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Network Working Group                                        A. Costanzo
Request for Comments: 1505                                AKC Consulting
Obsoletes: 1154                                              D. Robinson
                                              Computervision Corporation
                                                              R. Ullmann
                                                             August 1993


              Encoding Header Field for Internet Messages

Status of this Memo

   This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
   community.  It does not specify an Internet standard.  Discussion and
   suggestions for improvement are requested.  Please refer to the
   current edition of the "IAB Official Protocol Standards" for the
   standardization state and status of this protocol.  Distribution of
   this memo is unlimited.

IESG Note

   Note that a standards-track technology already exists in this area
   [11].

Abstract

   This document expands upon the elective experimental Encoding header
   field which permits the mailing of multi-part, multi-structured
   messages.  It replaces RFC 1154 [1].

Table of Contents

          1.      Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
          2.      The Encoding Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
          2.1       Format of the Encoding Field . . . . . . . . . . . 3
          2.2       <count>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
          2.3       <keyword>  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
          2.3.1       Nested Keywords  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
          2.4       Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
          3.      Encodings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
          3.1       Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
          3.2       Message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
          3.3       Hex  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
          3.4       EVFU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
          3.5       EDI-X12 and EDIFACT  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
          3.6       FS   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
          3.7       LZJU90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
          3.8       LZW  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7



Costanzo, Robinson & Ullmann                                    [Page 1]

RFC 1505                 Encoding Header Field               August 1993


          3.9       UUENCODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
          3.10      PEM and PEM-Clear  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
          3.11      PGP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
          3.12      Signature  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
          3.13      TAR  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
          3.14      PostScript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
          3.15      SHAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
          3.16      Uniform Resource Locator . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
          3.17      Registering New Keywords . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
          4.      FS (File System) Object Encoding . . . . . . . . .  11
          4.1       Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
          4.1.1       Directory  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
          4.1.2       Entry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
          4.1.3       File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
          4.1.4       Segment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
          4.1.5       Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
          4.2       Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
          4.2.1       Display  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
          4.2.2       Comment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
          4.2.3       Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
          4.2.4       Created  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
          4.2.5       Modified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
          4.2.6       Accessed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
          4.2.7       Owner  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
          4.2.8       Group  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
          4.2.9       ACL  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
          4.2.10      Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
          4.2.11      Block  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
          4.2.12      Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
          4.2.13      Application  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
          4.3       Date Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
          4.3.1       Syntax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
          4.3.2       Semantics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
          5.      LZJU90: Compressed Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . .  18
          5.1       Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
          5.2       Specification of the LZJU90 compression  . . . .  19
          5.3       The Decoder  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
          5.3.1       An example of an Encoder . . . . . . . . . . .  27
          5.3.2       Example LZJU90 Compressed Object . . . . . . .  33
          6.      Alphabetical Listing of Defined Encodings  . . . .  34
          7.      Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
          8.      References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
          9.      Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
          10.     Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36







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1.  Introduction

   STD 11, RFC 822 [2] defines an electronic mail message to consist of
   two parts, the message header and the message body, separated by a
   blank line.

   The Encoding header field permits the message body itself to be
   further broken up into parts, each part also separated from the next
   by a blank line.  Thus, conceptually, a message has a header part,
   followed by one or more body parts, all separated by apparently blank
   lines.  Each body part has an encoding type.  The default (no
   Encoding field in the header) is a one part message body of type
   "Text".

   The purpose of Encoding is to be descriptive of the content of a mail
   message without placing constraints on the content or requiring
   additional structure to appear in the body of the message that will
   interfere with other processing.

   A similar message format is used in the network news facility, and
   posted articles are often transferred by gateways between news and
   mail.  The Encoding field is perhaps even more useful in news, where
   articles often are uuencoded or shar'd, and have a number of
   different nested encodings of graphics images and so forth.  In news
   in particular, the Encoding header keeps the structural information
   within the (usually concealed) article header, without affecting the
   visual presentation by simple news-reading software.

2.  The Encoding Field

   The Encoding field consists of one or more subfields, separated by
   commas.  Each subfield corresponds to a part of the message, in the
   order of that part's appearance.  A subfield consists of a line count
   and a keyword or a series of nested keywords defining the encoding.
   The line count is optional in the last subfield.

2.1  Format of the Encoding Field

   The format of the Encoding field is:

        [  <count> <keyword> [ <keyword> ]* ,  ]*
                [ <count> ] <keyword> [ <keyword> ]*

        where:

        <count>    := a decimal integer
        <keyword>  := a single alphanumeric token starting with an alpha




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2.2  <count>

   The line count is a decimal number specifying the number of text
   lines in the part.  Parts are separated by a blank line, which is not
   included in the count of either the preceding or following part.
   Blank lines consist only of CR/LF.  Count may be zero, it must be
   non-negative.

   It is always possible to determine if the count is present because a
   count always begins with a digit and a keyword always begins with a
   letter.

   The count is not required on the last or only part.  A multi-part
   message that consists of only one part is thus identical to a
   single-part message.

2.3  <keyword>

   Keyword defines the encoding type.  The keyword is a common single-
   word name for the encoding type and is not case-sensitive.

             Encoding: 107 Text

2.3.1  Nested Keywords

   Nested keywords are a series of keywords defining a multi-encoded
   message part.  The encoding keywords may either be an actual series
   of encoding steps the encoder used to generate the message part or
   may merely be used to more precisely identify the type of encoding
   (as in the use of the keyword "Signature").

   Nested keywords are parsed and generated from left to right.  The
   order is significant.  A decoding application would process the list
   from left to right, whereas, an encoder would process the Internet
   message and generate the nested keywords in the reverse order of the
   actual encoding process.

        Encoding: 458 uuencode LZW tar (Unix binary object)

2.4  Comments

   Comments enclosed in parentheses may be inserted anywhere in the
   encoding field.  Mail reading systems may pass the comments to their
   clients.  Comments must not be used by mail reading systems for
   content interpretation.  Other parameters defining the type of
   encoding must be contained within the body portion of the Internet
   message or be implied by a keyword in the encoding field.




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3.  Encodings

   This section describes some of the defined encodings used.  An
   alphabetical listing is provided in Section 6.

   As with the other keyword-defined parts of the header format
   standard, new keywords are expected and welcomed.  Several basic
   principles should be followed in adding encodings.  The keyword
   should be the most common single word name for the encoding,
   including acronyms if appropriate.  The intent is that different
   implementors will be likely to choose the same name for the same
   encoding.  Keywords should not be too general:  "binary" would have
   been a bad choice for the "hex" encoding.

   The encoding should be as free from unnecessary idiosyncracies as
   possible, except when conforming to an existing standard, in which
   case there is nothing that can be done.

   The encoding should, if possible, use only the 7 bit ASCII printing
   characters if it is a complete transformation of a source document
   (e.g., "hex" or "uuencode").  If it is essentially a text format, the
   full range may be used.  If there is an external standard, the
   character set may already be defined.  Keywords beginning with "X-"
   are permanently reserved to implementation-specific use.  No standard
   registered encoding keyword will ever begin with "X-".

   New encoding keywords which are not reserved for implementation-
   specific use must be registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers
   Authority (IANA).  Refer to section 3.17 for additional information.

3.1  Text

   This indicates that the message is in no particular encoded format,
   but is to be presented to the user as-is.

   The text is ISO-10646-UTF-1 [3].  As specified in STD 10, RFC 821
   [10], the message is expected to consist of lines of reasonable
   length (less than or equal to 1000 characters).

   On some older implementations of mail and news, only the 7 bit subset
   of ISO-10646-UTF-1 can be used.  This is identical to the ASCII 7 bit
   code.  On some mail transports that are not compliant with STD 10,
   RFC 821 [10], line length may be restricted by the service.

   Text may be followed by a nested keyword to define the encoded part
   further, e.g., "signature":

        Encoding: 496 Text, 8 Text Signature



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   An automated file sending service may find this useful, for example,
   to differentiate between and ignore the signature area when parsing
   the body of a message for file requests.

3.2  Message

   This encoding indicates that the body part is itself in the format of
   an Internet message, with its own header part and body part(s).  A
   "message" body part's message header may be a full Internet message
   header or it may consist only of an Encoding field.

   Using the message encoding on returned mail makes it practical for a
   mail reading system to implement a reliable automatic resending
   function, if the mailer generates it when returning contents.  It is
   also useful in a "copy append" MUA (mail user agent) operation.

   MTAs (mail transfer agents) returning mail should generate an
   Encoding header.  Note that this does not require any parsing or
   transformation of the returned message; the message is simply
   appended un-modified; MTAs are prohibited from modifying the content
   of messages.

        Encoding: 7 Text (Return Reason), Message (Returned Mail)

3.3  Hex

   The encoding indicates that the body part contains binary data,
   encoded as 2 hexadecimal digits per byte, highest significant nibble
   first.

   Lines consist of an even number of hexadecimal digits.  Blank lines
   are not permitted.  The decode process must accept lines with between
   2 and 1000 characters, inclusive.

   The Hex encoding is provided as a simple way of providing a method of
   encoding small binary objects.

3.4  EVFU

   EVFU (electronic vertical format unit) specifies that each line
   begins with a one-character "channel selector".  The original purpose
   was to select a channel on a paper tape loop controlling the printer.

   This encoding is sometimes called "FORTRAN" format.  It is the
   default output format of FORTRAN programs on a number of computer
   systems.





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   The legal characters are '0' to '9', '+', '-', and space.  These
   correspond to the 12 rows (and absence of a punch) on a printer
   control tape (used when the control unit was electromechanical).

   The channels that have generally agreed definitions are:

        1          advances to the first print line on the next page
        0          skip a line, i.e., double-space
        +          over-print the preceeding line
        -          skip 2 lines, i.e., triple-space
        (space)    print on the next line, single-space

3.5  EDI-X12 and EDIFACT

   The EDI-X12 and EDIFACT keywords indicate that the message or part is
   a EDI (Electronic Document Interchange) business document, formatted
   according to ANSI X12 or the EDIFACT standard.

   A message containing a note and 2 X12 purchase orders might have an
   encoding of:

        Encoding: 17 TEXT, 146 EDI-X12, 69 EDI-X12

3.6  FS

   The FS (File System) keyword specifies a section consisting of
   encoded file system objects.  This encoding method (defined in
   section 4) allows the moving of a structured set of files from one
   environment to another while preserving all common elements.

3.7  LZJU90

   The LZJU90 keyword specifies a section consisting of an encoded
   binary or text object.  The encoding (defined in section 5) provides
   both compression and representation in a text format.

3.8  LZW

   The LZW keyword specifies a section consisting of the data produced
   by the Unix compress program.

3.9  UUENCODE

   The uuencode keyword specifies a section consisting of the output of
   the uuencode program supplied as part of uucp.






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3.10  PEM and PEM-Clear

   The PEM and PEM-Clear keywords indicate that the section is encrypted
   with the methods specified in RFCs 1421-1424 [4,5,6,7] or uses the
   MIC-Clear encapsulation specified therein.

   A simple text object encrypted with PEM has the header:

             Encoding: PEM Text

   Note that while this indicates that the text resulting from the PEM
   decryption is ISO-10646-UTF-1 text, the present version of PEM
   further restricts this to only the 7 bit subset.  A future version of
   PEM may lift this restriction.

   If the object resulting from the decryption starts with Internet
   message header(s), the encoding is:

             Encoding: PEM Message

   This is useful to conceal both the encoding within and the headers
   not needed to deliver the message (such as Subject:).

   PEM does not provide detached signatures, but rather provides the
   MIC-Clear mode to send messages with integrity checks that are not
   encrypted.  In this mode, the keyword PEM-Clear is used:

             Encoding: PEM-Clear EDIFACT

   The example being a non-encrypted EDIFACT transaction with a digital
   signature.  With the proper selection of PEM parameters and
   environment, this can also provide non-repudiation, but it does not
   provide confidentiality.

   Decoders that are capable of decrypting PEM treat the two keywords in
   the same way, using the contained PEM headers to distinguish the
   mode.  Decoders that do not understand PEM can use the PEM-Clear
   keyword as a hint that it may be useful to treat the section as text,
   or even continue the decode sequence after removing the PEM headers.

   When Encoding is used for PEM, the RFC934 [9] encapsulation specified
   in RFC1421 is not used.

3.11  PGP

   The PGP keyword indicates that the section is encrypted using the
   Pretty Good Privacy specification, or is a public key block, keyring,
   or detached signature meaningful to the PGP program.  (These objects



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   are distinguished by internal information.)

   The keyword actually implies 3 different transforms:  a compression
   step, the encryption, and an ASCII encoding.  These transforms are
   internal to the PGP encoder/decoder.  A simple text message encrypted
   with PGP is specified by:

        Encoding: PGP Text

   An EDI transaction using ANSI X12 might be:

        Encoding: 176 PGP EDI-X12

   Since an evesdropper can still "see" the nested type (Text or EDI in
   these examples), thus making information available to traffic
   analysis which is undesirable in some applications, the sender may
   prefer to use:

        Encoding: PGP Message

   As discussed in the description of the Message keyword, the enclosed
   object may have a complete header or consist only of an Encoding:
   header describing its content.

   When PGP is used to transmit an encoded key or keyring, with no
   object significant to the mail user agent as a result of the decoding
   (e.g., text to display), the keyword is used by itself.

   Another case of the PGP keyword occurs in "clear-signing" a message.
   That is, sending an un-encrypted message with a digital signature
   providing authentication and (in some environments) non-deniability.

        Encoding: 201 Text, 8 PGP Signature, 4 Text Signature

   This example indicates a 201 line message, followed by an 8 line (in
   its encoded form) PGP detached signature.  The processing of the PGP
   section is expected (in this example) to result in a text object that
   is to be treated by the receiver as a signature, possibly something
   like:

        [PGP signed Ariel@Process.COM Robert L Ullmann  VALID/TRUSTED]

   Note that the PGP signature algorithm is applied to the encoded form
   of the clear-text section, not the object(s) before encoding.  (Which
   would be quite difficult for encodings like tar or FS).  Continuing
   the example, the PGP signature is then followed by a 4 line
   "ordinary" signature section.




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3.12  Signature

   The signature keyword indicates that the section contains an Internet
   message signature.  An Internet message signature is an area of an
   Internet message (usually located at the end) which contains a single
   line or multiple lines of characters.  The signature may comprise the
   sender's name or a saying the sender is fond of.  It is normally
   inserted automatically in all outgoing message bodies.  The encoding
   keyword "Signature" must always be nested and follow another keyword.

        Encoding: 14 Text, 3 Text Signature

   A usenet news posting program should generate an encoding showing
   which is the text and which is the signature area of the posted
   message.

3.13  TAR

   The tar keyword specifies a section consisting of the output of the
   tar program supplied as part of Unix.

3.14  PostScript

   The PostScript keyword specifies a section formatted according to the
   PostScript [8] computer program language definition.  PostScript is a
   registered trademark of Adobe Systems Inc.

3.15  SHAR

   The SHAR keyword specifies a section encoded in shell archive format.
   Use of shar, although supported, is not recommended.

   WARNING:  Because the shell archive may contain commands you may not
   want executed, the decoder should not automatically execute decoded
   shell archived statements.  This warning also applies to any future
   types that include commands to be executed by the receiver.

3.16  Uniform Resource Locator

   The URL keyword indicates that the section consists of zero or more
   references to resources of some type.  URL provides a facility to
   include by reference arbitrary external resources from various
   sources in the Internet.  The specification of URL is a work in
   progress in the URI working group of the IETF.







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3.17  Registering New Keywords

   New encoding keywords which are not reserved for implementation-
   specific use must be registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers
   Authority (IANA).  IANA acts as a central registry for these values.
   IANA may reject or modify the keyword registration request if it does
   not meet the criteria as specified in section 3.  Keywords beginning
   with "X-" are permanently reserved to implementation-specific use.
   IANA will not register an encoding keyword that begins with "X-".
   Registration requests should be sent via electronic mail to IANA as
   follows:

             To:  IANA@isi.edu
             Subject:  Registration of a new EHF-MAIL Keyword

   The mail message must specify the keyword for the encoding and
   acronyms if appropriate.  Documentation defining the keyword and its
   proposed purpose must be included.  The documentation must either
   reference an external non-Internet standards document or an existing
   or soon to be RFC.  If applicable, the documentation should contain a
   draft version of the future RFC.  The draft must be submitted as a
   RFC according to the normal procedure within a reasonable amount of
   time after the keyword's registration has been approved.

4.  FS (File System) Object Encoding

   The file system encoding provides a standard, transportable encoding
   of file system objects from many different operating systems.  The
   intent is to allow the moving of a structured set of files from one
   environment to another while preserving common elements.  At the same
   time, files can be moved within a single environment while preserving
   all attributes.

   The representations consist of a series of nested sections, with
   attributes defined at the appropriate levels.  Each section begins
   with an open bracket "[" followed by a directive keyword and ends
   with a close bracket "]".  Attributes are lines, beginning with a
   keyword.  Lines which begin with a LWSP (linear white space)
   character are continuation lines.

   Any string-type directive or attribute may be a simple string not
   starting with a quotation mark ( " ) and not containing special
   characters (e.g.  newline) or LWSP (space and tab).  The string name
   begins with the first non-LWSP character on the line following the
   attribute or directive keyword and ends with the last non-LWSP
   character.





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   Otherwise, the character string name is enclosed in quotes.  The
   string itself contains characters in ISO-10646-UTF-1 but is quoted
   and escaped at octet level (as elsewhere in RFC822 [2]).  The strings
   begin and end with a quotation mark ( " ).  Octets equal to quote in
   the string are escaped, as are octets equal to the escape characters
   (\" and \\).  The escaped octets may be part of a UTF multi-octet
   character.  Octets that are not printable are escaped with \nnn octal
   representation.  When an escape (\) occurs at the end of a line, the
   escape, the end of the line, and the first character of the next
   line, which must be one of the LWSP characters, are removed
   (ignored).

    [ file Simple-File.Name

    [ file "   Long file name starting with spaces and having a couple\
      [sic] of nasties in it like this newline\012near the end."

   Note that in the above example, there is one space (not two) between
   "couple" and "[sic]".  The encoder may choose to use the nnn sequence
   for any character that might cause trouble.  Refer to section 5.1 for
   line length recommendations.

4.1  Sections

   A section starts with an open bracket, followed by a keyword that
   defines the type of section.

   The section keywords are:

             directory
             entry
             file
             segment
             data

   The encoding may start with either a file, directory or entry.  A
   directory section may contain zero or more file, entry, and directory
   sections.  A file section contains a data section or zero or more
   segment sections.  A segment section contains a data section or zero
   or more segment sections.

4.1.1  Directory

   This indicates the start of a directory.  There is one parameter, the
   entry name of the directory:






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             [ directory foo
             ...
             ]

4.1.2  Entry

   The entry keyword represents an entry in a directory that is not a
   file or a sub-directory.  Examples of entries are soft links in Unix,
   or access categories in Primos.  A Primos access category might look
   like this:

             [ entry SYS.ACAT
             type ACAT
             created 27 Jan 1987 15:31:04.00
             acl SYADMIN:* ARIEL:DALURWX $REST:
             ]

4.1.3  File

   The file keyword is followed by the entry name of the file.  The
   section then continues with attributes, possibly segments, and then
   data.

             [ file MY.FILE
             created 27 Feb 1987 12:10:20.07
             modified 27 Mar 1987 16:17:03.02
             type DAM
             [ data LZJU90
             * LZJU90
             ...
             ]]

4.1.4  Segment

   This is used to define segments of a file.  It should only be used
   when encoding files that are actually segmented.  The optional
   parameter is the number or name of the segment.

   When encoding Macintosh files, the two forks of the file are treated
   as segments:











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             [ file A.MAC.FILE
             display "A Mac File"
             type MAC
             comment "I created this myself"
             ...
             [ segment resource
             [ data ...
             ...
             ]]
             [ segment data
             [ data ...
             ...
             ]]]

4.1.5  Data

   The data section contains the encoded data of the file.  The encoding
   method is defined in section 5.  The data section must be last within
   the containing section.

4.2  Attributes

   Attributes may occur within file, entry, directory, and segment
   sections.  Attributes must occur before sub-sections.

   The attribute directives are:

             display
             type
             created
             modified
             accessed
             owner
             group
             acl
             password
             block
             record
             application

4.2.1  Display

   This indicates the display name of the object.  Some systems, such as
   the Macintosh, use a different form of the name for matching or
   uniqueness.






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4.2.2  Comment

   This contains an arbitrary comment on the object.  The Macintosh
   stores this attribute with the file.

4.2.3  Type

   The type of an object is usually of interest only to the operating
   system that the object was created on.

   Types are:

          ACAT       access category (Primos)
          CAM        contiguous access method (Primos)
          DAM        direct access method (Primos)
          FIXED      fixed length records (VMS)
          FLAT       `flat file', sequence of bytes (Unix, DOS, default)
          ISAM       indexed-sequential access method (VMS)
          LINK       soft link (Unix)
          MAC        Macintosh file
          SAM        sequential access method (Primos)
          SEGSAM     segmented direct access method (Primos)
          SEGDAM     segmented sequential access method (Primos)
          TEXT       lines of ISO-10646-UTF-1 text ending with CR/LF
          VAR        variable length records (VMS)

4.2.4  Created

   Indicates the creation date of the file.  Dates are in the format
   defined in section 4.3.

4.2.5  Modified

   Indicates the date and time the file was last modified or closed
   after being open for write.

4.2.6  Accessed

   Indicates the date and time the file was last accessed on the
   original file system.

4.2.7  Owner

   The owner directive gives the name or numerical ID of the owner or
   creator of the file.






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4.2.8  Group

   The group directive gives the name(s) or numerical IDs of the group
   or groups to which the file belongs.

4.2.9  ACL

   This directive specifies the access control list attribute of an
   object (the ACL attribute may occur more than once within an object).
   The list consist of a series of pairs of IDs and access codes in the
   format:

                user-ID:access-list


   There are four reserved IDs:

                $OWNER  the owner or creator
                $GROUP  a member of the group or groups
                $SYSTEM a system administrator
                $REST   everyone else

   The access list is zero or more single letters:

                A    add (create file)
                D    delete
                L    list (read directory)
                P    change protection
                R    read
                U    use
                W    write
                X    execute
                *    all possible access

4.2.10  Password

   The password attribute gives the access password for this object.
   Since the content of the object follows (being the raison d'etre of
   the encoding), the appearance of the password in plain text is not
   considered a security problem.  If the password is actually set by
   the decoder on a created object, the security (or lack) is the
   responsibility of the application domain controlling the decoder as
   is true of ACL and other protections.

4.2.11  Block

   The block attribute gives the block size of the file as a decimal
   number of bytes.



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4.2.12  Record

   The record attribute gives the record size of the file as a decimal
   number of bytes.

4.2.13  Application

   This specifies the application that the file was created with or
   belongs to.  This is of particular interest for Macintosh files.

4.3  Date Field

   Various attributes have a date and time subsequent to and associated
   with them.

4.3.1  Syntax

   The syntax of the date field is a combination of date, time, and
   timezone:

       DD Mon YYYY HH:MM:SS.FFFFFF [+-]HHMMSS

       Date :=  DD Mon YYYY      1 or 2 Digits " " 3 Alpha " " 4 Digits
       DD   :=  Day              e.g. "08", " 8", "8"
       Mon  :=  Month            "Jan" | "Feb" | "Mar" | "Apr" |
                                 "May" | "Jun" | "Jul" | "Aug" |
                                 "Sep" | "Oct" | "Nov" | "Dec"
       YYYY :=  Year
       Time :=  HH:MM:SS.FFFFFF  2 Digits ":" 2 Digits [ ":" 2 Digits
                                 ["." 1 to 6 Digits ] ]
                                 e.g. 00:00:00, 23:59:59.999999
       HH   :=  Hours            00 to 23
       MM   :=  Minutes          00 to 59
       SS   :=  Seconds          00 to 60 (60 only during a leap second)
       FFFFF:=  Fraction
       Zone :=  [+-]HHMMSS       "+" | "-" 2 Digits [ 2 Digits
                                 [ 2 Digits ] ]
       HH   :=  Local Hour Offset
       MM   :=  Local Minutes Offset
       SS   :=  Local Seconds Offset

4.3.2  Semantics

   The date information is that which the file system has stored in
   regard to the file system object.  Date information is stored
   differently and with varying degrees of precision by different
   computer file systems.  An encoder must include as much date
   information as it has available concerning the file system object.  A



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   decoder which receives an object encoded with a date field containing
   greater precision than its own must disregard the excessive
   information.  Zone is Co-ordinated Universal Time "UTC" (formerly
   called "Greenwich Mean Time").  The field specifies the time zone of
   the file system object as an offset from Universal Time.  It is
   expressed as a signed [+-] two, four or six digit number.

   A file that was created April 15, 1993 at 8:05 p.m.  in Roselle Park,
   New Jersey, U.S.A.  might have a date field which looks like:

   15 Apr 1993 20:05:22.12 -0500

5.  LZJU90:  Compressed Encoding

   LZJU90 is an encoding for a binary or text object to be sent in an
   Internet mail message.  The encoding provides both compression and
   representation in a text format that will successfully survive
   transmission through the many different mailers and gateways that
   comprise the Internet and connected mail networks.

5.1  Overview

   The encoding first compresses the binary object, using a modified
   LZ77 algorithm, called LZJU90.  It then encodes each 6 bits of the
   output of the compression as a text character, using a character set
   chosen to survive any translations between codes, such as ASCII to
   EBCDIC.  The 64 six-bit strings 000000 through 111111 are represented
   by the characters "+", "-", "0" to "9", "A" to "Z", and "a" to "z".
   The output text begins with a line identifying the encoding.  This is
   for visual reference only, the "Encoding:" field in the header
   identifies the section to the user program.  It also names the object
   that was encoded, usually by a file name.

   The format of this line is:

                * LZJU90 <name>


   where <name> is optional.  For example:

                * LZJU90 vmunix

   This is followed by the compressed and encoded data, broken into
   lines where convenient.  It is recommended that lines be broken every
   78 characters to survive mailers than incorrectly restrict line
   length.  The decoder must accept lines with 1 to 1000 characters on
   each line.  After this, there is one final line that gives the number
   of bytes in the original data and a CRC of the original data.  This



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   should match the byte count and CRC found during decompression.

   This line has the format:

                * <count> <CRC>


   where <count> is a decimal number, and CRC is 8 hexadecimal digits.
   For example:

                * 4128076 5AC2D50E

   The count used in the Encoding:  field in the message header is the
   total number of lines, including the start and end lines that begin
   with *.  A complete example is given in section 5.3.2.

5.2  Specification of the LZJU90 compression

   The Lempel-Ziv-Storer-Szymanski model of mixing pointers and literal
   characters is used in the compression algorithm.  Repeat occurrences
   of strings of octets are replaced by pointers to the earlier
   occurrence.

   The data compression is defined by the decoding algorithm.  Any
   encoder that emits symbols which cause the decoder to produce the
   original input is defined to be valid.

   There are many possible strategies for the maximal-string matching
   that the encoder does, section 5.3.1 gives the code for one such
   algorithm.  Regardless of which algorithm is used, and what tradeoffs
   are made between compression ratio and execution speed or space, the
   result can always be decoded by the simple decoder.

   The compressed data consists of a mixture of unencoded literal
   characters and copy pointers which point to an earlier occurrence of
   the string to be encoded.

   Compressed data contains two types of codewords:

   LITERAL pass the literal directly to the uncompressed output.

   COPY    length, offset
           go back offset characters in the output and copy length
           characters forward to the current position.

   To distinguish between codewords, the copy length is used.  A copy
   length of zero indicates that the following codeword is a literal
   codeword.  A copy length greater than zero indicates that the



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   following codeword is a copy codeword.

   To improve copy length encoding, a threshold value of 2 has been
   subtracted from the original copy length for copy codewords, because
   the minimum copy length is 3 in this compression scheme.

   The maximum offset value is set at 32255.  Larger offsets offer
   extremely low improvements in compression (less than 1 percent,
   typically).

   No special encoding is done on the LITERAL characters.  However,
   unary encoding is used for the copy length and copy offset values to
   improve compression.  A start-step-stop unary code is used.

   A (start, step, stop) unary code of the integers is defined as
   follows:  The Nth codeword has N ones followed by a zero followed by
   a field of size START + (N * STEP).  If the field width is equal to
   STOP then the preceding zero can be omitted.  The integers are laid
   out sequentially through these codewords.  For example, (0, 1, 4)
   would look like:

             Codeword      Range

             0             0
             10x           1-2
             110xx         3-6
             1110xxx       7-14
             1111xxxx      15-30

   Following are the actual values used for copy length and copy offset:

   The copy length is encoded with a (0, 1, 7) code leading to a maximum
   copy length of 256 by including the THRESHOLD value of 2.

             Codeword       Range

             0              0
             10x            3-4
             110xx          5-8
             1110xxx        9-16
             11110xxxx      17-32
             111110xxxxx    33-64
             1111110xxxxxx  65-128
             1111111xxxxxxx 129-256

   The copy offset is encoded with a (9, 1, 14) code leading to a
   maximum copy offset of 32255.  Offset 0 is reserved as an end of
   compressed data flag.



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             Codeword       Range

             0xxxxxxxxx                0-511
             10xxxxxxxxxx            512-1535
             110xxxxxxxxxxx         1536-3583
             1110xxxxxxxxxxxx       3485-7679
             11110xxxxxxxxxxxxx     7680-15871
             11111xxxxxxxxxxxxxx   15872-32255

   The 0 has been chosen to signal the start of the field for ease of
   encoding.  (The bit generator can simply encode one more bit than is
   significant in the binary representation of the excess.)

   The stop values are useful in the encoding to prevent out of range
   values for the lengths and offsets, as well as shortening some codes
   by one bit.

   The worst case compression using this scheme is a 1/8 increase in
   size of the encoded data.  (One zero bit followed by 8 character
   bits).  After the character encoding, the worst case ratio is 3/2 to
   the original data.

   The minimum copy length of 3 has been chosen because the worst case
   copy length and offset is 3 bits (3) and 19 bits (32255) for a total
   of 22 bits to encode a 3 character string (24 bits).

5.3  The Decoder

   As mentioned previously, the compression is defined by the decoder.
   Any encoder that produced output that is correctly decoded is by
   definition correct.

   The following is an implementation of the decoder, written more for
   clarity and as much portability as possible, rather than for maximum
   speed.

   When optimized for a specific environment, it will run significantly
   faster.

    /* LZJU 90 Decoding program */

    /* Written By Robert Jung and Robert Ullmann, 1990 and 1991. */

    /* This code is NOT COPYRIGHT, not protected. It is in the true
       Public Domain. */

    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <string.h>



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    typedef unsigned char uchar;
    typedef unsigned int  uint;

    #define N          32255
    #define THRESHOLD      3

    #define STRTP          9
    #define STEPP          1
    #define STOPP         14
    #define STRTL          0
    #define STEPL          1
    #define STOPL          7

    static FILE *in;
    static FILE *out;

    static int   getbuf;
    static int   getlen;
    static long  in_count;
    static long  out_count;
    static long  crc;
    static long  crctable[256];
    static uchar xxcodes[] =
    "+-0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ\
    abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
    static uchar ddcodes[256];

    static uchar text[N];

    #define CRCPOLY         0xEDB88320
    #define CRC_MASK        0xFFFFFFFF
    #define UPDATE_CRC(crc, c)  \
            crc = crctable[((uchar)(crc) ^ (uchar)(c)) & 0xFF] \
                  ^ (crc >> 8)
    #define START_RECD      "* LZJU90"



    void MakeCrctable()     /* Initialize CRC-32 table */
    {
    uint i, j;
    long r;
        for (i = 0; i <= 255; i++) {
            r = i;
            for (j = 8; j > 0; j--) {
                if (r & 1)
                    r = (r >> 1) ^ CRCPOLY;
                else



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                    r >>= 1;
                }
            crctable[i] = r;
            }
    }



    int GetXX()             /* Get xxcode and translate */
    {
    int c;
        do {
            if ((c = fgetc(in)) == EOF)
                c = 0;
            } while (c == '\n');
        in_count++;
        return ddcodes[c];
    }



    int GetBit()            /* Get one bit from input buffer */
    {
    int c;
        while (getlen <= 0) {
            c = GetXX();
            getbuf |= c << (10-getlen);
            getlen += 6;
            }
        c = (getbuf & 0x8000) != 0;
        getbuf <<= 1;
        getbuf &= 0xFFFF;
        getlen--;
        return(c);
    }



    int GetBits(int len)        /* Get len bits */
    {
    int c;
        while (getlen <= 10) {
            c = GetXX();
            getbuf |= c << (10-getlen);
            getlen += 6;
            }
        if (getlen < len) {
            c = (uint)getbuf >> (16-len);



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            getbuf = GetXX();
            c |= getbuf >> (6+getlen-len);
            getbuf <<= (10+len-getlen);
            getbuf &= 0xFFFF;
            getlen -= len - 6;
            }
        else {
            c = (uint)getbuf >> (16-len);
            getbuf <<= len;
            getbuf &= 0xFFFF;
            getlen -= len;
            }
        return(c);
    }



    int DecodePosition()    /* Decode offset position pointer */
    {
    int c;
    int width;
    int plus;
    int pwr;
        plus = 0;
        pwr = 1 << STRTP;
        for (width = STRTP; width < STOPP; width += STEPP) {
            c = GetBit();
            if (c == 0)
                break;
            plus += pwr;
            pwr <<= 1;
            }
        if (width != 0)
            c = GetBits(width);
        c += plus;
        return(c);
    }



    int DecodeLength()      /* Decode code length */
    {
    int c;
    int width;
    int plus;
    int pwr;
        plus = 0;
        pwr = 1 << STRTL;



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        for (width = STRTL; width < STOPL; width += STEPL) {
            c = GetBit();
            if (c == 0)
                break;
            plus += pwr;
            pwr <<= 1;
            }
        if (width != 0)
            c = GetBits(width);
        c += plus;
    return(c);
    }


    void InitCodes()        /* Initialize decode table */
    {
    int i;
        for (i = 0; i < 256; i++) ddcodes[i] = 0;
        for (i = 0; i < 64; i++) ddcodes[xxcodes[i]] = i;
    return;
    }

    main(int ac, char **av)            /* main program */
    {
    int r;
    int j, k;
    int c;
    int pos;
    char buf[80];
    char name[3];
    long num, bytes;

        if (ac < 3) {
            fprintf(stderr, "usage: judecode in out\n");
            return(1);
            }

        in = fopen(av[1], "r");
        if (!in){
            fprintf(stderr, "Can't open %s\n", av[1]);
            return(1);
            }


        out = fopen(av[2], "wb");
        if (!out) {
            fprintf(stderr, "Can't open %s\n", av[2]);
            fclose(in);



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        return(1);
            }

        while (1) {
            if (fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), in) == NULL) {
                fprintf(stderr, "Unexpected EOF\n");
            return(1);
                }
            if (strncmp(buf, START_RECD, strlen(START_RECD)) == 0)
                break;
            }

        in_count = 0;
        out_count = 0;
        getbuf = 0;
        getlen = 0;

        InitCodes();
        MakeCrctable();

        crc = CRC_MASK;
        r = 0;

        while (feof(in) == 0) {
            c = DecodeLength();
            if (c == 0) {
                c = GetBits(8);
                UPDATE_CRC(crc, c);
                out_count++;
                text[r] = c;
                fputc(c, out);
                if (++r >= N)
                    r = 0;
                }

            else {
                pos = DecodePosition();
                if (pos == 0)
                    break;
                pos--;
                j = c + THRESHOLD - 1;
                pos = r - pos - 1;
                if (pos < 0)
                    pos += N;
                for (k = 0; k < j; k++) {
                    c = text[pos];
                    text[r] = c;
                    UPDATE_CRC(crc, c);



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                    out_count++;
                    fputc(c, out);
                    if (++r >= N)
                        r = 0;
                    if (++pos >= N)
                        pos = 0;
                    }
                }
            }

        fgetc(in); /* skip newline */

        if (fscanf(in, "* %ld %lX", &bytes, &num) != 2) {
            fprintf(stderr, "CRC record not found\n");
            return(1);
            }

        else if (crc != num) {
            fprintf(stderr,
                 "CRC error, expected %lX, found %lX\n",
                 crc, num);
            return(1);
            }

        else if (bytes != out_count) {
            fprintf(stderr,
                 "File size error, expected %lu, found %lu\n",
                 bytes, out_count);
        return(1);
            }

        else
            fprintf(stderr,
                 "File decoded to %lu bytes correctly\n",
                 out_count);

        fclose(in);
        fclose(out);
    return(0);
    }


5.3.1  An example of an Encoder

   Many algorithms are possible for the encoder, with different
   tradeoffs between speed, size, and complexity.  The following is a
   simple example program which is fairly efficient; more sophisticated
   implementations will run much faster, and in some cases produce



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   somewhat better compression.

   This example also shows that the encoder need not use the entire
   window available.  Not using the full window costs a small amount of
   compression, but can greatly increase the speed of some algorithms.

    /* LZJU 90 Encoding program */

    /* Written By Robert Jung and Robert Ullmann, 1990 and 1991. */

    /* This code is NOT COPYRIGHT, not protected. It is in the true
       Public Domain. */

    #include <stdio.h>

    typedef unsigned char uchar;
    typedef unsigned int  uint;

    #define N          24000    /* Size of window buffer */
    #define F            256   /* Size of look-ahead buffer */
    #define THRESHOLD      3
    #define K          16384    /* Size of hash table */

    #define STRTP          9
    #define STEPP          1
    #define STOPP         14

    #define STRTL          0
    #define STEPL          1
    #define STOPL          7

    #define CHARSLINE     78

    static FILE *in;
    static FILE *out;

    static int   putlen;
    static int   putbuf;
    static int   char_ct;
    static long  in_count;
    static long  out_count;
    static long  crc;
    static long  crctable[256];
    static uchar xxcodes[] =
    "+-0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ\
    abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
    uchar window_text[N + F + 1];




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    /* text contains window, plus 1st F of window again
       (for comparisons) */

    uint hash_table[K];
    /* table of pointers into the text */

    #define CRCPOLY         0xEDB88320
    #define CRC_MASK        0xFFFFFFFF
    #define UPDATE_CRC(crc, c)  \
      crc = crctable[((uchar)(crc) ^ (uchar)(c)) & 0xFF] \
      ^ (crc >> 8)


    void MakeCrctable()     /* Initialize CRC-32 table */
    {
    uint i, j;
    long r;
        for (i = 0; i <= 255; i++) {
            r = i;
            for (j = 8; j > 0; j--) {
                if (r & 1)
                    r = (r >> 1) ^ CRCPOLY;
                else
                    r >>= 1;
            }
            crctable[i] = r;
        }
    }



    void PutXX(int c)           /* Translate and put xxcode */
    {
        c = xxcodes[c & 0x3F];
        if (++char_ct > CHARSLINE) {
            char_ct = 1;
            fputc('\n', out);
        }
        fputc(c, out);
        out_count++;
    }


    void PutBits(int c, int len)  /* Put rightmost "len" bits of "c" */
    {
        c <<= 16 - len;
        c &= 0xFFFF;
        putbuf |= (uint) c >> putlen;



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        c <<= 16 - putlen;
        c &= 0xFFFF;
        putlen += len;
        while (putlen >= 6) {
            PutXX(putbuf >> 10);
            putlen -= 6;
            putbuf <<= 6;
            putbuf &= 0xFFFF;
            putbuf |= (uint) c >> 10;
            c = 0;
            }
    }


    void EncodePosition(int ch) /* Encode offset position pointer */
    {
    int width;
    int prefix;
    int pwr;
        pwr = 1 << STRTP;
        for (width = STRTP; ch >= pwr; width += STEPP, pwr <<= 1)
            ch -= pwr;
        if ((prefix = width - STRTP) != 0)
            PutBits(0xffff, prefix);
        if (width < STOPP)
            width++;
        /* else if (width > STOPP)
        abort(); do nothing */
        PutBits(ch, width);
    }


    void EncodeLength(int ch)   /* Encode code length */
    {
    int width;
    int prefix;
    int pwr;
        pwr = 1 << STRTL;
        for (width = STRTL; ch >= pwr; width += STEPL, pwr <<= 1)
            ch -= pwr;
        if ((prefix = width - STRTL) != 0)
            PutBits(0xffff, prefix);
        if (width < STOPL)
            width++;
        /* else if (width > STOPL)
        abort(); do nothing */
        PutBits(ch, width);
    }



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    main(int ac, char **av)            /* main program */
    {
    uint r, s, i, c;
    uchar *p, *rp;
    int match_position;
    int match_length;
    int len;
    uint hash, h;

        if (ac < 3) {
            fprintf(stderr, "usage: juencode in out\n");
        return(1);
            }

        in = fopen(av[1], "rb");
        if (!in) {
            fprintf(stderr, "Can't open %s\n", av[1]);
        return(1);
            }

        out = fopen(av[2], "w");
        if (!out) {
            fprintf(stderr, "Can't open %s\n", av[2]);
            fclose(in);
        return(1);
            }

        char_ct = 0;
        in_count = 0;
        out_count = 0;
        putbuf = 0;
        putlen = 0;
        hash = 0;

        MakeCrctable();
        crc = CRC_MASK;

        fprintf(out, "* LZJU90 %s\n", av[1]);

        /* The hash table inititialization is somewhat arbitrary */
        for (i = 0; i < K; i++) hash_table[i] = i % N;

        r = 0;
        s = 0;

        /* Fill lookahead buffer */

        for (len = 0; len < F && (c = fgetc(in)) != EOF; len++) {



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            UPDATE_CRC(crc, c);
        in_count++;
        window_text[s++] = c;
        }


        while (len > 0) {
        /* look for match in window at hash position */
        h = ((((window_text[r] << 5) ^ window_text[r+1])
                << 5) ^ window_text[r+2]);
        p = window_text + hash_table[h % K];
        rp = window_text + r;
        for (i = 0, match_length = 0; i < F; i++) {
                if (*p++ != *rp++) break;
                match_length++;
                }
        match_position = r - hash_table[h % K];
        if (match_position <= 0) match_position += N;

        if (match_position > N - F - 2) match_length = 0;
        if (match_position > in_count - len - 2)
            match_length = 0; /* ! :-) */

        if (match_length > len)
            match_length = len;
        if (match_length < THRESHOLD) {
            EncodeLength(0);
            PutBits(window_text[r], 8);
            match_length = 1;
            }
        else {
            EncodeLength(match_length - THRESHOLD + 1);
            EncodePosition(match_position);
            }

        for (i = 0; i < match_length &&
                        (c = fgetc(in)) != EOF; i++) {
                UPDATE_CRC(crc, c);
                in_count++;
            window_text[s] = c;
                if (s < F - 1)
                window_text
                [s + N] = c;
            if (++s > N - 1) s = 0;
            hash = ((hash << 5) ^ window_text[r]);
            if (r > 1) hash_table[hash % K] = r - 2;
            if (++r > N - 1) r = 0;
            }



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        while (i++ < match_length) {
            if (++s > N - 1) s = 0;
            hash = ((hash << 5) ^ window_text[r]);
            if (r > 1) hash_table[hash % K] = r - 2;
            if (++r > N - 1 ) r = 0;
            len--;
                }
        }


        /* end compression indicator */
        EncodeLength(1);
        EncodePosition(0);
        PutBits(0, 7);

        fprintf(out, "\n* %lu %08lX\n", in_count, crc);
        fprintf(stderr, "Encoded %lu bytes to %lu symbols\n",
                in_count, out_count);

        fclose(in);
        fclose(out);

    return(0);
    }


5.3.2  Example LZJU90 Compressed Object

   The following is an example of an LZJU90 compressed object.  Using
   this as source for the program in section 5.3 will reveal what it is.

      Encoding: 7 LZJU90 Text

      * LZJU90 example
      8-mBtWA7WBVZ3dEBtnCNdU2WkE4owW+l4kkaApW+o4Ir0k33Ao4IE4kk
      bYtk1XY618NnCQl+OHQ61d+J8FZBVVCVdClZ2-LUI0v+I4EraItasHbG
      VVg7c8tdk2lCBtr3U86FZANVCdnAcUCNcAcbCMUCdicx0+u4wEETHcRM
      7tZ2-6Btr268-Eh3cUAlmBth2-IUo3As42laIE2Ao4Yq4G-cHHT-wCEU
      6tjBtnAci-I++
      * 190 081E2601











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6.  Alphabetical Listing of Defined Encodings


        Keyword         Description             Section  Reference(s)
        _______         ___________             _______  ____________

        EDIFACT         EDIFACT format          3.5
        EDI-X12         EDI X12 format          3.5      ANSI X12
        EVFU            FORTRAN format          3.4
        FS              File System format      3.6, 4
        Hex             Hex binary format       3.3
        LZJU90          LZJU90 format           3.7, 5
        LZW             LZW format              3.8
        Message         Encapsulated Message    3.2      STD 11, RFC 822
        PEM, PEM-Clear  Privacy Enhanced Mail   3.10     RFC 1421-1424
        PGP             Pretty Good Privacy     3.11
        Postscript      Postscript format       3.14     [8]
        Shar            Shell Archive format    3.15
        Signature       Signature               3.12
        Tar             Tar format              3.13
        Text            Text                    3.1      IS 10646
        uuencode        uuencode format         3.9
        URL             external URL-reference  3.16

7.  Security Considerations

   Security of content and the receiving (decoding) system is discussed
   in sections 3.10, 3.11, 3.15, and 4.2.10.  The considerations
   mentioned also apply to other encodings and attributes with similar
   functions.

8.  References

   [1] Robinson, D. and R. Ullmann, "Encoding Header Field for Internet
       Messages", RFC 1154, Prime Computer, Inc., April 1990.

   [2] Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text
       Messages", STD 11, RFC 822, University of Delaware, August 1982.

   [3] International Organization for Standardization, Information
       Technology -- Universal Coded Character Set (UCS).  ISO/IEC
       10646-1:1993, June 1993.

   [4] Linn, J., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part
       I: Message Encryption and Authentication Procedures" RFC 1421,
       IAB IRTF PSRG, IETF PEM WG, February 1993.





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   [5] Kent, S., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail: Part
       II: Certificate-Based Key Management", RFC 1422, IAB IRTF PSRG,
       IETF PEM, BBN, February 1993.

   [6] Balenson, D., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail:
       Part III: Algorithms, Modes, and Identifiers", RFC 1423, IAB IRTF
       PSRG, IETF PEM WG, TIS, February 1993.

   [7] Kaliski, B., "Privacy Enhancement for Internet Electronic Mail:
       Part IV: Key Certification and Related Services", RFC 1424, RSR
       Laboratories, February 1993.

   [8] Adobe Systems Inc., PostScript Language Reference Manual.  2nd
       Edition, 2nd Printing, January 1991.

   [9] Rose, M. and E. Steffererud, "Proposed Standard for Message
       Encapsulation", RFC 934, Delaware and NMA, January 1985.

  [10] Postel, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", STD 10, RFC 821,
       USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1982.

  [11] Borenstein, N., and N. Freed, "MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail
       Extensions): Mechanisms for Specifying and Describing the Format
       of Internet Message Bodies", RFC 1341, Bellcore, Innosoft, June
       1992.

  [12] Borenstein, N., and M. Linimon, "Extension of MIME Content-Types
       to a New Medium", RFC 1437, 1 April 1993.

9.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Robert Jung for his contributions to
   this work, in particular the public domain sample code for LZJU90.


















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10.  Authors' Addresses

   Albert K. Costanzo
   AKC Consulting Inc.
   P.O. Box 4031
   Roselle Park, NJ  07204-0531

   Phone: +1 908 298 9000
   Email: AL@AKC.COM


   David Robinson
   Computervision Corporation
   100 Crosby Drive
   Bedford, MA  01730

   Phone: +1 617 275 1800 x2774
   Email: DRB@Relay.CV.COM


   Robert Ullmann

   Phone: +1 617 247 7959
   Email: ariel@world.std.com



























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