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Network Working Group                                         T. Howes
Request for Comments: 2425                                    M. Smith
Category: Standards Track                Netscape Communications Corp.
                                                             F. Dawson
                                         Lotus Development Corporation
                                                        September 1998


             A MIME Content-Type for Directory Information

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

1.  Abstract

   This document defines a MIME Content-Type for holding directory
   information.  The definition is independent of any particular
   directory service or protocol.  The text/directory Content-Type is
   defined for holding a variety of directory information, for example,
   name, or email address, or logo. The text/directory Content-Type can
   also be used as the root body part in a multipart/related Content-
   Type for handling more complicated situations, especially those in
   which non-textual information that already has a natural MIME
   representation, for example, a photograph or sound, is to be
   represented.

   The text/directory Content-Type defines a general framework and
   format for holding directory information in a simple "type:value"
   form. We refer to "type" in this context meaning a property or
   attribute with which the value is associated. Mechanisms are defined
   to specify alternate languages, encodings and other meta-information.
   This document also defines the procedure by which particular formats,
   called profiles, for carrying application-specific information within
   a text/directory Content-Type can be defined and registered, and the
   conventions such formats must follow. It is expected that other
   documents will be produced that define such formats for various
   applications (e.g., white pages).





Howes, et. al.              Standards Track                     [Page 1]

RFC 2425      MIME Content-Type for Directory Information September 1998


   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY" and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC-2119].

2.  Table of Contents

   Status of the Memo................................................ 1
   Copyright Notice.................................................. 1
   1.  Abstract...................................................... 1
   2.  Table of Contents............................................. 2
   3.  Need for a MIME Directory Type................................ 3
   4.  Overview...................................................... 4
   5.  The text/directory Content-Type............................... 4
   5.1.  MIME media type name........................................ 4
   5.2.  MIME subtype name........................................... 5
   5.3.  Required parameters......................................... 5
   5.4.  Optional parameters......................................... 5
   5.5.  Encoding considerations..................................... 5
   5.6.  Security considerations..................................... 6
   5.7.  Interoperability considerations............................. 6
   5.8.  Published specification..................................... 6
   5.8.1.  Line delimiting and folding............................... 6
   5.8.2.  ABNF content-type definition.............................. 7
   5.8.3.  Pre-defined Parameters.................................... 9
   5.8.4.  Pre-defined Value Types...................................11
   5.9.  Applications which use this media type......................14
   5.10.  Additional information.....................................14
   5.11.  Person & email address to contact for further information..14
   5.12.  Intended usage.............................................14
   5.13.  Author/Change controller...................................15
   6.  Predefined Types..............................................15
   6.1.  SOURCE Type Definition......................................15
   6.2.  NAME Type Definition........................................16
   6.3.  PROFILE Type Definition.....................................16
   6.4.  BEGIN Type Definition.......................................17
   6.5.  END Type Definition.........................................17
   7.  Use of the multipart/related Content-Type.....................18
   8. Examples.......................................................18
   8.1.  Example 1...................................................19
   8.2.  Example 2...................................................19
   8.3.  Example 3...................................................20
   8.4.  Example 4...................................................21
   9.  Registration of new profiles..................................22
   9.1.  Define the profile..........................................22
   9.2.  Post the profile definition.................................23
   9.3.  Allow a comment period......................................23
   9.4.  Submit the profile for approval.............................23
   10.  Profile Change Control.......................................23



Howes, et. al.              Standards Track                     [Page 2]

RFC 2425      MIME Content-Type for Directory Information September 1998


   11.  Registration of new types....................................24
   11.1.  Define the type............................................24
   11.2.  Post the type definition...................................25
   11.3.  Allow a comment period.....................................25
   11.4.  Submit the type for approval...............................25
   12.  Type Change Control..........................................25
   13.  Registration of new parameters...............................26
   13.1.  Define the parameter.......................................26
   13.2.  Post the parameter definition..............................27
   13.3.  Allow a comment period.....................................27
   13.4.  Submit the parameter for approval..........................27
   14.  Parameter Change Control.....................................28
   15.  Registration of new value types..............................28
   15.1.  Define the value type......................................28
   15.2.  Post the value type definition.............................29
   15.3.  Allow a comment period.....................................29
   15.4.  Submit the value type for approval.........................29
   16.  Security Considerations......................................30
   17. Acknowledgements..............................................30
   18. References....................................................30
   19.  Authors' Addresses...........................................32
   20. Full Copyright Statement......................................33

3.  Need for a MIME Directory Type

   For purposes of this document, a directory is a special-purpose
   database that contains typed information. A directory usually
   supports both read and search of the information it contains, and can
   support creation and modification of the information as well.
   Directory information is usually accessed far more often than it is
   updated.  Directories can be local or global in scope. They can be
   distributed or centralized. The information they contain can be
   replicated, with weak or strong consistency requirements.

   There are several situations in which users of Internet mail might
   wish to exchange directory information: the email analogy of a
   "business card" exchange; the conveyance of directory information to
   a user having only email access to the Internet; the provision of
   machine-parseable address information when purchasing goods or
   services over the Internet; etc.  As MIME [RFC-2045, RFC-2046] is
   used increasingly by other protocols, most notably HTTP, it can also
   be useful for these protocols to carry directory information in MIME
   format. Such a format, for example, could be used to represent URC
   (uniform resource characteristics) information about resources on the
   World Wide Web, or to provide a rudimentary directory service over
   HTTP.





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4.  Overview

   The scheme defined here for representing directory information in a
   MIME Content-Type has two parts. First, the text/directory Content-
   Type is defined for use in holding directory information within a
   single body part, for example name, title, or email address. In its
   simplest form, the format uses a "type:value" approach, which should
   be easily parseable by existing MIME implementations and
   understandable by users. More complicated situations can be
   represented also.  This document defines the general form the
   information in the Content-Type should have, and the procedure by
   which specific types and values (properties) for particular
   applications can be defined. The framework is general enough to
   handle information from any number of end directory services,
   including LDAP [RFC-1777, RFC-1778], WHOIS++ [RFC-1835], and X.500
   [X500].

   Directory entries can include far more than just textual information.
   Some such information (e.g., an image or sound) overlaps with
   predefined MIME Content-Types. In these cases it can be desirable to
   include the information in its well-known MIME format. This situation
   is handled by using a multipart/related Content-Type as defined in
   [RFC-2112].  The root component of this type is a text/directory body
   part specifying any in-line information, and for information
   contained in other Content-Types, the Content-IDs (in URI form) of
   those parts.

   In some applications, it can be useful to include a pointer (e.g, a
   URI) to some directory information rather than the information
   itself.  This document defines a general mechanism for accomplishing
   this.

5.  The text/directory Content-Type

   The text/directory Content-Type is used to hold basic directory
   information and URIs referencing other information, including other
   MIME body parts holding supplementary or non-textual directory
   information, such as an image or sound. It is defined as follows,
   using the MIME media type registration template from [RFC-2048].

   To: ietf-types@uninett.no
   Subject: Registration of MIME media type text/directory

5.1.  MIME media type name

   MIME media type name: text





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5.2.  MIME subtype name

   MIME subtype name: directory

5.3.  Required parameters

   Required parameters: charset

   The "charset" parameter is as defined in [RFC-2046] for other body
   parts.  It is used to identify the default character set used within
   the body part.

5.4.  Optional parameters

   Optional parameters: profile

   The "profile" parameter is used to convey the type(s) of entity(ies)
   to which the directory information pertains and the likely set of
   information associated with the entity(ies). It is intended only as a
   guide to applications interpreting the information contained within
   the body part. It SHOULD NOT be used to exclude or require particular
   pieces of information unless a profile definition specifically calls
   for this behavior. Unless specifically forbidden by a particular
   profile definition, a text/directory content type can contain
   arbitrary attribute/value pairs.

   The value of the "profile" parameter is defined as follows.  Profile
   names are case insensitive (i.e., the profile name "vCard" is the
   same as "VCARD" and "vcard" and "vcArD").

         profile = x-name / iana-token

         x-name = "x-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
             ; Names beginning with "x-" or "X-" are
             ; reserved for experimental use not intended for released
             ; products, or for use in bilateral agreements.

         iana-token = <a publicly-defined extension token, registered
                        with IANA, as specified in Section 9 of this
                        document>

5.5.  Encoding considerations

   The default encoding is 8bit. Otherwise, as specified by the
   Content-Transfer-Encoding header field.






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5.6.  Security considerations

   Directory information can be public or it can be protected from
   unauthorized access by the directory service in which it resides.
   Once the information leaves its native service, there can be no
   guarantee that the same care will be taken by all services handling
   the information.  Furthermore, this specification defines no access
   control mechanism by which information can be protected, or by which
   access control information can be conveyed.  Note that the integrity
   and privacy of a text/directory body part can be protected by
   enclosing it within an appropriate MIME-based security mechanism.

5.7.  Interoperability considerations

   In order to make sense of directory information, applications must
   share a common understanding of the types of information contained
   within the Content-Type (the directory schema).  This schema
   information is not defined in this document, but rather in companion
   documents (e.g., [MIME-VCARD]) that follow the requirements specified
   in this document, or in bilateral agreements between communicating
   parties.

5.8.  Published specification

   The text/directory Content-Type contains directory information,
   typically pertaining to a single directory entity or group of
   entities.  The content consists of one or more lines in the format
   given below.

5.8.1.  Line delimiting and folding

   Individual lines within the MIME text/directory Content Type body are
   delimited by the [RFC-822] line break, which is a CRLF sequence
   (ASCII decimal 13, followed by ASCII decimal 10). Long logical lines
   of text can be split into a multiple-physical-line representation
   using the following folding technique.

   A logical line MAY be continued on the next physical line anywhere
   between two characters by inserting a CRLF immediately followed by a
   single white space character (space, ASCII decimal 32, or horizontal
   tab, ASCII decimal 9).  At least one character must be present on the
   folded line. Any sequence of CRLF followed immediately by a single
   white space character is ignored (removed) when processing the
   content type.  For example the line:

   DESCRIPTION:This is a long description that exists on a long line.

   Can be represented as:



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   DESCRIPTION:This is a long description
     that exists on a long line.

   It could also be represented as:

   DESCRIPTION:This is a long descrip
    tion that exists o
    n a long line.

   The process of moving from this folded multiple-line representation
   of a type definition to its single line representation is called
   unfolding.  Unfolding is accomplished by regarding CRLF immediately
   followed by a white space character (namely HTAB ASCII decimal 9 or
   SPACE ASCII decimal 32) as equivalent to no characters at all (i.e.,
   the CRLF and single white space character are removed).

5.8.2.  ABNF content-type definition

   The following ABNF uses the notation of RFC 2234, which also defines
   CRLF, WSP, DQUOTE, VCHAR, ALPHA, and DIGIT.  After the unfolding of
   any folded lines as described above, the syntax for a line of this
   content type is as follows:

   contentline  = [group "."] name *(";" param) ":" value CRLF
      ; When parsing a content line, folded lines MUST first
      ; be unfolded according to the unfolding procedure
      ; described above.
      ; When generating a content line, lines longer than 75
      ; characters SHOULD be folded according to the folding
      ; procedure described above.

   group        = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")

   name         = x-name / iana-token

   iana-token   = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
      ; identifier registered with IANA

   x-name       = "x-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
      ; Names that begin with "x-" or "X-" are
      ; reserved for experimental use, not intended for released
      ; products, or for use in bilateral agreements.

   param        = param-name "=" param-value *("," param-value)

   param-name   = x-name / iana-token

   param-value  = ptext / quoted-string



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   ptext  = *SAFE-CHAR

   value = *VALUE-CHAR
         / valuespec      ; valuespec defined in section 5.8.4

   quoted-string = DQUOTE *QSAFE-CHAR DQUOTE

   NON-ASCII    = %x80-FF
      ; use restricted by charset parameter
      ; on outer MIME object (UTF-8 preferred)

   QSAFE-CHAR   = WSP / %x21 / %x23-7E / NON-ASCII
      ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE

   SAFE-CHAR    = WSP / %x21 / %x23-2B / %x2D-39 / %x3C-7E / NON-ASCII
      ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE, ";", ":", ","

   VALUE-CHAR   = WSP / VCHAR / NON-ASCII
      ; any textual character

   A line that begins with a white space character is a continuation of
   the previous line, as described above. The white space character and
   immediately preceeding CRLF should be discarded when reconstructing
   the original line. Note that this line-folding convention differs
   from that found in RFC 822, in that the sequence <CRLF><WSP> found
   anywhere in the content indicates a continued line and should be
   removed.

   Various type names and the format of the corresponding values are
   defined as specified in Section 11.  Specifications MAY impose
   ordering on the type constructs within a body part, though none is
   required by default.  The various x-name constructs are used for
   bilaterally-agreed upon type names, parameter names and parameter
   values, or for use in experimental settings.

   Type names and parameter names are case insensitive (e.g., the type
   name "fn" is the same as "FN" and "Fn"). Parameter values MAY be case
   sensitive or case insensitive, depending on their definition.

   The group construct is used to group related attributes together.
   The group name is a syntactic convention used to indicate that all
   type names prefaced with the same group name SHOULD be grouped
   together when displayed by an application. It has no other
   significance.  Implementations that do not understand or support
   grouping MAY simply strip off any text before a "." to the left of
   the type name and present the types and values as normal.





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   Each attribute defined in the text/directory body MAY have multiple
   values, if allowed in the definition of the profile in which the
   attribute is used. The general rule for encoding multi-valued items
   is to simply create a new content line for each value (including the
   type name).  However, it should be noted that some value types
   support encoding multiple values in a single content line by
   separating the values with a comma ",".  This approach has been taken
   for several of the content types defined below (date, time, integer,
   float), for space-saving reasons.

5.8.3.  Pre-defined Parameters

   The following parameters and value types are defined for general use.

         predefined-param = encodingparm
                          / valuetypeparm
                          / languageparm
                          / contextparm

         encodingparm = "encoding" "=" encodingtype

         encodingtype = "b"       ; from RFC 2047
                    / iana-token  ; registered as described in
                                  ; section 15 of this document

         valuetypeparm = "value" "=" valuetype

         valuetype = "uri"        ; genericurl from secion 5 of RFC 1738
                    / "text"
                    / "date"
                    / "time"
                    / "date-time" ; date time
                    / "integer"
                    / "boolean"
                    / "float"
                    / x-name
                    / iana-token  ; registered as described in
                                  ; section 15 of this document

         languageparm = "language" "=" Language-Tag
             ; Language-Tag is defined in section 2 of RFC 1766

         contextparm = "context" "=" context

         context = x-name
                 / iana-token





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   The "language" type parameter is used to identify data in multiple
   languages.  There is no concept of "default" language, except as
   specified by any "Content-Language" MIME header parameter that is
   present.  The value of the "language" type parameter is a language
   tag as defined in Section 2 of [RFC-1766].

   The "context" type parameter is used to identify a context (e.g., a
   protocol) used in interpreting the value. This is used, for example,
   in the "source" type, defined below.

   The "encoding" type parameter is used to specify an alternate
   encoding for a value.  If the value contains a CRLF, it must be
   encoded, since CRLF is used to separate lines in the content-type
   itself.  Currently, only the "b" encoding is supported.

   The "b" encoding can also be useful for binary values that are mixed
   with other text information in the body part (e.g., a certificate).
   Using a per-value "b" encoding in this case leaves the other
   information in a more readable form. The encoded base 64 value can be
   split across multiple physical lines in the content type by using the
   line folding technique described above.

   The Content-Transfer-Encoding header field is used to specify the
   encoding used for the body part as a whole. The "encoding" type
   parameter is used to specify an encoding for a particular value
   (e.g., a certificate).  In this case, the Content-Transfer-Encoding
   header might specify "8bit", while the one certificate value might
   specify an encoding of "b" via an "encoding=b" type parameter.

   The Content-Transfer-Encoding and the encodings of individual types
   given by the "encoding" type parameter are independent of one
   another.  When encoding a text/directory body part for transmission,
   individual type encodings are performed first, then the entire body
   part is encoded according to the Content-Transfer-Encoding.  When
   decoding a text/directory body part, the Content-Transfer-Encoding is
   decoded first, and then any individual types with an "encoding" type
   parameter are decoded.

   The "value" parameter is optional, and is used to identify the value
   type (data type) and format of the value.  The use of these
   predefined formats is encouraged even if the value parameter is not
   explicity used.  By defining a standard set of value types and their
   formats, existing parsing and processing code can be leveraged.

   Including the value type explicitly as part of each property provides
   an extra hint to keep parsing simple and support more generalized
   applications.  For example a search engine would not have to know the
   particular value types for all of the items for which it is



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   searching.  Because the value type is explicit in the definition, the
   search engine could look for dates in any item type and provide
   results that can still be interpreted.

5.8.4.  Pre-defined Value Types

   The format for values corresponding to the predefined valuetype
   specifications given above are defined.

   valuespec =  text-list
              / genericurl       ; from section 5 of RFC 1738
              / date-list
              / time-list
              / date-time-list
              / boolean
              / integer-list
              / float-list
              / iana-valuespec

   text-list = *TEXT-LIST-CHAR *("," *TEXT-LIST-CHAR)

   TEXT-LIST-CHAR = "\\" / "\," / "\n"
                  / <any VALUE-CHAR except , or \ or newline>
       ; Backslashes, newlines, and commas must be encoded.
       ; \n or \N can be used to encode a newline.

   date-list = date *("," date)

   time-list = time *("," time)

   date-time-list = date "T" time *("," date "T" time)

   boolean = "TRUE" / "FALSE"

   integer-list = integer *("," integer)

   integer = [sign] 1*DIGIT

   float-list = float *("," float)

   float = [sign] 1*DIGIT ["." 1*DIGIT]

   sign = "+" / "-"

   date = date-fullyear ["-"] date-month ["-"] date-mday

   date-fullyear = 4 DIGIT




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   date-month = 2 DIGIT     ;01-12

   date-mday = 2 DIGIT      ;01-28, 01-29, 01-30, 01-31
                            ;based on month/year

   time = time-hour [":"] time-minute [":"] time-second [time-secfrac]
           [time-zone]

   time-hour = 2 DIGIT      ;00-23

   time-minute = 2 DIGIT    ;00-59

   time-second = 2 DIGIT    ;00-60 (leap second)

   time-secfrac = "," 1*DIGIT

   time-zone = "Z" / time-numzone

   time-numzome = sign time-hour [":"] time-minute

   iana-valuespec = <a publicly-defined valuetype format, registered
                     with IANA, as defined in section 15 of this
                     document>

   Some specific notes on the value types and formats:

   "text": The "text" value type should be used to identify values that
   contain human-readable text. The character set and language in which
   the text is represented is controlled by the charset content-header
   and the language type parameter and content-header.

         Examples for "text":
                    this is a text value
                    this is one value,this is another
                    this is a single value\, with a comma encoded

   A formatted text line break in a text value type MUST be represented
   as the character sequence backslash (ASCII decimal 92) followed by a
   Latin small letter n (ASCII decimal 110) or a Latin capital letter N
   (ASCII decimal 78), that is "\n" or "\N".

   For example a multiple line DESCRIPTION value of:

   Mythical Manager
   Hyjinx Software Division
   BabsCo, Inc.

   could be represented as:



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   DESCRIPTION:Mythical Manager\nHyjinx Software Division\n
    BabsCo\, Inc.\n

   demonstrating the \n literal formatted line break technique, the
   CRLF-followed-by-space line folding technique, and the backslash
   escape technique.

   "uri": The "uri" value type should be used to identify values that
   are referenced by a URI (including a Content-ID URI), instead of
   encoded in-line. These value references might be used if the value is
   too large, or otherwise undesirable to include directly. The format
   for the URI is as defined in RFC 1738.

       Examples for "uri":
                  http://www.foobar.com/my/picture.jpg
                  ldap://ldap.foobar.com/cn=babs%20jensen

   "date", "time", and "date-time": Each of these value types is based
   on a subset of the definitions in ISO 8601 standard. Profiles MAY
   place further restrictions on "date" and "time" values.  Multiple
   "date" and "time" values can be specified using the comma-separated
   notation, unless restricted by a profile.

       Examples for "date":
                   1985-04-12
                   1996-08-05,1996-11-11
                   19850412

       Examples for "time":
                   10:22:00
                   102200
                   10:22:00.33
                   10:22:00.33Z
                   10:22:33,11:22:00
                   10:22:00-08:00

       Examples for "date-time":
                   1996-10-22T14:00:00Z
                   1996-08-11T12:34:56Z
                   19960811T123456Z
                   1996-10-22T14:00:00Z,1996-08-11T12:34:56Z

   "boolean": The "boolean" value type is used to express boolen values.
   These values are case insensitive.

       Examples: TRUE
                 false
                 True



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   "integer": The "integer" value type is used to express signed
   integers in decimal format. If sign is not specified, the value is
   assumed positive "+". Multiple "integer" values can be specified
   using the comma-separated notation, unless restricted by a profile.

       Examples: 1234567890
                 -1234556790
                 +1234556790,432109876

   "float": The "float" value type is used to express real numbers.  If
   sign is not specified, the value is assumed positive "+". Multiple
   "float" values can be specified using the comma-separated notation,
   unless restricted by a profile.

       Examples: 20.30
                 1000000.0000001
                 1.333,3.14

5.9.  Applications which use this media type

   Applications which use this media type: Various

5.10.  Additional information

   Additional information: None

5.11.  Person & email address to contact for further information

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   howes@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3419

5.12.  Intended usage

   Intended usage: COMMON












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5.13.  Author/Change controller

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   howes@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3419

   Mark Smith
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   mcs@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3477

   Frank Dawson
   Lotus Development Corporation
   6544 Battleford Drive
   Raleigh, NC 27613-3502
   USA
   frank_dawson@lotus.com
   +1-919-676-9515

6.  Predefined Types

   The following types are generally useful regardless of the profile
   being carried and are defined below using the text/directory MIME
   type registration template defined in Section 11.1 of this document.
   These types MAY be included in any profile, unless explicitly
   forbidden in the profile definition.

6.1.  SOURCE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type SOURCE

   Type name: SOURCE

   Type purpose: To identify the source of directory information
   contained in the content type.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype: uri




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   Type special notes: The SOURCE type is used to provide the means by
   which applications knowledgable in the given directory service
   protocol can obtain additional or more up-to-date information from
   the directory service. It contains a URI as defined in [RFC-1738]
   and/or other information referencing the directory entity or entities
   to which the information pertains. When directory information is
   available from more than one source, the sending entity can pick what
   it considers to be the best source, or multiple SOURCE types can be
   included. The interpretation of the value for a SOURCE type can
   depend on the setting of the CONTEXT type parameter. The value of the
   CONTEXT type parameter MUST be compatible with the value of the uri
   prefix.

   Type example:
           SOURCE;CONTEXT=LDAP:ldap://ldap.host/cn=Babs%20Jensen,
            %20o=Babsco,%20c=US

6.2.  NAME Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type NAME

   Type name: NAME

   Type purpose: To identify the displayable name of the directory
   entity to which information in the content type pertains.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype: text

   Type special notes: The NAME type is used to convey the display name
   of the entity to which the directory information pertains.

   Type example:
           NAME:Babs Jensen's Contact Information

6.3.  PROFILE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type PROFILE

   Type name: PROFILE

   Type purpose: To identify the type of directory entity to which
   information in the content type pertains.

   Type encoding: 8bit



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   Type valuetype: A profile name, registered as described in Section 9
   of this document or bilaterally agreed upon as described in Section
   5.

   Type special notes: The PROFILE type is used to convey the type of
   the entity to which the directory information in the rest of the body
   part pertains. It should be the same as the "profile" header
   parameter, if present.

   Type example:
           PROFILE:vCard

6.4.  BEGIN Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type BEGIN

   Type name: BEGIN

   Type purpose: To denote the beginning of a syntactic entity within a
   text/directory content-type.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype: text, containing a profile name, registered as
   described in Section 9 of this document or bilaterally-agreed upon as
   described in Section 5.

   Type special notes: The BEGIN type is used in conjunction with the
   END type to delimit a profile containing a related set of properties
   within an text/directory content-type. This construct can be used
   instead of or in addition to wrapping separate sets of information
   inside additional MIME headers. It is provided for applications that
   wish to define content that can contain multiple entities within the
   same text/directory content-type or to define content that can be
   identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   Type example:
           BEGIN:VCARD

6.5.  END Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type END

   Type name: END





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   Type purpose: To denote the end of a syntactic entity within a
   text/directory content-type.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype: text, containing a profile name, registered as
   described in Section 9 of this document or bilaterally-agreed upon as
   described in Section 5.

   Type special notes: The END type is used in conjunction with the
   BEGIN type to delimit a profile containing a related set of
   properties within an text/directory content-type.  This construct can
   be used instead of or in addition to wrapping separate sets of
   information inside additional MIME headers. It is provided for
   applications that wish to define content that can contain multiple
   entities within the same text/directory content-type or to define
   content that can be identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   Type example:
           END: VCARD

7.  Use of the multipart/related Content-Type

   The multipart/related Content-Type can be used to hold directory
   information comprised of both text and non-text information or
   directory information that already has a natural MIME representation.
   The root body part within the multipart/related body part is
   specified as defined in [RFC-2112] by a "start" parameter, or it is
   the first body part in the absence of such a parameter.  The root
   body part must have a Content-Type of "text/directory".  This part
   holds inline information and makes reference to subsequent body parts
   holding additional text or non-text directory information via their
   Content-ID URIs as explained in Section 5.

   The body parts referred to do not have to be in any particular order,
   except as noted above for the root body part.

8.  Examples

   The following examples are for illustrative purposes only and are not
   part of the definition.










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8.1.  Example 1

   The first example illustrates simple use of the text/directory
   Content-Type.  Note that no "profile" parameter is given, so an
   application may not know what kind of directory entity the
   information applies to.  Note also the use of both hypothetical
   official and bilaterally agreed upon types.

      From: Whomever@wherever.com
      To: Someone@somewhere.com
      Subject: whatever
      MIME-Version: 1.0
      Message-ID: <id1@host.net>
      Content-Type: text/directory
      Content-ID: <id2@host.com>

      cn:Babs Jensen
      cn:Barbara J Jensen
      sn:Jensen
      email:babs@umich.edu
      phone:+1 313 747-4454
      x-id:1234567890

8.2.  Example 2

   The next example illustrates the use of the Quoted-Printable transfer
   encoding defined in [RFC 2045] to include non-ASCII character in some
   of the information returned, and the use of the optional "name" and
   "source" types. It also illustrates the use of an "encoding" type
   parameter to encode a certificate value in "b".  A "vCard" profile
   [MIME- VCARD] is used for the example.

Content-Type: text/directory;
        charset="iso-8859-1";
        profile="vCard"
Content-ID: <id3@host.com>
Content-Transfer-Encoding: Quoted-Printable

begin:VCARD
source:ldap://cn=bjorn%20Jensen, o=university%20of%20Michigan, c=US
name:Bjorn Jensen
fn:Bj=F8rn Jensen
n:Jensen;Bj=F8rn
email;type=internet:bjorn@umich.edu
tel;type=work,voice,msg:+1 313 747-4454
key;type=x509;encoding=B:dGhpcyBjb3VsZCBiZSAKbXkgY2VydGlmaWNhdGUK
end:VCARD




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8.3.  Example 3

   The next example illustrates the use of multi-valued type parameters,
   the "language" type parameter, the "value" type parameter, folding of
   long lines, the \n encoding for formatted lines, attribute grouping,
   and the inline "b" encoding.  A "vCard" profile [MIME-VCARD] is used
   for the example.

Content-Type: text/directory; profile="vcard"; charset=iso-8859-1
Content-ID: <id3@host.com>
Content-Transfer-Encoding: Quoted-Printable

begin:vcard
source:ldap://cn=Meister%20Berger,o=Universitaet%20Goerlitz,c=DE
name:Meister Berger
fn:Meister Berger
n:Berger;Meister
bday;value=date:1963-09-21
o:Universit=E6t G=F6rlitz
title:Mayor
title;language=de;value=text:Burgermeister
note:The Mayor of the great city of
  Goerlitz in the great country of Germany.
email;internet:mb@goerlitz.de
home.tel;type=fax,voice,msg:+49 3581 123456
home.label:Hufenshlagel 1234\n
 02828 Goerlitz\n
 Deutschland
key;type=X509;encoding=b:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQ
 AwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bmljYXRpb25zI
 ENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0ZW1zMRwwGgYDVQQD
 ExNyb290Y2EubmV0c2NhcGUuY29tMB4XDTk3MDYwNjE5NDc1OVoXDTk3MTIwMzE5NDc
 1OVowgYkxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVTMSYwJAYDVQQKEx1OZXRzY2FwZSBDb21tdW5pY2F0aW
 9ucyBDb3JwLjEYMBYGA1UEAxMPVGltb3RoeSBBIEhvd2VzMSEwHwYJKoZIhvcNAQkBF
 hJob3dlc0BuZXRzY2FwZS5jb20xFTATBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEBEwVob3dlczBcMA0GCSqG
 SIb3DQEBAQUAA0sAMEgCQQC0JZf6wkg8pLMXHHCUvMfL5H6zjSk4vTTXZpYyrdN2dXc
 oX49LKiOmgeJSzoiFKHtLOIboyludF90CgqcxtwKnAgMBAAGjNjA0MBEGCWCGSAGG+E
 IBAQQEAwIAoDAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBT84FToB/GV3jr3mcau+hUMbsQukjANBgkqhkiG9
 w0BAQQFAAOBgQBexv7o7mi3PLXadkmNP9LcIPmx93HGp0Kgyx1jIVMyNgsemeAwBM+M
 SlhMfcpbTrONwNjZYW8vJDSoi//yrZlVt9bJbs7MNYZVsyF1unsqaln4/vy6Uawfg8V
 UMk1U7jt8LYpo4YULU7UZHPYVUaSgVttImOHZIKi4hlPXBOhcUQ==
end:vcard









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8.4.  Example 4

   The final example illustrates the use of the multipart/related
   Content-Type to include non-textual directory data via the "uri"
   encoding to refer to other body parts within the same message, or to
   external values.  Note that no "profile" parameter is given, so an
   application may not know what kind of directory entity the
   information applies to.  Note also the use of both hypothetical
   official and bilaterally agreed upon types.

Content-Type: multipart/related;
        boundary=woof;
        type="text/directory";
        start="<id5@host.com>"
Content-ID: <id4@host.com>

--woof
Content-Type: text/directory; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-ID: <id5@host.com>
Content-Transfer-Encoding: Quoted-Printable

source:ldap://cn=Bjorn%20Jensen,o=University%20of%20Michigan,c=US
cn:Bj=F8rn Jensen
sn:Jensen
email:bjorn@umich.edu
image;value=uri:cid:id6@host.com
image;value=uri;format=jpeg:ftp://some.host/some/path.jpg
sound;value=uri:cid:id7@host.com
phone:+1 313 747-4454

--woof
Content-Type: image/jpeg
Content-ID: <id6@host.com>

<...image data...>

--woof
Content-Type: message/external-body;
        name="myvoice.au";
        site="myhost.com";
        access-type=ANON-FTP;
        directory="pub/myname";
        mode="image"

Content-Type: audio/basic
Content-ID: <id7@host.com>

--woof--



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9.  Registration of new profiles

   This section defines procedures by which new profiles are registered
   with the IANA and made available to the Internet community. Note that
   non-IANA profiles can be used by bilateral agreement, provided the
   associated profile names follow the "X-" convention defined above.

   The procedures defined here are designed to allow public comment and
   review of new profiles, while posing only a small impediment to the
   definition of new profiles.

   Registration of a new profile is accomplished by the following steps.

9.1.  Define the profile

   A profile is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
      Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME profile XXX

      Profile name:

      Profile purpose:

      Profile types:

      Profile special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

   The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.

   Profile name: The name of the profile as it will appear in the
   text/directory MIME Content-Type "profile" header parameter, or the
   predefined "profile" type name.

   Profile purpose: The purpose of the profile (e.g., to represent
   information about people, printers, documents, etc.). Give a short
   but clear description.

   Profile types: The list of types associated with the profile.  This
   list of types is to be expected but not required in the profile,
   unless otherwise noted in the profile definition.  Other types not
   mentioned in the profile definition MAY also be present.  Note that
   any new types referenced by the profile MUST be defined separately as
   described in Section 10.





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   Profile special notes: Any special notes about the profile, how it is
   to be used, etc. This section of the template can also be used to
   define an ordering on the types that appear in the Content-Type, if
   such an ordering is required.

9.2.  Post the profile definition

   The profile description must be posted to the new profile discussion
   list, ietf-mime-direct@imc.org

9.3.  Allow a comment period

   Discussion on the new profile must be allowed to take place on the
   list for a minimum of two weeks. Consensus must be reached on the
   profile before proceeding to step 4.

9.4.  Submit the profile for approval

   Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer is
   convinced consensus has been reached on the profile, the registration
   application should be submitted to the Profile Reviewer for approval.
   The Profile Reviewer is appointed by the Application Area Directors
   and can either accept or reject the profile registration. An accepted
   registration is passed on by the Profile Reviewer to the IANA for
   inclusion in the official IANA profile registry. The registration may
   be rejected for any of the following reasons. 1) Insufficient comment
   period; 2) Consensus not reached; 3) Technical deficiencies raised on
   the list or elsewhere have not been addressed. The Profile Reviewer's
   decision to reject a profile can be appealed by the proposer to the
   IESG, or the objections raised can be addressed by the proposer and
   the profile resubmitted.

10.  Profile Change Control

   Existing profiles can be changed using the same process by which they
   were registered.

         Define the change

         Post the change

         Allow a comment period

         Submit the changed profile for approval







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   Note that the original author or any other interested party can
   propose a change to an existing profile, but that such changes should
   only be proposed when there are serious omissions or errors in the
   published specification.  The Profile Reviewer can object to a change
   if it is not backwards compatible, but is not required to do so.

   Profile definitions can never be deleted from the IANA registry, but
   profiles which are no longer believed to be useful can be declared
   OBSOLETE by a change to their "intended use" field.

11.  Registration of new types

   This section defines procedures by which new types are registered
   with the IANA.  Note that non-IANA types can be used by bilateral
   agreement, provided the associated types names follow the "X-"
   convention defined above.

   The procedures defined here are designed to allow public comment and
   review of new types, while posing only a small impediment to the
   definition of new types.

   Registration of a new type is accomplished by the following steps.

11.1.  Define the type

   A type is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
      Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type XXX

      Type name:

      Type purpose:

      Type encoding:

      Type valuetype:

      Type special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

   The meaning of each field in the template is as follows.

   Type name: The name of the type, as it will appear in the body of an
   text/directory MIME Content-Type "type: value" line to the left of
   the colon ":".




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   Type purpose: The purpose of the type (e.g., to represent a name,
   postal address, IP address, etc.). Give a short but clear
   description.

   Type encoding: The default encoding a value of the type must have in
   the body of a text/directory MIME Content-Type.

   Type valuetype: The format a value of the type must have in the body
   of a text/directory MIME Content-Type. This description must be
   precise and must not violate the general encoding rules defined in
   section 5 of this document.

   Type special notes: Any special notes about the type, how it is to be
   used, etc.

11.2.  Post the type definition

   The type description must be posted to the new type discussion list,
   ietf-mime-direct@imc.org

11.3.  Allow a comment period

   Discussion on the new type must be allowed to take place on the list
   for a minimum of two weeks. Consensus must be reached on the type
   before proceeding to step 4.

11.4.  Submit the type for approval

   Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer is
   convinced consensus has been reached on the type, the registration
   application should be submitted to the Profile Reviewer for approval.
   The Profile Reviewer is appointed by the Application Area Directors
   and can either accept or reject the type registration. An accepted
   registration is passed on by the Profile Reviewer to the IANA for
   inclusion in the official IANA profile registry. The registration can
   be rejected for any of the following reasons. 1) Insufficient comment
   period; 2) Consensus not reached; 3) Technical deficiencies raised on
   the list or elsewhere have not been addressed.  The Profile
   Reviewer's decision to reject a type can be appealed by the proposer
   to the IESG, or the objections raised can be addressed by the
   proposer and the type resubmitted.










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12.  Type Change Control

   Existing types can be changed using the same process by which they
   were registered.

         Define the change

         Post the change

         Allow a comment period

         Submit the type for approval

   Note that the original author or any other interested party can
   propose a change to an existing type, but that such changes should
   only be proposed when there are serious omissions or errors in the
   published specification.  The Profile Reviewer can object to a change
   if it is not backwards compatible, but is not required to do so.

   Type definitions can never be deleted from the IANA registry, but
   types which are nolonger believed to be useful can be declared
   OBSOLETE by a change to their "intended use" field.

13.  Registration of new parameters

   This section defines procedures by which new parameters are
   registered with the IANA and made available to the Internet
   community. Note that non-IANA parameters can be used by bilateral
   agreement, provided the associated parameters names follow the "X-"
   convention defined above.

   The procedures defined here are designed to allow public comment and
   review of new parameters, while posing only a small impediment to the
   definition of new parameters.

   Registration of a new parameter is accomplished by the following
   steps.

13.1.  Define the parameter

   A parameter is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
      Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type parameter XXX

      Parameter name:

      Parameter purpose:



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      Parameter values:

      Parameter special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

   The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.

   Parameter name: The name of the parameter as it will appear in the
   text/directory MIME Content-Type.

   Parameter purpose: The purpose of the parameter (e.g., to represent
   the format of an image, type of a phone number, etc.). Give a short
   but clear description. If defining a general paramemter like "format"
   or "type" keep in mind that other applications might wish to extend
   its use.

   Parameter values: The list or description of values associated with
   the parameter.

   Parameter special notes: Any special notes about the parameter, how
   it is to be used, etc.

13.2.  Post the parameter definition

   The parameter description must be posted to the new parameter
   discussion list, ietf-mime-direct@imc.org

13.3.  Allow a comment period

   Discussion on the new parameter must be allowed to take place on the
   list for a minimum of two weeks. Consensus must be reached on the
   parameter before proceeding to step 4.

13.4.  Submit the parameter for approval

   Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer is
   convinced consensus has been reached on the parameter, the
   registration application should be submitted to the Profile Reviewer
   for approval.  The Profile Reviewer is appointed by the Application
   Area Directors and can either accept or reject the parameter
   registration.  An accepted registration is passed on by the Profile
   Reviewer to the IANA for inclusion in the official IANA parameter
   registry. The registration can be rejected for any of the following
   reasons. 1) Insufficient comment period; 2) Consensus not reached; 3)
   Technical deficiencies raised on the list or elsewhere have not been
   addressed. The Profile Reviewer's decision to reject a profile can be
   appealed by the proposer to the IESG, or the objections raised can be



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   addressed by the proposer and the parameter registration resubmitted.

14.  Parameter Change Control

   Existing parameters can be changed using the same process by which
   they were registered.

         Define the change

         Post the change

         Allow a comment period

         Submit the parameter for approval

   Note that the original author or any other interested party can
   propose a change to an existing parameter, but that such changes
   should only be proposed when there are serious omissions or errors in
   the published specification.  The Profile Reviewer can object to a
   change if it is not backwards compatible, but is not required to do
   so.

   Parameter definitions can never be deleted from the IANA registry,
   but parameters which are nolonger believed to be useful can be
   declared OBSOLETE by a change to their "intended use" field.

15.  Registration of new value types

   This section defines procedures by which new value types are
   registered with the IANA and made available to the Internet
   community. Note that non-IANA value types can be used by bilateral
   agreement, provided the associated value types names follow the "X-"
   convention defined above.

   The procedures defined here are designed to allow public comment and
   review of new value types, while posing only a small impediment to
   the definition of new value types.

   Registration of a new value types is accomplished by the following
   steps.

15.1.  Define the value type

   A value type is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
      Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME value type XXX




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      value type name:

      value type purpose:

      value type format:

      value type special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

   The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.

   value type name: The name of the value type as it will appear in the
   text/directory MIME Content-Type.

   value type purpose: The purpose of the value type.  Give a short but
   clear description.

   value type format: The definition of the format for the value,
   usually using ABNF grammar.

   value type special notes: Any special notes about the value type, how
   it is to be used, etc.

15.2.  Post the value type definition

   The value type description must be posted to the new value type
   discussion list, ietf-mime-direct@imc.org

15.3.  Allow a comment period

   Discussion on the new value type must be allowed to take place on the
   list for a minimum of two weeks.  Consensus must be reached before
   proceeding to step 4.

15.4.  Submit the value type for approval

   Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer is
   convinced consensus has been reached on the value type, the
   registration application should be submitted to the Profile Reviewer
   for approval.  The Profile Reviewer is appointed by the Application
   Area Directors and can either accept or reject the value type
   registration.  An accepted registration should be passed on by the
   Profile Reviewer to the IANA for inclusion in the official IANA value
   type registry.  The registration can be rejected for any of the
   following reasons. 1) Insufficient comment period; 2) Consensus not
   reached; 3) Technical deficiencies raised on the list or elsewhere
   have not been addressed. The Profile Reviewer's decision to reject a



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   profile can be appealed by the proposer to the IESG, or the
   objections raised can be addressed by the proposer and the value type
   registration resubmitted.

16.  Security Considerations

   Internet mail is subject to many well known security attacks,
   including monitoring, replay, and forgery. Care should be taken by
   any directory service in allowing information to leave the scope of
   the service itself, where any access controls can no longer be
   guaranteed.  Applications should also take care to display directory
   data in a "safe" environment (e.g., PostScript-valued types).

17.  Acknowledgements

   The registration procedures defined here were shamelessly lifted from
   the MIME registration RFC.

   The many valuable comments contributed by members of the IETF ASID
   working group are gratefully acknowledged, as are the contributions
   of the Versit Consortium. Chris Newman was especially helpful in
   navigating the intricacies of ABNF lore.

18.  References

   [RFC-1777]   Yeong, W., Howes, T., and S. Kille, "Lightweight
                Directory Access Protocol", RFC 1777, March 1995.

   [RFC-1778]   Howes, T., Kille, S., Yeong, W., and C. Robbins, "The
                String Representation of Standard Attribute Syntaxes",
                RFC 1778, March 1995.

   [RFC-822]    Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet
                Text Messages", STD 11, RFC 822, August 1982.

   [RFC-2045]   Borenstein, N., and N. Freed, "Multipurpose Internet
                Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet
                Message Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.

   [RFC-2046]   Moore, K., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
                Part Two:  Media Types", RFC 2046, November 1996.

   [RFC-2048]   Freed, N., Klensin, J., and J. Postel, "Multipurpose
                Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Four: Registration
                Procedures", RFC 2048, November 1996.

   [RFC-1766]   Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of
                Languages", RFC 1766, March 1995.



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   [RFC-2112]   Levinson, E., "The MIME Multipart/Related Content-type",
                RFC 2112, March 1997.

   [X500]       "Information Processing Systems - Open Systems
                Interconnection - The Directory: Overview of Concepts,
                Models and Services", ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC21, International
                Standard 9594-1, 1988.

   [RFC-1835]   Deutsch, P., Schoultz, R., Faltstrom, P., and C. Weider,
                "Architecture of the WHOIS++ service", RFC 1835, August
                1995.

   [RFC-1738]   Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill, "Uniform
                Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December 1994.

   [MIME-VCARD] Dawson, F., and T. Howes, "VCard MIME Directory
                Profile", RFC 2426, September 1998.

   [VCARD]      Internet Mail Consortium, "vCard - The Electronic
                Business Card", Version 2.1,
                http://www.imc.com/pdi/vcard-21.txt, September, 1996.

   [RFC-2119]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                Requirement  Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC-2234]   Crocker, D., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
                Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.
























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19.  Authors' Addresses

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA

   Phone: +1.415.937.3419
   EMail: howes@netscape.com


   Mark Smith
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA

   Phone: +1.415.937.3477
   EMail: mcs@netscape.com


   Frank Dawson
   Lotus Development Corporation
   6544 Battleford Drive
   Raleigh, NC 27613
   USA

   Phone: +1-919-676-9515
   EMail: frank_dawson@lotus.com





















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20.  Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
























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