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Network Working Group                                            L. Berc
Request for Comments: 2035                 Digital Equipment Corporation
Category: Standards Track                                      W. Fenner
                                                              Xerox PARC
                                                            R. Frederick
                                                              Xerox PARC
                                                              S. McCanne
                                            Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
                                                            October 1996


              RTP Payload Format for JPEG-compressed Video

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Abstract

   This memo describes the RTP payload format for JPEG video streams.
   The packet format is optimized for real-time video streams where
   codec parameters change rarely from frame to frame.

   This document is a product of the Audio-Video Transport working group
   within the Internet Engineering Task Force.  Comments are solicited
   and should be addressed to the working group's mailing list at rem-
   conf@es.net and/or the author(s).

1.  Introduction

   The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) standard [1,2,3] defines
   a family of compression algorithms for continuous-tone, still images.
   This still image compression standard can be applied to video by
   compressing each frame of video as an independent still image and
   transmitting them in series.  Video coded in this fashion is often
   called Motion-JPEG.

   We first give an overview of JPEG and then describe the specific
   subset of JPEG that is supported in RTP and the mechanism by which
   JPEG frames are carried as RTP payloads.

   The JPEG standard defines four modes of operation: the sequential DCT
   mode, the progressive DCT mode, the lossless mode, and the
   hierarchical mode.  Depending on the mode, the image is represented



Berc, et. al.               Standards Track                     [Page 1]

RFC 2035           RTP Payload Format for JPEG Video        October 1996


   in one or more passes.  Each pass (called a frame in the JPEG
   standard) is further broken down into one or more scans.  Within each
   scan, there are one to four components,which represent the three
   components of a color signal (e.g., "red, green, and blue", or a
   luminance signal and two chromanince signals).  These components can
   be encoded as separate scans or interleaved into a single scan.

   Each frame and scan is preceded with a header containing optional
   definitions for compression parameters like quantization tables and
   Huffman coding tables.  The headers and optional parameters are
   identified with "markers" and comprise a marker segment; each scan
   appears as an entropy-coded bit stream within two marker segments.
   Markers are aligned to byte boundaries and (in general) cannot appear
   in the entropy-coded segment, allowing scan boundaries to be
   determined without parsing the bit stream.

   Compressed data is represented in one of three formats: the
   interchange format, the abbreviated format, or the table-
   specification format.  The interchange format contains definitions
   for all the table used in the by the entropy-coded segments, while
   the abbreviated format might omit some assuming they were defined
   out-of-band or by a "previous" image.

   The JPEG standard does not define the meaning or format of the
   components that comprise the image.  Attributes like the color space
   and pixel aspect ratio must be specified out-of-band with respect to
   the JPEG bit stream.  The JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF) [4] is
   a defacto standard that provides this extra information using an
   application marker segment (APP0).  Note that a JFIF file is simply a
   JPEG interchange format image along with the APP0 segment.  In the
   case of video, additional parameters must be defined out-of-band
   (e.g., frame rate, interlaced vs. non-interlaced, etc.).

   While the JPEG standard provides a rich set of algorithms for
   flexible compression, cost-effective hardware implementations of the
   full standard have not appeared.  Instead, most hardware JPEG video
   codecs implement only a subset of the sequential DCT mode of
   operation.  Typically, marker segments are interpreted in software
   (which "re-programs" the hardware) and the hardware is presented with
   a single, interleaved entropy-coded scan represented in the YUV color
   space.

2.  JPEG Over RTP

   To maximize interoperability among hardware-based codecs, we assume
   the sequential DCT operating mode [1,Annex F] and restrict the set of
   predefined RTP/JPEG "type codes" (defined below) to single-scan,
   interleaved images.  While this is more restrictive than even



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RFC 2035           RTP Payload Format for JPEG Video        October 1996


   baseline JPEG, many hardware implementation fall short of the
   baseline specification (e.g., most hardware cannot decode non-
   interleaved scans).

   In practice, most of the table-specification data rarely changes from
   frame to frame within a single video stream.  Therefore, RTP/JPEG
   data is represented in abbreviated format, with all of the tables
   omitted from the bit stream.  Each image begins immediately with the
   (single) entropy-coded scan.  The information that would otherwise be
   in both the frame and scan headers is represented entirely within a
   64-bit RTP/JPEG header (defined below) that lies between the RTP
   header and the JPEG scan and is present in every packet.

   While parameters like Huffman tables and color space are likely to
   remain fixed for the lifetime of the video stream, other parameters
   should be allowed to vary, notably the quantization tables and image
   size (e.g., to implement rate-adaptive transmission or allow a user
   to adjust the "quality level" or resolution manually).  Thus explicit
   fields in the RTP/JPEG header are allocated to represent this
   information.  Since only a small set of quantization tables are
   typically used, we encode the entire set of quantization tables in a
   small integer field.  The image width and height are encoded
   explicitly.

   Because JPEG frames are typically larger than the underlying
   network's maximum packet size, frames must often be fragmented into
   several packets.  One approach is to allow the network layer below
   RTP (e.g., IP) to perform the fragmentation.  However, this precludes
   rate-controlling the resulting packet stream or partial delivery in
   the presence of loss.  For example, IP will not deliver a fragmented
   datagram to the application if one or more fragments is lost, or IP
   might fragment an 8000 byte frame into a burst of 8 back-to-back
   packets.  Instead, RTP/JPEG defines a simple fragmentation and
   reassembly scheme at the RTP level.

3.  RTP/JPEG Packet Format

   The RTP timestamp is in units of 90000Hz.  The same timestamp must
   appear across all fragments of a single frame.  The RTP marker bit is
   set in the last packet of a frame.











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RFC 2035           RTP Payload Format for JPEG Video        October 1996


3.1.  JPEG header

   A special header is added to each packet that immediately follows the
   RTP header:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Type specific |              Fragment Offset                  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Type     |       Q       |     Width     |     Height    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

3.1.1.  Type specific: 8 bits

   Interpretation depends on the value of the type field.

3.1.2.  Fragment Offset: 24 bits

   The Fragment Offset is the data offset in bytes of the current packet
   in the JPEG scan.

3.1.3.  Type: 8 bits

   The type field specifies the information that would otherwise be
   present in a JPEG abbreviated table-specification as well as the
   additional JFIF-style parameters not defined by JPEG.  Types 0-127
   are reserved as fixed, well-known mappings to be defined by this
   document and future revisions of this document.  Types 128-255 are
   free to be dynamically defined by a session setup protocol (which is
   beyond the scope of this document).

3.1.4.  Q: 8 bits

   The Q field defines the quantization tables for this frame using an
   algorithm that determined by the Type field (see below).

3.1.5.  Width: 8 bits

   This field encodes the width of the image in 8-pixel multiples (e.g.,
   a width of 40 denotes an image 320 pixels wide).

3.1.6.  Height: 8 bits

   This field encodes the height of the image in 8-pixel multiples
   (e.g., a height of 30 denotes an image 240 pixels tall).





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RFC 2035           RTP Payload Format for JPEG Video        October 1996


3.1.7.  Data

   The data following the RTP/JPEG header is an entropy-coded segment
   consisting of a single scan.  The scan header is not present and is
   inferred from the RTP/JPEG header.  The scan is terminated either
   implicitly (i.e., the point at which the image is fully parsed), or
   explicitly with an EOI marker.  The scan may be padded to arbitrary
   length with undefined bytes.  (Existing hardware codecs generate
   extra lines at the bottom of a video frame and removal of these lines
   would require a Huffman-decoding pass over the data.)

   As defined by JPEG, restart markers are the only type of marker that
   may appear embedded in the entropy-coded segment.  The "type code"
   determines whether a restart interval is defined, and therefore
   whether restart markers may be present. It also determines if the
   restart intervals will be aligned with RTP packets, allowing for
   partial decode of frames, thus increasing resiliance to packet drop.
   If restart markers are present, the 6-byte DRI segment (define
   restart interval marker [1, Sec. B.2.4.4] precedes the scan).

   JPEG markers appear explicitly on byte aligned boundaries beginning
   with an 0xFF.  A "stuffed" 0x00 byte follows any 0xFF byte generated
   by the entropy coder [1, Sec. B.1.1.5].

4.  Discussion

4.1.  The Type Field

   The Type field defines the abbreviated table-specification and
   additional JFIF-style parameters not defined by JPEG, since they are
   not present in the body of the transmitted JPEG data.  The Type field
   must remain constant for the duration of a session.

   Six type codes are currently defined.  They correspond to an
   abbreviated table-specification indicating the "Baseline DCT
   sequential" mode, 8-bit samples, square pixels, three components in
   the YUV color space, standard Huffman tables as defined in [1, Annex
   K.3], and a single interleaved scan with a scan component selector
   indicating components 0, 1, and 2 in that order.  The Y, U, and V
   color planes correspond to component numbers 0, 1, and 2,
   respectively.  Component 0 (i.e., the luminance plane) uses Huffman
   table number 0 and quantization table number 0 (defined below) and
   components 1 and 2 (i.e., the chrominance planes) use Huffman table
   number 1 and quantization table number 1 (defined below).

   Additionally, video is non-interlaced and unscaled (i.e., the aspect
   ratio is determined by the image width and height).  The frame rate
   is variable and explicit via the RTP timestamp.



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RFC 2035           RTP Payload Format for JPEG Video        October 1996


   Six RTP/JPEG types are currently defined that assume all of the
   above.  The odd types have different JPEG sampling factors from the
   even ones:

                        horizontal   vertical
           types   comp  samp. fact. samp. fact.
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |  0/2/4  |  0  |     2     |   1   |
          |  0/2/4  |  1  |     1     |   1   |
          |  0/2/4  |  2  |     1     |   1   |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
          |  1/3/5  |  0  |     2     |   2   |
          |  1/3/5  |  1  |     1     |   1   |
          |  1/3/5  |  2  |     1     |   1   |
          +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   These sampling factors indicate that the chromanince components of
   type 0/2/4 video is downsampled horizontally by 2 (often called
   4:2:2) while the chrominance components of type 1/3/5 video are
   downsampled both horizontally and vertically by 2 (often called
   4:2:0).

   The three pairs of types (0/1), (2/3) and (4/5) differ from each
   other as follows:

   0/1 : No restart markers are present in the entropy data.
         No restriction is placed on the fragmentation of the stream
         into RTP packets.
         The type specific field is unused and must be zero.

   2/3 : Restart markers are present in the entropy data.
         The entropy data is preceded by a DRI marker segment, defining
         the restart interval.
         No restriction is placed on the fragmentation of the stream
         into RTP packets.
         The type specific field is unused and must be zero.















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RFC 2035           RTP Payload Format for JPEG Video        October 1996


   4/5 : Restart markers are present in the entropy data.
         The entropy data is preceded by a DRI marker segment, defining
         the restart interval.
         Restart intervals are be sent as separate (possibly multiple)
         RTP packets.
         The type specific field (TSPEC) is used as follows:
             A restart interval count (RCOUNT) is defined, which
             starts at zero, and is incremented for each restart
             interval in the frame.

             The first packet of a restart interval gets TSPEC = RCOUNT.
             Subsequent packets of the restart interval get TSPEC = 254,
             except the final packet, which gets TSPEC = 255.

   Additional types in the range 128-255 may be defined by external
   means, such as a session protocol.

   Appendix B contains C source code for transforming the RTP/JPEG
   header parameters into the JPEG frame and scan headers that are
   absent from the data payload.

4.2.  The Q Field

   The quantization tables used in the decoding process are
   algorithmically derived from the Q field.  The algorithm used depends
   on the type field but only one algorithm is currently defined for the
   two types.

   Both type 0 and type 1 JPEG assume two quantizations tables.  These
   tables are chosen as follows.  For 1 <= Q <= 99, the Independent JPEG
   Group's formula [5] is used to produce a scale factor S as:

        S = 5000 / Q          for  1 <= Q <= 50
          = 200 - 2 * Q       for 51 <= Q <= 99

   This value is then used to scale Tables K.1 and K.2 from [1]
   (saturating each value to 8-bits) to give quantization table numbers
   0 and 1, respectively.  C source code is provided in Appendix A to
   compute these tables.

   For Q >= 100, a dynamically defined quantization table is used, which
   might be specified by a session setup protocol.  (This session
   protocol is beyond the scope of this document).  It is expected that
   the standard quantization tables will handle most cases in practice,
   and dynamic tables will be used rarely.  Q = 0 is reserved.






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RFC 2035           RTP Payload Format for JPEG Video        October 1996


4.3.  Fragmentation and Reassembly

   Since JPEG frames are large, they must often be fragmented.  Frames
   should be fragmented into packets in a manner avoiding fragmentation
   at a lower level.  When using restart markers, frames should be
   fragmented such that each packet starts with a restart interval (see
   below).

   Each packet that makes up a single frame has the same timestamp.  The
   fragment offset field is set to the byte offset of this packet within
   the original frame.  The RTP marker bit is set on the last packet in
   a frame.

   An entire frame can be identified as a sequence of packets beginning
   with a packet having a zero fragment offset and ending with a packet
   having the RTP marker bit set.  Missing packets can be detected
   either with RTP sequence numbers or with the fragment offset and
   lengths of each packet.  Reassembly could be carried out without the
   offset field (i.e., using only the RTP marker bit and sequence
   numbers), but an efficient single-copy implementation would not
   otherwise be possible in the presence of misordered packets.
   Moreover, if the last packet of the previous frame (containing the
   marker bit) were dropped, then a receiver could not detect that the
   current frame is entirely intact.

4.4.  Restart Markers

   Restart markers indicate a point in the JPEG stream at which the
   Huffman codec and DC predictors  are reset, allowing partial decoding
   starting at that point.  The use of restart markers allows for
   robustness in the face of packet loss.

   RTP/JPEG Types 4/5 allow for partial decode of frames, due to the
   alignment of restart intervals with RTP packets. The decoder knows it
   has a whole restart interval when it gets sequence of packets with
   contiguous RTP sequence numbers, starting with TSPEC<254 (RCOUNT) and
   either ending with TSPEC==255, or TSPEC<255 and next packet's
   TSPEC<254 (or end of frame).

   It can then decompress the RST interval, and paint it. The X and Y
   tile offsets of the first MCU in the interval are given by:

   tile_offset = RCOUNT * restart_interval * 2
   x_offset    = tile_offset % frame_width_in_tiles
   y_offset    = tile_offset / frame_width_in_tiles

   The MCUs in a restart interval may span multiple tile rows.




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RFC 2035           RTP Payload Format for JPEG Video        October 1996


   Decoders can, however, treat types 4/5 as types 2/3, simply
   reassembling the entire frame and then decoding.

5.  Security Considerations

   Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

6.  Authors' Addresses

   Lance M. Berc
   Systems Research Center
   Digital Equipment Corporation
   130 Lytton Ave
   Palo Alto CA 94301

   Phone: +1 415 853 2100
   EMail: berc@pa.dec.com


   William C. Fenner
   Xerox PARC
   3333 Coyote Hill Road
   Palo Alto, CA 94304

   Phone: +1 415 812 4816
   EMail: fenner@cmf.nrl.navy.mil


   Ron Frederick
   Xerox PARC
   3333 Coyote Hill Road
   Palo Alto, CA 94304

   Phone: +1 415 812 4459
   EMail: frederick@parc.xerox.com


   Steven McCanne
   Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
   M/S 46A-1123
   One Cyclotron Road
   Berkeley, CA 94720

   Phone: +1 510 486 7520
   EMail: mccanne@ee.lbl.gov






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RFC 2035           RTP Payload Format for JPEG Video        October 1996


7.  References

[1]  ISO DIS 10918-1. Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-tone
     Still Images (JPEG), CCITT Recommendation T.81.

[2]  William B. Pennebaker, Joan L. Mitchell, JPEG: Still Image Data
     Compression Standard, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993.

[3]  Gregory K. Wallace, The JPEG Sill Picture Compression Standard,
     Communications of the ACM, April 1991, Vol 34, No. 1, pp. 31-44.

[4]  The JPEG File Interchange Format.  Maintained by C-Cube Microsys-
     tems, Inc., and available in
     ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/jpeg/jfif.ps.gz.

[5]  Tom Lane et. al., The Independent JPEG Group software JPEG codec.
     Source code available in
     ftp://ftp.uu.net/graphics/jpeg/jpegsrc.v5.tar.gz.

































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RFC 2035           RTP Payload Format for JPEG Video        October 1996


Appendix A

   The following code can be used to create a quantization table from a
   Q factor:

/*
 * Table K.1 from JPEG spec.
 */
static const int jpeg_luma_quantizer[64] = {
        16, 11, 10, 16, 24, 40, 51, 61,
        12, 12, 14, 19, 26, 58, 60, 55,
        14, 13, 16, 24, 40, 57, 69, 56,
        14, 17, 22, 29, 51, 87, 80, 62,
        18, 22, 37, 56, 68, 109, 103, 77,
        24, 35, 55, 64, 81, 104, 113, 92,
        49, 64, 78, 87, 103, 121, 120, 101,
        72, 92, 95, 98, 112, 100, 103, 99
};

/*
 * Table K.2 from JPEG spec.
 */
static const int jpeg_chroma_quantizer[64] = {
        17, 18, 24, 47, 99, 99, 99, 99,
        18, 21, 26, 66, 99, 99, 99, 99,
        24, 26, 56, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99,
        47, 66, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99,
        99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99,
        99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99,
        99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99,
        99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99, 99
};

/*
 * Call MakeTables with the Q factor and two int[64] return arrays
 */
void
MakeTables(int q, u_char *lum_q, u_char *chr_q)
{
  int i;
  int factor = q;

  if (q < 1) factor = 1;
  if (q > 99) factor = 99;
  if (q < 50)
    q = 5000 / factor;
  else
    q = 200 - factor*2;



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  for (i=0; i < 64; i++) {
    int lq = ( jpeg_luma_quantizer[i] * q + 50) / 100;
    int cq = ( jpeg_chroma_quantizer[i] * q + 50) / 100;

    /* Limit the quantizers to 1 <= q <= 255 */
    if ( lq < 1) lq = 1;
    else if ( lq > 255) lq = 255;
    lum_q[i] = lq;

    if ( cq < 1) cq = 1;
    else if ( cq > 255) cq = 255;
    chr_q[i] = cq;
  }
}

Appendix B

   The following routines can be used to create the JPEG marker segments
   corresponding to the table-specification data that is absent from the
   RTP/JPEG body.

u_char lum_dc_codelens[] = {
        0, 1, 5, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
};

u_char lum_dc_symbols[] = {
        0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
};

u_char lum_ac_codelens[] = {
        0, 2, 1, 3, 3, 2, 4, 3, 5, 5, 4, 4, 0, 0, 1, 0x7d,
};

u_char lum_ac_symbols[] = {
        0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x00, 0x04, 0x11, 0x05, 0x12,
        0x21, 0x31, 0x41, 0x06, 0x13, 0x51, 0x61, 0x07,
        0x22, 0x71, 0x14, 0x32, 0x81, 0x91, 0xa1, 0x08,
        0x23, 0x42, 0xb1, 0xc1, 0x15, 0x52, 0xd1, 0xf0,
        0x24, 0x33, 0x62, 0x72, 0x82, 0x09, 0x0a, 0x16,
        0x17, 0x18, 0x19, 0x1a, 0x25, 0x26, 0x27, 0x28,
        0x29, 0x2a, 0x34, 0x35, 0x36, 0x37, 0x38, 0x39,
        0x3a, 0x43, 0x44, 0x45, 0x46, 0x47, 0x48, 0x49,
        0x4a, 0x53, 0x54, 0x55, 0x56, 0x57, 0x58, 0x59,
        0x5a, 0x63, 0x64, 0x65, 0x66, 0x67, 0x68, 0x69,
        0x6a, 0x73, 0x74, 0x75, 0x76, 0x77, 0x78, 0x79,
        0x7a, 0x83, 0x84, 0x85, 0x86, 0x87, 0x88, 0x89,
        0x8a, 0x92, 0x93, 0x94, 0x95, 0x96, 0x97, 0x98,
        0x99, 0x9a, 0xa2, 0xa3, 0xa4, 0xa5, 0xa6, 0xa7,



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        0xa8, 0xa9, 0xaa, 0xb2, 0xb3, 0xb4, 0xb5, 0xb6,
        0xb7, 0xb8, 0xb9, 0xba, 0xc2, 0xc3, 0xc4, 0xc5,
        0xc6, 0xc7, 0xc8, 0xc9, 0xca, 0xd2, 0xd3, 0xd4,
        0xd5, 0xd6, 0xd7, 0xd8, 0xd9, 0xda, 0xe1, 0xe2,
        0xe3, 0xe4, 0xe5, 0xe6, 0xe7, 0xe8, 0xe9, 0xea,
        0xf1, 0xf2, 0xf3, 0xf4, 0xf5, 0xf6, 0xf7, 0xf8,
        0xf9, 0xfa,
};

u_char chm_dc_codelens[] = {
        0, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
};

u_char chm_dc_symbols[] = {
        0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
};

u_char chm_ac_codelens[] = {
        0, 2, 1, 2, 4, 4, 3, 4, 7, 5, 4, 4, 0, 1, 2, 0x77,
};

u_char chm_ac_symbols[] = {
        0x00, 0x01, 0x02, 0x03, 0x11, 0x04, 0x05, 0x21,
        0x31, 0x06, 0x12, 0x41, 0x51, 0x07, 0x61, 0x71,
        0x13, 0x22, 0x32, 0x81, 0x08, 0x14, 0x42, 0x91,
        0xa1, 0xb1, 0xc1, 0x09, 0x23, 0x33, 0x52, 0xf0,
        0x15, 0x62, 0x72, 0xd1, 0x0a, 0x16, 0x24, 0x34,
        0xe1, 0x25, 0xf1, 0x17, 0x18, 0x19, 0x1a, 0x26,
        0x27, 0x28, 0x29, 0x2a, 0x35, 0x36, 0x37, 0x38,
        0x39, 0x3a, 0x43, 0x44, 0x45, 0x46, 0x47, 0x48,
        0x49, 0x4a, 0x53, 0x54, 0x55, 0x56, 0x57, 0x58,
        0x59, 0x5a, 0x63, 0x64, 0x65, 0x66, 0x67, 0x68,
        0x69, 0x6a, 0x73, 0x74, 0x75, 0x76, 0x77, 0x78,
        0x79, 0x7a, 0x82, 0x83, 0x84, 0x85, 0x86, 0x87,
        0x88, 0x89, 0x8a, 0x92, 0x93, 0x94, 0x95, 0x96,
        0x97, 0x98, 0x99, 0x9a, 0xa2, 0xa3, 0xa4, 0xa5,
        0xa6, 0xa7, 0xa8, 0xa9, 0xaa, 0xb2, 0xb3, 0xb4,
        0xb5, 0xb6, 0xb7, 0xb8, 0xb9, 0xba, 0xc2, 0xc3,
        0xc4, 0xc5, 0xc6, 0xc7, 0xc8, 0xc9, 0xca, 0xd2,
        0xd3, 0xd4, 0xd5, 0xd6, 0xd7, 0xd8, 0xd9, 0xda,
        0xe2, 0xe3, 0xe4, 0xe5, 0xe6, 0xe7, 0xe8, 0xe9,
        0xea, 0xf2, 0xf3, 0xf4, 0xf5, 0xf6, 0xf7, 0xf8,
        0xf9, 0xfa,
};

u_char *
MakeQuantHeader(u_char *p, u_char *qt, int tableNo)
{



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        *p++ = 0xff;
        *p++ = 0xdb;            /* DQT */
        *p++ = 0;               /* length msb */
        *p++ = 67;              /* length lsb */
        *p++ = tableNo;
        memcpy(p, qt, 64);
        return (p + 64);
}

u_char *
MakeHuffmanHeader(u_char *p, u_char *codelens, int ncodes, u_char *symbols,
                  int nsymbols, int tableNo, int tableClass)
{
        *p++ = 0xff;
        *p++ = 0xc4;            /* DHT */
        *p++ = 0;               /* length msb */
        *p++ = 3 + ncodes + nsymbols; /* length lsb */
        *p++ = tableClass << 4 | tableNo;
        memcpy(p, codelens, ncodes);
        p += ncodes;
        memcpy(p, symbols, nsymbols);
        p += nsymbols;
        return (p);
}

/*
 * Given an RTP/JPEG type code, q factor, width, and height,
 * generate a frame and scan headers that can be prepended
 * to the RTP/JPEG data payload to produce a JPEG compressed
 * image in interchange format (except for possible trailing
 * garbage and absence of an EOI marker to terminate the scan).
 */
int MakeHeaders(u_char *p, int type, int q, int w, int h)
{
        u_char *start = p;
        u_char lqt[64];
        u_char cqt[64];

        /* convert from blocks to pixels */
        w <<= 3;
        h <<= 3;

        MakeTables(q, lqt, cqt);

        *p++ = 0xff;
        *p++ = 0xd8;            /* SOI */

        p = MakeQuantHeader(p, lqt, 0);



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        p = MakeQuantHeader(p, cqt, 1);

        p = MakeHuffmanHeader(p, lum_dc_codelens,
                              sizeof(lum_dc_codelens),
                              lum_dc_symbols,
                              sizeof(lum_dc_symbols), 0, 0);
        p = MakeHuffmanHeader(p, lum_ac_codelens,
                              sizeof(lum_ac_codelens),
                              lum_ac_symbols,
                              sizeof(lum_ac_symbols), 0, 1);
        p = MakeHuffmanHeader(p, chm_dc_codelens,
                              sizeof(chm_dc_codelens),
                              chm_dc_symbols,
                              sizeof(chm_dc_symbols), 1, 0);
        p = MakeHuffmanHeader(p, chm_ac_codelens,
                              sizeof(chm_ac_codelens),
                              chm_ac_symbols,
                              sizeof(chm_ac_symbols), 1, 1);

        *p++ = 0xff;
        *p++ = 0xc0;            /* SOF */
        *p++ = 0;               /* length msb */
        *p++ = 17;              /* length lsb */
        *p++ = 8;               /* 8-bit precision */
        *p++ = h >> 8;          /* height msb */
        *p++ = h;               /* height lsb */
        *p++ = w >> 8;          /* width msb */
        *p++ = w;               /* wudth lsb */
        *p++ = 3;               /* number of components */
        *p++ = 0;               /* comp 0 */
        if (type == 0)
                *p++ = 0x21;    /* hsamp = 2, vsamp = 1 */
        else
                *p++ = 0x22;    /* hsamp = 2, vsamp = 2 */
        *p++ = 0;               /* quant table 0 */
        *p++ = 1;               /* comp 1 */
        *p++ = 0x11;            /* hsamp = 1, vsamp = 1 */
        *p++ = 1;               /* quant table 1 */
        *p++ = 2;               /* comp 2 */
        *p++ = 0x11;            /* hsamp = 1, vsamp = 1 */
        *p++ = 1;               /* quant table 1 */

        *p++ = 0xff;
        *p++ = 0xda;            /* SOS */
        *p++ = 0;               /* length msb */
        *p++ = 12;              /* length lsb */
        *p++ = 3;               /* 3 components */
        *p++ = 0;               /* comp 0 */



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        *p++ = 0;               /* huffman table 0 */
        *p++ = 1;               /* comp 1 */
        *p++ = 0x11;            /* huffman table 1 */
        *p++ = 2;               /* comp 2 */
        *p++ = 0x11;            /* huffman table 1 */
        *p++ = 0;               /* first DCT coeff */
        *p++ = 63;              /* last DCT coeff */
        *p++ = 0;               /* sucessive approx. */

        return (p - start);
};








































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