
	   first unless you define an IMAKEINCLUDE environment variable.
	   Set it to "-I./config" and it will work. Symptoms of this
	   problem are messages like "Can't find `Makefile.ini'".

	   The default is to install things in /usr/local/bin and man. If
	   you imake with -DInstallInTopDir, then they go into ./bin, etc.:

		imake -I./config -DInstallInTopDir

	   One can specify a UID root for your organization by adding
           "-DDefaultUIDRoot=n.n.nnnn.nnnnn" to the imake command, eg.:

		imake -I./config -DDefaultUIDRoot=1.2.840.99999

           though it is better to properly configure all identification
           related stuff in config/site.def-p.

	   One can specify the level of optimization (default is -O) by
           "-DOptimizeLevel=-On" where n is the level (from 1 to 3 for
           g++, for 1 to 4 for SunPro) to the imake command, eg.:

		imake -I./config -DOptimizeLevel=-O3

           Note that serious optimization requires seriously large
           amounts of memory/swap space, and temporary file space.
           The entire package has been compiled with maximum levels
           of optimization turned on without exposing any wierd bugs.
	   If you keep running out of memory try -O0.

	   One can specify an alternative SunPro temporary path by adding
           "-DTmpPath=/path" to the imake command, eg.:

		imake -I./config -DTmpPath=/usr1/tmp

           (This does not work for g++ which looks in the environment
           variable TMPDIR instead).

	   Check the man pages on your c and CC compilers to determine
	   which is more appropriate.

	   Obviously imake needs to be found in PATH. You may need to
	   add "/usr/bin/X11/imake". Else see "Imake" below.

	2. Make everything (subdirectory makefiles, clean, depend, all):

		make World

	3. To install the binaries in ./bin or /usr/local/bin:

		make install

	4. To test the conversion routines, and some of the dicom and
	   miscellaneous utilities, if you have the sample images, which
	   are distributed separately, having set the PATH, correctly, do:

		make test

	   This takes ages, does lots of repetitive things, compares
	   binary output, and times the commands. To see what is being
	   done look in scripts/testconv.sh.

	5. To install what manuals there are in ./man or /usr/local/man:

		make install.man

	6. If you are root and hence can update whatis database:

		make install.whatis

If you change your mind about one/split you need to go all the way back
to step 1, as the Makefiles are created differently. Other useful targets
are:

	make Makefile		- makes the Makefile from Imakefile
	make Makefiles		- makes the Makefiles in sub-directories
	make depend		- does as it usually does
	make			- makes all the libraries and applications
	make all		- same
	make library		- makes just the libraries
	make clean		- cleans all directories
	make archive		- for posterity, includes cleaning
	make update.version	- before posterity

Debugging Flags

Debugging flags for both the c and c++ compilation steps are defined
and recursively passed down the subdirectory hierarchy. These also
override any optimization options set.

For example, to compile with no debugging or optimization:

	make "C_DEBUGFLAGS=" "CPLUSPLUS_DEBUGFLAGS="

To compile with the "-g" option to include debugging information:

	make "C_DEBUGFLAGS=-g" "CPLUSPLUS_DEBUGFLAGS=-g"

To compile with the "-g" option and the "-pg" option to include
code to write a gmon.out file for gprof call graph profiling:

	make "C_DEBUGFLAGS=-g -pg" "CPLUSPLUS_DEBUGFLAGS=-g -pg"

This is done at make time, and an imake/make Makefiles cycle is
not required.

Imake.

(See also Darwin (Mac OS X) Stuff).

If you don't have imake, I suggest you get it from Paul DuBois's archive
(he has also hacked up the X11 files to produce "extensible" imake
configurations, and I have culled them down further). Everything for
this project is in config ... you don't have to worry about moving things
to /usr/lib/X11/config ... I hate that. You just need to supply the
programs. I don't use imboot, use "imake -I./config" instead. Everything
here is based on Paul's EA version of the config files.

Everything you need for this project is available at:

	ftp://ftp.uu.net/published/oreilly/nutshell/imake/imake.tar.Z

It is also probably at the site where you found dicom3tools.

Get and read the book too ... it is one of the best Nutshell handbooks I
have seen.

One of the nicest thing about using imake is the ability to generate
Makefiles in multiple sub-directories, which contain all the right paths
and definitions without them needing to be passed by "parent" makes, so
one can happily work and change things in each sub-directory issuing
"local" make commands -  really speeds up the edit/compile/test cycle.

C++ features required.

Templates are used. Exceptions are not.

Different template instantiation mechanisms were driving me crazy so now
declarations are not separated from definitions ... all in one header file.
This may be inefficient but it avoids maintaining different #pragma's and
file name/directory conventions for different compilers (yuck).

This may change now that gnu g++ (almost) supports template repositories,
and hopefully this might avoid the current code bloat.

With some compilers if things are missing at link time because certain
templates weren't instantiated at compile time (ie. statically into
the object), you may need to use a compile option (eg. -pto for SC 4.0).

The old (pre-ANSI C++ standard) strstream stuff is used; this means that
g++ version 2, not 3, is required, since version 3 does not support the
older headers. The Configure script looks for this, and usually both
compilers are available, but if not, you may need to manually install
a gcc package (such as 2.95).

Porting.

Porting to another unix version or site should be painless, as there are
no vendor specific features used. The config really only applies to the
tools used to build and compile the toolkit, not to any of the toolkit
behaviour.

All the site specific stuff (paths et al.) should be in site.def (shared 
between projects) and the stuff specific to this project should be in
site.p-def, and so on. These rarely need to be changed however.

There are no specific operating system or compiler targets specified
in Imake.tmpl ... it assumes that generic.cf has been created by the
Configure script.

To port, it is easiest to try running with an empty generic.cf, using
the defaults in Imake.tmpl, and see what fails. Examine the shell script
config/Configure to get an idea of what things you might need to replace,
and build a manual generic.cf. When you have it working, send it to me,
or fold it back into config/Configure and send that to me, and I will
include it in the next release (dclunie@dclunie.com).

It is best not to go editing the other files such as rules and so on, 
unless absolutely necessary, as the principle is to define everything 
local early on to override the default definitions that come later.

NEVER edit a Makefile by hand ... these will get overwritten and your
changes will be lost.

The X stuff has been tested under OpenWindows 3 only but is so primitive
it should run on any version of X11R4 and above at least.

Missing Prototypes.

SunOS and Solaris do not include declarations for a host of functions,
particularly in the network related code, and using g++ in these
environments, despite fixincludes, means that no prototypes are
available. Accordingly -DNEEDMISSINGPROTOTYPES brings these in, and
probably isn't necessary in any other environment, and will create
conflicts if it is used when correct prototypes are available.

GNU libg++ and makedepend wierdness.

Some versions of makedepend that are shipped with X11 don't recognize
the #if construct ... if you are using gcc then this shows up as
complaints like "Make:  Don't know how to make _IO_config.h." because
the makedepend has ignored an #if 1/#else/#include "_IO_config.h"/#endif
that occurs in g++-include/libio.h, and created a dependency on the
_IO_config.h file that of course doesn't exist.

Solutions are manually edit g++-include/libio.h or get a real
makedepend, such as with the imake package.

Sunpro SC wierdness.

Configure will use the first CC and cc or acc compilers it finds
in the path, and check for versions of SC to create make depend
include paths. These will be relative to LANGHOME so don't forget
to set itif using Sun SC.

You also may need LD_LIBRARY_PATH set to the Sun SC lib directory
at run time.

At compile time for later versions you may need to set LM_LICENSE_FILE.

For example:

	setenv LANGHOME /usr/3p/SUNWspro
	setenv PATH ${LANGHOME}/SC4.2/bin:${PATH}
	setenv LM_LICENSE_FILE ${LANGHOME}/license_dir/sunpro.lic
	setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH ${LANGHOME}/SC4.2/lib

More recent versions of SunPro have not been tested.

Solaris Notes.

You can find makedepend and imake in /usr/openwin/bin.

You can find make in /usr/ccs/bin.

The Solaris nawk works fine ... you don't need gawk.

These all need to be in your PATH.

Solaris and GNU Binaries Wierdness.

You can get pre-packaged binaries for Solaris from:

	http://metalab.unc.edu/pub/packages/solaris/sparc/

amongst other places.

These are installed using the Solaris pkgadd mechanism.

Unfortunately older gcc packages don't know about the libg++
package, so dctool Configure doesn't pickup the include and
library paths. Newer releases (libstdc++) should be better.

You may need to manually link /opt/FSFlibg++/lib/g++-include into
/opt/GCC2721/lib, for example, if you get errors from makedepend
about not finding c++ header files.

You probably also need to link /opt/FSFlibg++/lib/lib*.a into
/opt/GCC2721/lib/gcc-lib/sparc-sun-solaris2.5/2.7.2.1, or deal
with the problem in site.def, if you get errors at link time
about not finding g++ or stdc++, etc.

The package has compiled OK under Solaris releases from 2.5 up
to Solaris 8 Early Access, the latter both on Sparc and X86.

X86 Stuff.

A few of the tools, notably binpatch, are big-endian byte order
dependent and won't work on Solaris X86 or Linux on X86.

Linux Stuff.

Recent "distributions" of Linux should have no problem compiling
the tools. The Configure script should set up everything required.
earlier versions of egcs were a problem, but no longer seem to be.

Finding the X11 static libraries can be painful and Configure does
its best; under FC5 they have stopped distributing the static
library libX11.a in the RPM, so one has to build it oneself,
which is a pain (but described by Michael Peters in a thread on
the subject at "http://forums.fedoraforum.org/showthread.php?t=108049")
that I adapt here:

  wget http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/fedora/linux/core/5/source/SRPMS/libX11-1.0.0-3.src.rpm
  sudo yum install fedora-rpmdevtools
  fedora-buildrpmtree
  rpm -i libX11-1.0.0-3.src.rpm
  vi rpmbuild/SPECS/libX11.spec
    ... change Release from 3 to 3.1
    ... change %define with_static from 0 to 1
  rpmbuild -bb rpmbuild/SPECS/libX11.spec
  sudo rpm -U rpmbuild/RPMS/x86_64/libX11*.rpm
  ls -l /usr/lib64/libX11.a

  wget http://download.fedora.redhat.com/pub/fedora/linux/core/5/source/SRPMS/libXext-1.0.0-3.2.src.rpm
  rpm -i libXext-1.0.0-3.2.src.rpm
  vi rpmbuild/SPECS/libXext.spec
    ... change Release from 3.2 to 3.3
    ... change %define with_static from 0 to 1
  rpmbuild -bb rpmbuild/SPECS/libXext.spec
  sudo rpm -U rpmbuild/RPMS/x86_64/libXext*.rpm
  ls -l /usr/lib64/libXext.a

Irix Stuff.

It has been a long time since the package was compiled under any
version of Irix using the SGI compilers ... it may no longer compile.
I have never tried it with gcc and the SGI development libraries.

OSF Stuff.

It has been a long time since it was compiled on a Dec Alpha.

Darwin (Mac OS X) Stuff.

On recent Mac OS versions (Yosemite, Mavericks (?)), the X11 library and
include files may not be present even if XQuartz is installed, and
these are necessary for the dcdisp stuff to build. Installing the
MacPorts package "xorg-libX11" ("port install xorg-libX11") will make
these available (and the Configure script will use these on Darwin by
preference if they are available) (a "port contents xorg-libX11" will
show the files that are installed). You may also need the package
"xorg-libXext" installed.

With XCode 5, the default cpp behavior has changed such that it is incompatible
with imake ... you need to use the earlier llvm-cpp-4.2. If you already had
XCode 4 installed, it will already be there, and Configure will warn you that
you need to set the IMAKECPP environment variable prior to running imake or
any make that invokes imake (like Make World), e.g.:

	in csh:

		env IMAKECPP=llvm-cpp-4.2 imake -v -I./config
		env IMAKECPP=llvm-cpp-4.2 make World

	in Bourne shells:
	
		IMAKECPP=llvm-cpp-4.2 imake -v -I./config
		IMAKECPP=llvm-cpp-4.2 make World

Fortunately with XCode 6 this seems to no longer be necessary.

Recent versions also have a makedepend binary that just pops up a warning
dialog that makedepend isn't installed :( To get around this the Configure
script now checks for /opt/X11/bin/makedepend, which is where XQuartz
puts it.

On Snow Leopard (10.6), X11 (an optional install) no longer contains
imake; the easiest way to get it is to install MacPorts and then install
the port of imake ("port install imake").

On earlier versions, the XQuartz or the Apple (optional) installation of
X11 contains imake (in /usr/X11R6/bin).

The version of awk supplied is not sufficient ... use gawk, which is available
from MacPorts (the Configure script will use it); installing the port of
coreutils will include this.

On early Darwin versions, the gcc compiler is installed as "cc" not "gcc", so unless
you make symbolic links named "gcc" you will get a lot of can't find the header errors
from the make depend phase. Unfortunately these can't just be ignored, so you need to do
something like add /usr/local/bin to your path if not already there, as root, make
/usr/local/bin if not already there and create symbolic links named "gcc" and "g++"
to "/usr/bin/cc" and "/usr/bin/c++" respectively.

This should not be necessary if you have the Dec 2002 Developer package installed,
either from the Apple developer site or from a more recent Jaguar set of install
disks (e.g. 10.2.3 or later).

Linux Stuff.

Depending on your distribution, gcc will likely already be installed but g++
may well not be, nor will imake.

E.g., on Debian or Ubuntu, to get g++ you will probably need to run:

  sudo apt-get install g++
  
and imake:

  sudo apt-get install xutils-dev

and the X11 development libraries to allow dcdisp to compile:

  sudo apt-get install libX11-dev
  sudo apt-get install libXext-dev

Cygwin Stuff.

As long as you have installed the necessary packages with Cygwin (including X11
in order to get imake and build dcdisp), then everything compiles just fine. The
executables will be named with a .exe extension as expected.

This can be achieved by installing the default Cygwin set of packages, and
additionally selecting the following (binary) packages:

- gcc-g++ (NOT gcc4-g++)
- imake
- make
- makedepend
- libX11-devel
- libXext-devel
- zip (only needed to make archive.winexe target, not to compile and install)

which will also select all of the necessary dependencies.

Note that if you are getting make time errors that mention "strip" not
being found, then the wrong version of make is being used.

If you want to run the executables in a command shall without Cygwin installed,
then you just need to have a copy the cygwin1.dll file in your current path.

UID Related Stuff.

This is best configured in config/site.def-p, though you can do it
with defines on the command line of the first imake.

All generated DICOM SOP Instances should have a globally unique UIDu
and the scheme for this presumes that the user of the tools has a "root"
that is unique to their implementation (or compilation of these tools),
from which subsequent UIDs for instances can be generated by adding stuff
to the end of the root that disambiguates instances ... the default is
to use a date/time stamp, though one can supply one's own "stamp" with
a command line option if necessary to ensure consistency of series, study
and frame of reference UID's between invocations of various tools that
create instances.

This is all done by setting the macro 'DefaultUIDRoot' to an appropriate
value. There are also various implementation specific things in a DICOM
metaheader that can be set with 'DefaultImplementationClassUID',
'DefaultImplementationVersionName' and 'DefaultSourceApplicationEntityTitle',
though these are less vital.

An example of how to do this easily is the definition of my own macro,
'UseClunieGEID' in config/site.def-p. Use this as a model if you like
but DO NOT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES use my root ID or your instances
will conflict with mine !

If you don't have a real root and just want to experiment, define nothing
and '0.0.0.0' will be used ... this is bad, and means you can't send
these instances out into the real world, but at least it is obviously
not a valid root, whereas using mine would appear to be.

How to you get one of these roots ? ISO delagates responsibility for
assigning them to national member bodies such as ANSI, BSI, DIN, etc.
See the alt.image.medical FAQ for further information and contacts. You
can find it at:

	http://www.dclunie.com/medical-image-faq/html/

Tuning for faster image display.

If you use dcdisp and want to increase the speed of the image refresh
after window/level width etc., then compile with USEXMITSHMEXTENSION,
and if you display a lot of large images (eg. mammo or CR), tune your
OS System V shared memory maximum size. On Solaris, edit /etc/system
to include:

	set shmsys:shminfo_shmmax=16777216

where 16777216 is big enough to hold a 16MB 8 bit image, etc.

Note that the default configuration is specifically set up to
activiate shared memory (ie. UseXMitShmExtension is turned on
in config/Configure. You can turn it off by putting in site.def
in the BeforeVendorCF section:

	#ifndef UseXMitShmExtension
	#define UseXMitShmExtension 0
	#endif	UseXMitShmExtension

JPEG Stuff

A script (dcunjpeg) is available that makes use of the Stanford PVRG
JPEG codec that supports lossless compression. A patch is included in
the "support" directory to apply to the Stanford codec to support some
GE implementation bugs on decompression.

For more information, including source of the Stanford codec, see:

	"http://www.dclunie.com/jpegge.html"

The PVRG codec (jpeg) is required to be available in the PATH at runtime.

For color 8 bit images, the IJG codec (djpeg) is required to be available
in the PATH at runtime (on MacOS, port install jpeg).

For JPEG 2000 images, the Kakadu codec (kdu_expand) is required to be
available in the PATH at runtime.

Deflate Stuff

Scripts (dcdeflate and dcinflate) are provided to support the proposed
use of the gzip/pkzip deflate algorithm as a standard DICOM transfer
syntax, compressing the entire DICOM dataset beyond the metaheader,
rather than just the pixel data. It is intended for use with reports,
waveforms and presentation states.

The scripts depend on the availability of the gzip utility, patched to
take an extra option (-x) that outputs just the deflated bitstream and
not the gzip header. The patches to gzip versions 1.2.4 and 1.3.12 are
included in the "support" directory. The source to gzip is available from
many sites, including:

	"http://www.gzip.org/"

Netpbm Stuff

Some of the scripts (e.g. dcunrgb) depend on utilities from the netpbm
library, and hence the netpbm utilities are required to be available in
the PATH at runtime, though the library is not required for compilation of
dicom3tools. See:

	"http://netpbm.sourceforge.net/"
	
On a Mac, installation of a recent port of netpbm using MacPorts will
suffice.

Documentation

There is a marvellous set of tools called "doxygen" that creates javadoc
style documentation for C++ but goes way beyond and draws class diagrams
and even collaboration diagrams if the ATT "graphviz" package is also
available.

If one does "make docs" then a "docs"directory is created in which the
"html" folder contains an "index.html" that may be used to read the
documentation of class, files, etc. This depends on both doxygen and
dot (from graphiz) being in the current path.

See the following URLs to get these excellent packages:

	http://www.doxygen.org/
	http://www.research.att.com/sw/tools/graphviz/

BTW. The generated docs are way to bulky to distribute and can always
be generated, so please don't ask.

Note also that the docs are generated from the class definitions as is,
and there has been no effort (yet) to actually insert any comments that
get included in the generated docs to explain what the classes and methods
actually do !

The end.