File: ChangeLog

package info (click to toggle)
dict-jargon 4.3.0-1
  • links: PTS
  • area: main
  • in suites: woody
  • size: 1,532 kB
  • ctags: 17
  • sloc: makefile: 74; sh: 56
file content (291 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 15,120 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
     The Jargon File does not have a Changelog in the usual form.  The
following Revision History is included in the source file:

Revision History ==================

The original Jargon File was a collection of hacker jargon from technical 
cultures including the MIT AI Lab, the Stanford AI lab (SAIL), and others 
of the old ARPANET AI/LISP/PDP-10 communities including Bolt, Beranek and 
Newman (BBN), Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU), and Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute (WPI). 

The Jargon File (hereafter referred to as `jargon-1' or `the File') was 
begun by Raphael Finkel at Stanford in 1975. From this time until the plug 
was finally pulled on the SAIL computer in 1991, the File was named 
AIWORD.RF[UP,DOC] there. Some terms in it date back considerably earlier 
({frob} and some senses of {moby}, for instance, go back to the Tech Model 
Railroad Club at MIT and are believed to date at least back to the early 
1960s). The revisions of jargon-1 were all unnumbered and may be 
collectively considered `Version 1'. 

In 1976, Mark Crispin, having seen an announcement about the File on the 
SAIL computer, {FTP}ed a copy of the File to MIT. He noticed that it was 
hardly restricted to `AI words' and so stored the file on his directory as 
AI:MRC;SAIL JARGON. 

The file was quickly renamed JARGON > (the `>' caused versioning under 
ITS) as a flurry of enhancements were made by Mark Crispin and Guy L. 
Steele Jr. Unfortunately, amidst all this activity, nobody thought of 
correcting the term `jargon' to `slang' until the compendium had already 
become widely known as the Jargon File. 

Raphael Finkel dropped out of active participation shortly thereafter and 
Don Woods became the SAIL contact for the File (which was subsequently kept 
in duplicate at SAIL and MIT, with periodic resynchronizations). 

The File expanded by fits and starts until about 1983; Richard Stallman 
was prominent among the contributors, adding many MIT and ITS-related 
coinages. 

In Spring 1981, a hacker named Charles Spurgeon got a large chunk of the 
File published in Stewart Brand's "CoEvolution Quarterly" (issue 29, pages 
26-35) with illustrations by Phil Wadler and Guy Steele (including a couple 
of the Crunchly cartoons). This appears to have been the File's first paper 
publication. 

A late version of jargon-1, expanded with commentary for the mass market, 
was edited by Guy Steele into a book published in 1983 as "The Hacker's 
Dictionary" (Harper & Row CN 1082, ISBN 0-06-091082-8). The other jargon-1 
editors (Raphael Finkel, Don Woods, and Mark Crispin) contributed to this 
revision, as did Richard M. Stallman and Geoff Goodfellow. This book (now 
out of print) is hereafter referred to as `Steele-1983' and those six as 
the Steele-1983 coauthors. 

Shortly after the publication of Steele-1983, the File effectively 
stopped growing and changing. Originally, this was due to a desire to 
freeze the file temporarily to facilitate the production of Steele-1983, 
but external conditions caused the `temporary' freeze to become permanent. 

The AI Lab culture had been hit hard in the late 1970s by funding cuts 
and the resulting administrative decision to use vendor-supported hardware 
and software instead of homebrew whenever possible. At MIT, most AI work 
had turned to dedicated LISP Machines. At the same time, the 
commercialization of AI technology lured some of the AI Lab's best and 
brightest away to startups along the Route 128 strip in Massachusetts and 
out West in Silicon Valley. The startups built LISP machines for MIT; the 
central MIT-AI computer became a {TWENEX} system rather than a host for the 
AI hackers' beloved {ITS}. 

The Stanford AI Lab had effectively ceased to exist by 1980, although the 
SAIL computer continued as a Computer Science Department resource until 
1991. Stanford became a major {TWENEX} site, at one point operating more 
than a dozen TOPS-20 systems; but by the mid-1980s most of the interesting 
software work was being done on the emerging BSD Unix standard. 

In April 1983, the PDP-10-centered cultures that had nourished the File 
were dealt a death-blow by the cancellation of the Jupiter project at 
Digital Equipment Corporation. The File's compilers, already dispersed, 
moved on to other things. Steele-1983 was partly a monument to what its 
authors thought was a dying tradition; no one involved realized at the time 
just how wide its influence was to be. 

By the mid-1980s the File's content was dated, but the legend that had 
grown up around it never quite died out. The book, and softcopies obtained 
off the ARPANET, circulated even in cultures far removed from MIT and 
Stanford; the content exerted a strong and continuing influence on hacker 
language and humor. Even as the advent of the microcomputer and other 
trends fueled a tremendous expansion of hackerdom, the File (and related 
materials such as the {Some AI Koans} in Appendix A) came to be seen as a 
sort of sacred epic, a hacker-culture Matter of Britain chronicling the 
heroic exploits of the Knights of the Lab. The pace of change in hackerdom 
at large accelerated tremendously -- but the Jargon File, having passed 
from living document to icon, remained essentially untouched for seven 
years. 

This revision contains nearly the entire text of a late version of 
jargon-1 (a few obsolete PDP-10-related entries were dropped after careful 
consultation with the editors of Steele-1983). It merges in about 80% of 
the Steele-1983 text, omitting some framing material and a very few entries 
introduced in Steele-1983 that are now also obsolete. 

This new version casts a wider net than the old Jargon File; its aim is 
to cover not just AI or PDP-10 hacker culture but all the technical 
computing cultures wherein the true hacker-nature is manifested. More than 
half of the entries now derive from {Usenet} and represent jargon now 
current in the C and Unix communities, but special efforts have been made 
to collect jargon from other cultures including IBM PC programmers, Amiga 
fans, Mac enthusiasts, and even the IBM mainframe world. 

Eric S. Raymond <<esr@snark.thyrsus.com>> maintains the new File with 
assistance from Guy L. Steele Jr. <<gls@think.com>>; these are the persons 
primarily reflected in the File's editorial `we', though we take pleasure 
in acknowledging the special contribution of the other coauthors of 
Steele-1983. Please email all additions, corrections, and correspondence 
relating to the Jargon File to <jargon@thyrsus.com>. 

(Warning: other email addresses appear in this file _but are not 
guaranteed to be correct_ later than the revision date on the first line. 
_Don't_ email us if an attempt to reach your idol bounces -- we have no 
magic way of checking addresses or looking up people.) 

The 2.9.6 version became the main text of "The New Hacker's Dictionary", 
by Eric Raymond (ed.), MIT Press 1991, ISBN 0-262-68069-6. 

The 3.0.0 version was published in September 1993 as the second edition 
of "The New Hacker's Dictionary", again from MIT Press (ISBN 
0-262-18154-1). 

If you want the book, you should be able to find it at any of the major 
bookstore chains. Failing that, you can order by mail from 

The MIT Press 55 Hayward Street Cambridge, MA 02142 

or order by phone at (800)-356-0343 or (617)-625-8481. 

The maintainers are committed to updating the on-line version of the 
Jargon File through and beyond paper publication, and will continue to make 
it available to archives and public-access sites as a trust of the hacker 
community. 

Here is a chronology of the high points in the recent on-line revisions: 

Version 2.1.1, Jun 12 1990: the Jargon File comes alive again after a 
seven-year hiatus. Reorganization and massive additions were by Eric S. 
Raymond, approved by Guy Steele. Many items of UNIX, C, USENET, and 
microcomputer-based jargon were added at that time. 

Version 2.9.6, Aug 16 1991: corresponds to reproduction copy for book. 
This version had 18952 lines, 148629 words, 975551 characters, and 1702 
entries. 

Version 2.9.7, Oct 28 1991: first markup for hypertext browser. This 
version had 19432 lines, 152132 words, 999595 characters, and 1750 entries. 

Version 2.9.8, Jan 01 1992: first public release since the book, 
including over fifty new entries and numerous corrections/additions to old 
ones. Packaged with version 1.1 of vh(1) hypertext reader. This version had 
19509 lines, 153108 words, 1006023 characters, and 1760 entries. 

Version 2.9.9, Apr 01 1992: folded in XEROX PARC lexicon. This version 
had 20298 lines, 159651 words, 1048909 characters, and 1821 entries. 

Version 2.9.10, Jul 01 1992: lots of new historical material. This 
version had 21349 lines, 168330 words, 1106991 characters, and 1891 
entries. 

Version 2.9.11, Jan 01 1993: lots of new historical material. This 
version had 21725 lines, 171169 words, 1125880 characters, and 1922 
entries. 

Version 2.9.12, May 10 1993: a few new entries & changes, marginal 
MUD/IRC slang and some borderline techspeak removed, all in preparation for 
2nd Edition of TNHD. This version had 22238 lines, 175114 words, 1152467 
characters, and 1946 entries. 

Version 3.0.0, Jul 27 1993: manuscript freeze for 2nd edition of TNHD. 
This version had 22548 lines, 177520 words, 1169372 characters, and 1961 
entries. 

Version 3.1.0, Oct 15 1994: interim release to test WWW conversion. This 
version had 23197 lines, 181001 words, 1193818 characters, and 1990 
entries. 

Version 3.2.0, Mar 15 1995: Spring 1995 update. This version had 23822 
lines, 185961 words, 1226358 characters, and 2031 entries. 

Version 3.3.0, Jan 20 1996: Winter 1996 update. This version had 24055 
lines, 187957 words, 1239604 characters, and 2045 entries. 

Version 3.3.1, Jan 25 1996: Copy-corrected improvement on 3.3.0 shipped 
to MIT Press as a step towards TNHD III. This version had 24147 lines, 
188728 words, 1244554 characters, and 2050 entries. 

Version 3.3.2, Mar 20 1996: A number of new entries pursuant on 3.3.2. 
This version had 24442 lines, 190867 words, 1262468 characters, and 2061 
entries. 

Version 3.3.3, Mar 25 1996: Cleanup before TNHD III manuscript freeze. 
This version had 24584 lines, 191932 words, 1269996 characters, and 2064 
entries. 

Version 4.0.0, Jul 25 1996: The actual TNHD III version after copy-edit. 
This version had 24801 lines, 193697 words, 1281402 characters, and 2067 
entries. 

Version 4.1.0, 8 Apr 1999: The Jargon File rides again after three years. 
This version had 25777 lines, 206825 words, 1359992 characters, and 2217 
entries. 

Version 4.1.1, 18 Apr 1999: Corrections for minor errors in 4.1.0, and 
some new entries. This version had 25921 lines, 208483 words, 1371279 
characters, and 2225 entries. 

Version 4.1.2, 28 Apr 1999: Moving texi2html out of the production path. 
This version had 26006 lines, 209479 words, 1377687 characters, and 2225 
entries. 

Version 4.1.3, 14 Jun 1999: Minor updates and markup fixes. This version 
had 26108 lines, 210480 words, 1384546 characters, and 2234 entries. 

Version 4.1.4, 17 Jun 1999: Markup fixes for framed HTML. This version 
had 26117 lines, 210527 words, 1384902 characters, and 2234 entries. 

Version 4.2.0, 31 Jan 2000: Fix processing of URLs. This version had 
26598 lines, 214639 words, 1412243 characters, and 2267 entries. 

Version 4.2.1, 5 Mar 2000: Point release to test new production 
machinery. This version had 26647 lines, 215040 words, 1414942 characters, 
and 2269 entries. 

Version 4.2.2, 12 Aug 2000: This version had 27171 lines, 219630 words, 
1444887 characters, and 2302 entries. 

Version 4.2.3, 23 Nov 2000: This version had 27452 lines, 222085 words, 
1460972 characters, and 2318 entries. 

Version 4.3.0, 30 Apr 2001: Special edition in honor of the first 
implementation of RFC 1149. Also cleaned up a number of obsolete entries. 
This version had 27805 lines, 224978 words, 1480215 characters, and 2319 
entries. 

Version numbering: Version numbers should be read as 
major.minor.revision. Major version 1 is reserved for the `old' (ITS) 
Jargon File, jargon-1. Major version 2 encompasses revisions by ESR (Eric 
S. Raymond) with assistance from GLS (Guy L. Steele, Jr.) leading up to and 
including the second paper edition. From now on, major version number N.00 
will probably correspond to the Nth paper edition. Usually later versions 
will either completely supersede or incorporate earlier versions, so there 
is generally no point in keeping old versions around. 

Our thanks to the coauthors of Steele-1983 for oversight and assistance, 
and to the hundreds of Usenetters (too many to name here) who contributed 
entries and encouragement. More thanks go to several of the old-timers on 
the Usenet group alt.folklore.computers, who contributed much useful 
commentary and many corrections and valuable historical perspective: Joseph 
M. Newcomer <<jn11+@andrew.cmu.edu>>, Bernie Cosell <<cosell@bbn.com>>, 
Earl Boebert <<boebert@SCTC.com>>, and Joe Morris 
<<jcmorris@mwunix.mitre.org>>. 

We were fortunate enough to have the aid of some accomplished linguists. 
David Stampe <<stampe@hawaii.edu>> and Charles Hoequist <<hoequist@bnr.ca>> 
contributed valuable criticism; Joe Keane <<jgk@osc.osc.com>> helped us 
improve the pronunciation guides. 

A few bits of this text quote previous works. We are indebted to Brian A. 
LaMacchia <<bal@zurich.ai.mit.edu>> for obtaining permission for us to use 
material from the "TMRC Dictionary"; also, Don Libes <<libes@cme.nist.gov>> 
contributed some appropriate material from his excellent book "Life With 
UNIX". We thank Per Lindberg <<per@front.se>>, author of the remarkable 
Swedish-language 'zine "Hackerbladet", for bringing "FOO!" comics to our 
attention and smuggling one of the IBM hacker underground's own baby jargon 
files out to us. Thanks also to Maarten Litmaath for generously allowing 
the inclusion of the ASCII pronunciation guide he formerly maintained. And 
our gratitude to Marc Weiser of XEROX PARC <<Marc_Weiser.PARC@xerox.com>> 
for securing us permission to quote from PARC's own jargon lexicon and 
shipping us a copy. 

It is a particular pleasure to acknowledge the major contributions of 
Mark Brader and Steve Summit <<scs@eskimo.com>> to the File and Dictionary; 
they have read and reread many drafts, checked facts, caught typos, 
submitted an amazing number of thoughtful comments, and done yeoman service 
in catching typos and minor usage bobbles. Their rare combination of 
enthusiasm, persistence, wide-ranging technical knowledge, and precisionism 
in matters of language has been of invaluable help. Indeed, the sustained 
volume and quality of Mr. Brader's input over several years and several 
different editions has only allowed him to escape co-editor credit by the 
slimmest of margins. 

Finally, George V. Reilly <<georgere@microsoft.com>> helped with TeX 
arcana and painstakingly proofread some 2.7 and 2.8 versions, and Eric 
Tiedemann <<est@thyrsus.com>> contributed sage advice throughout on 
rhetoric, amphigory, and philosophunculism.