File: rfc1739.txt

package info (click to toggle)
doc-rfc 20181229-2
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: non-free
  • in suites: buster
  • size: 570,944 kB
  • sloc: xml: 285,646; sh: 107; python: 90; perl: 42; makefile: 14
file content (2579 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 102,676 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (5)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579






Network Working Group                                         G. Kessler
Request for Comments: 1739                                    S. Shepard
Category: Informational                            Hill Associates, Inc.
                                                           December 1994


                 A Primer On Internet and TCP/IP Tools

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  This memo
   does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of
   this memo is unlimited.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ..................................................  2
   2. A Beginner's Guide to TCP/IP-based Utilities and Applications .  2
   2.1. NSLOOKUP ....................................................  3
   2.2. PING ........................................................  5
   2.3. FINGER ......................................................  6
   2.4. TRACEROUTE ..................................................  7
   2.5. FTP ......................................................... 10
   2.6. TELNET ...................................................... 14
   2.7. User Database Lookup Tools .................................. 17
   2.7.1. WHOIS/NICNAME ............................................. 17
   2.7.2. KNOWBOT ................................................... 20
   2.7.3. NETFIND ................................................... 21
   2.8. Information Servers ......................................... 24
   2.8.1. ARCHIE .................................................... 24
   2.8.2. GOPHER .................................................... 27
   2.8.3. Other Information Servers ................................. 30
   2.9. Uniform Resource Locator Format ............................. 31
   3. Distribution Lists and Mailing Lists .......................... 32
   3.1. Internet Discussion Lists ................................... 33
   3.2. Usenet ...................................................... 33
   3.3. BITNET/EARN ................................................. 35
   4. Internet Documentation ........................................ 36
   4.1. Request for Comments (RFCs) ................................. 36
   4.2. Internet Standards .......................................... 38
   4.3. For Your Information Documents .............................. 39
   4.4. RARE Technical Reports ...................................... 40
   5. Perusing the Internet ......................................... 40
   6. Acronyms and Abbreviations .................................... 42
   7. Security Considerations ....................................... 43
   8. Acknowledgements .............................................. 43
   9. References .................................................... 43
   10. Authors' Addresses ........................................... 46



Kessler & Shepard                                               [Page 1]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


1. Introduction

   This memo is an introductory guide to some of the TCP/IP and Internet
   tools and utilities that allow users to access the wide variety of
   information on the network, from determining if a particular host is
   up to viewing a multimedia thesis on foreign policy.  It also
   describes discussion lists accessible from the Internet, ways to
   obtain Internet documents, and resources that help users weave their
   way through the Internet.  This memo may be used as a tutorial for
   individual self-learning, a step-by-step laboratory manual for a
   course, or as the basis for a site's users manual.  It is intended as
   a basic guide only and will refer to other sources for more detailed
   information.

2. A Beginner's Guide to TCP/IP-based Utilities and Applications

   This section provides descriptions and detailed examples of several
   TCP/IP utilities and applications, including actual sessions using
   these utilities (with some extraneous information removed).  Each
   section below describes a single TCP/IP-based tool, it's application,
   and, in some cases, how it works.  The text description is followed
   by an actual sample session.

   The sample dialogues shown below were made using the Multinet TCP/IP
   software for VAX/VMS or DOS versions of FTP Software's PC/TCP.  While
   the examples below can be used as a guide to using and learning about
   the capabilities of these tools, the reader should understand that
   not all of these utilities may be found at all TCP/IP hosts nor in
   all commercial software packages.  Furthermore, the user interface
   for different packages will be different and the actual command line
   may appear differently than shown here; this will be particularly
   true for graphical user interfaces running over Windows, X-Windows,
   OS/2, or Macintosh systems.  The Internet has many exciting things to
   offer but standardized interfaces to the protocols is not yet one of
   them!  This guide will not provide any detail or motivation about the
   Internet Protocol Suite; more information about the TCP/IP protocols
   and related issues may be found in RFC 1180 [18], Comer [22], Feit
   [23], and Kessler [30].

   In the commands shown in the descriptions below, any item appearing
   in square brackets ([]) is optional and the vertical-bar (|) means
   "or"; parameters appearing with no brackets or within curly brackets
   ({}) are mandatory.  In the sample dialogues, most user input is in
   capital letters (only where allowed) and lines containing user input
   are designated with a "**" in the far-left margin.

   AUTHOR'S NOTE: The sample dialogues are easier to read in the
   secondary, Postscript version of this RFC.



Kessler & Shepard                                               [Page 2]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


2.1. NSLOOKUP

   NSLOOKUP is the name server lookup program that comes with many
   TCP/IP software packages.  A user can use NSLOOKUP to examine entries
   in the Domain Name System (DNS) database that pertain to a particular
   host or domain; one common use is to determine a host system's IP
   address from its name or the host's name from its IP address.  The
   general form of the command to make a single query is:

        NSLOOKUP  [IP_address | host_name]

   If the program is started without any parameters, the user will be
   prompted for input; the user can enter either an IP address or host
   name at that time, and the program will respond with the name and
   address of the default name sever, the name server actually used to
   resolve each request, and the IP address and host name that was
   queried.  "Exit" is used to quit the NSLOOKUP application.

   Three simple queries are shown in the example below:

  1. Requests the address of the host named "emily.uvm.edu", a system at
     the University of Vermont (UVM).  As it turns out, this is not the
     true name of the host, but a shortened version of the name that is
     accepted as an alias by the network.  The full name of the host and
     the IP address are listed by NSLOOKUP.

  2. Requests the address of host "emily.emba.uvm.edu", which is the
     same host as in the first query.  Note that NSLOOKUP provides a
     "non-authoritative" answer.  Since NSLOOKUP just queried this same
     address, the information is still in its cache memory.  Rather than
     send additional messages to the name server, the answer is one that
     it remembers from before; the server didn't look up the information
     again, however, so it is not guaranteed to still be accurate
     (because the information might have changed within the last few
     milliseconds!).

  3. Requests the name of the host with the given IP address.  The
     result points to the Internet gateway to Australia,
     "munnari.oz.au".

   One additional query is shown in the dialogue below.  NSLOOKUP
   examines information that is stored by the DNS.  The default NSLOOKUP
   queries examine basic address records (called "A records") to
   reconcile the host name and IP address, although other information is
   also available.  In the final query below, for example, the user
   wants to know where electronic mail addressed to the "uvm.edu" domain
   actually gets delivered, since "uvm.edu" is not the name of an actual
   host.  This is accomplished by changing the query type to look for



Kessler & Shepard                                               [Page 3]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   mail exchange (MX) records by issuing a "set type" command (which
   must be in lower case).  The query shows that mail addressed to
   "uvm.edu" is handled though a mail server called "moose.uvm.edu". The
   DNS is beyond the scope of this introduction, although more
   information about the concepts and structure of the DNS can be found
   in STD 13/RFC 1034 [12] and RFC 1591 [13].  The "help" command can be
   issued at the program prompt for information about NSLOOKUP's more
   advanced commands.

   TECHNICAL NOTE: There are other tools that might be available on your
   system or with your software for examining the DNS.  Alternatives to
   NSLOOKUP include HOST and DIG.

      ==================================================================
   ** SMCVAX$ NSLOOKUP

      Default Server:  LOCALHOST
      Address:  127.0.0.1

   ** > EMILY.UVM.EDU
      Server:  LOCALHOST
      Address:  127.0.0.1

      Name:    emily.emba.uvm.edu
      Address:  132.198.1.7
      Aliases:  emily.uvm.edu

   ** > EMILY.EMBA.UVM.EDU
      Server:  LOCALHOST
      Address:  127.0.0.1

      Non-authoritative answer:
      Name:    emily.emba.uvm.edu
      Address:  132.198.1.7

   ** > 128.250.1.21
      Server:  LOCALHOST
      Address:  127.0.0.1

      Name:    munnari.OZ.AU
      Address:  128.250.1.21

   ** > set type=MX
   ** > UVM.EDU
      Server:  LOCALHOST
      Address:  127.0.0.1

      uvm.edu preference = 10, mail exchanger = moose.uvm.edu



Kessler & Shepard                                               [Page 4]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


      moose.uvm.edu   internet address = 132.198.101.60

   ** > EXIT

      SMCVAX$
      ==================================================================

2.2. PING

   Ping is one of the most widely available tools bundled with TCP/IP
   software packages.  Ping uses a series of Internet Control Message
   Protocol (ICMP) Echo messages to determine if a remote host is active
   or inactive, and to determine the round-trip delay in communicating
   with it.  The Ping command, referred to as the Packet Internetwork
   Groper in some references, has the following general format:

        PING [-s] {IP_address | host_name} [size] [quantity]

   In the first test below, we ping the host "thumper.bellcore.com" to
   determine whether it is up and running.  This simple use of the
   command contains no optional parameters.

   In the second test, the "-s" parameter tells the system to send an
   ICMP Echo message every second.  The optional "size" parameter
   specifies that each message should be 64 bytes in length (which is
   the default size); the optional "quantity" parameter indicates that
   this test will only send 12 messages (the default is to run the test
   continuously until interrupted).  The results of the second test
   displays the round-trip delay of each Echo message that is returned
   to the sending host; at the end of the test, summary statistics are
   displayed.

      ==================================================================
   ** SMCVAX$ PING THUMPER.BELLCORE.COM
      thumper.bellcore.com is alive

   ** SMCVAX$ PING -S THUMPER.BELLCORE.COM  64  12
      PING THUMPER.BELLCORE.COM (128.96.41.1): 56 data bytes
      64 bytes from 128.96.41.1: icmp_seq=0 time=150 ms
      64 bytes from 128.96.41.1: icmp_seq=1 time=110 ms
      64 bytes from 128.96.41.1: icmp_seq=2 time=130 ms
      64 bytes from 128.96.41.1: icmp_seq=3 time=130 ms
      64 bytes from 128.96.41.1: icmp_seq=4 time=320 ms
      64 bytes from 128.96.41.1: icmp_seq=5 time=110 ms
      64 bytes from 128.96.41.1: icmp_seq=6 time=440 ms
      64 bytes from 128.96.41.1: icmp_seq=7 time=90 ms
      64 bytes from 128.96.41.1: icmp_seq=9 time=100 ms
      64 bytes from 128.96.41.1: icmp_seq=10 time=110 ms



Kessler & Shepard                                               [Page 5]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


      ----THUMPER.BELLCORE.COM PING Statistics----
      12 packets transmitted, 10 packets received, 16% packet loss
      round-trip (ms)  min/avg/max = 90/169/440

      SMCVAX$
      ==================================================================

2.3. FINGER

   The Finger program may be used to find out who is logged in on
   another system or to find out detailed information about a specific
   user.  This command has also introduced a brand new verb; "fingering"
   someone on the Internet is not necessarily a rude thing to do!  The
   Finger User Information Protocol is described in RFC 1288 [20].  The
   most general format of the Finger command is:

        FINGER [username]@host_name

   The first example below shows the result of fingering an individual
   user at a remote system.  The first line of the response shows the
   username, the user's real name, their process identifier,
   application, and terminal port number.  Additional information may be
   supplied at the option of the user in "plan" and/or "project" files
   that they supply; these files are often named PLAN.TXT or
   PROJECT.TXT, respectively, and reside in a user's root directory (or
   somewhere in an appropriate search path).

   The second example shows the result of fingering a remote system.
   This lists all of the processes currently running at the fingered
   system or other information, depending upon how the remote system's
   administrator set up the system to respond to the Finger command.




















Kessler & Shepard                                               [Page 6]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


      ==================================================================
   ** C:\> FINGER KUMQUAT@SMCVAX.SMCVT.EDU
      [smcvax.smcvt.edu]
      KUMQUAT  Gary Kessler            20A02991 MAIL           TXA3
      Last login Fri 15-Jul-1994 2:59 PM-EDT

      Plan:

      -----------------------------------------------------------------
      Gary C. Kessler
      Adjunct Faculty Member, Graduate College

      Senior Member of Technical Staff
      Hill Associates               +1 802-655-8633 or 655-0940 (office)
      17 Roosevelt Highway          +1 802-655-7974 (fax)
      Colchester, VT  05446         +1 802-879-5242 (home)
      INTERNET:  kumquat@smcvax.smcvt.edu or kumquat@hill.com
      -----------------------------------------------------------------

   ** C:\> FINGER @SMCVAX.SMCVT.EDU
      [smcvax.smcvt.edu]
      Friday, July 15, 1994 4:00PM-EDT   Up 21 03:41:31
      7+0 Jobs on SMCVAX  Load ave  0.24 0.31 0.25

       User    Personal Name       Subsys
      DENIS    Denis Stratford     MAIL
      GOODWIN  Dave Goodwin        RTPAD
      JAT      John Trono          EDT
      KUMQUAT  Gary Kessler        MAIL
      INFO     SMC Info Service    TELNET
      SYSTEM   System Manager      *DCL*
      SMITH    Jim Smith           LYNX

      C:\>
      ================================================================

2.4. TRACEROUTE

   Traceroute is another common TCP/IP tool, this one allowing users to
   learn about the route that packets take from their local host to a
   remote host.  Although used often by network and system managers as a
   simple, yet powerful, debugging aid, traceroute can be used by end
   users to learn something about the structure of the Internet.

   The Traceroute command has the following general format (where "#"
   represents a positive integer value associated with the qualifier):

      TRACEROUTE [-m #] [-q #] [-w #] [-p #] {IP_address | host_name}



Kessler & Shepard                                               [Page 7]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   where  -m   is the maximum allowable TTL value, measured as the
                number of hops allowed before the program terminates
               (default = 30)
          -q   is the number of UDP packets that will be sent with each
               time-to-live setting (default = 3)
          -w   is the amount of time, in seconds, to wait for an answer
               from a particular router before giving up (default = 5)
          -p   is the invalid port address at the remote host (default =
               33434)

   The Traceroute example below shows the route between a host at St.
   Michael's College in Colchester, Vermont (smcvax.smcvt.edu) and a
   host at Bellcore in Red Bank, New Jersey (thumper.bellcore.com).  The
   output has some interesting points:

   1. NEARnet, the New England Academic and Research Network, is a
      regional network serving the northeastern U.S.  The packets' route
      runs from St. Mike's NEARnet gateway (smc-gw) to the University of
      Vermont (uvm-gw), etc.  Note that some intermediate systems (see
      lines 4 and 16) do not have names associated with them.

   2. From NEARnet (lines 1-6), the packets travel on the National
      Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) T3 backbone (lines 7-11).  The
      NSFNET backbone nodes are identified as "ans.net" since the NSFNET
      is operated by Advanced Networks and Services, Inc. (ANS).  The
      packets travel within ANS' network on their core nodal switching
      subsystems ("cnss") until ready to jump off the backbone; line 11
      indicates an ANS exterior nodal switching subsystem ("enss").  The
      datagrams are then carried on the JvNCnet (lines 12-16), a regional
      network in New Jersey (note the use of SMDS!).  Finally, the
      datagrams are placed on Bellcore's internal network (lines 17 and
      18) for final delivery.

   3. Note that not all of the datagrams take the same route.  In
      particular, only two of the datagrams go through the ANS gateway
      referred to at line 10.  Note also line 17; here, the first two
      datagrams go through one router at Bellcore, while the third
      datagram goes through a companion router.

   TECHNICAL NOTE: Traceroute works by sending a sequence of User
   Datagram Protocol (UDP) datagrams to an invalid port address at the
   remote host.  Using the default settings, three datagrams are sent,
   each with a Time-To-Live (TTL) field value set to one.  The TTL value
   of 1 causes the datagram to "timeout" as soon as it hits the first
   router in the path; this router will then respond with an ICMP Time
   Exceeded Message (TEM) indicating that the datagram has expired.
   Another three UDP messages are now sent, each with the TTL value set
   to 2, which causes the second router to return ICMP TEMs.  This



Kessler & Shepard                                               [Page 8]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   process continues until the packets actually reach the other
   destination.  Since these datagrams are trying to access an invalid
   port at the destination host, ICMP Destination Unreachable Messages
   are returned indicating an unreachable port; this event signals the
   Traceroute program that it is finished!  The Traceroute program
   displays the round-trip delay associated with each of the attempts.

   As an interesting aside, Traceroute did not begin life as a general-
   purpose utility, but as a quick-and-dirty debugging aid used to find
   a routing problem.  The code (complete with comments!) is available
   by anonymous FTP in the file "traceroute.tar.Z" from the host
   "ftp.ee.lbl.gov".  (See Section 2.5 for a discussion of anonymous
   FTP.)

   ==================================================================
** SMCVAX$ TRACEROUTE THUMPER.BELLCORE.COM
   traceroute to THUMPER.BELLCORE.COM (128.96.41.1), 30 hops max, 38
   byte packets
    1 smc-gw.near.net (192.80.64.5) 50 ms  20 ms  10 ms
    2 uvm-gw.near.net (131.192.152.1) 160 ms  50 ms  30 ms
    3 harvard-gw.near.net (131.192.65.1) 470 ms  60 ms  60 ms
    4 131.192.32.3 (131.192.32.3) 50 ms  50 ms  40 ms
    5 mit2-gw.near.net (131.192.7.1) 50 ms  40 ms  40 ms
    6 enss.near.net (192.54.222.6) 60 ms  90 ms  40 ms
    7 t3-2.Hartford-cnss49.t3.ans.net (140.222.49.3) 70 ms 100 ms  60 ms
    8 t3-3.Hartford-cnss48.t3.ans.net (140.222.48.4) 70 ms  40 ms  40 ms
    9 t3-2.New-York-cnss32.t3.ans.net (140.222.32.3) 50 ms  60 ms  70 ms
   10 * t3-0.New-York-cnss33.t3.ans.net (140.222.33.1) 340 ms  110 ms
   11 t3-0.enss137.t3.ans.net (140.222.137.1) 90 ms  420 ms  190 ms
   12 zaphod-gateway.jvnc.net (192.12.211.65) 70 ms  50 ms  70 ms
   13 airport1-gateway.jvnc.net (130.94.6.250) 390 ms  110 ms  60 ms
   14 airport4-gateway.jvnc.net (130.94.7.4) 70 ms  50 ms  60 ms
   15 coreSMDS-gateway.jvnc.net (130.94.7.106) 80 ms  130 ms  100 ms
   16 128.96.58.2 (128.96.58.2) 80 ms  70 ms  100 ms
   17 lab214b-cisco.cc.bellcore.com (128.96.34.40) 120 ms  120 ms
      lab214-cisco.cc.bellcore.com (128.96.34.101) 130 ms
   18 thumper.bellcore.com (128.96.41.1) 130 ms  430 ms  80 ms

   SMCVAX$
   ==================================================================











Kessler & Shepard                                               [Page 9]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


2.5. FTP

   The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) [16] is one of the most useful and
   powerful TCP/IP utilities for the general user.  FTP allows users to
   upload and download files between local and remote hosts.  Anonymous
   FTP, in particular, is commonly available at file archive sites to
   allow users to access files without having to pre-establish an
   account at the remote host.  The general form of the FTP command is:

        FTP [IP_address | host_name]

   As shown, FTP can be initiated in several ways.  In the example shown
   below, an FTP control connection is initiated to a host by supplying
   a host name with the FTP command; optionally, the host's IP address
   in dotted decimal form could be used.  If neither host name nor IP
   address are supplied in the command line, a connection to a host can
   be initiated by typing "OPEN host_name" or "OPEN IP_address" once the
   FTP application has been started.

   The remote host will now ask for a username and password.  If a
   legitimate, registered user of this host supplies a valid username
   and password, then the user will have access to any files and
   directories to which this username has privilege.  For anonymous FTP
   access, the username "anonymous" is used and the password (not shown
   in actual use) is "guest" (although an increasing number of systems
   ask that anonymous FTP users supply their Internet address as the
   password).

   The first command issued in the example below is "help ?", used to
   obtain a list of available FTP commands and help topics.  Although
   not always shown, nearly all TCP/IP applications have a help command.

   An example of the help for FTP's "type" command is shown in the
   sample dialogue.  This command is very important one, by the way; if
   transferring a binary or executable file, be sure to set the type to
   "image" (or "binary" on some systems).

   The "dir" command provides a directory listing of the files in the
   current directory at the remote host; the UNIX "ls" command may also
   usually be used.  Note that an FTP data transfer connection is
   established for the transfer of the directory information to the
   local host.  The output from the "dir" command will show a file
   listing that is consistent with the native operating system of the
   remote host.  Although the TCP/IP suite is often associated with
   UNIX, it can (and does) run with nearly all common operating systems.

   The directory information shown in the sample dialogue happens to be
   in UNIX format and includes the following information:



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 10]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   o File attributes.  The first character identifies this as a
     directory (d), link (l), or individual file (-).  The next nine
     characters list the access permissions for three groups, namely,
     the owner, the owner's group, and all other users.  Three access
     privileges may be assigned to each file for each of these groups:
     read (r), write (w), execute (x), and/or search (s).

   o File owner and owner's group.

   o File size, in bytes.

   o Date of last modification.  If the date is followed by a timestamp,
     then the date is from the current year.

   o File name.

   After the directory information has been transferred, FTP closes the
   data transfer connection.

   The command "cd" is used to change to another directory, in this case
   the "Gov" directory (note that file and directory names may be case-
   sensitive).  As in DOS, "cd .." will change to the parent of the
   current directory.  The "CWD command successful" is the only
   indication that the user's "cd" command was correctly executed; the
   "show-directory" (may be truncated to fewer characters, as shown)
   command, if available, may be used to see which directory you are in.

   Another "dir" command is used to find all files ending with the
   characters ".act"; note the use of the "*" wildcard character.  We
   can now copy (download) the file of choice (The Fair Credit Reporting
   Act, 1992) by using the "get" (or "receive") command, which has the
   following general format:

      GET  remote_file_name  local_file_name

   FTP opens another data transfer connection for this file transfer
   purpose; note that the effective data transfer rate is 39.98 kbps.

   FTP's "put" (or "send") command allows uploading from the local host
   to the remote.  "Put" is often not available when using anonymous
   FTP.

   Finally, we terminate the FTP connection by using the "close"
   command.  The user can initiate another FTP connection using the
   "open" command or can leave FTP by issuing a "quit" command.  "Quit"
   can also be used to close a connection and terminate a session.





Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 11]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   TECHNICAL NOTE: It is important to note that different FTP packages
   have different commands available and even those with similar names
   may act differently.  In the example shown here (using MultiNet for
   VMS), the "show" command will display the current directory; in
   another package (e.g., FTP Software's PC/TCP), "show" will display a
   file from the remote host at the local host.  Some packages have
   nothing equivalent to either of these commands!

      ==================================================================
   ** SMCVAX$ FTP FTP.SPIES.COM
      SMCVAX.SMCVT.EDU MultiNet FTP user process 3.2(106)
      Connection opened (Assuming 8-bit connections)
   ** Username: ANONYMOUS
   ** Password: GUEST

   ** WIRETAP.SPIES.COM> HELP ?
      Commands may be one of the following:
      ACCOUNT                       AGET
      APPEND                        APUT
      ASCII                         ATTACH
      BELL                          BINARY
      BYE                           BYTE
      CD                            CDUP
      CLOSE                         CONFIRM
      CPATH                         CREATE-DIRECTORY
      CWD                           DELETE
      DIRECTORY                     DISCONNECT
      EXIT                          EXIT-ON-ERROR
      GET                           HASH
      HELP                          LCD
      LDIR                          LOCAL-CD
      LOCAL-DIRECTORY               LOCAL-PWD
      LOGIN                         LPWD
      LS                            MDELETE
      MGET                          MKDIR
      MODE                          MPUT
      MULTIPLE                      PASSWORD
      PORT                          PROMPT-FOR-MISSING-ARGUMENTS
      PROMPT-ON-CONNECT             PUSH
      PUT                           PWD
      QUIT                          QUOTE
      RECEIVE                       REMOTE-HELP
      REMOVE-DIRECTORY              RENAME
      RETAIN                        RM
      RMDIR                         SEND
      SHOW-DIRECTORY                SITE
      SPAWN                         STATISTICS
      STATUS                        STREAM



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 12]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


      STRUCTURE                     TAKE
      TENEX                         TYPE
      USER                          VERBOSE
      VERSION

   ** WIRETAP.SPIES.COM> HELP TYPE
      The TYPE command changes the FTP transfer type.  The possible
      arguments to the TYPE command are ASCII, IMAGE, BACKUP, and
      LOGICAL-BYTE ASCII type is used for transferring ASCII text files.
      IMAGE type is used for transferring binary files.  BACKUP type is
      used for transferring VAX/VMS backup savesets with 2048 byte block
      size.

   ** WIRETAP.SPIES.COM> DIR
      <Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
      total 25
      drwxr-xr-x  2 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 .cap
      drwxr-xr-x  4 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 About
      -rw-r--r--  1 9013     daemon      791 Apr  6  1993 About_Gopher
      drwxr-xr-x  3 9013     daemon      512 Jul 12  1993 Books
      drwxr-xr-x 13 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 Clinton
      lrwxrwxrwx  1 root     daemon       12 Feb 26 07:02 Economic_Plan
      -> Gov/Economic
      drwxr-xr-x  4 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 Etext
      lrwxrwxrwx  1 root     daemon       13 Feb 26 07:01 GAO_Reports ->
      Gov/GAO-Trans
      drwxr-xr-x 29 9013     daemon     1024 Feb  3 00:15 Gov
      drwxr-xr-x 16 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 Library
      lrwxrwxrwx  1 root     daemon        9 Feb 26 06:56 NAFTA ->
      Gov/NAFTA
      drwxr-xr-x  2 9013     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 Other
      drwxr-xr-x  3 9013     daemon     3072 Apr  7 20:59 alt.etext
      drwxr-xr-x  8 root     42          512 Jul  1  1993 ba.internet
      dr-xr-xr-x  2 bin      wheel       512 Jul  1  1993 bin
      drwxr-xr-x  2 root     daemon      512 Feb 15 06:14 dev
      drwxr-xr-x  3 root     wheel       512 Jul  1  1993 etc
      drwxr-xr-x 11 9038     daemon      512 Dec 17 05:37 game_archive
      drwx-wx-wx  3 root     daemon     1024 Apr 18 02:09 incoming
      drwxr-xr-x  3 root     ftp         512 Oct 29 02:35 pub
      drwxr-xr-x  2 root     daemon      512 Jul  1  1992 tmp
      drwxr-xr-x  3 root     daemon      512 Jul  1  1993 usr
      drwxr-xr-x  3 9013     42         1024 Jul  1  1993 waffle
      <Transfer complete.
      1490 bytes transferred at 4966 bps.
      Run time = 10. ms, Elapsed time = 2400. ms.

   ** WIRETAP.SPIES.COM> CD Gov
      <CWD command successful.



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 13]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   ** WIRETAP.SPIES.COM> SHOW
      <"/Gov" is current directory.

   ** WIRETAP.SPIES.COM> DIR *.act
      <Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
      -rw-r--r--  1 9013     42        32695 Dec 10 21:37 brady.act
      -r--r--r--  1 9013     42       168649 Mar 26  1993 disable.act
      -r--r--r--  1 9013     42        62602 Mar 30  1993 ecpa.act
      -r--r--r--  1 9013     42        29519 Mar 30  1993 faircredit.act
      -r--r--r--  1 9013     42        57206 Mar 30  1993 privacy.act
      -r--r--r--  1 9013     42        16261 Mar 26  1993 warpower.act
      <Transfer complete.
      401 bytes transferred at 7638 bps.
      Run time = 0. ms, Elapsed time = 420. ms.

   ** WIRETAP.SPIES.COM> GET faircredit.act FAIRCRDT.TXT
      <Opening ASCII mode data connection for faircredit.act (29519
      bytes).
      <Transfer complete.
      30132 bytes transferred at 39976 bps.
      Run time = 40. ms, Elapsed time = 6030. ms.

   ** WIRETAP.SPIES.COM> QUIT
      <Goodbye.
      SMCVAX$
      ================================================================

2.6. TELNET

   TELNET [17] is TCP/IP's virtual terminal protocol.  Using TELNET, a
   user connected to one host can login to another host, appearing like
   a directly-attached terminal at the remote system; this is TCP/IP's
   definition of a "virtual terminal."  The general form of the TELNET
   command is:

        TELNET  [IP_address | host_name]  [port]

   As shown, a TELNET connection is initiated when the user enters the
   "TELNET" command and supplies either a "host_name" or "IP_address";
   if neither are given, TELNET will ask for one once the application
   begins.

   In the example below, a user logged onto a PC on a LAN will use
   TELNET to attach to the remote host "smcvax.smcvt.edu".   Once logged
   in via TELNET, the user can do anything on the remote host that they
   could do if they were on a directly-connected terminal or had dialed-
   up by modem.  The commands that are used are those available on the
   remote system to which the user is attached.  In the sample dialogue



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 14]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   below, the user attached to SMCVAX will use basic VAX/VMS commands:

   o  The "dir" command lists the files having a "COM" file extension.
   o  The "mail" command enters the MAIL system (there are no messages).
   o  "Pinging" the home host shows that it is alive!

   When finished, "logout" logs the user off the remote host; TELNET
   automatically closes the connection to the remote host and returns
   control to the local system.

   It is important to note that TELNET is a very powerful tool, one that
   may provide users with access to many Internet utilities and services
   that might not be otherwise available.  Many of these features are
   accessed by specifying a port number with the TELNET command, in
   addition to a host's address, and knowledge of port numbers provides
   another mechanism for users to access information with Telnet.

   This guide discusses several TCP/IP and Internet utilities that
   require local client software, such as Finger, Whois, Archie, and
   Gopher.  But what if your software does not include a needed client?
   In some cases, Telnet may be used to access a remote client and
   provide the same functionality.

   This is done by specifying a port number with the TELNET command.
   Just as TCP/IP hosts have a unique IP address, applications on the
   host are associated with an address, called a "port".  Finger, for
   example, is associated with the well-known port number 79.  In the
   absence of a Finger client, TELNETing to port 79 at a remote host may
   provide the same information.  You can "finger" another host with
   TELNET by using a command like:

                              TELNET host_name 79

   Other well-known TCP/IP port numbers include 20 (FTP data transfer),
   21 (FTP control), 25 (SMTP), 43 (whois), 70 (Gopher), and 185
   (KNOWBOT).

   Some services are available on the Internet using TELNET and special
   port numbers.  A geographical information database, for example, may
   be accessed by TELNETing to port 3000 at host
   "martini.eecs.umich.edu"; current weather information is available at
   port 3000 at hosts "downwind.sprl.umich.edu" and
   "wind.atmos.uah.edu".








Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 15]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   ==================================================================
** C:\> TELNET SMCVAX.SMCVT.EDU
   FTP Software PC/TCP tn 2.31 01/07/94 12:38
   Copyright (c) 1986-1993 by FTP Software, Inc. All rights reserved

   - Connected to St. Michael's College -

** Username: KUMQUAT
** Password:

   St. Michael's College VAX/VMS System.
   Node SMCVAX.

       Last interactive login on Thursday,  9-JUN-1994 11:55
       Last non-interactive login on Thursday,  9-JUN-1994 08:20

   Good Afternoon User KUMQUAT.  Logged in on 12-JUN-1994 at 3:27 PM.

   User [GUEST,KUMQUAT] has 4292 blocks used, 5708 available,
   of 10000 authorized and permitted overdraft of 100 blocks on $1$DIA2

** SMCVAX$ DIR *.COM
   Directory $1$DIA2:[GUEST.KUMQUAT]

   BACKUP.COM;24         24  16-JUL-1990 16:22:46.68  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   DELTREE.COM;17         3  16-JUL-1990 16:22:47.58  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   EXPANDZ.COM;7          2  22-FEB-1993 10:00:04.35  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   FTSLOGBLD.COM;3        1  16-JUL-1990 16:22:48.57  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   FTSRRR.COM;2           1  16-JUL-1990 16:22:48.73  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   LOGIN.COM;116          5   1-DEC-1993 09:33:21.61  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   SNOOPY.COM;6           1  16-JUL-1990 16:22:52.06  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   SYLOGIN.COM;83         8  16-JUL-1990 16:22:52.88  (RWED,RWED,RE,RE)
   SYSHUTDWN.COM;1        0  16-JUL-1990 16:22:53.04  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   SYSTARTUP.COM;88      15  16-JUL-1990 16:22:53.21  (RWED,RWED,RE,)
   WATCH_MAIL.COM;1     173  10-MAY-1994 09:59:52.65  (RWED,RWED,RE,)

   Total of 11 files, 233 blocks.

** SMCVAX$ MAIL
** MAIL> EXIT

** SMCVAX$ PING HILL.COM /N=5
   PING HILL.COM (199.182.20.4): 56 data bytes
   64 bytes from 199.182.20.4: icmp_seq=0 time=290 ms
   64 bytes from 199.182.20.4: icmp_seq=1 time=260 ms
   64 bytes from 199.182.20.4: icmp_seq=2 time=260 ms
   64 bytes from 199.182.20.4: icmp_seq=3 time=260 ms
   64 bytes from 199.182.20.4: icmp_seq=4 time=260 ms



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 16]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   ----HILL.COM PING Statistics----
   5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received, 0% packet loss
   round-trip (ms)  min/avg/max = 260/266/290

** SMCVAX$ LOGOUT
     KUMQUAT      logged out at 12-JUN-1994 15:37:04.29

   Connection #0 closed

   C:\>
   ==================================================================

2.7. User Database Lookup Tools

2.7.1. WHOIS/NICNAME

   WHOIS and NICNAME are TCP/IP applications that search databases to
   find the name of network and system administrators, RFC authors,
   system and network points-of-contact, and other individuals who are
   registered in appropriate databases.  The original NICNAME/WHOIS
   protocol is described in RFC 954 [4].

   WHOIS may be accessed by TELNETing to an appropriate WHOIS server and
   logging in as "WHOIS" (no password is required); the most common
   Internet name server is located at the Internet Network Information
   Center (InterNIC) at "rs.internic.net".  This specific database, in
   particular, only contains INTERNET domains, IP network numbers, and
   points of contact; policies governing the InterNIC database are
   described in RFC 1400 [19].  The MILNET database resides at
   "nic.ddn.mil" and PSI's White Pages pilot service is located at
   "psi.com".

   Many software packages contain a WHOIS/NICNAME client that
   automatically establishes the TELNET connection to a default name
   server database, although users can usually specify any name server
   database that they want.

   The accompanying dialogues shows several types of WHOIS/NICNAME
   information queries.  In the session below, we request information
   about an individual (Denis Stratford) by using WHOIS locally, a
   specific domain (hill.com) by using NICNAME locally, and a high-level
   domain (edu) using TELNET to a WHOIS server.









Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 17]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


      ==================================================================
   ** SMCVAX$ WHOIS STRATFORD, DENIS
      Stratford, Denis (DS378)      denis@@SMCVAX.SMCVT.EDU
         St. Michael's College
         Jemery Hall, Room 274
         Winooski Park
         Colchester, VT 05439
         (802) 654-2384

         Record last updated on 02-Nov-92.
      SMCVAX$

   ** C:\> NICNAME HILL.COM
      Hill Associates (HILL-DOM)
         17 Roosevelt Highway
         Colchester, VT 05446

         Domain Name: HILL.COM

         Administrative Contact:
            Kessler, Gary C.  (GK34)  kumquat@HILL.COM
            (802) 655-8633
         Technical Contact, Zone Contact:
            Monaghan, Carol A.  (CAM4)  cam@HILL.COM
            (802) 655-8630

         Record last updated on 15-Jun-94.

         Domain servers in listed order:

         NETCOMSV.NETCOM.COM   192.100.81.101
         NS.NETCOM.COM              192.100.81.105
   ** C:\> TELNET RS.INTERNIC.NET
      Connected to RS.INTERNIC.NET, a SUN 670 running SUNOS-4.1.3

      ******************************************************************
      * -- InterNIC Registration Services Center  --
      ******************************************************************

      Cmdinter Ver 1.3 Mon Mar 21 13:42:27 1994 EST
   ** [dec-vt220] InterNIC> WHOIS
      Connected to the rs Database
      InterNIC WHOIS Version: 1.0 Mon, 21 Mar 94 13:42:32

   ** Whois: DOMAIN EDU
      Education top-level domain (EDU-DOM)
         Network Solutions, Inc.
         505 Huntmar park Dr.



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 18]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


         Herndon, VA 22070

         Domain Name: EDU

         Administrative Contact, Technical Contact, Zone Contact:
          Network Solutions, Inc.  (HOSTMASTER)  HOSTMASTER@INTERNIC.NET
          (703) 742-4777 (FAX) (703) 742-4811

         Record last updated on 16-May-94.

         Domain servers in listed order:

         NS.INTERNIC.NET              198.41.0.4
         AOS.ARL.ARMY.MIL             128.63.4.82, 192.5.25.82
         NS1.ISI.EDU                  128.9.0.107
         C.NYSER.NET                  192.33.4.12
         TERP.UMD.EDU                 128.8.10.90
         NS.NASA.GOV                  128.102.16.10, 192.52.195.10
         NIC.NORDU.NET                192.36.148.17
         NS.NIC.DDN.MIL               192.112.36.4

    Would you like to see the known domains under this top-level domain?
   ** Y

         There are 1504 known sub-domains:

         0.EDU            Reserved Domain
         1.EDU            Reserved Domain
         2.EDU            Reserved Domain
         22CF.EDU         22nd Century Foundation
         3.EDU            Reserved Domain
   ** There are 1499 more matches.  Show them? N

   ** Whois: EXIT

   ** [dec-vt220] InterNIC> QUIT

      Connection #0 closed
      C:\>
      ==================================================================











Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 19]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


2.7.2. KNOWBOT

   KNOWBOT is an automated username database search tool that is related
   to WHOIS.  The Knowbot Information Service (KIS) provides a simple
   WHOIS-like interface that allows users to query several Internet user
   databases (White Pages services) all at one time.  A single KIS query
   will automatically search the InterNIC, MILNET, MCImail, and PSI
   White Pages Pilot Project; other databases may also be included.

   KNOWBOT may be accessed by TELNETing to port 185 at host
   "info.cnri.reston.va.us" or "sol.bucknell.edu".  The "help" command
   will supply sufficient information to get started.  The sample
   dialogue below shows use of the "query" command to locate a user
   named "Gary Kessler"; this command automatically starts a search
   through the default set of Internet databases.

      ==================================================================
   ** C:\> TELNET INFO.CNRI.RESTON.VA.US 185

                      Knowbot Information Service
      KIS Client (V2.0).    Copyright CNRI 1990.    All Rights Reserved.

      Please enter your email address in our guest book...
   ** (Your email address?) > KUMQUAT@HILL.COM

   ** > QUERY KESSLER, GARY

      Trying whois at ds.internic.net...
      The ds.internic.net whois server is being queried:
      No match for "KESSLER and GARY"

      The rs.internic.net whois server is being queried:

      Kessler, Gary C. (GK34)         kumquat@HILL.COM
         Hill Associates
         17 Roosevelt Highway
         Colchester, VT 05446
         (802) 655-8633

      The nic.ddn.mil whois server is being queried:

      Kessler, Gary P. (GK15)         sa75@TECNET1.JCTE.JCS.MIL
         NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER-AD PAX
         Simulation & Control Technology Dept
         SATD
         Patuxent River, MD 20670
         301-826-3192 (DSN) 326-3192 (FAX) 301-826-4555
         MILNET TAC user (Issued: 11-jul-1994)



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 20]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


         TAC authorizing host: TECNET1.JCTE.JCS.MIL (NATC-3COM)

      Trying mcimail at cnri.reston.va.us...
      Trying ripe at whois.ripe.net...
      Trying whois at whois.lac.net...
      No match found for .KESSLER,GARY

   ** > QUIT
      KIS exiting
      Connection #0 closed
      C:\>
      ==================================================================

2.7.3. NETFIND

   NETFIND is another tool that may be used to locate people on the
   network.  NETFIND's advantage is that it searches for users by
   utilizing extant tools such as Finger and SMTP, thus providing the
   potential to find any user on any host without relying on databases.
   For NETFIND to be successful, however, the system manager of existing
   systems must set up Finger and SMTP to respond correctly to NETFIND's
   queries.  NETFIND is still relatively new and use will grow over
   time.

   NETFIND is a menu-driven, text-based system.  Users need to TELNET to
   an available NETFIND server.  Once connected, login as "netfind"
   (must be lower-case; no password required) and follow the menu
   prompts.  The sample dialogue below shows the search for "Tom
   Maufer", who is known to work at Goddard Space Flight Center ("gsfc")
   at NASA ("nasa.gov").

   The primary NETFIND server is located at the University of Colorado
   in Boulder (bruno.cs.colorado.edu); alternate servers include:

      archie.au (AARNet, Melbourne, Australia)
      dino.conicit.ve (Nat. Council for Tech. & Sci. Res., Venezuela)
      ds.internic.net (InterNIC Directory & DB Svcs., S. Plainfield, NJ)
      eis.calstate.edu (California State University, Fullerton, CA)
      krnic.net (Korea Network Information Center, Taejon, Korea)
      lincoln.technet.sg (Technet Unit, Singapore)
      malloco.ing.puc.cl (Catholic University of Chile, Santiago)
      monolith.cc.ic.ac.uk (Imperial College, London, England)
      mudhoney.micro.umn.edu (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis)
      netfind.anu.edu.au (Australian National University, Canberra)
      netfind.ee.mcgill.ca (McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada)
      netfind.fnet.fr (Association FNET, Le Kremlin-Bicetre, France)
      netfind.icm.edu.pl (Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland)
      netfind.if.usp.br (University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil)



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 21]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


      netfind.oc.com (OpenConnect Systems, Dallas, Texas)
      netfind.sjsu.edu (San Jose State University, San Jose, California)
      netfind.vslib.cz (Liberec Univ. of Technology, Czech Republic)
      nic.uakom.sk (Academy of Sciences, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia)
      redmont.cis.uab.edu (University of Alabama at Birmingham)

      ==================================================================
   ** C:\> TELNET DS.INTERNIC.NET
      SunOS UNIX (ds)

   ** login: netfind

      ===================================================
      Welcome to the InterNIC Directory & Database Server
      ===================================================

      Top level choices:
              1. Help
              2. Search
              3. Seed database lookup
              4. Options
              5. Quit (exit server)
   ** --> 2

   ** Enter person and keys (blank to exit) --> MAUFER GSFC NASA GOV

      Please select at most 3 of the following domains to search:
             0. gsfc.nasa.gov (goddard space flight center, united states
      national aeronautics and space administration, greenbelt, maryland)
             1. antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov (compton gamma ray observatory
      science support center, goddard space flight center, united states
      national aeronautics and space administration, greenbelt, maryland)
             2. enemy.gsfc.nasa.gov (compton gamma ray observatory science
      support center, goddard space flight center, united states national
      aeronautics and space administration, greenbelt, maryland)
             3. upolu.gsfc.nasa.gov (goddard space flight center, united
      states national aeronautics and space administration, greenbelt,
      maryland)

   ** Enter selection (e.g., 2 0 1) --> 0
      ( 1) SMTP_Finger_Search: checking domain gsfc.nasa.gov
      Mail is forwarded to tom@stimpy.gsfc.nasa.gov
      NOTE: this is a domain mail forwarding arrangement - mail intended
            for "maufer" should be addressed to "tom@gsfc.nasa.gov"
            rather than "tom@stimpy.gsfc.nasa.gov".






Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 22]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


      ( 1) SMTP_Finger_Search: checking host stimpy.gsfc.nasa.gov
      ------
      Domain search completed.  Proceeding to host search.
      ------

      SYSTEM: kong.gsfc.nasa.gov
              Login name: maufer         In real life: Tom Maufer - CBSI
              Directory: /vault/maufer   Shell: /bin/csh
              Last login Fri Sep 24, 1993 on ttypc from rocinante.gsfc.n
              No unread mail
              No Plan.

      FINGER SUMMARY:
      - The most promising email address for "maufer"
        based on the above finger search is
        tom@gsfc.nasa.gov.

   ** Continue the search ([n]/y) ? --> N
   ** Enter person and keys (blank to exit) -->

      Top level choices:
              1. Help
              2. Search
              3. Seed database lookup
              4. Options
              5. Quit (exit server)
   ** --> 5
      Exiting Netfind server...

      Connection #0 closed
      C:\>
      ==================================================================



















Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 23]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


2.8. Information Servers

2.8.1. ARCHIE

   Archie is a tool for locating files on the Internet, originally
   developed at the Computer Science Department at McGill University in
   Montreal.  Archie allows users to find software, data, and other
   information files that reside at anonymous FTP archive sites across
   the Internet; the name of the program, reportedly, is derived from
   the word "archive" and not from the comic book character.  Archie
   tracks the contents of over 1,000 anonymous FTP archive sites
   containing over 2 million files.  The Archie server automatically
   updates the information from each registered site about once a month,
   providing relatively up-to-date information without unduly stressing
   the network.

   Before using Archie, you must identify a server address.  The sites
   below all support Archie; most (but not all) Archie sites support the
   "servers" command which lists all known Archie servers.  Due to the
   popularity of Archie and its high processing demands, many sites
   limit access to non-peak hours and/or limit the number of
   simultaneous Archie users.  Available Archie sites include:

      archie.au                   139.130.4.6     Australia
      archie.edvz.uni-linz.ac.at  140.78.3.8      Austria
      archie.univie.ac.at         131.130.1.23    Austria
      archie.uqam.ca              132.208.250.10  Canada
      archie.funet.fi             128.214.6.100   Finland
      archie.th-darmstadt.de      130.83.22.60    Germany
      archie.ac.il                132.65.6.15     Israel
      archie.unipi.it             131.114.21.10   Italy
      archie.wide.ad.jp           133.4.3.6       Japan
      archie.hana.nm.kr           128.134.1.1     Korea
      archie.sogang.ac.kr         163.239.1.11    Korea
      archie.uninett.no           128.39.2.20     Norway
      archie.rediris.es           130.206.1.2     Spain
      archie.luth.se              130.240.18.4    Sweden
      archie.switch.ch            130.59.1.40     Switzerland
      archie.ncu.edu.tw           140.115.19.24   Taiwan
      archie.doc.ic.ac.uk         146.169.11.3    United Kingdom
      archie.unl.edu              129.93.1.14     USA (NE)
      archie.internic.net         198.48.45.10    USA (NJ)
      archie.rutgers.edu          128.6.18.15     USA (NJ)
      archie.ans.net              147.225.1.10    USA (NY)
      archie.sura.net             128.167.254.179 USA (MD)






Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 24]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   Archie servers may be accessed using TELNET.  When TELNETing to an
   Archie site, login as "archie" (you MUST use lower case); just hit
   <ENTER> if a password is requested.

   Once connected, the "help" command assists users in obtaining more
   information about using Archie.  Two more useful Archie commands are
   "prog", used to search for files in the database, and "whatis", which
   searches for keywords in the program descriptions.

   In the accompanying dialogue, the "set maxhits" command is used to
   limit the number of responses to any following "prog" commands; if
   this is not done, the user may get an enormous amount of information!

   In this example, the user issues a request to find entries related to
   "mpeg", ISO's Moving Pictures Experts Group video compression
   standard.  Armed with this information, a user can use anonymous FTP
   to examine these directories and files.

   The next request is for files with "security" as a keyword
   descriptor.  These responses can be used for subsequent "prog"
   commands.

   Exit archie using the "exit" command.  At this point, TELNET closes
   the connection and control returns to the local host.

   Additional information about Archie can be obtained by sending e-mail
   to Bunyip Information Systems (archie-info@bunyip.com).  Client
   software is not required to use Archie, but can make life a little
   easier; some such software can be downloaded using anonymous FTP from
   the "/pub/archie/" directory at host "ftp.cs.widener.edu" or in
   "/pub/archie/clients/" at "ftp.sura.net".  Most shareware and
   commercial Archie clients hide the complexity described in this
   section; users usually connect to a pre-configured Archie server
   merely by typing an "ARCHIE" command line.

   ==================================================================
** C:\> TELNET 129.93.1.14
   SunOS UNIX (crcnis2)

** login: archie
** Password:

    Welcome to the ARCHIE server at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln

   # Bunyip Information Systems, 1993

** unl-archie> HELP
   These are the commands you can use in help:



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 25]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


             .    go up one level in the hierarchy

             ?    display a list of valid subtopics at the current level

   <newline>
   done, ^D, ^C  quit from help entirely

        <string>  help on a topic or subtopic
   Eg.
         "help show"

   will give you the help screen for the "show" command

         "help set search"

   Will give you the help information for the "search" variable.

   The command "manpage" will give you a complete copy of the archie
   manual page.
** help> DONE

** unl-archie> SET MAXHITS 5
** unl-archie> PROG MPEG
   # Search type: sub.
   # Your queue position: 1
   # Estimated time for completion: 02:18

   Host ftp.germany.eu.net    (192.76.144.75)
     Location: /pub/applications/graphics
       DIRECTORY    drwxrwxr-x     512 bytes  00:00  7 Jul 1993  mpeg
     Location: /pub/comp/amiga/gfx
       DIRECTORY    drwxr-xr-x     512 bytes  00:00  7 Sep 1993  mpeg

   Host stsci.edu    (130.167.1.2)
     Location: /stsci/epa
       DIRECTORY    drwxr-xr-x     512 bytes  12:55 21 Jun 1994  mpeg

   Host ftp.nau.edu    (134.114.64.70)
     Location: /graphics
       DIRECTORY    drwxr-xr-x     512 bytes  04:51  3 Apr 1994  mpeg

   Host gum.isi.edu    (128.9.32.31)
     Location: /share/in-notes/media-types/video
       FILE    -rw-r--r--      15 bytes  18:45 11 Jan 1994  mpeg

** unl-archie> WHATIS SECURITY
   RFC 1037          Greenberg, B.; Keene, S. NFILE - a file access
                      protocol. 1987 December; 86 p.



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 26]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   RFC 1038          St. Johns, M. Draft revised IP security option.
                      1988 January; 7 p.
   cops              System Security analysis tool
   forktest          Find security holes in shell-escapes
   kerberos          Host security package
   safe-mkdir        mkdir() and security hole *****FIX****

** unl-archie> EXIT
   # Bye.
   Connection #0 closed
   C:\>
   ==================================================================

2.8.2. GOPHER

   The Internet Gopher protocol was developed at the University of
   Minnesota's Microcomputer Center in 1991, as a distributed
   information search and retrieval tool for the Internet.  Gopher is
   described in RFC 1436 [1]; the name derives from the University's
   mascot.

   Gopher provides a tool so that publicly available information at a
   host can be organized in a hierarchical fashion, allowing it to be
   perused using a simple menu system.  Gopher allows a user to view a
   file on demand without requiring additional file transfer protocols.
   Gopher also has the capability to "link" gophers on the Internet, so
   that each Gopher site can be used as a stepping stone to access other
   sites and reducing the amount of duplicate information and effort on
   the network.

   In many cases, users can access Gopher by TELNETing to a valid Gopher
   location; if the site provides a remote Gopher client, the user will
   see a text-based, menu interface.  The number of Gopher sites is
   growing rapidly; as the dialogue below shows, most Gopher sites have
   a menu item that will allow you to identify other Gopher sites.  If
   using TELNET, login with the username "gopher" (this MUST be in
   lowercase); no password is required.  Note that not all Gopher sites
   provide a remote Gopher client; users may need local Gopher client
   software on their system.

   The Gopher server at "ds.internic.net" has a tremendous amount of
   information for the new user, including lists of frequently asked
   questions and pointers to various Internet discussion lists.  In the
   sample dialogue below, the remote Gopher client is accessed by
   TELNETing to the host.  With the menu interface shown here, the user
   merely follows the prompts.  Initially, the main menu will appear;
   selecting item 2 causes Gopher to seize and display the "InterNIC
   Information Services" menu.  Move to the desired menu item by typing



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 27]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   the item number or by moving the "pointer" (-->) down to the desired
   entry using the <DOWN-ARROW> key on the keyboard, and then hitting
   <ENTER>.  To quit the program at any time, press "q" (quit); "?" and
   "u" will provide help or go back up to the previous menu,
   respectively.  Users may also search for strings within files using
   the "/" command or download the file being interrogated using the "D"
   command.

   Menu item 7 (selected in the dialogue shown here) is titled
   "Beginners: Start Here", an excellent place for new users to obtain
   information about the Internet, available tools, terms and concepts,
   and, perhaps most importantly, some of the cultural aspects of the
   Internet community.

   Further information about Gopher can be obtained by contacting the
   Internet Gopher Team at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis
   (gopher@boombox.micro.umn.edu).  This is also the site of the first
   Gopher server (consultant.micro.umn.edu).  A Gopher-related
   discussion list is maintained at gopher-news@boombox.micro.umn.edu
   (see Section 3.1 for information on subscribing to Internet
   discussion lists).  More information on Gopher clients can be found
   in the Gopher Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) file, which can be
   downloaded using anonymous FTP in file
   "/pub/usenet/news.answers/gopher-faq" at the host "rtfm.mit.edu";
   this FAQ also lists sources for a number of Gopher clients for a wide
   range of hardware/software platforms.

   ==================================================================
** SMCVAX$ TELNET DS.INTERNIC.NET

   SunOS UNIX (ds)

** login: gopher
   SunOS Release 4.1.3 (DS) #3: Tue Feb 8 10:52:45 EST 1994

   ******************************************************************
            Welcome to the InterNIC Directory and Database Server.
   ******************************************************************

   Internet Gopher Information Client v1.11
   Root gopher server: ds0.internic.net

   --> 1.  Information About the InterNIC/
       2.  InterNIC Information Services (General Atomics)/
       3.  InterNIC Registration Services (NSI)/
       4.  InterNIC Directory and Database Services (AT&T)/

   Press ? for Help, q to Quit                               Page: 1/1



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 28]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


** View item number: 2


   Internet Gopher Information Client v1.11
   InterNIC Information Services (General Atomics)

   --> 1.  README.
       2.  About the InfoGuide/
       3.  About InterNIC Information Services/
       4.  About the Internet/
       5.  Getting Connected to the Internet/
       6.  Beginners: Start Here/
       7.  Using the Internet/
       8.  Internet Resources/
       9.  Advanced Users: NIC Staff, System Administrators, Programmer
       10. Frequently Asked Questions at InterNIC IS/
       11. Scout Report/
       12. WAIS search InfoGuide (and elsewhere) by keyword/
       13. InfoGuide INDEX.

   Press ? for Help, q to Quit                               Page: 1/1
** View item number: 6


   Internet Gopher Information Client v1.11
   Beginners: Start Here

   --> 1.  About This Directory.
       2.  Introductions to the Internet/
       3.  Glossaries And Definitions/
       4.  Network Tools/
       5.  Further Reading/
       6.  Collection of Usenet FAQs/
       7.  Internet Culture and Netiquette/

   Press ? for Help, q to Quit                               Page: 1/1
** q
   Really quit (y/n) ?
** y

   Connection closed by Foreign Host
   SMCVAX$
   ==================================================================








Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 29]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


2.8.3. Other Information Servers

   There are a number of other information servers that are growing in
   popularity and use.  The problem with being blessed with so much
   information from Archie, Gopher, and other sources is exactly that -
   too much information.  To make it easier for users to locate the
   system on which their desired information resides, a number of other
   tools have been created.

   Veronica (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized
   Archives) was developed at the University of Nevada in Reno as an
   adjunct to Gopher.  As the number of Gopher sites continues to grow,
   it has become increasingly harder to find information in
   "Gopherspace" since Gopher is designed to search a single database at
   a time.  Veronica maintains an index of titles of Gopher items and
   performs a keyword search on all of the Gopher sites that it has
   knowledge of and access to, obviating the need for the user to
   perform a menu-by-menu, site-by-site search for information.  When a
   user selects an item from the menu of a Veronica search, "sessions"
   are automatically established with the appropriate Gopher servers,
   and a list of data items is returned to the originating Gopher client
   in the form of a Gopher menu so that the user can access the files.

   Veronica is available as an option on many Gopher servers, including
   "internic.net".

   Another Gopher-adjunct is Jughead (Jonzy's Universal Gopher Hierarchy
   Excavation And Display).  Jughead supports key word searches and the
   use of logical operators (AND, OR, and NOT).  The result of a Jughead
   search is a display of all menu items which match the search string
   which are located in the University of Manchester and UMIST
   Information Server, working from a static database that is re-created
   every day.  Jughead is available from many Gopher sites (including
   "internic.net"), although Veronica may be a better tool for global
   searches.

   Archie and Gopher are primarily used for the indexing of text-based
   files.  The World Wide Web (WWW or W3) Project, initiated by the CERN
   Institute for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland, is designed to
   combine aspects of information retrieval with multimedia
   communications.  The WWW Project is intended to allow users to access
   information in many different types of formats, including text,
   sound, image, and video.  WWW treats all searchable Internet files as
   hypertext documents.  "Hypertext" is a new term which merely refers
   to text that contains pointers to other text, allowing a user reading
   one document to jump to another document for more information on a
   given topic, and then return to the same location in the original
   document.  The original WWW site is at CERN and may be accessed via



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 30]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   Telnet at "nxoc01.cern.ch".  The user will be automatically logged in
   and a help menu can be displayed by entering the "h" command.

   To generally access WWW servers, users must run client software
   called a "browser".  The browser reads documents from WWW servers and
   can access files by FTP, gopher, and other methods.  WWW can also
   handle hypermedia documents; "hypermedia" is another new term,
   referring to a file using any medium that contains pointers to
   another medium.  WWW browsers, then, are able to display images,
   sound, or animations in addition to text.  WWW sources and additional
   information may be accessed via anonymous FTP from the "/pub/WWW"
   directory at "info.cern.ch" or the "/Web" directory at
   "ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu".

   The most commonly used WWW browser is Mosaic, developed at the
   National Center for Supercomputer Applications (NCSA) at the
   University of Illinois.  Mosaic provides a uniform mechanism for
   finding the location of information, as well as determining the data
   type, presentation method, and linkages to other information.  A
   large number of shareware Mosaic clients are available at
   "ftp.ncsa.uiuc.edu".  It should be noted that commercial versions of
   Mosaic will also become available for a variety of platforms after
   the summer of 1994.

   The Wide Area Information Server (WAIS, pronounced "ways") was
   initiated jointly by Apple Computer, Dow Jones, KMPG Peat Marwick,
   and Thinking Machines Corp.  It is a set of free-ware, share-ware,
   and commercial software products for a wide variety of
   hardware/software platforms, which work together to help users find
   information on the Internet.  WAIS provides a single interface
   through which a user can access many different information databases.

   The user interface allow a query to be formulated in English and the
   WAIS server will automatically choose the appropriate databases to
   search.  Further information about WAIS can be obtained by reading
   the WAIS FAQ, from host "rtfm.mit.edu" in file
   "/pub/usenet/news.answers/wais-faq".

2.9.  Uniform Resource Locator Format

   As more and more protocols have become available to identify files,
   archive and server sites, news lists, and other information resources
   on the Internet, it was inevitable that some shorthand would arise to
   make it a little easier to designate these sources.  The common
   shorthand that is employed is called the Uniform Resource Locator
   (URL) format.





Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 31]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   The list below provides information on how the URL format should be
   interpreted for the protocols and resources that have been discussed
   in this document.  A complete description of the URL format may be
   found in [2].

   file://"host"/"directory"/"file-name"
     Used to identify a specific file.  E.g., the file "htmlasst" in the
     "edu" directory at host "ftp.cs.da" would be denoted with URL as:
     <URL:file://ftp.cs.da/edu/htmlasst>

   ftp://"user":"password"@"host":"port"/"directory"/"file-name"
     Used to identify an FTP site.  E.g.:
     <URL:ftp://ftp.eff.org/pub/EFF/Policy/Crypto/*>

   gopher://"host":"port"/"gopher-path"
     Used to identify a Gopher site and menu path.  E.g.:
     <URL:gopher://info.umd.edu:901/info/Government/Factbook92>

   http://"host":"port"/"directory"/"file-name"?"searchpart"
     Used to identify a WWW server location.  "http" refers to the
     HyperText Transport Protocol; file names commonly use the ".html"
     extension, indicating use of the HyperText Markup Language.  E.g.:
     <URL:http://info.isoc.org/home.html>

   mailto:"e-mail address"
     Identifies an individual Internet mail address.  E.g.:
     <URL:mailto:sds@hill.com>

   telnet://"user":"password"@"host":"port"/
     Identifies a TELNET site (the trailing "/" is optional).  E.g.:
     <URL:telnet//envnet:henniker@envnet.gsfc.nasa.gov>

3. Discussion Lists

   Among the most useful features of the Internet are the discussion
   lists that have become available to allow individuals to discuss
   topics of mutual concern.  Discussion list topics range from SCUBA
   diving and home brewing of beer to AIDS research and foreign policy.
   Several, naturally, deal specifically with the Internet, TCP/IP
   protocols, and the impact of new technologies.

   Most of the discussion lists accessible from the Internet are
   "unmoderated", meaning that anyone can send a message to the list's
   central repository and the message will then be automatically
   forwarded to all subscribers of the list.  These lists provide very
   fast turn-around between submission of a message and delivery, but
   often result in a lot of messages (including inappropriate "junk
   mail").  A "moderated" list has an extra step; a human list moderator



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 32]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   examines all messages before they are forwarded to ensure that the
   messages are appropriate to the list and not needlessly inflammatory!

   Users should be warned that some lists generate a significant amount
   of messages each day.  Before subscribing to too many lists, be sure
   that you are aware of local policies and/or charges governing access
   to discussion lists and e-mail storage.

3.1. Internet Discussion Lists

   A list of the known interest groups may be found by Gophering to
   "ds.internic.net".  Follow the menu path "InterNIC Information
   Services" | "Using the Internet" | "Basic Internet Services" |
   "Electronic Mail" | "Mailing Lists" to find the 8-part list of lists.

   Be careful if you download these files; the list is nearly 1.5 MB in
   size, listing over 800 lists!  Along the way, you will find a wealth
   of other information.

   Mail can be sent to an Internet list at an address with the following
   form:

        list_name@host_name

   The common convention when users want to subscribe, unsubscribe, or
   handle any other administrative matter is to send a message to the
   list administrator; do NOT send administrivia to the main list
   address!  The list administrator can usually be found at:

        list_name-REQUEST@host_name

   To subscribe to a list, it is often enough to place the word
   "subscribe" in the main body of the message, although a line with the
   format:

        SUBSCRIBE  list_name  your_full_name

   will satisfy most mail servers.  A similar message may be used to get
   off a list; just use the word "unsubscribe".

   Not every list follows this convention, but it is a safe bet if you
   don't have better information!

3.2. Usenet

   Usenet, also known as NETNEWS or Usenet news, is another information
   source with its own set of special interest mailing lists organized
   into "newsgroups".  Usenet originated on UNIX systems but has



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 33]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   migrated to many other types of hosts, although most Usenet servers
   are still UNIX-based.  Usenet clients, called "newsreaders", are
   available for virtually any operating system.

   While Usenet newsgroups are usually accessible at Internet sites, a
   prospective Usenet client host must have appropriate newsreader
   software to be able to read news.  Users will have to check with
   their local host or network administrator to find out what Usenet
   newsgroups are locally available, as well as the local policies for
   using them.

   Usenet newsgroup names are hierarchical in nature.  The first part of
   the name, called the "hierarchy", provides an indication about the
   general subject area.  There are two types of hierarchies, called
   "mainstream" and "alternative"; the total number of newsgroups is in
   the thousands.  The "news.announce.newusers" newsgroup is a good
   place for new Usenet users to find a detailed introduction to the use
   of Usenet, as well as an introduction to its culture.

   Usenet mainstream hierarchies are established by a process that
   requires the approval of a majority of Usenet members.  Most sites
   that receive a NETNEWS feed receive all of these hierarchies, which
   include:

        comp      Computers
        misc      Miscellaneous
        news      Network news
        rec       Recreation
        sci       Science
        soc       Social issues
        talk      Various discussion lists

   The alternative hierarchies include lists that may be set up at any
   site that has the server software and disk space.  These lists are
   not formally part of Usenet and, therefore, may not be received by
   all sites getting NETNEWS.  The alternative hierarchies include:

        alt       Alternate miscellaneous discussion lists
        bionet    Biology, medicine, and life sciences
        bit       BITNET discussion lists
        biz       Various business-related discussion lists
        ddn       Defense Data Network
        gnu       GNU lists
        ieee      IEEE information
        info      Various Internet and other networking information
        k12       K-12 education
        u3b       AT&T 3B computers
        vmsnet    Digital's VMS operating system



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 34]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   A list of newsgroups may be found at host "rtfm.mit.edu" in the path
   "/pub/usenet/news.answers"; see the "/active-newsgroups" and "/alt-
   hierarchies" subdirectories.

   There is often some overlap between Usenet newsgroups and Internet
   discussion lists.  Some individuals join both lists in these
   circumstances or, often, there is cross-posting of messages.  Some
   Usenet newsgroup discussions are forwarded onto an Internet mailing
   list by an individual site to provide access to those users who do
   not have Usenet available.

   Users not connected to Usenet may post messages to a Usenet newsgroup
   using Internet e-mail.  First, replace the periods in the Usenet
   discussion list name with hyphens (e.g., the folk music discussion
   list, "rec.music.folk", would become "rec-music-folk").  Then, send
   an e-mail message to:

        newsgroup_name@CS.UTEXAS.EDU

   Usenet news may be read using Gopher.  Connect to the host
   "gopher.msu.edu" using the path "News & Weather" | "USENET News" or
   host "gopher.bham.ac.uk" using the path "Usenet News Reader".

3.3. BITNET/EARN

   Another important set of discussion groups is maintained using a
   program called LISTSERV.  LISTSERV is a service provided widely on
   BITNET and EARN (European Academic and Research Network), although it
   is also available to Internet users.

   LISTSERV commands are placed in the main body of e-mail messages sent
   to an appropriate list server location.  To find out what lists are
   available, send a message to "listserv@bitnic.educom.edu" with the
   command "list global" in the main body of the message; whatever you
   place in the "Subject:" field will be ignored.

   Once you have found a list of interest, you can send a message to the
   appropriate address with any appropriate command, including:

     HELP                                 Get help & a list of commands
     SUBSCRIBE list_name your_full_name   Subscribe to a list
     UNSUBSCRIBE list_name                Unsubscribe from a list
     INDEX                                Get a list of LISTSERV files
     GET file_name                        Obtain a file from the server







Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 35]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


4. Internet Documentation

   To fully appreciate and understand what is going on within the
   Internet community, users might wish to obtain the occasional
   Internet specification.  The main body of Internet documents are
   Request for Comments (RFCs), although a variety of RFC subsets have
   been defined for various specific purposes.  The sections below will
   describe the RFCs and other documentation, and how to get these
   documents.

   NOTE: For complete, up-to-date information on obtaining Internet
   documentation, users should Gopher to "ds.internic.net" and follow
   the path "InterNIC Information Services" | "About the Internet" |
   "Internet Documentation", and then select the desired set of
   documents.  This Gopher path is referred to as the "documentation
   root path" in the remainder of this section.

4.1. Request for Comments (RFCs)

   RFCs are the body of literature comprising Internet protocols,
   standards, research questions, hot topics, humor (especially those
   dated 1 April), and general information.  Each RFC is uniquely issued
   a number which is never reused or reissued; if a document is revised,
   it is given a new RFC number and the old RFC is said to be
   "obsoleted."  Announcements are sent to the RFC-DIST mailing list
   whenever a new RFC is issued; anyone may join this list by sending e-
   mail to "rfc-request@nic.ddn.mil".

   RFCs may be obtained through the mail (i.e., postal service), but it
   is easier and faster to get them on-line.  One easy way to obtain
   RFCs on-line is to use RFC-INFO, an e-mail-based service to help
   users locate and retrieve RFCs and other Internet documents.  To use
   the service, send e-mail to "rfc-info@isi.edu" and leave the
   "Subject:" field blank; commands that may go in the main body of the
   message include:

     HELP                       (Help file)
     HELP: ways_to_get_rfcs     (Help file on how to get RFCs)

     RETRIEVE: RFC
        Doc-ID: RFCxxxx         (Retrieve RFC xxxx; use all 4 digits)

     LIST: RFC                  (List all RFCs...)
       [options]                   (...[matching the following options])

       KEYWORDS: xxx             (Title contains string "xxx")
       AUTHOR: xxx               (Written by "xxx")
       ORGANIZATION:             (Issued by company "xxx")



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 36]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


       DATED-AFTER: mmm-dd-yyyy
       DATED-BEFORE: mmm-dd-yyyy
       OBSOLETES: RFCxxxx        (List RFCs obsoleting RFC xxxx)

   An alternative way to obtain RFCs by e-mail is to send an e-mail
   message to "service@nic.ddn.mil", leaving the "Subject:" field blank.

   In the main body of the message, use one or more of the following
   commands.  The RFC index, or a specific reference to an RFC, will
   indicate whether the RFC is available in ASCII text or PostScript
   format.  By convention, all RFCs are available in ASCII while some
   are also available in PostScript where use of graphics and/or
   different fonts adds more information or clarity.  The instructions
   below show how to get the index; be aware that this file is very
   large, containing the citing for over 1,700 documents.  Note that not
   all RFCs numbered below 698 (July 1975) are available on-line:

      SEND HELP                  (Help file)
      SEND RFC/RFC-INDEX         (RFC Index)
      SEND RFC/RFCxxxx.TXT       (ASCII version of RFC xxxx)
      SEND RFC/RFCxxxx.PS        (PostScript version of RFC xxxx)

        -------------------------------------------
        TABLE 1.  Some of the RFC Repositories.

        REGION    HOST ADDRESS          DIRECTORY

        U.S.      nic.ddn.mil           rfc
        U.S.      nisc.jvnc.net         rfc
        U.S.      ftp.isi.edu           in-notes
        U.S.      wuarchive.wustl.edu   info/rfc
        U.K.      src.doc.ic.ac.uk      rfc
        Europe    funet.fi              rfc
        Pacific   munnari.oz.au         rfc
        -------------------------------------------

   To obtain an RFC via anonymous FTP, connect to one of the RFC
   repositories listed in Table 1 using FTP.  After connecting, change
   to the appropriate RFC directory (as shown in Table 1) using the "cd"
   command.  To obtain a particular file, use the "get" command:

      GET RFC-INDEX.TXT local_name    (RFC Index)
      GET RFCxxxx.TXT   local_name    (ASCII version of RFC XXXX)
      GET RFCxxxx.PS    local_name    (PostScript version of RFC XXXX)

   Finally, check out the path "RFC's (Request for Comments)" under the
   documentation root path for the RFC index, complete instructions on
   obtaining RFCs, and a complete set of RFCs.



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 37]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   The sample dialogue below, although highly abbreviated, shows a user
   obtaining RFC 1594 (Answers to Commonly asked "New Internet User"
   Questions) using the first three methods described above.

   ==================================================================
** SMCVAX$ MAIL
** MAIL> SEND
** To: IN%"SERVICE@NIC.DDN.MIL"
** Subject:
   Enter your message below. Press CTRL/Z when complete, CTRL/C to quit
** SEND RFC/RFC1594.TXT
** ^Z
** MAIL> EXIT

** SMCVAX$ MAIL
** MAIL> SEND
** To: IN%"RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU"
** Subject:
   Enter your message below. Press CTRL/Z when complete, CTRL/C to quit
** RETRIEVE: RFC
** Doc-ID: RFC1594
** ^Z
** MAIL> EXIT

** SMCVAX$ FTP NIC.DDN.MIL
** Username: ANONYMOUS
** Password:
** NIC.DDN.MIL> CD rfc
** NIC.DDN.MIL> GET rfc1594.txt RFC-1594.TXT
** NIC.DDN.MIL> EXIT
   SMCVAX$
   ==================================================================

4.2. Internet Standards

   RFCs describe many aspects of the Internet.  By the early 1990s,
   however, so many specifications of various protocols had been written
   that it was not always clear as to which documents represented
   standards for the Internet.  For that reason, a subset of RFCs have
   been designated as STDs to identify them as Internet standards.

   Unlike RFC numbers that are never reused, STD numbers always refer to
   the latest version of the standard.  UDP, for example, would be
   completely identified as "STD-6/RFC-768."  Note that STD numbers
   refer to a standard, which is not necessarily a single document; an
   STD, therefore, might refer to several RFCs.  STD 19, for example, is
   the NetBIOS Service Protocols standard and comprises RFCs 1001 and
   1002; a complete citation for this standard would be "STD-19/RFC-



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 38]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   1001/RFC-1002."

   The availability of new STDs is announced on the RFC-DIST mailing
   list.  STD-1 [14] always refers to the latest list of "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards".  The Internet standards process is
   described in RFC 1602 [6] and STD notes are explained in RFC 1311
   [15].

   STDs can be obtained as RFCs via anonymous FTP from any RFC
   repository.  In addition, some RFC sites (such as "nic.ddn.mil")
   provide an STD directory so that STD documents can be found in the
   path "/STD/xx.TXT", where "xx" refers to the STD number.

   STD documents may be obtained as RFCs using the methods described in
   Section 4.1.  STDs may also be obtained via the RFC-INFO server using
   the "RETRIEVE: STD" and "Doc-ID: STDxxxx" commands.  Also, check out
   the path "STD's (Standard RFC's)" under the documentation root path
   for the STD index, complete instructions on obtaining STDs, and a
   complete set of STDs.

4.3. For Your Information Documents

   The For Your Information (FYI) series of RFCs provides Internet users
   with information about many topics related to the Internet.  FYI
   topics range from historical to explanatory to tutorial, and are
   aimed at the wide spectrum of people that use the Internet.  The FYI
   series includes answers to frequently asked questions by both
   beginning and seasoned users of the Internet, an annotated
   bibliography of Internet books, and an explanation of the domain name
   system.

   Like the STDs, an FYI number always refers to the latest version of
   an FYI.  FYI 4, for example, refers to the answers to commonly asked
   questions by new Internet users; its complete citation would be "FYI-
   4/RFC-1594."  The FYI notes are explained in FYI 1 [9].

   FYIs can be obtained as RFCs via anonymous FTP from any RFC
   repository.  In addition, some RFC sites (such as "nic.ddn.mil")
   provide an FYI directory so that FYI documents can be found in the
   path "/FYI/xx.TXT", where "xx" refers to the FYI number.

   FYI documents may be obtained as RFCs using the methods described in
   Section 4.1.  FYIs may also be obtained via the RFC-INFO server using
   the "RETRIEVE: FYI" and "Doc-ID: FYIxxxx" commands.  Also, check out
   the path "FYI's (For Your Information RFC's)" under the documentation
   root path for the FYI index, complete instructions on obtaining FYIs,
   and a complete set of FYIs.




Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 39]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


4.4. RARE Technical Reports

   The Reseaux Associes pour la Recherche Europeenne (RARE) is the
   Association of European Research Networks and their users.  RARE's
   charter is to promote and participate in the creation of a high-
   quality European computer communications infrastructure for the
   support of research endeavors.  RARE member networks use Open Systems
   Interconnection (OSI) protocols and TCP/IP.  Since the summer of
   1993, to promote a closer relationship between RARE and the IETF,
   RARE Technical Reports (RTRs) are also published as RFCs.

   RTR documents may be obtained as RFCs using the methods described in
   Section 4.1.  RTRs may also be obtained via the RFC-INFO server using
   the "RETRIEVE: RTR" and "Doc-ID: RTRxxxx" commands.  Also, check out
   the path "RTR's (RARE Technical Report RFC's)" under the
   documentation root path for the RTR index, complete instructions on
   obtaining RTRs, and a complete set of RTRs.  They may also be
   obtained via anonymous FTP from "ftp.rare.nl".

   NOTE: As of December 1994, RARE and EARN have merged to form TERENA
   (Trans-European Research and Education Network Association).

5. Perusing the Internet...

   This guide is intended to provide the reader with a rudimentary
   ability to use the utilities that are provided by TCP/IP and the
   Internet.  By now, it is clear that the user's knowledge, ability,
   and willingness to experiment are about the only limits to what can
   be accomplished.

   The next step is to explore the nooks and crannies of the network.
   One software tool that will users in this quest is the Merit Computer
   Center's (Ann Arbor, MI) "Cruise of the Internet", available at no
   cost from the host "nic.merit.edu" using FTP.  For more information,
   read the "readme" files in the directories "internet/resources/
   cruise.mac" and "internet/resources/cruise.dos"  for Mac and PC
   versions, respectively.  For general information about resources at
   this site, see the READ.ME file in the root directory or send e-mail
   to "nic-info@nic.merit.edu".

   Several RFCs provide invaluable information about finding things on
   the Internet.  One of the best such sources is FYI 10/RFC 1402,
   titled "There's Gold in them thar Networks! -or- Searching for
   Treasure in all the Wrong Places" [11], an excellent guide for
   someone who wants to look around the Internet for a wide range of
   material.  Other good sources include the "Hitchhiker's Guide to the
   Internet" (RFC 1118) [7] and the "Guide to Network Resource Tools"
   (FYI 23/RFC 1580) [3].  Answers to frequently asked questions for



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 40]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   both new and experienced users of the Internet may be found in FYI
   4/RFC 1594 [10] and FYI 7/RFC 1207 [8], respectively.

   There are many other sources that cite locations from which to access
   specific information about a wide range of subjects using such tools
   as FTP, Telnet, Gopher, and WWW.  These include:

   o The INTERNET SERVICES LIST, maintained by Scott Yanoff of the
     University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee and updated at least once a
     month.  This list can be obtained at <URL:ftp://ftp.csd.uwm.edu/
     pub/inet.services.txt> or <URL:gopher://csd4.csd.uwm.edu/Remote
     Information Services/Special Internet Connections>.

   o An excellent starting point for searching the World Wide Web is to
     point your WWW browser at "http://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Software
     /Mosaic/StartingPoints/NetworkStartingPoints.html".

   o The Scout Report is a weekly service by the InterNIC Information
     Services team.  To subscribe to the Scout Report mailing list, send
     e-mail to "majordomo@is.internic.net" and place the line "subscribe
     scout-report" in the main body of the message.  Optionally, Gopher
     to "ds.internic.net" and follow the path "InterNIC Information
     Services" | "Scout Report" or point your WWW browser at
     "http://www.internic.net/infoguide.html".

   o "The INTERNET Yellow Pages" by Harley Hahn and Rick Stout [28].

   More books and specialized articles came out about the Internet in
   1993 and 1994 than in all previous years (squared!).  Some of them
   are directly related to finding your way around, or finding things
   on, the Internet; a very partial list includes:

   o "The Internet Directory" by Eric Braun [21]

   o "The MAC Internet Tour Guide", "The PC Internet Tour Guide", and
     "The Windows Internet Tour Guide"  by Michael Fraase [24, 25, 26]

   o "The Internet Navigator" by Paul Gilster [27]

   o "Zen and the Art of the Internet" by Brendan Kehoe [29]

   o "The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog" by Ed Krol [31]

   o "INTERNET: Getting Started" by April Marine, Susan Kirkpatrick,
     Vivian Neou, and Carol Ward [33]

   o "Finding it on the Internet: The Next Challenge for Librarianship"
     by Brian Nielsen [34]



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 41]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   o "Navigating the Internet" by Richard Smith and Mark Gibbs [35]

   A much more comprehensive list of Internet-related books may be found
   in FYI 19/RFC 1463 [5].

   Finally, Carl Malamud has written a delightful book called "Exploring
   the Internet: A Technical Travelogue" [32], chronicling not the
   Internet as much as the people who built it and use it.  This book
   will not teach you how to perform an anonymous FTP file transfer nor
   how to use Gopher, but provides insights about our network (and
   Carl's gastro-pathology) that no mere statistics can convey.

6. Acronyms and Abbreviations

   ASCII     American Standard Code for Information Interchange
   BITNET    Because It's Time Network
   DDN       Defense Data Network
   DNS       Domain Name System
   EARN      European Academic Research Network
   FAQ       Frequently Asked Questions list
   FTP       File Transfer Protocol
   FYI       For Your Information series of RFCs
   HTML      HyperText Markup Language
   HTTP      HyperText Transport Protocol
   ICMP      Internet Control Message Protocol
   IP        Internet Protocol
   ISO       International Organization for Standardization
   NetBIOS   Network Basic Input/Output System
   NIC       Network Information Center
   NICNAME   Network Information Center name service
   NSF       National Science Foundation
   NSFNET    National Science Foundation Network
   RFC       Request For Comments
   RARE      Reseaux Associes pour la Recherche Europeenne
   RTR       RARE Technical Reports
   SMDS      Switched Multimegabit Data Service
   SMTP      Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
   STD       Internet Standards series of RFCs
   TCP       Transmission Control Protocol
   TTL       Time-To-Live
   UDP       User Datagram Protocol
   URL       Uniform Resource Locator
   WAIS      Wide Area Information Server
   W3        World Wide Web
   WWW       World Wide Web






Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 42]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


7. Security Considerations

   Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

8. Acknowledgements

   Our thanks are given to all sites where we FTPed, TELNETed, GOPHERed,
   and otherwise used system resources, particularly St. Michael's
   College in Colchester, Vermont (smcvax.smcvt.edu).  We also
   appreciate the comments and suggestions from our colleagues at Hill
   Associates, our students, and other members of the Internet
   community, particularly Mark Delany and the rest of the gang at the
   Australian Public Access Network Association, Margaret Hall (BBN),
   John Martin (RARE), Tom Maufer (NASA), Michael Patton (BBN), and
   Brian Williams.  Special thanks are due to Joyce Reynolds for her
   continued encouragement and direction.

9. References

   [1] Anklesaria, F., McCahill, M., Lindner, P, Johnson, D., Torrey,
       D., and B. Alberti, "The Internet Gopher Protocol", RFC 1436,
       University of Minnesota, March 1993.

   [2] Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill, Editors, "Uniform
       Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, CERN, Xerox PARC, University
       of Minnesota, December 1994.

   [3] EARN Staff, "Guide to Network Resource Tools", FYI 23, RFC 1580,
       EARN Association, March 1994.

   [4] Harrenstien, K., Stahl, M., and E. Feinler, "NICNAME/WHOIS", RFC
       954, SRI, October 1985.

   [5] Hoffman, E. and L. Jackson, "FYI on Introducing the Internet-- A
       Short Bibliography of Introductory Internetworking Readings", FYI
       19, RFC 1463, Merit Network, Inc., NASA, May 1993.

   [6] Internet Architecture Board, Internet Engineering Steering Group,
       "The Internet Standards Process -- Revision 2", RFC 1602, IAB,
       IESG, March 1994.

   [7] Krol, E., "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Internet", RFC 1118,
       University of Illinois Urbana, September 1989.

   [8] Malkin, G., Marine, A., and J. Reynolds, "FYI on Questions and
       Answers: Answers to Commonly Asked 'Experienced Internet User'
       Questions", FYI 7, RFC 1207, FTP Software, SRI, USC/Information
       Sciences Institute, February 1991.



Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 43]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


   [9] Malkin, G., and J. Reynolds, "F.Y.I. on F.Y.I.: Introduction to
       the F.Y.I. Notes", FYI 1, RFC 1150, Proteon, USC/Information
       Sciences Institute, March 1990.

  [10] Marine, A., Reynolds, J., and G. Malkin, "FYI on Questions and
       Answers - Answers to Commonly asked 'New Internet User'
       Questions", FYI 4, RFC 1594, NASA Ames Research Center,
       USC/Information Sciences Institute, Xylogics, March 1994.

  [11] Martin, J., "There's Gold in them thar Networks! Searching for
       Treasure in all the Wrong Places", FYI 10, RFC 1402, Ohio State
       University, January 1993.

  [12] Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities", STD
       13, RFC 1034, USC/Information Sciences Institute, November 1987.

  [13] Postel, J., "Domain Name System Structure and Delegation",
       USC/Information Sciences Institute, RFC 1591, March 1994.

  [14] Postel, J., Editor, "Internet Official Protocol Standards", STD
       1, RFC 1720, Internet Architecture Board, November 1994.

  [15] Postel, J., "Introduction to the STD Notes", RFC 1311,
       USC/Information Sciences Institute, March 1992.

  [16] Postel, J., and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol (FTP), STD
       9, RFC 959, USC/Information Sciences Institute, October 1985.

  [17] Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "TELNET Protocol Specification", STD
       8, RFC 854, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1983.

  [18] Socolofsky, T., and C. Kale, "TCP/IP Tutorial", RFC 1180, Spider
       Systems Ltd., January 1991.

  [19] Williamson, S., "Transition and Modernization of the Internet
       Registration Service", RFC 1400, Network Solutions, Inc., March
       1993.

  [20] Zimmerman, D., "The Finger User Information Protocol", RFC 1288,
       Rutgers University, December 1991.

  [21] Braun, E., "The Internet Directory", New York: Fawcett Columbine,
       1994.

  [22] Comer, D., "Internetworking with TCP/IP, Vol. I: Principles,
       Protocols, and Architecture", 2/e.  Englewood Cliffs (NJ):
       Prentice-Hall, 1991.




Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 44]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


  [23] Feit, S., "TCP/IP", New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

  [24] Fraase, M., "The MAC Internet Tour Guide", Chapel Hill (NC):
       Ventana Press, 1994.

  [25] Fraase, M., "The PC Internet Tour Guide", Chapel Hill (NC):
       Ventana Press, 1994.

  [26] Fraase, M., "The Windows Internet Tour Guide", Chapel Hill (NC):
       Ventana Press, 1994.

  [27] Gilster, P., "The Internet Navigator", New York: John Wiley &
       Sons, 1993.

  [28] Hahn, H., and R. Stout, "The Internet Yellow Pages", Berkeley
       (CA): Osborne McGraw-Hill, 1994.

  [29] Kehoe, B., "Zen and the Art of the Internet", Englewood Cliffs
       (NJ): Prentice-Hall, 1993.

  [30] Kessler, G., "An Overview of TCP/IP Protocols and the Internet",
       August 1994.  <URL:gopher://ds.internic.net/Information
       Services/Advanced Users/tcp-ip>.

  [31] Krol, E., "The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog", Sebastopol
       (CA): O'Reilly & Associates, 1992.

  [32] Malamud, C., "Exploring the Internet: A Technical Travelogue",
       Englewood Cliffs (NJ): PTR Prentice Hall, 1992.

  [33] Marine, A., Kirkpatrick, S., Neou, V., and C. Ward.  "INTERNET:
       Getting Started", Englewood Cliffs (NJ): PTR Prentice Hall, 1993.

  [34] Nielsen, B., "Finding it on the Internet: The Next Challenge for
       Librarianship."  Database, Vol. 13, October 1990, pp. 105-107.

  [35] Smith, R., and M. Gibbs, "Navigating the Internet", Carmel (IN):
       SAMS, 1994.













Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 45]

RFC 1739           Primer on Internet & TCP/IP Tools       December 1994


10. Authors' Addresses

       Gary C. Kessler
       Hill Associates
       17 Roosevelt Highway
       Colchester, VT  05446

       Phone:  +1 802-655-8633
       Fax:    +1 802-655-7974
       EMail: kumquat@hill.com


       Steven D. Shepard
       Hill Associates
       17 Roosevelt Highway
       Colchester, VT  05446

       Phone:  +1 802-655-8646
       Fax:    +1 802-655-7974
       EMail: sds@hill.com































Kessler & Shepard                                              [Page 46]