File: rfc1578.txt

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Network Working Group                                         J. Sellers
Request for Comments: 1578                   NASA NREN/Sterling Software
FYI: 22                                                    February 1994
Category: Informational


                      FYI on Questions and Answers
Answers to Commonly Asked "Primary and Secondary School Internet User"
                               Questions

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  This memo
   does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of
   this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   The goal of this FYI RFC, produced by the Internet School Networking
   (ISN) group in the User Services Area of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), is to document the questions most commonly asked
   about the Internet by those in the primary and secondary school
   community, and to provide pointers to sources which answer those
   questions.  It is directed at educators, school media specialists,
   and school administrators who are recently connected to the Internet,
   who are accessing the Internet via dial-up or another means which is
   not a direct connection, or who are considering an Internet
   connection as a resource for their schools.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction................................................... 2
   2.  Acknowledgments................................................ 2
   3.  Questions About the Internet in an Educational Setting......... 3
   4.  Questions About School Support for an Internet Connection...... 5
   5.  Questions About Implementation and Technical Options.......... 10
   6.  Questions About Security and Ethics............................12
   7.  Questions About Educational Collaboration, Projects, and
       Resources..................................................... 15
   8.  Suggested Reading............................................. 18
   9.  Resources and Contacts........................................ 21
   10. References.................................................... 35
   11. Security Considerations....................................... 35
   12. Author's Address.............................................. 35
       Appendix A:  Examples of Projects Using the Internet.......... 36
       Appendix B:  How To Get Documents Electronically.............. 43
       Appendix C:  Glossary of Terms Used in This Document.......... 47




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RFC 1578                 FYI Q/A - for Schools             February 1994


1.  Introduction

   The elementary and secondary school community of teachers, media
   specialists, administrators, and students is a growing population on
   the Internet.  In general, this group of users approaches the
   Internet with less experience in data network technology and fewer
   technical and user support resources than other Internet user groups.
   Many of their questions are related to the special needs of the
   community, while others are shared by any new user.  This document
   attempts first to define the most frequently asked questions related
   to the use of the Internet in pre-university education and then to
   provide not only answers but also pointers to further information.
   For new user questions of a more general nature, the reader should
   get FYI 4, "FYI on Questions and Answers:  Answers to Commonly Asked
   'New Internet User' Questions" [1].  For information on how to get
   this document, see Appendix B.

   It is important to remember that the Internet is a volatile and
   changing virtual environment.  I have tried to include only the most
   stable of network services when listing resources and groups for you
   to contact, which is a good solution to the problem of changing
   offerings on the Internet, but by no means a fool-proof one.  This
   constant change also means that there is a lot out there that you
   will discover as you begin to explore on your own.

   Future updates of this document will be produced as Internet School
   Networking working group members are made aware of new questions and
   of insufficient or inaccurate information in the document.  The RFC
   number of this document will change with each update, but the FYI
   number (22) will remain the same.

2.  Acknowledgments

   The author wishes to thank for their help and contributions to this
   document the members of the Consortium for School Networking,
   Kidsphere, and Ednet electronic mailing lists, Ronald Elliott,
   Science and Technology Center; Klaus Fueller, Institute for Teacher
   Training of the German federal state of Hesia (HILF), and educator;
   Ellen Hoffman, Merit Network, Inc.; William Manning, Rice University;
   and Anthony Rutkowski, CNRI.  Special thanks go to Raymond Harder,
   Microcomputer Consultant, and Michael Newell, NASA Advanced Network
   Applications, who not only made contributions but also kept a steady
   stream of feedback flowing.  Extra special thanks go to the
   remarkable Ms. April Marine of the NASA Network Applications and
   Information Center for her contributions to the document, her expert
   advice, and her unparalleled support.





Sellers                                                         [Page 2]

RFC 1578                 FYI Q/A - for Schools             February 1994


3.  Questions About the Internet in an Educational Setting

   3.1  What is the Internet?

      The Internet is a collection of more than 10,000 interconnected
      computer networks around the world that make it possible to share
      information almost instantly.  The networks are owned by countless
      commercial, research, governmental, and educational organizations
      and individuals.  The Internet allows the more than 1.5 million
      computers and 10 millions users of the system to collaborate
      easily and quickly through messaging, discussion groups, and
      conferencing.  Users are able to discover and access people and
      information, distribute information, and experiment with new
      technologies and services.  The Internet has become a major global
      infrastructure for education, research, professional learning,
      public service, and business and is currently growing at the rate
      of about ten percent per month.

      The Internet Society serves as the international organization for
      Internet cooperation and coordination.  See Section 9, "Resources
      and Contacts".

      For a more complete basic introduction to the Internet, see FYI
      20, "What is the Internet?" [2].  Instructions on retrieving FYI
      documents can be found in Appendix B.

   3.2  What are the benefits of using the Internet in the classroom?

      The Internet expands classroom resources dramatically by making
      many resources from all over the world available to students,
      teachers, and media specialists, including original source
      materials.  It brings information, data, images, and even computer
      software into the classroom from places otherwise impossible to
      reach, and it does this almost instantly.  Access to these
      resources can yield individual and group projects, collaboration,
      curriculum materials, and idea sharing not found in schools
      without Internet access.

      Internet access also makes contact with people all over the world
      possible, bringing into the classroom experts in every content
      area, new and old friends, and colleagues in education.  With
      access to the Internet, your site can become a valuable source of
      information as well.  Consider the expertise in your school which
      could be shared with others around the world.

      The isolation inherent in the teaching profession is well-known
      among educators.  By having access to colleagues in other parts of
      the world, as well as to those who work outside of classrooms,



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RFC 1578                 FYI Q/A - for Schools             February 1994


      educators able to reach the Internet are not as isolated.

      A hands-on classroom tool, the use of networks can be a motivator
      for students in and of itself, and their use encourages the kind
      of independence and autonomy that many educators agree is
      important for students to achieve in their learning process.
      Because class, race, ability, and disability are removed as
      factors in communication while using the Internet, it is a natural
      tool for addressing  the needs of all students; exactly how this
      is done will vary from district to district as schools empower
      individual teachers and students.

      School reform, which is much on the minds of many educators today,
      can be supported by the use of the Internet as one of many
      educational tools.  See the answer to Question 4.1 for more
      specifics.

   3.3  How can educators incorporate this resource into their busy
        schedules?

      Most educators learn about the Internet during the time they use
      to learn about any new teaching tool or resource.  Realistically,
      of course, this means they "steal" time at lunch, on week-ends,
      and before and after school to explore resources and pursue
      relationships via the Internet.  Those who do so feel that it is
      well worth the rich rewards.  It's important that computers used
      to access the Internet are readily available and not so far away
      physically as to make using the resource impossible for educators
      and others.

      Many features of the Internet, such as the availability of online
      library catalogs and information articles, will actually end up
      saving considerable time once an instructor learns to use them,
      and there are new tools being developed all the time to make
      Internet resources more easily accessible.

      As the value of the Internet as an educational resource becomes
      more evident, school systems will need to look toward building the
      time to use it into educators' schedules.












Sellers                                                         [Page 4]

RFC 1578                 FYI Q/A - for Schools             February 1994


   3.4  I'm already using the National Geographic Kids Network (or PBS
        Learning Link or FrEdMail or ______).  Does this have anything
        to do with the Internet?  Is the Internet different from what
        I'm already using?

      Since the Internet is a network of many different networks, you
      may be using one of the networks which is connected to the
      Internet.  Some commercial programs for schools use networks and
      provide value-added service, such as curriculum software,
      technical support, project organization and coordination, etc.
      Some provide value-added service, but don't allow for all basic
      Internet services.  Networks like FrEdMail (Free Educational
      Electronic Mail), FidoNet, and K12Net are bulletin board and
      conferencing systems linked via the Internet which provide
      inexpensive access to some Internet services.  If you can use
      interactive computer access (Telnet) and electronic file transfer
      (FTP), as well as electronic mail, you are probably "on" the
      Internet.  If you have questions about the specific service you're
      currently using, ask its support personnel if you have Internet
      access, or call the InterNIC.  See Section 9, "Resources and
      Contacts" for how to reach the InterNIC, FrEdMail, FidoNet, and
      K12Net.

4.  Questions About School Support for an Internet Connection

   4.1  Where does my school get the money for connecting to the
        Internet?

      Although school budgets are impossibly tight in most cases, the
      cost of an Internet connection can be squeezed from the budget
      when its value becomes apparent.  Costs for a low end connection
      can be quite reasonable.  (See the next question.)

      The challenge facing those advocating an Internet connection
      sometimes has less to do with the actual cost than it has with the
      difficulty of convincing administrators to spend money on an
      unfamiliar resource.

      In order to move the Internet connection closer to the top of your
      school's priority list, consider at least two possibilities.
      First, your school may be in the process of reform, as are many
      schools.  Because use of the Internet shifts focus away from a
      teacher-as-expert model and toward one of shared responsibility
      for learning, it can be a vital part of school reform.  Much of
      school reform attempts to move away from teacher isolation and
      toward teacher collaboration, away from learning in a school-only
      context and toward learning in a life context, away from an
      emphasis on knowing and toward an emphasis on learning, away from



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RFC 1578                 FYI Q/A - for Schools             February 1994


      a focus on content and toward a focus on concepts [3].  The
      Internet can play an integral part in helping to achieve these
      shifts.

      Second, to demonstrate the value of a connection, actual Internet
      access is more useful than words.  While this may sound like a
      chicken-and-egg situation (I have to have Internet access to get
      Internet access), some organizations will provide guest accounts
      on an Internet-connected computer for people in schools who are
      trying to convince others of the value of an Internet connection.

      Contact local colleges, universities, technology companies,
      service providers, community networks, and government agencies for
      both guest accounts and funding ideas.  For alternatives to your
      own school's budget or for supplements to it, look for funding in
      federal, state, and district budgets as well as from private
      grants.  Work with equipment vendors to provide the hardware
      needed at low or no cost to your school, and consider forming a
      School/Community Technology Committee, or a joint School
      District/School/Community Technology Committee.

      The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) has
      information on grants and funding.  Ask for the AskERIC InfoGuide
      called "Grants and Funding Sources".  Two network services, one
      maintained by the United States Department of Education's Office
      of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) and one maintained
      by the US National Science Foundation, also have information about
      grants and funding.  Grants can be a way for you to acquire the
      initial money to demonstrate the value of telecommunications in
      the classroom, and since these monies are often awarded on a
      short-term basis, should probably be looked at as temporary means
      of funding your activities.  For information on these
      organizations and their services, see Section 9, "Resources and
      Contacts".  (Note: The funding services mentioned are primarily US
      based.)

   4.2  How much does it cost to connect to the Internet, and what
        kind of equipment (hardware, software, etc.) does my school need
        in order to support an Internet connection?

      The cost of an Internet connection varies tremendously with the
      location of your site and the kind of connection that is
      appropriate to your needs.  In order to determine the cost to your
      school, you will need to answer a number of questions. For help in
      learning what the questions are and getting answers to them, begin
      asking at local colleges, universities, technology companies,
      government agencies, community networks (often called "freenets"),
      local electronic bulletin board systems (BBS), network access



Sellers                                                         [Page 6]

RFC 1578                 FYI Q/A - for Schools             February 1994


      providers, or technology consultants.

      To give you an idea of possible equipment needs, here are three
      sample scenarios, based on possible solutions found in the United
      States.  Keep in mind that these are very general examples and
      that there are many solutions at each level.  See also the answer
      to Question 5.5.

        Low-end: You could subscribe to some kind of Internet dial-up
        service.  This may be provided by a vendor at a cost, by a local
        university gratis, or as a part of a public access service like
        a community network.  You will need a computer which allows
        terminal emulation, terminal emulation software, and a modem
        which is compatible with your dial-up service.  The approximate
        cost, not including the PC or the cost of the phone call, is US
        $100 to US $800 plus a monthly fee of approximately US $30.

        Mid-range: You could subscribe to a dial-up service that
        provides Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) or Point to Point
        Protocol (PPP), allowing your computer to effectively become a
        host on the Internet.  You will need a computer with SLIP or PPP
        software, telecommunications applications software (to allow you
        to use telnet and FTP - File Transfer Protocol), and a modem
        which is compatible with your dial-up service.  The approximate
        cost, not including the PC or the cost of the phone call, is US
        $100 to US $800 plus a monthly fee of approximately US $60.

        High-end: Your school or department could subscribe to a service
        that provides a full Internet connection to the school or
        department's local area network.  This allows all the computers
        on the local area network access to the Internet.  You will need
        a router and a connection to a network access provider's router.
        Typically the connection is a leased line with a CSU/DSU
        (Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit).  A leased line is a
        permanent high speed telephone connection between two points;
        this allows you to have a high quality permanent Internet
        connection at all times.  A local area network, which may
        consist only of the router and a PC, Macintosh, or other
        computer system, is also needed, and your computer(s) will need
        some special software:  a TCP/IP (Transmission Control
        Protocol/Internet Protocol) stack, as well as TCP/IP based
        communications software such as Telnet and FTP.  The approximate
        cost, not including the computers, is US $2,000 to US $3,000
        plus a monthly fee of at least US $200.







Sellers                                                         [Page 7]

RFC 1578                 FYI Q/A - for Schools             February 1994


   4.3  What is required in terms of personnel to support an Internet
        connection?  (Will it require extra staff, training, more time
        of teachers and librarians?)

      Any plan for implementing technology in schools must consider
      staff development.  Training is often the most neglected aspect of
      a technology plan, and a lack of training can lead to failure of
      the plan.  In the case of the Internet, all users will need some
      kind of training, whether they are teachers, librarians, students,
      administrators, or people fulfilling other roles in the school.

      The train-the-trainer model, in which a group of people are
      trained in a subject or tool and each individual in turn trains
      other groups, is a good model for Internet training.  A small
      group of motivated teachers can be provided with training and can
      then educate their colleagues.  One advantage is that the initial
      group is able to target the specific needs of the other teachers
      in the school.

      Depending on the hardware involved, there may be a need for
      technical support.  Finding this kind of support, which schools
      will certainly need because it is not usually in place, may be
      tricky.  Some districts are beginning to provide it at the
      district level.  Some schools are able to use volunteers from
      business, industry, or government agencies.  Much of this type of
      support can be done over the network itself, which makes it
      possible for someone located off-site to maintain the equipment
      with only occasional trips to the school.  Additionally, vendors
      often provide some support, perhaps a help desk for basic
      questions.

   4.4  How do I convince the people who do the purchasing in our school
        system to spend money on this?

      Most people become convinced with exposure.  One excited
      individual in the school who is able to show proof of concept by
      starting a pilot program can be the catalyst for a school or an
      entire district.  If you can get an Internet account (as suggested
      above) and use it for instruction in your classroom, you can make
      presentations at faculty, school/community, and school board
      meetings.

      The National Center for Education Statistics in the Office of
      Educational Research and Improvement at the United States
      Department of Education has released a 17-minute video targeted at
      school administrators entitled "Experience the Power: Network
      Technology for Education".  It uses interview clips of students,
      teachers, and policy makers in the United States to educate about



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RFC 1578                 FYI Q/A - for Schools             February 1994


      what the Internet is and to encourage support for the use of
      telecommunications in primary and secondary schools.  The NASA
      NREN (US National Aeronautics and Space Administration National
      Research and Education Network) K-12 Initiative has produced an
      11-minute video describing the benefits to schools in using the
      Internet.  The video is entitled, "Global Quest: The Internet in
      the Classroom", and it tells the story through interview clips
      with students and teachers who have experienced the power of
      computer networking.  For further information on the two videos,
      see "National Center for Education Statistics", and "NASA Central
      Operation of Resources for Educators" under "Organizations" in
      Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".

   4.5  Where do I go for technical support and training?

      Much technical support and training can be found by using the
      Internet itself.  You can send questions to people in the know and
      join discussion lists and news groups that discuss and answer
      questions about support and training.  One such list is Tipsheet,
      the Computer Help and Tip Exchange, the purpose of which is to
      provide a supportive setting where people can ask questions or
      discuss products.  Other lists are the education-related lists
      mentioned in Question 7.2.  All of these are listed in Section 9,
      "Resources and Contacts".

      Network News, or Usenet News, is a world-wide bulletin board
      system with discussion groups on various topics, including
      computer science, general science, social and cultural themes,
      recreational interests, etc.  By sending questions to an
      appropriate news group you can receive answers from people
      experienced with your particular problem.  Specific news groups to
      look for are those beginning with "comp", for "computer", and
      followed by the type of operating system, hardware, or software
      you have a question about.  For example, comp.os.unix or
      comp.os.msdos.apps.  To understand the culture and etiquette of
      Usenet News, read the group news.announce.newusers.

      Your local community may also have resources that you can tap.
      These are again colleges and universities, businesses, computer
      clubs and user groups, technology consultants, and government
      agencies.

      Your network access provider may offer training and support for
      technical issues, and other groups also offer formal classes and
      seminars.  For those schools who have designated technical people,
      they are good candidates for classes and seminars.

      There are some documents for further reading and exploration that



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      you may want to peruse.  See Section 8, "Suggested Reading".
      There are books on almost every specific subject in the computing
      world that may answer your questions.  For new books, check your
      local library, bookstore, or booksellers' catalogs.

5.   Questions About Implementation and Technical Options

   5.1  How do I learn about options for getting my school connected?

      In the United States, there are a number of state-wide educational
      networks, most of them with access to the Internet.  To find out
      if there is a state education network in your area which gives
      accounts to educators and/or students, contact the Consortium for
      School Networking.  The InterNIC has a list of regional and
      national network providers.  Both the Consortium for School
      Networking and the InterNIC are listed in Section 9, "Resources
      and Contacts".

      The global regional NICs such as the RIPE NCC in Europe can also
      provide a list of service providers.  The APNIC in the Pacific Rim
      will have a similar list in the near future.

      You can sometimes locate a person enthusiastic about the idea of
      using networks in schools and willing to help you who works as an
      independent consultant, in a local college or university, in a
      technology company, for a network access provider, at a community
      network, or in a government agency.

      There are a number of books about the Internet and how to get
      connected to it.  A few are listed in Section 8, "Suggested
      Reading", and more are being published every month.  Check
      libraries, bookstores, and booksellers' catalogs.

   5.2  How many of our computers should we put on the Internet?

      You will probably want to make Internet *access* possible for as
      many of your school's computers as possible.  If you are using a
      dial-up service, you may want a number of shared accounts
      throughout the school.  If your school has a Local Area Network
      (LAN) with several computers on it, one dedicated Internet
      connection should be able to serve the whole school.

      If you are going to connect a lot of computers to the network, you
      will need to make sure your line speed is adequate.  Most dial-up
      systems available today support speeds up to 14.4 Kbs (kilobits
      per second), which is adequate for no more than a couple of
      network users, depending upon the network utilities (FTP, etc.)
      they are using.  If you are planning to connect a large number of



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      users, you should probably consider a dedicated line of 56 Kbs or
      higher.

   5.3  Should we set up a telecommunications lab or put networked
        computers in each classroom?

      A computer lab is an easier maintenance set-up for the person in
      charge of keeping the equipment running and allows each individual
      (or pair) in an entire class to be using a computer at the same
      time; a computer located in the classroom is more convenient for
      both the teacher and the class.  If you choose the lab option, you
      will probably want to get a commitment from specific teachers or
      media specialists to use the lab in the course of their teaching.
      You might also consider the other labs located throughout your
      school.  For example, if you have a science or language lab, it
      may be the best place for your school to begin to use the
      Internet.  And finally, remember that the library is a natural
      place for people to access network resources!

      Networking all computers campus-wide can be expensive.  You will
      need to consider the options--dial-up access, a dedicated line, or
      some other possibility--and weigh them against your school's needs
      and priorities.  You may want to investigate having one lab, the
      library, and a few classrooms with modem access, assuming phone
      lines are available.  As use of the Internet catches on, it will
      be more effective to create a campus-wide local area network that
      is routed to the Internet through a dedicated line than to keep
      adding modems in classrooms.  Or you may want to consider the
      other options discussed in question 5.5 below.

   5.4  Can people get on the Internet from home?

      This depends on your network access provider.  It is certainly a
      possibility and is probably desirable for the educators at your
      school if they happen to have the necessary equipment at home.
      You will need to discuss whether you want to make this option
      available to students even if it is possible technically.  This is
      best discussed with the community your school serves in a public
      forum such as a school/community meeting.  At issue is the shared
      responsibility of educators and parents to monitor student
      Internet use.  (See also Question 6.2.)

   5.5  What are some of the options for using Internet services without
        paying for a full, dedicated-line Internet connection?

      It is possible to create a local, store-and-forward network using
      various implementations of the Unix to Unix Copy (UUCP) software
      suite, available as public domain (free) or shareware (small fee



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      which is often optional) software, which can run on many different
      platforms including Amiga, IBM, and Macintosh.  The connections
      are via dial-up phone lines using local phone numbers.  Usenet
      News and email are "stored" on a computer until the time appointed
      for that computer to contact the next one along the path to the
      final destination, at which time it is "forwarded" along its way.
      Most computers are set up to process outgoing requests at least
      every 30 minutes.  With this type of system you will have access
      to as many Usenet News groups as your site agrees to carry, as
      well as email, which includes access to mailing lists and
      listservs such as those listed in Section 9, "Resources and
      Contacts".  Many file servers also offer file transfer and other
      services via email.

      There are a couple of important advantages to such a system.
      First, it is much more affordable since such networks provide more
      efficient use of telephone lines, making a connection only while
      data is actually being transferred.  Second, it allows for
      filtering, which gives a school some control over what kind of
      information is available to its students.

      The disadvantage to this type of Internet access is that you may
      be limited regarding the range of Internet applications you can
      use.

      FrEdMail, FidoNet, and K12Net are store-and-forward systems.
      FidoNet, for example, is a network of amateurs and hobbyists which
      operates on personal computers and is publicly accessible by
      anyone with a microcomputer and a modem.  Contact information for
      all three organizations can be found in Section 9, "Resources and
      Contacts".

6.  Questions About Security and Ethics

   6.1  Who should have access in the school, the teachers or the
        students?

      Clearly the answer is that all educators, including administrators
      and media specialists or librarians, AND students should have
      access to the Internet.  There's no reason why support staff
      should not also have access.  In elementary schools, access for
      students may be more supervised than in the upper grades.









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   6.2  I've heard that there are files on the Internet that parents
        would not like their children to get.  How can students be
        kept from accessing this objectionable material?

      If your school has a direct Internet connection, and often even if
      it doesn't, it is not possible to use a technical solution to
      prevent students from accessing objectionable material.  Everyone
      on the network, including students, is able to download files from
      public electronic repositories, some of which contain materials
      that just about anyone would consider objectionable for school-age
      children.  The store-and-forward scenario described in Question
      5.5 is one solution to filtering the information to which students
      have access, but if students are allowed to use email then it is
      possible for someone to send them objectionable material.

      For this reason, it is important that schools develop clear
      policies to guide students' use of the Internet and establish
      rules, and consequences for breaking them, that govern behavior on
      the Internet.  Additionally, schools should consider integrating
      issues around technology and ethics into the curriculum [4].

      Another possibility is to control the times and opportunities that
      students have to access the Internet, and only allow access under
      supervision.  This is a less desirable option than teaching the
      ethics of Internet access as a matter of course, but may be used
      in combination with other methods to ensure the integrity of the
      school, its students, and its educators.

      In any case, schools need to exercise reasonable oversight while
      realizing that it is almost impossible to absolutely guarantee
      that students will not be able to access objectionable material.

   6.3  How do we keep our own and other people's computers safe from
        student "hackers"?

      In the language of computer folks, a "hacker" is someone who is
      excellent at understanding and manipulating computer systems. A
      "cracker" is someone who maliciously and/or illegally enters or
      attempts to enter someone else's computer system.

      Computer security is unquestionably important, both in maintaining
      the security of the school's computers and in ensuring the proper
      behavior of the school's students (and others who use the
      network).  In this area, not only school policy, but also state
      and national laws may apply.  Two sources of information which you
      can read to help you sort through security issues are:





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        "Site Security Handbook" (FYI 8)

        "Ethical Uses of Information Technologies in Education"
        (Sivin & Bialo)

      The full references for these documents can be found in Section 8,
      "Suggested Reading".  The pamphlet "Ethical Uses of Information
      Technologies in Education" is more applicable to the laws of the
      United States than to those of other countries, but several of the
      ideas are shared in various cultures.

   6.4  How do we keep viruses from attacking all our computers if we
        get connected to the Internet?

      If you use the Internet to exchange data (such as text or
      pictures), virus infection is generally not a problem.  The real
      concern is when you download software programs and run them on
      your own computer.  Any program you download over the network and
      run could have a virus.  For that matter, any program, whether on
      tape or a disk, even commercial software still in its original
      packaging, might possibly have a virus.  For this reason, all
      computers should have virus protection software running on them.

      Virus checking software is available free over the Internet via
      Anonymous FTP from the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT),
      which is run by the US National Institute for Standards and
      Technology (NIST).  The Anonymous FTP host computer is
      ftp.cert.org.  (For information on using Anonymous FTP, see
      Appendix B.)  Your hardware or software vendor, your network
      access provider, your technical support resources, or your
      colleagues on network mailing lists should be able to provide more
      specific information applicable to your site.

      To help reduce the risk of downloading a virus with your program,
      try to use trusted sources.  Ask someone you know or send the
      question to a mailing list or news group to find the most reliable
      sites for software access.

   6.5  What are the rules for using the Internet?

      When your Internet connection is established, your access provider
      should acquaint you with their Acceptable Use Policy (AUP).  This
      policy explains the acceptable and non-acceptable uses for your
      connection.  For example, it is in all cases unacceptable to use
      the network for illegal purposes.  It may, in some cases, be
      unacceptable to use the network for commercial purposes.  If such
      a policy is not mentioned, ask for it.  All users are expected to
      know what the acceptable and unacceptable uses of their network



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      are.  Remember that it is essential to establish a school-wide
      policy in addition to the provider's AUP.

7.   Questions About Educational Collaboration, Projects, and Resources

   7.1  How can I find specific projects using the Internet that are
        already developed?

      There are a several resources on the Internet that are directed
      specifically at the primary and secondary school communities, and
      the number is growing.  The InterNIC gopher server has a section
      on K-12 (Kindergarten through 12th grade) Education, the
      Consortium for School Networking maintains a gopher server, and
      NASA's Spacelink is directed at primary and secondary school
      educators.  NYSERNet's Empire Internet Schoolhouse is an extension
      of its Bridging the Gap program.  For access to these and others,
      see Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".

      Many people on electronic mailing lists such as Ednet, Kidsphere,
      and the Consortium for School Networking Discussion List
      (cosndisc) post their projects and ask for partners and
      collaborators.  The K12 hierarchy of Usenet News has several
      groups where educators post these invitations as well.  For
      subscription to these and other electronic lists and for names of
      news groups, see Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".  For news
      groups and mailing lists of special interest to educators, see the
      "Ednet Guide to Usenet Newsgroups" and "An Educator's Guide to E-
      Mail Lists", both of which are listed in Section 8, "Suggested
      Reading".

      As you explore the Internet, there are some tools that will help
      you find projects that are already developed.  A good overview of
      many of these resource discovery tools is the "Guide to Network
      Resource Tools" written by the European Academic Research Networks
      (EARN) Association.  It explains the basics of tools such as
      Gopher, Veronica, WAIS, Archie, and the World Wide Web, as well as
      others, and provides pointers for finding out more about these
      useful tools.  It is listed in Section 8, "Suggested Reading".

   7.2  Where do I go to find colleagues who support networking and
        schools willing to participate in projects?

      The electronic mailing lists and Usenet News groups in Section 9,
      "Resources and Contacts" are rich with people who want to
      collaborate on projects involving use of the Internet.

      There are also a number of conferences you may want to look in to.
      The National Education Computing Conference (NECC) is held



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      annually, as is Tel-Ed, a conference sponsored by the
      International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE).  ISTE
      maintains an online server which has a calendar of conferences all
      over the world in telecommunications for education.  The INET
      conference is the annual conference for the Internet Society.  See
      Section 9, "Resources and Contacts", for contact information for
      these organizations and for information on access to ISTE's online
      server.

   7.3  What are some examples of how the Internet is being used in
        classrooms now?

      Projects which use the Internet sometimes request sites from all
      over the world to contribute data from the local area then compile
      that data for use by all.  Weather patterns, pollutants in water
      or air, and Monarch butterfly migration are some of the data that
      has been collected over the Internet.  In Appendix A you will find
      several examples from the Kidsphere electronic mailing list, each
      from a different content area and representing different ways of
      using the Internet.

      There are a number of specific projects you may find interesting.
      KIDS-94 (and subsequent years), managed by the non-profit KIDLINK
      Society, is one.  It currently includes ten discussion lists and
      services, some of them only for people who are ten through fifteen
      years old.  Another place to look is Academy One of the National
      Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN), which usually has between 5
      and 10 projects running at a time.  The International Education
      and Research Network (I*EARN), a project of the non-profit Copen
      Family Fund, facilitates telecommunications in schools around the
      world.  Chatback Trust, initiated to provide email for schools in
      the United Kingdom and around the world with students who have
      mental or physical difficulty with communicating, and Chatback
      International, directed at any school on the Internet, maintain a
      network server that you may want to investigate.  The European
      Schools Project involves approximately 200 schools in 20 countries
      and has as its goal building a support system for secondary school
      educators.  For contact information on these groups and server
      access, refer to Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".

   7.4  Is there a manual that lists sites on the Internet particularly
        useful for class exploration?

      There are a number of resource guides, and so far only a couple
      are directed specifically at an education audience.  "An
      Incomplete Guide to the Internet and Other Telecommunications
      Opportunities Especially for Teachers and Students K-12" is
      compiled by the NCSA Education Group and is available online.  The



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      "Internet Resource Directory for Educators, Version 2" is also
      available online.  It was prepared by a team of 46 teachers in
      Nebraska and Texas who were enrolled in telecomputing courses at
      two universities in 1992 and 1993.  Ednet's "Educator's Guide to
      Email Lists" is available electronically, as is the "Ednet Guide
      to Usenet News Groups".  ERIC offers several documents relating to
      telecommunications and education, including the ERIC Digest
      "Internet Basics", the ERIC Review "K-12 Networking",
      "Instructional Development for Distance Education", and
      "Strategies for Teaching at a Distance".  Complete bibliographic
      information for these documents is listed in Section 8, "Suggested
      Reading".  For help in retrieving the documents electronically,
      see Appendix B.

      There are also printed guides to the Internet appearing along with
      the new books on the Internet.  The problem with paper resource
      guides is that the Internet is a changing environment, so they
      become outdated quickly.  Check libraries, bookstores, and
      booksellers' catalogs for these guides.

      One answer to the problem of printed Internet guides is the
      newsletter.  NetTEACH NEWS is a newsletter specifically for
      primary and secondary school educators interested in networking.
      It contains information on new services on the Internet that are
      of interest to educators, projects for collaboration, conferences,
      new books and publications, and includes "The Instruction Corner",
      which gives practical tutorials on using network tools and
      services.  NetTEACH NEWS is published ten times a year, and is
      available both hardcopy and via email.  Subscription information
      can be found in Section 9, "Resources and Contacts".

   7.5  How can I add my own contributions to the Internet?

      The network server operated by the Consortium for School
      Networking exists expressly for the sharing of ideas by the
      elementary and secondary school community.  Educators are
      encouraged to submit projects, lesson plans, and ideas.  A gopher
      server maintained by PSGnet and RAINet also accepts educator
      submissions for addition to the many sections of its menu tree
      devoted to elementary and secondary school interests.  See Section
      9, "Resources and Contacts" for information on reaching CoSN or
      submitting materials, and for access to the server maintained by
      PSGnet and RAINet.  It is important to remember that anything you
      create should be updated for others as you make changes yourself
      in the course of your learning by experience.

      The electronic mail lists and news groups mentioned are also
      places to share your knowledge and yourself as a resource, and as



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      you gain experience you may find you have the knowledge to put up
      an electronic server at your own site.  A group of schools in
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in the United States shares one such
      server, and there you could recently find and download to your own
      computer photographs and notes from an exhibit on the architecture
      of one of the elementary schools.

8.   Suggested Reading

      Those items marked with an asterisk (*) are available free online.
      For information on retrieving documents electronically, see
      Appendix B.

   Dearn, D.  The Internet Guide for New Users.
              Washington, DC:  McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.

   *"Ednet Guide to Usenet Newsgroups"
        online:
        nic.umass.edu
        pub/ednet/edusenet.gde

   *"Educator's Guide to E-Mail Lists"
        online:
        nic.umass.edu
        pub/ednet/educatrs.lst

   Fraase, M.  The Mac Internet Tour Guide.  Chapel Hill, NC:
               Ventana Press, 1993.

   *FYI 4  "FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to Commonly asked "New
           Internet User" Questions",   Malkin, G.S. and A. Marine.
           (fyi4.txt or rfc1325.txt)

   *FYI 5  "Choosing a Name for Your Computer",   Libes, D.
           (fyi5.txt or rfc1178.txt)

   *FYI 8  "Site Security Handbook",  Holbrook, J.P. and J.K.
           Reynolds.  (fyi8.txt or rfc1244.txt)

   *FYI 16 "Connecting to the Internet: What Connecting Institutions
           Should Anticipate", ACM SIGUCCS Networking Task Force.
           (fyi16.txt or rfc1359.txt)

   *FYI 18 "Internet Users' Glossary", LaQuey Parker, T. and G. Malkin.
           (fyi18.txt or rfc1392.txt)

   *FYI 19  "Introducing the Internet--A Short Bibliography of
            Introductory Internetworking Reading for the Network Novice",



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            Hoffman, E. and L. Jackson.  (fyi19.txt or rfc1463.txt)

   *FYI 20, "What is the Internet?"  Krol, E. and E. Hoffman.
            (fyi20.txt or rfc1462.txt)

       The FYI series is online in the following locations.  Choose
       the site nearest you from which to download the files:

       United States
       ds.internic.net (198.49.45.10)
       fyi/fyi##.txt

       Pacific Rim
       munnari.oz.au (128.250.1.21)
       fyi/fyi##.txt

       Europe
       nic.nordu.net (192.36.148.17)
       fyi/fyi##.txt

   *"Guide to Network Resource Tools", EARN Association.  May 1993.
     64 pp.
       online:
       naic.nasa.gov
       files/general_info/earn-resource-tool-guide.ps and
       earn-resource-tool-guide.txt

       ftp.earn.net
       pub/doc/resource-tool-guide.ps and
       resource-tool-guide.txt

       ns.ripe.net
       earn/earn-resource-tool-guide.ps and
       earn-resource-tool-guide.txt

       ds.internic.net
       pub/internet-doc/EARN.nettools.ps and
       EARN.nettools.txt

       via email:
       send a message to...
       ...LISTSERV@EARNCC.BITNET
       leave the subject blank and in the first line of the body,
       enter...
       ...GET NETTOOLS TXT
       for the plain ASCII text format, or
       ...GET NETTOOLS PS
       for the PostScript version



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   *"Incomplete Guide to the Internet and Other Telecommunications
       Opportunities Especially for Teachers and Students K-12", NCSA
       Education Group.  July, 1993.
       online:
       ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu
       Education/Education_Resources/Incomplete_Guide

       To order a hardcopy, contact:

       Valerie Sheehan
       NCSA Education Group
       605 E. Springfield Ave.
       Champaign, IL 61820
       vsheehan@ncsa.uiuc.edu

       or:

       Lisa Bievenue
       NCSA Education Group
       605 E. Springfield Ave.
       Champaign, IL 61820
       bievenue@ncsa.uiuc.edu

   *Internet Resource Directory for Educators
       online:
       tcet.unt.edu
       pub/telecomputing-info/IRD/IRD-telnet-sites.txt,
       IRD-ftp-archives.txt, IRD-listservs.txt, and
       IRD-infusion-ideas.txt

   Kehoe, Brendan.  Zen and the Art of the Internet: A Beginner's Guide.
          Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall, 1992.

   Krol, E.  The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog.  Sebastopol,
          CA:  O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 1992.

   LaQuey, T.  The Internet Companion: A Beginner's Guide to Global
          Networking. Reading, MA:  Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,
          1992.

   Marine, A., S. Kirkpatrick, V. Neou, and C. Ward.  Internet:
          Getting Started.  Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall,
          1993.

   Sivin, J.P. and Bialo, E.R.  "Ethical Uses of Information
          Technologies in Education",  1992.  Washington, DC: U.S.
          Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs,
          National Institute of Justice.



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          To order, call 800-851-3420 from within the United
          States or 301-251-5500 from outside of the United States.

          Or write to:

          U.S. Department of Justice
          Office of Justice Programs
          National Institute of Justice
          Washington, DC  20531

   *RFC 1480  "The US Domain",  Cooper, A. and J. Postel.  June 1993.
              (rfc1480.txt)

          This document will also be useful to people not in the United
          States.  See the sites listed under the FYI documents for the
          location nearest you from which to download the file.

9.  Resources and Contacts

   ------------
   CONFERENCES:
   ------------

   NECC and Tel-Ed
      International Society for Technology in Education
      1787 Agate Street
      Eugene, Oregon  97403-1923
      USA
      phone:  503-346-4414 or 1-800-336-5191
      fax:    503-346-5890
      email:  iste@oregon.uoregon.edu
              (Compuserve:  70014,2117)
              (AppleLink:  ISTE)

      Electronic access to a calendar of conferences all over the world
      and other information is available on the ISTE server.  See
      "Network Servers" in this section.

   INET
      Internet Society
      1895 Preston White Drive
      Suite 100
      Reston, Virginia  22091
      USA
      Phone:  703-648-9888
      Fax:    703-620-0913
      Email:  isoc@isoc.org




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   ----------------------
   ELECTRONIC MAIL LISTS:
   ----------------------

   Cosndisc (Consortium for School Networking Discussion List)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listproc@yukon.cren.org

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body of
      the message enter...
      subscribe cosndisc YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      cosndisc@yukon.cren.org

   Ednet
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listserv@nic.umass.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body of
      the message enter...
      subscribe ednet YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      ednet@nic.umass.edu

   Kidsphere
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      kidsphere-request@vms.cis.pitt.edu
      Type any message asking to be added to the list.

      To post, send a message to...
      kidsphere@vms.cis.pitt.edu

   KIDS-95/KIDLINK
      To learn about KIDLINK projects, subscribe to the news service by
      sending a message to...
      listserv@vm1.nodak.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body of
      the message enter...
      subscribe KIDLINK YourFirstName YourLastName

      To receive a file of general information on KIDLINK, send email to
      the same listserv address, leave the Subject field blank, and in
      the first line of the body of the message enter...
      get kidlink general




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   K12admin (A list for K-12 educators interested in educational
   administration)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listserv@suvm.syr.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body of
      the message enter...
      subscribe k12admin YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      k12admin@suvm.syr.edu

   LM_NET (A list for school library media specialists worldwide)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listserv@suvm.syr.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body of
      the message enter...
      subscribe LM_NET YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      LM_NET@suvm.syr.edu

   SIGTEL-L (A list for the Special Interest Group for
   Telecommunications, a service of the International Society for
   Technology in Education)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      SIGTEL-L@unmvma.unm.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body of
      the message enter...
      subscribe SIGTEL-L YourFirstName YourLastName

      To post, send a message to...
      SIGTEL-L@unmvma.unm.edu

   Tipsheet (Computer Help and Tip Exchange)
      To subscribe, send a message to...
      listserv@wsuvm1.csc.wsu.edu

      Leave the Subject field blank, and in the first line of the body of
      the message enter...
      subscribe tipsheet YourFirstName YourLastName








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   ----------------
   NETWORK SERVERS:
   ----------------

   Chatback Trust and Chatback International network server

      via telnet...
        telnet rdz.stjohns.edu
        login: student
        (Follow login instructions on screen.)

      via gopher...
        sjuvm.stjohns.edu (port 70)
        Choose "Rehabilitation Resource Center" from first menu.
        Choose "SJU Unibase Bulletin Board and Conference System" from
        menu which then comes up.

   Consortium for School Networking gopher server

      via gopher...
        cosn.org (port 70)

      via telnet...
        telnet cosn.org
        login: gopher
        (no password)

   Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Digests Archives are
   available

      via telnet...
        telnet bbs.oit.unc.edu
        login: launch
        (Follow directions on screen for registration.  At the main menu,
        choose number 4, "Topical Document Search (WAIS)", and move to
        eric-digests.  For help in WAIS, type a question mark.)

      via FTP...
        ftp ericir.syr.edu
        login: anonymous
        password:  your_email_address
        cd pub

      via email...
        mail askeric@ericir.syr.edu
        (In your message ask for the topic you're interested in.  A human
        will answer you.)




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      via gopher...
        ericir.syr.edu (port 70)

   Empire Internet Schoolhouse

      via gopher...
        nysernet.org (port 70)

      via telnet...
        telnet nysernet.org
        login: empire
        (no password)

   International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) gopher server

      via gopher...
        gopher.uoregon.edu (port 70)

      via telnet...
        telnet gopher.uoregon.edu
        login: gopher
        (no password)

      Once connected via either of these two methods, use the menu item
      "Search Titles in This Gopher Server" and enter ISTE when asked
      what to search for.

   InterNIC gopher server

      via gopher...
        is.internic.net (port 70)

      via telnet...
        telnet is.internic.net
        login: gopher
        (no password)

   KIDS Gopher, a KIDLINK service

      via gopher...
        kids.duq.edu (port 70)

      via telnet...
        telnet kids.duq.edu
        login: gopher
        (no password)





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   NASA Spacelink

      via telnet...
        telnet spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov
        login: newuser
        password: newuser
        (Follow registration instructions on screen.)

      To find information on the NASA Teacher Resource Center Network or
      for a NASA Select television schedule, enter "g" for GO TO, then
      enter either "TRC" or "NASA Select".

      via FTP...
        ftp spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov

   National Science Foundation's (United States) Science and Technology
   Information System (STIS)

       via telnet...
         telnet stis.nsf.gov
         login:  public
         Follow instructions on screen.

       via gopher...
       stis.nsf.gov (port 70)

   Office of Educational Research and Improvement (US Department of
   Education) gopher server

       via gopher...
         gopher.ed.gov (port 70)

   The OERI gopher server contains educational research and statistics,
   as well as information about the United States Department of Education
   and its programs.

   PSGnet and RAINet gopher server

      via telnet...
        telnet gopher.psg.com
        login:  gopher
        (no password)

      via gopher...
        gopher.psg.com (port 70)






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   ------------
   NEWS GROUPS:
   ------------

   alt.education.distance
   alt.kids-talk
   comp.security.announce
   k12.chat.elementary
   k12.chat.junior
   k12.chat.senior
   k12.chat.teacher
   k12.ed.art
   k12.ed.business
   k12.ed.comp.literacy
   k12.ed.health-pe
   k12.ed.life-skills
   k12.ed.math
   k12.ed.music
   k12.ed.science
   k12.ed.soc-studies
   k12.ed.special
   k12.ed.tag
   k12.ed.tech
   k12.edu.life-skills (especially for school counselors)
   k12.euro.teachers (in Europe)
   k12.lang.art
   k12.lang.deutsch-eng
   k12.lang.esp-eng
   k12.lang.francais
   k12.lang.russian
   k12.library
   k12.sys.projects
   misc.education
   misc.education.language.english
   misc.kids
   misc.kids.computer
   news.announce.newusers
   pubnet.nixpub (where a list of open access Unix sites is often posted,
     for those looking for access to Usenet News and email only)












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   -----------
   NEWSLETTER:
   -----------

   NetTEACH NEWS

   Published monthly from August to March and bi-monthly April/May and
   June/July, NetTEACH NEWS is written for both the novice and the
   experienced networking teacher.

   Annual hardcopy subscription costs are:
   US $22.00  for individuals in the US
   US $25.00  for individuals in Canada
   US $30.00  for individuals outside the US and Canada
   US $30.00  for institutions

   Annual ASCII electronic copy costs are:
   US $15.00  for individuals

   Add $5.00 to hardcopy costs to receive both ASCII and hardcopy.

   Site licensing is available for public primary and secondary education
   networks.  Discounts are available for school district multiple
   sub-scriptions.

   For a subscription form, questions, or to submit materials, contact:

   Kathy Rutkowski, Editor
   Chaos Publications
   13102 Weather Vane Way
   Herndon, VA  22071
   USA
   Phone:  703-471-0593
   EMail:  info@netteach.chaos.com

   --------------
   ORGANIZATIONS:
   --------------

   AskERIC
   ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources
   Center for Science and Technology
   Syracuse University
   Syracuse, New York  13244-4100
   USA
   Phone:  315-443-9114
   Fax:    315-443-5448
   EMail:  askeric@ericir.syr.edu



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     According to a recent electronic brochure, "The Educational
     Resources Information Center (ERIC) is a federally-funded national
     information system that provides access to an extensive body of
     education-related literature.  ERIC provides a variety of services
     and products at all education levels."

     Another portion of the electronic brochure states, "AskERIC is an
     Internet-based question-answering service for teachers, library
     media specialists, and administrators.  Anyone involved with K-12
     education can send an e-mail message to AskERIC.  Drawing on the
     extensive resources of the ERIC system, AskERIC staff will respond
     with an answer within 48 working hours."  Educators may have
     questions about primary and secondary education, learning, teaching,
     information technology, or educational administration which AskERIC
     can answer.  Parents AskERIC is a new service for parents looking
     for information to better facilitate their children's developmental
     and educational experiences.  Use the email address listed above.

   Chatback International
   Dr. R. Zenhausern, Executive Director
   Psychology Department
   St. Johns University
   SB 15, Marillac
   Jamaica, NY  11439
   USA
   Phone:  718-990-6447
   Fax:    718-990-6705
   EMail:  drz@sjuvm.stjohns.edu

   The Chatback Trust
   Tom Holloway, UK Director
   25 Clemens Street
   Royal Leamington Spa
   Warwickshire, CV31  2DP
   Phone:  +44-926-888333
   Fax:    +44-926-420204
   EMail:  t.holloway@warwick.ac.uk

     The Chatback Trust is the organization which was originally
     concerned primarily with school children with various types of
     language disorder.  Chatback International is the expansion of that
     project onto the Internet and is concerned with the use of networks
     to educate all children.








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   Consortium for School Networking
   P.O. Box 65193
   Washington, DC  20035-5193
   USA
   Phone:  202-466-6296
   Fax:    202-872-4318
   EMail:  info@cosn.org

     According to a recent brochure, "The Consortium for School
     Networking is a membership organization of institutions formed to
     further the development and use of computer network technology in
     K-12 education." To join CoSN, request an application at the above
     address.  To contribute your ideas, lesson plans, projects, etc.,
     for others to access over the Internet, send to email to:
          ferdi@digital.cosn.org

   European Schools Project
   University of Amsterdam
   CICT/SCO
   Grote Bickerrsstraat 72
   1013 KS Amsterdam
   The Netherlands
   Contact: Dr. Pauline Meijer or Dr. Henk Sligte
   Phone:   +31-20-5251248
   Fax:     +31-20-5251211
   EMail:   risc@esp.educ.uva.nl

     The European Schools Project is "a support system for secondary
     schools to explore applications of educational telematics."

   FidoNet
   1151 SW Vermont Street
   Portland, OR 97219
   USA
   Contact: Janet Murray
   Phone:   503-280-5280
   EMail:   jmurray@psg.com

     FidoNet is a dial-up, store-and-forward messaging system which takes
     advantage of late night phone rates to send and receive email and
     conferences.










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   FrEdMail Foundation
   P.O. Box 243,
   Bonita, CA 91908
   USA
   Contact: Al Rogers
   Phone:   619-475-4852
   EMail:   arogers@bonita.cerf.fred.org

   International Education and Research Network (I*EARN)
   c/o Copen Family Fund
   345 Kear Street
   Yorktown Heights, NY 10598
   USA
   Contact: Dr. Edwin H. Gragert
   Phone:   914-962-5864
   Fax:     914-962-6472
   EMail:  ed1@copenfund.igc.apc.org

     According to Dr. Gragert, "The purpose of the I*EARN Network is to
     create low-cost telecommunications models to demonstrate that
     elementary and secondary students can make a meaningful contribution
     to the health and welfare of people and the planet.  We want to see
     students go beyond simply being "pen-pals" to use telecommunications
     in joint student projects as part of the educational process."
     I*EARN works with international service and youth organizations to
     add telecommunications to existing partnerships.

   KIDLINK Society
   4815 Saltrod
   Norway
   Phone:   +47-370-31204
   Fax:     +47-370-27111
   EMail:   opresno@extern.uio.no
   Contact: Odd de Presno

     KIDLINK is the organization that runs the yearly KIDS projects,
     KIDS-94, KIDS-95, etc.  For information on getting files related to
     KIDS-NN/KIDLINK, see "Electronic Mail Lists" in this section.  For
     access to the KIDS Gopher, see "Network Servers" in this section.

   K12Net
   1151 SW Vermont Street
   Portland, OR 97219
   USA
   Phone:   503-280-5280
   Contact: Janet Murray
   EMail:   jmurray@psg.com




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     K12Net is a collection of conferences devoted to curriculum,
     language exchanges with native speakers, and classroom-to-classroom
     projects designed by teachers in K-12 education.  The conferences
     are privately distributed among FidoNet-compatible bulletin board
     systems on five continents and are also available as Usenet
     Newsgroups in the hierarchy "k12."  More information about K12Net is
     available from gopher.psg.com.

      via telnet...
        telnet gopher.psg.com
        login:  gopher

      via gopher...
        gopher.psg.com (port 70)

   NASA Central Operation of Resources for Educators (CORE)
   Lorain County Joint Vocational School
   15181 Route 58 South
   Oberlin, OH  44074
   USA
   Phone:   216-774-1051, x293/294
   Fax:     216-774-2144

     For a copy of the video "Global Quest: The Internet in the
     Classroom" released by the NASA NREN K-12 Initiative contact the
     above address.  The fee for the video is cost plus shipping and
     handling.  You may also make a copy yourself by taking a blank copy
     to the nearest NASA Teacher Resource Center or by taping from NASA
     Select television.  For information on the NASA Teacher Resource
     Center Network or on NASA Select, contact your nearest NASA facility
     or log in to NASA Spacelink.  (See NASA Spacelink in "Network
     Servers".)

   National Center for Education Statistics
   555 New Jersey Ave N.W., R.410 C
   Washington DC 20208-5651
   USA
   Phone:   202-219-1364
   Contact: Jerry Malitz
   EMail:   ncesinfo@inet.ed.gov
   Fax:     219-1728

     For a copy of the video "Experience the Power: Network Technology
     for Education" released by NCES contact the above address.  If you
     contact them via email to order a video be sure that you send your
     mailing address.





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   InterNIC Information Services
   General Atomics
   P.O. Box 85608
   San Diego, California 92186-9784
   USA
   Phone:  800-444-4345
           619-455-4600
   Fax:    619-455-3990
   EMail:  info@internic.net

     The InterNIC is a (United States) National Science Foundation funded
     group tasked with providing information services to the United
     States research and education networking community.  The Reference
     Desk is in operation Monday through Friday, from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00
     p.m.  Pacific Time.

   Internet Society
   1895 Preston White Drive
   Suite 100
   Reston, Virginia  22091
   USA
   Phone:  703-648-9888
   Fax:    703-620-0913
   EMail:  isoc@isoc.org

        The Internet Society is an international membership organization
        for individuals and organizations that support its goals of
        promoting the use of the Internet:

          A. To facilitate and support the technical evolution of the
             Internet as a research and education infrastructure, and
             to stimulate the involvement of the scientific community,
             industry, government and others in the evolution of the
             Internet;

          B. To educate the scientific community, industry and the public
             at large concerning the technology, use and application of
             the Internet;

          C. To promote educational applications of Internet technology
             for the benefit of government, colleges and universities,
             industry, and the public at large;

          D. To provide a forum for exploration of new Internet
             applications, and to stimulate collaboration among
             organizations in their operational use of the global
             Internet.




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   Reseaux IP Europeens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC)
   Kruislaan 409
   NL-1098 SJ  Amsterdam
   The Netherlands

   Phone: +31 20 592 5065
   Fax:   +31 20 592 5090
   EMail: ncc@ripe.net

      The RIPE NCC assists European Internet operators and refers
      users to appropriate operators.

      Services include:

           -delegated registry for network and
            Autonomous System numbers
           -whois database at whois.ripe.net
           -document store at ftp.ripe.net
            (also accessible via gopher and wais)
           -interactive information service
            (via telnet at info.ripe.net)

   Asia Pacific Network Information Center
   c/o University of Tokyo, Computer Center
   2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113
   Japan
   Phone:  +81-3-5684-7747
   Fax:    +81-3-5684-7256
   EMail:  hostmaster@apnic.net

      The APNIC is a cooperative organization of national network
      information centers in the Asia Pacific region operating under the
      auspices of the Asia Pacific Coordinating Committee for
      Intercontinental Research Networks.  APNIC is tasked with providing
      information and registration services to networking organizations
      throughout the Asia and Pacific Rim regions.















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RFC 1578                 FYI Q/A - for Schools             February 1994


10.   References

   [1] Malkin, G., and A. Marine, "FYI on Questions and Answers:
       Answers to Commonly Asked 'New Internet User' Questions", FYI 4,
       RFC 1325, Xylogics, SRI, May 1992.

   [2] Krol, E., and E. Hoffman, "What is the Internet?" FYI 20, RFC
       1462, University of Illinois, Merit Network, Inc., May 1993.

   [3] "Restructuring Schools:  A Systematic View" in Action Line, the
       newsletter of the Maryland State Teachers Association, a National
       Education Association Affiliate.  R. Kuhn, Editor.  No. 93-6.
       June, 1993.

   [4] Sivin, J. P. and E. R. Bialo (1992) "Ethical Uses of Information
       Technologies in Education."  Washington, DC:  U.S. Department of
       Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of
       Justice.

   [5] Hoffman, E. and L. Jackson, "Introducing the Internet--A Short
       Bibliography of Introductory Internetworking Reading for the
       Network Novice", FYI 19, RFC 1463, Merit Network, Inc., NASA, May
       1993.

11.   Security Considerations

   General security considerations are discussed in Section 6 of this
   document.

12.  Author's Address

   Jennifer Sellers
   NASA NREN
   700 13th Street, NW
   Suite 950
   Washington, DC  20005
   USA

   Phone: 202-434-8954
   EMail: sellers@quest.arc.nasa.gov











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APPENDIX A:  EXAMPLES OF PROJECTS USING THE INTERNET

   The following examples of projects using the Internet appeared on the
   Kidsphere electronic mailing list during the 1992-93 school year.
   The messages have been edited in the interest of space and because
   many of the details about how to participate are dated, but the
   information presented can give you a feel for the types and range of
   projects that happen today.

   =========================================
   Example One, "Middle School Math Project"
   =========================================

   This is the official invitation to participate in "Puzzle Now!".
   "Puzzle Now!" is an interdisciplinary project using educational
   technology as a tool to integrate the curriculum.  "Puzzle Now!"
   provides teams of mathematics and language arts teachers and students
   with thematic puzzle problems via VA.PEN.


   PROJECT       :  Puzzle Now!

   SUBJECT AREA  :  Mathematics/Language Arts

   GRADE LEVEL   :  6 - 8

   DURATION      :  This project will consist of eight - one week
                    cycles.

   PROJECT GOALS :  -to increase student motivation for math
                    problem solving;

                    -to emphasize the importance of addressing
                     problems in a clear, concise, and logical
                     manner;

                    -to provide students with opportunities for
                     developing skills in written expression;

                    -to familiarize students with computer and
                     modem as tools for problem solving projects.

   PROJECT DESCRIPTION:
                    The puzzles presented in this project are no
                    mere entertainment.  These puzzles will help
                    the student reason logically, develop thinking
                    skills, and will assist in the understanding of
                    many practical disciplines, such as geometry.



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                    IT IS VERY IMPORTANT to remember that getting
                    the correct answer isn't as important as
                    figuring out how to find it.
                    DO THE SOLUTIONS HAVE TO BE SUBMITTED IN A
                    PARTICULAR FASHION?  Yes, the solution format
                    requires that the group/team/individual first
                    1) restate the puzzle/problem; 2) explain the
                    strategy, or strategies used in finding the
                    answer;  3) state the answer.
                    Your team/class may turn in only one solution.
                    That means you must work together to develop one
                    solution to be examined by the "Puzzlemeister".


   ==========================================
   Example Two, "Poetry Contest, Grades 9-12"
   ==========================================

                  National Public Telecomputing Network
                                  --
                    Academy One Project Announcement


                     FIRST ANNUAL INTERNET POETRY CONTEST
                      FOR SECONDARY STUDENTS GRADES 9-12

                        ***FEATURED FORM: THE SONNET***

                        ***First Place Award: $50.00***

                       ***Second Place Award: $25.00***

                       ***Honorable Mentions: $10.00***

   The first annual Internet Poetry Contest invites entries from
   students in grades 9-12 for original sonnets written within the last
   3 years.  The purpose of the contest is to encourage young creative
   writers to practice the discipline needed to write in a particular
   poetic form, in this case, the sonnet form.  (The sonnet is defined
   and examples are given below.)  Sonnets may be submitted in any
   recognized sonnet form including Petrarchan, Shakespearean, Miltonic,
   or Spenserian.

   Students submitting entries must include a form (given below)
   certifying that each sonnet entered in the contest is original and
   written within the last 3 years.  The deadline for mailing entries is
   April 30, 1993.  Winners will be notified individually and winning
   entries will also be announced via Academy I on the Internet.



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   Judges for the contest are current or retired English instructors
   throughout the United States.


   ==============================================
   Example Three,  "Tracking Monarch Butterflies"
   ==============================================

   Our school has begun a study of monarchs using Nova's Animal
   Pathfinders.  After working through these lessons, which will give us
   the necessary background information, we will design the format for
   collecting the data on sighting monarchs. We will send information on
   the format to any school who wishes to participate in the project.
   Our fifth grade students will begin this project and we hope that
   students from kindergarten through twelfth grade will get involved.
   We hope that schools from south to north along the migratory flyways
   will be interested in joining and collecting data about first
   sightings and population counts.  We still have not found the
   lepidopterists who did the initial research but will keep looking.
   Hope to hear from you soon.


   =======================================
   Example Four, "Simulated Space Mission"
   =======================================


              National Public Telecomputing Network
                            --
                Academy One Program Announcement


   SPECIAL EVENT: NESPUT 24-HOUR CENTENNIAL SPACE SHUTTLE
                   SIMULATED MISSION ON APRIL 27, 1993

   SCHOOLS, TEACHERS, STUDENTS, SPACE ENTHUSIASTS:

   The April 27 simulated and telecommunicated space shuttle mission is
   a mostly real-time 24 hour mission involving numerous activities in
   space.  Your school could be involved for an entire 24 hour period or
   for a much lesser amount of time (say just your school day or even a
   few hours).  During that 24 hour period, schools will be linked to
   share information via telecommunications and a variety of activities
   will be going on via telecommunications and in the classroom--most of
   them created by the schools and students involved.  The space shuttle
   Centennial at University School in Shaker Heights, Ohio, a real and
   permanent simulator, will act as itself and use its mission control
   area as Houston.  Reports on the progress of our real student



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   astronauts will be posted on the listserv and via the menus on NPTN
   affiliate systems carrying Academy One.  Your school can act as any
   one of the following:

   A second American shuttle.
   A second Russian shuttle.
   A weather reporting station for your area.
   One of NASA's alternate landing sites.
   A science station posing questions and problems for all
     astronauts in simulated space.
   An information station, posting interesting information of
     interest about the space shuttle and the space program.
   A graphics station, sending GIF files to other schools
     (especially good if you have a scanner for your computer).
   Any other type of space related station or activity you can
     imagine.


   ==================================================
   Example Five, "Equinox Experiment and Calculation"
   ==================================================


               ATTENTION - MARCH 20, l993 IS THE EQUINOX

                A WORLDWIDE SCIENCE AND MATH EXPERIMENT

                        ERATOSTHENES EXPERIMENT

   Eratosthenes, a Greek geographer (about 276 to 194 B.C.), made a
   surprisingly accurate estimate of the earth's circumference.  In the
   great library in Alexandria he read that a deep vertical well near
   Syene, in southern Egypt, was entirely lit up by the sun at noon once
   a year.  Eratosthenes reasoned that at this time sun must be directly
   overhead, with its rays shining directly into the well.  In
   Alexandria, almost due north of Syene, he knew that the sun was not
   directly overhead at noon on the same day because a vertical object
   cast a shadow.  Eratosthenes could now measure the circumference of
   the earth (sorry Columbus) by making two assumptions - that the earth
   is round and that the sun's rays are essentially parallel.  He set up
   a vertical post at Alexandria and measured the angle of its shadow
   when the well at Syene was completely sunlit.  Eratosthenes knew from
   geometry that the size of the measured angle equaled the size of the
   angle at the earth's center between Syene and Alexandria.  Knowing
   also that the arc of an angle this size was 1/50 of a circle, and
   that the distance between Syene and Alexandria was 5000 stadia, he
   multiplied 5000 by 50 to find the earth's circumference.  His result,
   250,000 stadia (about 46,250 km) is quite close to modern



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   measurements.  Investigating the Earth, AGI, l970, Chapter 3, p. 66.

   The formula Eratosthenes used is:

        D         A        d=distance between Syene and Alexandria
      _____  =  _____      A=360 degrees assumption of round earth
                           a=shadow angle of vertical stick
        d         a        D=to be determined (circumference)

   ----------------------------------------------------------------

   Are you interested in participating?

   All you need to do is place a vertical stick (shaft) into the ground
   at your school and when the sun reaches it's highest vertical  assent
   for the day (solar noon), measure the  angle  of the shadow of the
   stick.

                               -\
                               - \
                     stick ->  -  \
                               - a \    a=shadow angle
                               -    \
                               -     \
      ground___________________-______\_____________________________

   By doing this experiment on the equinox we all know that the vertical
   rays of the sun are directly over the equator, like the well  at
   Syene.  Using a globe or an atlas the  distance  between your
   location and the equator can be determined and the  circum- ference
   can be calculated.

   *****************************************************************
   But how about sharing your shadow angle measurement with others
   around the real globe.
   ******************************************************************

   Send your measurement of the shadow angle____________degrees

   Send your location city ____________________________________

   Send your location country _________________________________

   Send your latitude _________________________________________

   Send your longitude ________________________________________





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   We will compile all the data and send you a copy to use in your
   classroom to compare the various locations and angles.

   If you're interested send us your data.  We will compile and return
   it to you.


   =====================================
   Example Six, "Famous Black Americans"
   =====================================

   Project Name:        Who Am I?:  Famous Black Americans

   Subject Area:        Social Studies, Research Skills

   Grade Level:         Grades 4-12

   Project Description: The goal of this project is to assist students
                        in increasing their knowledge of American
                        black history.  Each week, on Monday Morning,
                        a set of three or four clues will be sent to
                        your account.  The same will occur on
                        Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday mornings.
                        At any time, through the end of the day on
                        Friday, your students may send their answer
                        (the name of the famous American identified
                        by the clues) to the following online
                        address:

                              whoami@radford.vak12ed.edu

                        A class should send only one answer each
                        week.  If two are sent, the sponsors will
                        assume that the first of the answers is the
                        one intended to be submitted.

                        The sponsor will collect all answers, compile
                        a listing of classes who send the correct
                        answers, and will forward this list to all
                        participants via email by early on the
                        following Monday morning.  On that morning,
                        in addition, the sponsor will send all
                        classes a new problem.

                        This project lasts five weeks, with clues
                        each week being given for a different famous
                        person in American history.




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   Project Length:      Five Weeks

   Awards:              Every Monday morning, participating classes
                        will receive an online message from the
                        sponsor congratulating those who have sent
                        correct answers during the previous week.  At
                        the end of the five weeks, attractive
                        certificates will be awarded to all
                        participating classes (sent by way of the
                        Postal Service).  In addition, classes which
                        have participated in each of the five weeks
                        will receive a separate style of certificate
                        for their school or class.






































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APPENDIX B:  HOW TO GET DOCUMENTS ELECTRONICALLY

   The traditional way to access files available online on the Internet
   is via a program based on the File Transfer Protocol (FTP).  Many
   information sites have hosts that allow "anonymous" FTP, meaning you
   don't need to already have an account on the host in order to access
   the files it makes public.  This appendix will describe obtaining
   files via anonymous FTP and describe obtaining files via the Internet
   Gopher program.

   The online files sited in Suggested Reading can all be retrieved via
   anonymous FTP. (Most can also be retrieved via Gopher.)  In most
   cases, when you see a reference to a file available for FTP, the
   reference will give you both a computer hostname and a pathname.  So,
   for example, the ASCII text version of the EARN Resource Tool Guide
   is on the host naic.nasa.gov in the /files/general_info directory as
   earn-resource-tool-guide.txt.

   Many online files are mirrored on more than one host.  RFC files, for
   example, are so popular that several hosts act as repositories for
   them; so, when they are cited, rarely is a hostname given.  To find
   out all about getting RFCs and FYIs, send a message to rfc-
   info@isi.edu and in the body of the message, type 'help:
   ways_to_get_rfcs'.  RFCs are available both via electronic mail and
   via Anonymous FTP, as well as via many Gophers.

   Anonymous FTP

      Some of this information about transferring files based on text
      from the access.guide file referenced in FYI 19 [5] and written by
      Ellen Hoffman and Lenore Jackson.

      If you are on a computer connected to the Internet and can use
      FTP, you can access files online.  If your VM/CMS, VAX/VMS, UNIX,
      DOS, Macintosh, or other computer system has FTP capability, you
      can probably use the sample commands as they are listed.  If your
      computer doesn't work using the sample commands, you may still
      have FTP access.  You will need to ask your system administrator
      or local network consultant.  If you don't have FTP, you may be
      able to get files via electronic mail.

      If you are using a UNIX machine, you can use FTP directly from a
      system prompt.  For other computers, there are commercial and
      public domain programs that will allow you to use FTP.  (For
      example, there is a very easy-to-use shareware program called
      "Fetch" for the Macintosh.)





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      Once you establish that you have FTP access, you will need to send
      a series of commands to reach the host computer with the file you
      want, connect to the appropriate directory, and have the file
      transferred to your computer.  A typical FTP session is described
      here, but not all software is exactly alike.  If you have
      problems, check your software's documentation ('man' page) or
      contact your local help-desk.

      This session uses the EARN Guide to Network Resource Tools in its
      naic.nasa.gov home as an example file to be transferred.

      Here's what you can do:

      (1) Tell your computer what host you are trying to reach:
                    ftp naic.nasa.gov

      (2) Log in to the computer with the username "anonymous".  You
          will be prompted for a password; most often it is preferred
          that you use your complete email address as your password.

      (3) Navigate through the directory to find the file you need.  Two
          useful commands for doing so are the one to change directories
          ('cd'), which you can use to step through more than one directory
          at a time:

                    cd files/general_info

          and the command which shows you the files and subdirectories
          within a directory:

                    dir

      (4) Give a command to have the file sent to your computer:
                    get earn-resource-tools.txt

      (5) Quit FTP:
                    quit

      RFC Repositories:

      Following is a list of hosts that are primary repositories for
      RFCs, and, for each host, the pathname to the directory that
      houses these files:

        - ds.internic.net     rfc
        - nis.nsf.net         internet/documents/rfc
        - nisc.jvnc.net       rfc
        - venera.isi.edu      in-notes



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        - wuarchive.wustl.edu info/rfc
        - src.doc.ic.ac.uk    rfc
        - ftp.concert.net     /rfc

      RFCs are in the file format you see in the Suggested Readings
      section, e.g., rfc####.txt, with #### being the number of the RFC.
      To retrieve an RFC, then, you would FTP to a host above, log in as
      anonymous, cd to the directory noted, and retrieve the RFC you
      want.  The file ways_to_get_rfcs, mentioned above, explains which
      sites make RFCs available for electronic mail retrieval, and
      provides directions for doing so.

      Remember that FYI documents, such as this one, are also RFCs, so
      the information about RFCs applies to FYIs as well.  You can
      usually retrieve FYIs either by their RFC number, or by their FYI
      number.  FYI numbers are in the format fyi##.txt, where ## is the
      number of the FYI.

   Gopher

      A relatively new method of viewing and retrieving information is
      the Internet Gopher.  A Gopher server presents information to a
      users via a series of menus.  By choosing menu items, the user is
      led to files or to other services available on the Internet.
      Gopher can also retrieve files for the user because it has an
      interface to the File Transfer Protocol.  So you can use Gopher to
      obtain files rather than FTP.  Once you have located a file you
      want, you also have the option of mailing it electronically.

      Several Gopher servers are listed in the Network Servers portion
      of Section 9 "Resources and Contacts".  The InterNIC gopher, for
      example, is one that provides access to the RFCs.

      Normally, the best way to access a Gopher server is by running a
      Gopher client on your own host or network.  However, if you do not
      have that software, many Gophers are accessible via Telnet (see
      the addresses in Section 9).  To Telnet to a host, most often you
      would give the command "telnet" and the hostname, for example:
      telnet naic.nasa.gov.

      Unlike FTP repositories, which are accessible over the network but
      which you have to access one at a time, many Gophers are linked
      together over the Internet.  Therefore, if you have access to one
      Gopher, you usually have access to hundreds more.  This huge
      network of gophers and the vast amount of information they serve
      is referred to as "gopherspace".  You can use a service within
      Gopher called "Veronica" to search gopherspace to see if there is
      more information out there of a particular type you are interested



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      in finding.  From within Gopher, look for a menu item such as
      "Search Gopherspace Using Veronica" to find out more information
      about using the Veronica service.
















































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APPENDIX C:  GLOSSARY OF TERMS USED IN THIS DOCUMENT

   The following is a short glossary of terms used in this document.
   For a more complete glossary of Internet terms, refer to FYI 18 (RFC
   1392), "Internet Users' Glossary".  These definitions are largely
   excerpted from that glossary.  (See Section 8, "Suggested Reading",
   above.)

   Anonymous FTP

      Accessing data via the File Transfer Protocol using the special
      username "anonymous".  This was devised as a method to provide a
      relatively secure way of providing restricted access to public
      data.  Users who wish to acquire data from a public source may use
      FTP to connect to the source, then use the special username
      "anonymous" and their email address as the password to log into a
      public data area.

   Cracker

      A person who uses computer knowledge to attempt to gain access to
      computer systems and/or maliciously damage those systems or data.

   Dial-in (also dial-up)

      A connection, usually made via modems, between two computers (or
      servers) over standard voice grade telephone lines.

   Download

      To copy data from a remote computer to a local computer.  The
      opposite of upload.

   DSU/CSU (Data Service Unit/Channel Service Unit)

      The digital equivalent of a modem.  A Channel Service Unit
      connects to a telephone company-provided digital data circuit, and
      a Data Service Unit provides the electronics required to connect
      digital equipment to the CSU.  Paired together a DSU/CSU allows
      computer equipment to be connected into the telephone digital
      service for highly conditioned, high speed data communications.

   Electronic Bulletin Board System (BBS)

      A computer, and associated software, which typically provides
      electronic messaging services, archives of files, and any other
      services or activities of interest to the bulletin board system's
      operator.  Although BBSs have traditionally been the domain of



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      hobbyists, an increasing number of BBSs are connected directly to
      the Internet, and many BBSs are currently operated by government,
      educational, and research institutions.

   EMail (Electronic Mail)

      A system whereby a computer user can exchange messages with other
      computer users (or groups of users) via a communications network.

   FidoNet

      A network of computers interconnected using the FIDO dial-up
      protocols.  The FIDO protocol provides a means of "store and
      forward" file transfer similar to UUCP.

   FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

      A protocol which allows a user on one host to access, and transfer
      files to and from, another host over a network.  Also, FTP is
      usually the name of the program the user invokes to execute the
      protocol.

   FYI (For Your Information)

      A subseries of RFCs that are not technical standards or
      descriptions of protocols.  FYIs convey general information about
      topics related to TCP/IP or the Internet.  See also:  RFC (Request
      for Comments).

   Gopher

      A distributed information service that links many types of
      information from all around the Internet and presents it to the
      user in a series of menus.  Because hundreds of Gopher servers
      cooperate in providing access to information and services, the
      user sees a single, uniform interface to information that actually
      resides on different host computers.  The Gopher interface is very
      easy to use, and public domain versions of the clients and servers
      are available.

   Hacker

      A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the
      internal workings of a system, computers and computer networks in
      particular.  The popular media has corrupted this term to give it
      the pejorative connotation of a person who maliciously uses
      computer knowledge to cause damage to computers and data.  The
      proper term for this type of person is "cracker".



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   Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

      The IETF is a large, open community of network designers,
      operators, vendors, and researchers whose purpose is to coordinate
      the operation, management and evolution of the Internet, and to
      resolve short-range and mid-range protocol and architectural
      issues.  It is a major source of protocol proposals and standards.

   InterNIC

      A Network Information Center (NIC), funded by the National Science
      foundation, that provides information about the Internet.  The
      InterNIC is a team of three contractors, each of which focuses on
      a particular network support task.  The three tasks are:
      Information Services (the task most often cited in this document),
      Registration Services, and Directory and Database Services.

   Kbs (Kilo-Bits per Second)

      A data transmission rate expressed in 1000 bit per second units.
      For example, 56Kbs is 56*1000=56,000 bits per second.

   LAN (Local Area Network)

      A data network intended to serve an area of only a few square
      kilometers or less.  Since such are networks relatively small they
      can usually be directly controlled by the users and operate at
      relatively high speeds (up to 100Mb/s [10 million bits per
      second]) over inexpensive wiring.

   Leased line

      A leased line is a special phone company permanent connection
      between two locations.  Leased lines are generally used where
      high-speed data (usually 960 characters per second and higher) is
      continually exchanged between two computers (in the Internet,
      generally between routers).  A leased line is billed at the same
      rate per month independent of how much the line is used and can be
      cheaper than using dial modems depending on the usage.  Leased
      lines may also be used where higher data rates are needed beyond
      what a dial modem can provide.

   Listserv (mailing list server)

      An automated program that accepts mail messages from users and
      performs basic operations on mailing lists for those users.  In
      the Internet, listservs are usually accessed as "listname@host";
      for example, the list server for the hypothetical list



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      "newsreports@acme.org" would be called "listserv@acme.org".
      Sending email to "newsreports@acme.org" causes the message to be
      sent to all the list subscribers, while sending a message (to
      subscribe or unsubscribe, for example) to "listserv@acme.org"
      sends the message only to the list server.  Not all mailing lists
      use list servers to handle list administration duties.

   Mailing Lists

      A list of email addresses.  Generally, a mailing list is used to
      discuss certain set of topics, and different mailing lists discuss
      different topics.  A mailing list may be moderated, that is
      messages sent to the list are actually sent to a moderator who
      determines whether or not to send the messages on to everyone
      else.  Many mailing lists are maintained by a "listserv" (list
      server) program that automatically handles operations such as
      adding new people to the list.  (See above.)  In the Internet, for
      those mailing lists maintained by a human, rather than by a
      listserv, you can generally subscribe to a list by sending a mail
      message to: "listname-REQUEST@host" and in the body of the message
      enter a request to subscribe.  To send messages to other
      subscribers, you will then use the address "listname@host".

   Modem (MODulator/DEModulator)

      A device that converts the digital signals used by computers into
      analog signals needed by voice telephone systems.  Modems can be
      "dial" or "leased line" type.  Dial type modems are used on normal
      telephone lines to call remote computers, and usually operate at
      speeds between 120 to 1,920 characters per second.

   Network Access Provider (Network Service Provider)

      Any organization that provides network connectivity or dial-up
      access.  Service providers may be corporations, government
      agencies, universities, or other organizations.

   Network News

      Another name for "Usenet News".











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   NIC (Network Information Center)

      A central place where information about a network within the
      Internet is maintained.  Usually NICs are staffed by personnel who
      answer user telephone calls and electronic mail, and provide
      general network usage information and referrals, among other
      possible tasks.  Most network service providers also provide a NIC
      for their users.

   Port

      TCP/IP assigns at least one address to a host computer, but
      applications such as FTP must talk to a corresponding server
      application on the host.  The "port" is the way TCP/IP designates
      the remote application.  Most common Internet servers have
      specific port numbers associated with them.  For example, Telnet
      uses port number 23.  These are known as "well known ports" and
      allow application programmers to write standard applications (such
      as Telnet, FTP, etc.) that "know" where the corresponding server
      is on a particular host.

   PPP  (Point to Point Protocol)

      A protocol used to establish TCP/IP connections using serial lines
      such as dial-up telephone lines.  Similar to SLIP (see below), PPP
      is a later standard that includes features such as demand dial-up,
      compression, better flow control, etc.

   Protocol

      A formal description of message formats and the rules two
      computers must follow to exchange those messages.  Protocols can
      describe low-level details of machine-to-machine interfaces (e.g.,
      the order in which bits and bytes are sent across a wire) or
      high-level exchanges between allocation programs (e.g., the way in
      which two programs transfer a file across the Internet).

   Protocol Stack

      A series of protocols linked together to provide an end-to-end
      service.  For example, the File Transfer Protocol uses the
      Transmission Control Protocol, which uses the Internet Protocol,
      which may use the Point to Point protocol, to transfer a file from
      one computer to another.  The series FTP->TCP->IP->PPP is called a
      protocol stack.






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   RFC (Request for Comments)

      The document series, begun in 1969, which describes the Internet
      suite of protocols and related experiments.  Not all (in fact very
      few) RFCs describe Internet standards, but all Internet standards
      are written up as RFCs.  The RFCs include the documentary record
      of the Internet standards process.

   Router

      A computer which forwards traffic between networks.  The
      forwarding decision is based on network layer information and
      routing tables, often constructed by routing protocols.

   SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)

      A protocol used to establish TCP/IP connections using serial lines
      such as dial-up telephone lines.  Small computers, such as PCs and
      Macintoshes, can use SLIP to dial up to servers, which then allow
      the computer to act as a full Internet node.  SLIP is generally
      used at sites with a few users as a cheaper alternative than a
      full Internet connection.  SLIP is being replaced by PPP at many
      sites.

   TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

      TCP/IP is named for two of the major communications protocols used
      within the Internet (TCP and IP).  These protocols (along with
      several others) provide the basic foundation for communications
      between hosts in the Internet.  All of the service protocols, such
      as FTP, Telnet, Gopher, use TCP/IP to transfer information.

   Telnet

      Telnet is the Internet standard protocol for remote terminal
      connection service.  The name "telnet" also is used to refer to
      programs that allow interactive access to remote computers, as
      well as the action of using said programs.  For example, the
      phrase "Telnet to host xyzzy." means to interactively log into
      host "xyzzy" from some other host in the Internet.

   Upload

      To copy data from a local computer to a remote computer.  The
      opposite of download.






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   Usenet News

      An electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix
      community and which is accessible via the Internet.  Usenet News
      forms a discussion forum accessible by millions of users in almost
      every country in the world.  Usenet News consists of thousands of
      topics arranged in a heirarchical form.  Major topics include
      "comp" for computer topics, "rec" for recreational topics, "soc"
      for social topics, "sci" for science topics, etc.  Within the
      major topics are subtopics, such as "rec.music.classical" for
      classical music, or "sci.med.physics" for discussions relating to
      the physics of medical science.

   UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy)

      This was initially a program run under the UNIX operating system
      that allowed one UNIX system to send files to another UNIX system
      via dial-up phone lines.  Today, the term is more commonly used to
      describe the large international network which uses the UUCP
      protocol to pass news and electronic mail.

   Virus

      A program which replicates itself on computer systems by
      incorporating itself into other programs which are shared among
      computer systems.

   WAIS (Wide Area Information Server)

      A distributed information service which offers simple natural
      language input, indexed searching for fast retrieval, and a
      "relevance feedback" mechanism which allows the results of initial
      searches to influence future searches.  Public domain
      implementations are available.

   WWW (World Wide Web)

      A hypertext-based, distributed information system created by
      researchers at CERN in Switzerland.  Users may create, edit or
      browse hypertext documents.  The clients and servers are freely
      available.  The WWW servers are interconnected to allow a user to
      traverse the Web from any starting point; in addition, many other
      servers such as WAIS and Gopher have been incorporated into the
      WWW servers.







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