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Network Working Group                                        R. Friend
Request for Comments: 2395                                  R. Monsour
Category: Informational                                    Hi/fn, Inc.
                                                         December 1998


                    IP Payload Compression Using LZS

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document describes a compression method based on the LZS
   compression algorithm. This document defines the application of the
   LZS algorithm to the IP Payload Compression Protocol [IPCOMP].
   [IPCOMP] defines a method for applying lossless compression to the
   payloads of Internet Protocol datagrams.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction...................................................2
      1.1 General....................................................2
      1.2 Background of LZS Compression..............................2
      1.3 Licensing..................................................3
      1.4 Specification of Requirements..............................3
   2. Compression Process............................................3
      2.1 Compression History........................................3
      2.2 Compression Encoding Format................................3
      2.3 Padding....................................................4
   3. Decompression Process..........................................4
   4. IPComp Association (IPCA) Parameters...........................4
      4.1 ISAKMP Transform ID........................................5
      4.2 ISAKMP Security Association Attributes.....................5
      4.3 Manual configuration.......................................5
      4.4 Minimum packet size threshold..............................5
      4.5 Compressibility test.......................................5
   5. Security Considerations........................................5
   6. Acknowledgements...............................................5
   7. References.....................................................6
   8. Authors' Addresses.............................................7



Friend & Monsour             Informational                      [Page 1]

RFC 2395            IP Payload Compression Using LZS       December 1998


   9. Appendix: Compression Efficiency versus Datagram Size..........8
   10. Full Copyright Statement......................................9

1. Introduction

1.1 General

   This document specifies the application of LZS compression, a
   lossless compression algorithm, to IP datagram payloads. This
   document is to be used in conjunction with the IP Payload Compression
   Protocol [IPCOMP].  This specification assumes a thorough
   understanding of the IPComp protocol.

1.2 Background of LZS Compression

   Starting with a sliding window compression history, similar to [LZ1],
   Hi/fn developed a new, enhanced compression algorithm identified as
   LZS. The LZS algorithm is a general purpose lossless compression
   algorithm for use with a wide variety of data types.  Its encoding
   method is very efficient, providing compression for strings as short
   as two octets in length.

   The LZS algorithm uses a sliding window of 2,048 bytes.  During
   compression, redundant sequences of data are replaced with tokens
   that represent those sequences. During decompression, the original
   sequences are substituted for the tokens in such a way that the
   original data is exactly recovered. LZS differs from lossy
   compression algorithms, such as those often used for video
   compression, that do not exactly reproduce the original data.

   The details of LZS compression can be found in [ANSI94].

   The efficiency of the LZS algorithm depends on the degree of
   redundancy in the original data.  A table of compression ratios for
   the [Calgary] Corpus file set is provided in the appendix in Section
   7.















Friend & Monsour             Informational                      [Page 2]

RFC 2395            IP Payload Compression Using LZS       December 1998


1.3 Licensing

   Hi/fn, Inc. holds patents on the LZS algorithm. Licenses for a
   reference implementation are available for use in IPPCP, IPSec, TLS
   and PPP applications at no cost.  Source and object licenses are
   available on a non-discriminatory basis. Hardware implementations are
   also available.  For more information, contact Hi/fn at the address
   listed with the authors' addresses.

1.4 Specification of Requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC-2119].

2. Compression Process

2.1 Compression History

   The sender MUST reset the compression history prior to processing
   each datagram's payload. This ensures that each datagram's payload
   can be decompressed independently of any other, as is needed when
   datagrams are received out of order.

   The sender MUST flush the compressor each time it transmits a
   compressed datagram.  Flushing means that all data going into the
   compressor is included in the output, i.e., no data is held back in
   the hope of achieving better compression.  Flushing is necessary to
   prevent a datagram's data from spilling over into a later datagram.

2.2 Compression Encoding Format

   The input to the payload compression algorithm is an IP datagram
   payload. The output of the algorithm is a new (and hopefully smaller)
   payload. The output payload contains the input payload's data in
   either compressed or uncompressed format. The input and output
   payloads are each an integral number of bytes in length.

   If the uncompressed form is used, the output payload is identical to
   the input payload and the IPComp header is omitted.  If the
   compressed form is used, the output payload is prepended with the
   IPComp header and encoded as defined in [ANSI94], which is repeated
   here for informational purposes ONLY.

   <Compressed Stream> := [<Compressed String>] <End Marker>
   <Compressed String> := 0 <Raw Byte> | 1 <Compressed Bytes>
   <Raw Byte> := <b><b><b><b><b><b><b><b>          (8-bit byte)
   <Compressed Bytes> := <Offset> <Length>



Friend & Monsour             Informational                      [Page 3]

RFC 2395            IP Payload Compression Using LZS       December 1998


   <Offset> := 1 <b><b><b><b><b><b><b> |           (7-bit offset)
               0 <b><b><b><b><b><b><b><b><b><b><b> (11-bit offset)
   <End Marker> := 110000000

   <b> := 1 | 0

   <Length> :=
   00        = 2     1111 0110      = 14
   01        = 3     1111 0111      = 15
   10        = 4     1111 1000      = 16
   1100      = 5     1111 1001      = 17
   1101      = 6     1111 1010      = 18
   1110      = 7     1111 1011      = 19
   1111 0000 = 8     1111 1100      = 20
   1111 0001 = 9     1111 1101      = 21
   1111 0010 = 10    1111 1110      = 22
   1111 0011 = 11    1111 1111 0000 = 23
   1111 0100 = 12    1111 1111 0001 = 24
   1111 0101 = 13     ...

2.3 Padding

   A datagram payload compressed using LZS always ends with the last
   compressed data byte (also known as the <end marker>), which is used
   to disambiguate padding.  This allows trailing bits as well as bytes
   to be considered padding.

   The size of a compressed payload MUST be in whole octet units.

3. Decompression Process

   If the received datagram is compressed, the receiver MUST reset the
   decompression history prior to processing the datagram. This ensures
   that each datagram can be decompressed independently of any other, as
   is needed when datagrams are received out of order. Following the
   reset of the decompression history, the receiver decompresses the
   Payload Data field according to the encoding specified in section 3.2
   of [ANSI94].

   If the received datagram is not compressed, the receiver needs to
   perform no decompression processing and the Payload Data field of the
   datagram is ready for processing by the next protocol layer.

4. IPComp Association (IPCA) Parameters

   ISAKMP MAY be used to negotiate the use of the LZS compression method
   to establish an IPCA, as defined in [IPCOMP].




Friend & Monsour             Informational                      [Page 4]

RFC 2395            IP Payload Compression Using LZS       December 1998


4.1 ISAKMP Transform ID

   The LZS Transform ID as IPCOMP_LZS, as specified in The Internet IP
   Security Domain of Interpretation [SECDOI].  This value is used to
   negotiate the LZS compression algorithm under the ISAKMP protocol.

4.2 ISAKMP Security Association Attributes

   There are no other parameters required for LZS compression negotiated
   under ISAKMP.

4.3 Manual configuration

   The CPI value IPCOMP_LZS is used for a manually configured IPComp
   Compression Associations.

4.4 Minimum packet size threshold

   As stated in [IPCOMP], small packets may not compress well.  Informal
   tests using the LZS algorithm over the Calgary Corpus data set show
   that the average payload size that may produce expanded data is
   approximately 90 bytes.  Thus implementations may not want to attempt
   to compress payloads smaller than 90 bytes.

4.5 Compressibility test

   There is no adaptive algorithm embodied in the LZS algorithm, for
   compressibility testing, as referenced in [IPCOMP].

5. Security Considerations

   This document does not add any further security considerations that
   [IPCOMP] and [Deutsch96] have already declared.

6. Acknowledgments

   The LZS details presented here are similar to those in PPP LZS-DCP
   Compression Protocol (LZS-DCP), [RFC-1967].

   The author wishes to thank the participants of the IPPCP working
   group mailing list whose discussion is currently active and is
   working to generate the protocol specification for integrating
   compression with IP.








Friend & Monsour             Informational                      [Page 5]

RFC 2395            IP Payload Compression Using LZS       December 1998


7. References

   [AH]       Kent, S., and R., Atkinson, "IP Authentication Header",
              RFC 2402, November 1998.

   [ANSI94]   American National Standards Institute, Inc., "Data
              Compression Method for Information Systems," ANSI X3.241-
              1994, August 1994.

   [Calgary]  Text Compression Corpus, University of Calgary, available
              at ftp://ftp.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/pub/projects/text.
              compression.corpus.

   [IPCOMP]   Shacham, A., "IP Payload Compression Protocol (IPComp)",
              RFC 2393, December 1998.

   [LZ1]      Lempel, A., and Ziv, J., "A Universal Algorithm for
              Sequential Data Compression", IEEE Transactions On
              Information Theory, Vol.  IT-23, No. 3, May 1977.

   [RFC-1962] Rand, D., "The PPP Compression Control Protocol (CCP)",
              RFC 1962, June 1996.

   [RFC-1967] Schneider, K., and R. Friend, "PPP LZS-DCP Compression
              Protocol (LZS-DCP)", RFC 1967, August 1996.

   [RFC-2003] Perkins, C., "IP Encapsulation within IP", RFC 2003,
              October 1996.

   [RFC-2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [SECDOI]   Piper, D., "The Internet IP Security Domain of
              Interpretation for ISAKMP", RFC 2407, November 1998.

















Friend & Monsour             Informational                      [Page 6]

RFC 2395            IP Payload Compression Using LZS       December 1998


8. Authors' Addresses

   Robert Friend
   Hi/fn Inc.
   5973 Avenida Encinas
   Suite 110
   Carlsbad, CA  92008

   EMail: rfriend@hifn.com


   Robert Monsour
   Hi/fn Inc.
   2105 Hamilton Avenue
   Suite 230
   San Jose, CA 95125

   EMail: rmonsour@hifn.com

































Friend & Monsour             Informational                      [Page 7]

RFC 2395            IP Payload Compression Using LZS       December 1998


9. Appendix: Compression Efficiency versus Datagram Size

   The following table offers some guidance on the compression
   efficiency that can be achieved as a function of datagram size.  Each
   entry in the table shows the compression ratio that was achieved when
   LZS was applied to a test file using datagrams of a specified size.

   The test file was the University of Calgary Text Compression Corpus
   [Calgary].  The Calgary Corpus consists of 18 files with a total size
   (all files) of 3.278MB.

    Datagram size,|
    bytes         |  64   128   256   512  1024  2048  4096  8192 16384
    --------------|----------------------------------------------------
    Compression   |1.18  1.28  1.43  1.58  1.74  1.91  2.04  2.11  2.14
    ratio         |



































Friend & Monsour             Informational                      [Page 8]

RFC 2395            IP Payload Compression Using LZS       December 1998


10.  Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
























Friend & Monsour             Informational                      [Page 9]