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Network Working Group                 Editors of this version:
Request for Comments: 2579                                 K. McCloghrie
STD: 58                                                    Cisco Systems
Obsoletes: 1903                                               D. Perkins
Category: Standards Track                                       SNMPinfo
                                                        J. Schoenwaelder
                                                         TU Braunschweig
                                      Authors of previous version:
                                                                 J. Case
                                                           SNMP Research
                                                           K. McCloghrie
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                                 M. Rose
                                                  First Virtual Holdings
                                                           S. Waldbusser
                                          International Network Services
                                                              April 1999


                     Textual Conventions for SMIv2


Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.


Table of Contents

   1 Introduction ..................................................2
   1.1 A Note on Terminology .......................................2
   2 Definitions ...................................................2
   3 Mapping of the TEXTUAL-CONVENTION macro ......................20
   3.1 Mapping of the DISPLAY-HINT clause .........................21
   3.2 Mapping of the STATUS clause ...............................22
   3.3 Mapping of the DESCRIPTION clause ..........................23
   3.4 Mapping of the REFERENCE clause ............................23
   3.5 Mapping of the SYNTAX clause ...............................23
   4 Sub-typing of Textual Conventions ............................23
   5 Revising a Textual Convention Definition .....................23


McCloghrie, et al.          Standards Track                     [Page 1]





RFC 2579             Textual Conventions for SMIv2            April 1999


   6 Security Considerations ......................................24
   7 Editors' Addresses ...........................................25
   8 References ...................................................25
   9 Full Copyright Statement .....................................26

1.  Introduction

   Management information is viewed as a collection of managed objects,
   residing in a virtual information store, termed the Management
   Information Base (MIB).  Collections of related objects are defined
   in MIB modules.  These modules are written using an adapted subset of
   OSI's Abstract Syntax Notation One, ASN.1 (1988) [1], termed the
   Structure of Management Information (SMI) [2].

   When designing a MIB module, it is often useful to define new types
   similar to those defined in the SMI.  In comparison to a type defined
   in the SMI, each of these new types has a different name, a similar
   syntax, but a more precise semantics.  These newly defined types are
   termed textual conventions, and are used for the convenience of
   humans reading the MIB module.  It is the purpose of this document to
   define the initial set of textual conventions available to all MIB
   modules.

   Objects defined using a textual convention are always encoded by
   means of the rules that define their primitive type.  However,
   textual conventions often have special semantics associated with
   them.  As such, an ASN.1 macro, TEXTUAL-CONVENTION, is used to
   concisely convey the syntax and semantics of a textual convention.

1.1.  A Note on Terminology

   For the purpose of exposition, the original Structure of Management
   Information, as described in RFCs 1155 (STD 16), 1212 (STD 16), and
   RFC 1215, is termed the SMI version 1 (SMIv1).  The current version
   of the Structure of Management Information is termed SMI version 2
   (SMIv2).

2.  Definitions

SNMPv2-TC DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

IMPORTS
    TimeTicks         FROM SNMPv2-SMI;


-- definition of textual conventions

TEXTUAL-CONVENTION MACRO ::=


McCloghrie, et al.          Standards Track                     [Page 2]





RFC 2579             Textual Conventions for SMIv2            April 1999


BEGIN
    TYPE NOTATION ::=
                  DisplayPart
                  "STATUS" Status
                  "DESCRIPTION" Text
                  ReferPart
                  "SYNTAX" Syntax

    VALUE NOTATION ::=
                   value(VALUE Syntax)      -- adapted ASN.1

    DisplayPart ::=
                  "DISPLAY-HINT" Text
                | empty

    Status ::=
                  "current"
                | "deprecated"
                | "obsolete"

    ReferPart ::=
                  "REFERENCE" Text
                | empty

    -- a character string as defined in [2]
    Text ::= value(IA5String)

    Syntax ::=   -- Must be one of the following:
                       -- a base type (or its refinement), or
                       -- a BITS pseudo-type
                  type
                | "BITS" "{" NamedBits "}"

    NamedBits ::= NamedBit
                | NamedBits "," NamedBit

    NamedBit ::=  identifier "(" number ")" -- number is nonnegative

END




DisplayString ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    DISPLAY-HINT "255a"
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "Represents textual information taken from the NVT ASCII


McCloghrie, et al.          Standards Track                     [Page 3]





RFC 2579             Textual Conventions for SMIv2            April 1999


            character set, as defined in pages 4, 10-11 of RFC 854.

            To summarize RFC 854, the NVT ASCII repertoire specifies:

              - the use of character codes 0-127 (decimal)

              - the graphics characters (32-126) are interpreted as
                US ASCII

              - NUL, LF, CR, BEL, BS, HT, VT and FF have the special
                meanings specified in RFC 854

              - the other 25 codes have no standard interpretation

              - the sequence 'CR LF' means newline

              - the sequence 'CR NUL' means carriage-return

              - an 'LF' not preceded by a 'CR' means moving to the
                same column on the next line.

              - the sequence 'CR x' for any x other than LF or NUL is
                illegal.  (Note that this also means that a string may
                end with either 'CR LF' or 'CR NUL', but not with CR.)

            Any object defined using this syntax may not exceed 255
            characters in length."
    SYNTAX       OCTET STRING (SIZE (0..255))

PhysAddress ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    DISPLAY-HINT "1x:"
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "Represents media- or physical-level addresses."
    SYNTAX       OCTET STRING


MacAddress ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    DISPLAY-HINT "1x:"
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "Represents an 802 MAC address represented in the
            `canonical' order defined by IEEE 802.1a, i.e., as if it
            were transmitted least significant bit first, even though
            802.5 (in contrast to other 802.x protocols) requires MAC
            addresses to be transmitted most significant bit first."
    SYNTAX       OCTET STRING (SIZE (6))



McCloghrie, et al.          Standards Track                     [Page 4]





RFC 2579             Textual Conventions for SMIv2            April 1999


TruthValue ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "Represents a boolean value."
    SYNTAX       INTEGER { true(1), false(2) }

TestAndIncr ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "Represents integer-valued information used for atomic
            operations.  When the management protocol is used to specify
            that an object instance having this syntax is to be
            modified, the new value supplied via the management protocol
            must precisely match the value presently held by the
            instance.  If not, the management protocol set operation
            fails with an error of `inconsistentValue'.  Otherwise, if
            the current value is the maximum value of 2^31-1 (2147483647
            decimal), then the value held by the instance is wrapped to
            zero; otherwise, the value held by the instance is
            incremented by one.  (Note that regardless of whether the
            management protocol set operation succeeds, the variable-
            binding in the request and response PDUs are identical.)

            The value of the ACCESS clause for objects having this
            syntax is either `read-write' or `read-create'.  When an
            instance of a columnar object having this syntax is created,
            any value may be supplied via the management protocol.

            When the network management portion of the system is re-
            initialized, the value of every object instance having this
            syntax must either be incremented from its value prior to
            the re-initialization, or (if the value prior to the re-
            initialization is unknown) be set to a pseudo-randomly
            generated value."
    SYNTAX       INTEGER (0..2147483647)

AutonomousType ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "Represents an independently extensible type identification
            value.  It may, for example, indicate a particular sub-tree
            with further MIB definitions, or define a particular type of
            protocol or hardware."
    SYNTAX       OBJECT IDENTIFIER


InstancePointer ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       obsolete


McCloghrie, et al.          Standards Track                     [Page 5]





RFC 2579             Textual Conventions for SMIv2            April 1999


    DESCRIPTION
            "A pointer to either a specific instance of a MIB object or
            a conceptual row of a MIB table in the managed device.  In
            the latter case, by convention, it is the name of the
            particular instance of the first accessible columnar object
            in the conceptual row.

            The two uses of this textual convention are replaced by
            VariablePointer and RowPointer, respectively."
    SYNTAX       OBJECT IDENTIFIER


VariablePointer ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "A pointer to a specific object instance.  For example,
            sysContact.0 or ifInOctets.3."
    SYNTAX       OBJECT IDENTIFIER


RowPointer ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "Represents a pointer to a conceptual row.  The value is the
            name of the instance of the first accessible columnar object
            in the conceptual row.

            For example, ifIndex.3 would point to the 3rd row in the
            ifTable (note that if ifIndex were not-accessible, then
            ifDescr.3 would be used instead)."
    SYNTAX       OBJECT IDENTIFIER

RowStatus ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "The RowStatus textual convention is used to manage the
            creation and deletion of conceptual rows, and is used as the
            value of the SYNTAX clause for the status column of a
            conceptual row (as described in Section 7.7.1 of [2].)











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            The status column has six defined values:

                 - `active', which indicates that the conceptual row is
                 available for use by the managed device;

                 - `notInService', which indicates that the conceptual
                 row exists in the agent, but is unavailable for use by
                 the managed device (see NOTE below); 'notInService' has
                 no implication regarding the internal consistency of
                 the row, availability of resources, or consistency with
                 the current state of the managed device;

                 - `notReady', which indicates that the conceptual row
                 exists in the agent, but is missing information
                 necessary in order to be available for use by the
                 managed device (i.e., one or more required columns in
                 the conceptual row have not been instanciated);

                 - `createAndGo', which is supplied by a management
                 station wishing to create a new instance of a
                 conceptual row and to have its status automatically set
                 to active, making it available for use by the managed
                 device;

                 - `createAndWait', which is supplied by a management
                 station wishing to create a new instance of a
                 conceptual row (but not make it available for use by
                 the managed device); and,

                 - `destroy', which is supplied by a management station
                 wishing to delete all of the instances associated with
                 an existing conceptual row.

            Whereas five of the six values (all except `notReady') may
            be specified in a management protocol set operation, only
            three values will be returned in response to a management
            protocol retrieval operation:  `notReady', `notInService' or
            `active'.  That is, when queried, an existing conceptual row
            has only three states:  it is either available for use by
            the managed device (the status column has value `active');
            it is not available for use by the managed device, though
            the agent has sufficient information to attempt to make it
            so (the status column has value `notInService'); or, it is
            not available for use by the managed device, and an attempt
            to make it so would fail because the agent has insufficient
            information (the state column has value `notReady').




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                                     NOTE WELL

                 This textual convention may be used for a MIB table,
                 irrespective of whether the values of that table's
                 conceptual rows are able to be modified while it is
                 active, or whether its conceptual rows must be taken
                 out of service in order to be modified.  That is, it is
                 the responsibility of the DESCRIPTION clause of the
                 status column to specify whether the status column must
                 not be `active' in order for the value of some other
                 column of the same conceptual row to be modified.  If
                 such a specification is made, affected columns may be
                 changed by an SNMP set PDU if the RowStatus would not
                 be equal to `active' either immediately before or after
                 processing the PDU.  In other words, if the PDU also
                 contained a varbind that would change the RowStatus
                 value, the column in question may be changed if the
                 RowStatus was not equal to `active' as the PDU was
                 received, or if the varbind sets the status to a value
                 other than 'active'.


            Also note that whenever any elements of a row exist, the
            RowStatus column must also exist.


























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            To summarize the effect of having a conceptual row with a
            status column having a SYNTAX clause value of RowStatus,
            consider the following state diagram:


                                         STATE
              +--------------+-----------+-------------+-------------
              |      A       |     B     |      C      |      D
              |              |status col.|status column|
              |status column |    is     |      is     |status column
    ACTION    |does not exist|  notReady | notInService|  is active
--------------+--------------+-----------+-------------+-------------
set status    |noError    ->D|inconsist- |inconsistent-|inconsistent-
column to     |       or     |   entValue|        Value|        Value
createAndGo   |inconsistent- |           |             |
              |         Value|           |             |
--------------+--------------+-----------+-------------+-------------
set status    |noError  see 1|inconsist- |inconsistent-|inconsistent-
column to     |       or     |   entValue|        Value|        Value
createAndWait |wrongValue    |           |             |
--------------+--------------+-----------+-------------+-------------
set status    |inconsistent- |inconsist- |noError      |noError
column to     |         Value|   entValue|             |
active        |              |           |             |
              |              |     or    |             |
              |              |           |             |
              |              |see 2   ->D|see 8     ->D|          ->D
--------------+--------------+-----------+-------------+-------------
set status    |inconsistent- |inconsist- |noError      |noError   ->C
column to     |         Value|   entValue|             |
notInService  |              |           |             |
              |              |     or    |             |      or
              |              |           |             |
              |              |see 3   ->C|          ->C|see 6
--------------+--------------+-----------+-------------+-------------
set status    |noError       |noError    |noError      |noError   ->A
column to     |              |           |             |      or
destroy       |           ->A|        ->A|          ->A|see 7
--------------+--------------+-----------+-------------+-------------
set any other |see 4         |noError    |noError      |see 5
column to some|              |           |             |
value         |              |      see 1|          ->C|          ->D
--------------+--------------+-----------+-------------+-------------

            (1) goto B or C, depending on information available to the
            agent.

            (2) if other variable bindings included in the same PDU,


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            provide values for all columns which are missing but
            required, and all columns have acceptable values, then
            return noError and goto D.

            (3) if other variable bindings included in the same PDU,
            provide legal values for all columns which are missing but
            required, then return noError and goto C.

            (4) at the discretion of the agent, the return value may be
            either:

                 inconsistentName:  because the agent does not choose to
                 create such an instance when the corresponding
                 RowStatus instance does not exist, or

                 inconsistentValue:  if the supplied value is
                 inconsistent with the state of some other MIB object's
                 value, or

                 noError: because the agent chooses to create the
                 instance.

            If noError is returned, then the instance of the status
            column must also be created, and the new state is B or C,
            depending on the information available to the agent.  If
            inconsistentName or inconsistentValue is returned, the row
            remains in state A.

            (5) depending on the MIB definition for the column/table,
            either noError or inconsistentValue may be returned.

            (6) the return value can indicate one of the following
            errors:

                 wrongValue: because the agent does not support
                 notInService (e.g., an agent which does not support
                 createAndWait), or

                 inconsistentValue: because the agent is unable to take
                 the row out of service at this time, perhaps because it
                 is in use and cannot be de-activated.

            (7) the return value can indicate the following error:

                 inconsistentValue: because the agent is unable to
                 remove the row at this time, perhaps because it is in
                 use and cannot be de-activated.



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            (8) the transition to D can fail, e.g., if the values of the
            conceptual row are inconsistent, then the error code would
            be inconsistentValue.

            NOTE: Other processing of (this and other varbinds of) the
            set request may result in a response other than noError
            being returned, e.g., wrongValue, noCreation, etc.


                              Conceptual Row Creation

            There are four potential interactions when creating a
            conceptual row:  selecting an instance-identifier which is
            not in use; creating the conceptual row; initializing any
            objects for which the agent does not supply a default; and,
            making the conceptual row available for use by the managed
            device.

            Interaction 1: Selecting an Instance-Identifier

            The algorithm used to select an instance-identifier varies
            for each conceptual row.  In some cases, the instance-
            identifier is semantically significant, e.g., the
            destination address of a route, and a management station
            selects the instance-identifier according to the semantics.

            In other cases, the instance-identifier is used solely to
            distinguish conceptual rows, and a management station
            without specific knowledge of the conceptual row might
            examine the instances present in order to determine an
            unused instance-identifier.  (This approach may be used, but
            it is often highly sub-optimal; however, it is also a
            questionable practice for a naive management station to
            attempt conceptual row creation.)

            Alternately, the MIB module which defines the conceptual row
            might provide one or more objects which provide assistance
            in determining an unused instance-identifier.  For example,
            if the conceptual row is indexed by an integer-value, then
            an object having an integer-valued SYNTAX clause might be
            defined for such a purpose, allowing a management station to
            issue a management protocol retrieval operation.  In order
            to avoid unnecessary collisions between competing management
            stations, `adjacent' retrievals of this object should be
            different.

            Finally, the management station could select a pseudo-random
            number to use as the index.  In the event that this index


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            was already in use and an inconsistentValue was returned in
            response to the management protocol set operation, the
            management station should simply select a new pseudo-random
            number and retry the operation.

            A MIB designer should choose between the two latter
            algorithms based on the size of the table (and therefore the
            efficiency of each algorithm).  For tables in which a large
            number of entries are expected, it is recommended that a MIB
            object be defined that returns an acceptable index for
            creation.  For tables with small numbers of entries, it is
            recommended that the latter pseudo-random index mechanism be
            used.

            Interaction 2: Creating the Conceptual Row

            Once an unused instance-identifier has been selected, the
            management station determines if it wishes to create and
            activate the conceptual row in one transaction or in a
            negotiated set of interactions.

            Interaction 2a: Creating and Activating the Conceptual Row

            The management station must first determine the column
            requirements, i.e., it must determine those columns for
            which it must or must not provide values.  Depending on the
            complexity of the table and the management station's
            knowledge of the agent's capabilities, this determination
            can be made locally by the management station.  Alternately,
            the management station issues a management protocol get
            operation to examine all columns in the conceptual row that
            it wishes to create.  In response, for each column, there
            are three possible outcomes:

                 - a value is returned, indicating that some other
                 management station has already created this conceptual
                 row.  We return to interaction 1.

                 - the exception `noSuchInstance' is returned,
                 indicating that the agent implements the object-type
                 associated with this column, and that this column in at
                 least one conceptual row would be accessible in the MIB
                 view used by the retrieval were it to exist. For those
                 columns to which the agent provides read-create access,
                 the `noSuchInstance' exception tells the management
                 station that it should supply a value for this column
                 when the conceptual row is to be created.



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                 - the exception `noSuchObject' is returned, indicating
                 that the agent does not implement the object-type
                 associated with this column or that there is no
                 conceptual row for which this column would be
                 accessible in the MIB view used by the retrieval.  As
                 such, the management station can not issue any
                 management protocol set operations to create an
                 instance of this column.

            Once the column requirements have been determined, a
            management protocol set operation is accordingly issued.
            This operation also sets the new instance of the status
            column to `createAndGo'.

            When the agent processes the set operation, it verifies that
            it has sufficient information to make the conceptual row
            available for use by the managed device.  The information
            available to the agent is provided by two sources:  the
            management protocol set operation which creates the
            conceptual row, and, implementation-specific defaults
            supplied by the agent (note that an agent must provide
            implementation-specific defaults for at least those objects
            which it implements as read-only).  If there is sufficient
            information available, then the conceptual row is created, a
            `noError' response is returned, the status column is set to
            `active', and no further interactions are necessary (i.e.,
            interactions 3 and 4 are skipped).  If there is insufficient
            information, then the conceptual row is not created, and the
            set operation fails with an error of `inconsistentValue'.
            On this error, the management station can issue a management
            protocol retrieval operation to determine if this was
            because it failed to specify a value for a required column,
            or, because the selected instance of the status column
            already existed.  In the latter case, we return to
            interaction 1.  In the former case, the management station
            can re-issue the set operation with the additional
            information, or begin interaction 2 again using
            `createAndWait' in order to negotiate creation of the
            conceptual row.











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                                     NOTE WELL

                 Regardless of the method used to determine the column
                 requirements, it is possible that the management
                 station might deem a column necessary when, in fact,
                 the agent will not allow that particular columnar
                 instance to be created or written.  In this case, the
                 management protocol set operation will fail with an
                 error such as `noCreation' or `notWritable'.  In this
                 case, the management station decides whether it needs
                 to be able to set a value for that particular columnar
                 instance.  If not, the management station re-issues the
                 management protocol set operation, but without setting
                 a value for that particular columnar instance;
                 otherwise, the management station aborts the row
                 creation algorithm.

            Interaction 2b: Negotiating the Creation of the Conceptual
            Row

            The management station issues a management protocol set
            operation which sets the desired instance of the status
            column to `createAndWait'.  If the agent is unwilling to
            process a request of this sort, the set operation fails with
            an error of `wrongValue'.  (As a consequence, such an agent
            must be prepared to accept a single management protocol set
            operation, i.e., interaction 2a above, containing all of the
            columns indicated by its column requirements.)  Otherwise,
            the conceptual row is created, a `noError' response is
            returned, and the status column is immediately set to either
            `notInService' or `notReady', depending on whether it has
            sufficient information to (attempt to) make the conceptual
            row available for use by the managed device.  If there is
            sufficient information available, then the status column is
            set to `notInService'; otherwise, if there is insufficient
            information, then the status column is set to `notReady'.
            Regardless, we proceed to interaction 3.

            Interaction 3: Initializing non-defaulted Objects

            The management station must now determine the column
            requirements.  It issues a management protocol get operation
            to examine all columns in the created conceptual row.  In
            the response, for each column, there are three possible
            outcomes:





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                 - a value is returned, indicating that the agent
                 implements the object-type associated with this column
                 and had sufficient information to provide a value.  For
                 those columns to which the agent provides read-create
                 access (and for which the agent allows their values to
                 be changed after their creation), a value return tells
                 the management station that it may issue additional
                 management protocol set operations, if it desires, in
                 order to change the value associated with this column.

                 - the exception `noSuchInstance' is returned,
                 indicating that the agent implements the object-type
                 associated with this column, and that this column in at
                 least one conceptual row would be accessible in the MIB
                 view used by the retrieval were it to exist. However,
                 the agent does not have sufficient information to
                 provide a value, and until a value is provided, the
                 conceptual row may not be made available for use by the
                 managed device.  For those columns to which the agent
                 provides read-create access, the `noSuchInstance'
                 exception tells the management station that it must
                 issue additional management protocol set operations, in
                 order to provide a value associated with this column.

                 - the exception `noSuchObject' is returned, indicating
                 that the agent does not implement the object-type
                 associated with this column or that there is no
                 conceptual row for which this column would be
                 accessible in the MIB view used by the retrieval.  As
                 such, the management station can not issue any
                 management protocol set operations to create an
                 instance of this column.

            If the value associated with the status column is
            `notReady', then the management station must first deal with
            all `noSuchInstance' columns, if any.  Having done so, the
            value of the status column becomes `notInService', and we
            proceed to interaction 4.












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            Interaction 4: Making the Conceptual Row Available

            Once the management station is satisfied with the values
            associated with the columns of the conceptual row, it issues
            a management protocol set operation to set the status column
            to `active'.  If the agent has sufficient information to
            make the conceptual row available for use by the managed
            device, the management protocol set operation succeeds (a
            `noError' response is returned).  Otherwise, the management
            protocol set operation fails with an error of
            `inconsistentValue'.

                                     NOTE WELL

                 A conceptual row having a status column with value
                 `notInService' or `notReady' is unavailable to the
                 managed device.  As such, it is possible for the
                 managed device to create its own instances during the
                 time between the management protocol set operation
                 which sets the status column to `createAndWait' and the
                 management protocol set operation which sets the status
                 column to `active'.  In this case, when the management
                 protocol set operation is issued to set the status
                 column to `active', the values held in the agent
                 supersede those used by the managed device.

            If the management station is prevented from setting the
            status column to `active' (e.g., due to management station
            or network failure) the conceptual row will be left in the
            `notInService' or `notReady' state, consuming resources
            indefinitely.  The agent must detect conceptual rows that
            have been in either state for an abnormally long period of
            time and remove them.  It is the responsibility of the
            DESCRIPTION clause of the status column to indicate what an
            abnormally long period of time would be.  This period of
            time should be long enough to allow for human response time
            (including `think time') between the creation of the
            conceptual row and the setting of the status to `active'.
            In the absence of such information in the DESCRIPTION
            clause, it is suggested that this period be approximately 5
            minutes in length.  This removal action applies not only to
            newly-created rows, but also to previously active rows which
            are set to, and left in, the notInService state for a
            prolonged period exceeding that which is considered normal
            for such a conceptual row.





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                             Conceptual Row Suspension

            When a conceptual row is `active', the management station
            may issue a management protocol set operation which sets the
            instance of the status column to `notInService'.  If the
            agent is unwilling to do so, the set operation fails with an
            error of `wrongValue' or `inconsistentValue'.  Otherwise,
            the conceptual row is taken out of service, and a `noError'
            response is returned.  It is the responsibility of the
            DESCRIPTION clause of the status column to indicate under
            what circumstances the status column should be taken out of
            service (e.g., in order for the value of some other column
            of the same conceptual row to be modified).


                              Conceptual Row Deletion

            For deletion of conceptual rows, a management protocol set
            operation is issued which sets the instance of the status
            column to `destroy'.  This request may be made regardless of
            the current value of the status column (e.g., it is possible
            to delete conceptual rows which are either `notReady',
            `notInService' or `active'.)  If the operation succeeds,
            then all instances associated with the conceptual row are
            immediately removed."
    SYNTAX       INTEGER {
                     -- the following two values are states:
                     -- these values may be read or written
                     active(1),
                     notInService(2),

                     -- the following value is a state:
                     -- this value may be read, but not written
                     notReady(3),

                     -- the following three values are
                     -- actions: these values may be written,
                     --   but are never read
                     createAndGo(4),
                     createAndWait(5),
                     destroy(6)
                 }

TimeStamp ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "The value of the sysUpTime object at which a specific
            occurrence happened.  The specific occurrence must be


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            defined in the description of any object defined using this
            type.

            If sysUpTime is reset to zero as a result of a re-
            initialization of the network management (sub)system, then
            the values of all TimeStamp objects are also reset.
            However, after approximately 497 days without a re-
            initialization, the sysUpTime object will reach 2^^32-1 and
            then increment around to zero; in this case, existing values
            of TimeStamp objects do not change.  This can lead to
            ambiguities in the value of TimeStamp objects."
    SYNTAX       TimeTicks


TimeInterval ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "A period of time, measured in units of 0.01 seconds."
    SYNTAX       INTEGER (0..2147483647)

DateAndTime ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    DISPLAY-HINT "2d-1d-1d,1d:1d:1d.1d,1a1d:1d"
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "A date-time specification.

            field  octets  contents                  range
            -----  ------  --------                  -----
              1      1-2   year*                     0..65536
              2       3    month                     1..12
              3       4    day                       1..31
              4       5    hour                      0..23
              5       6    minutes                   0..59
              6       7    seconds                   0..60
                           (use 60 for leap-second)
              7       8    deci-seconds              0..9
              8       9    direction from UTC        '+' / '-'
              9      10    hours from UTC*           0..13
             10      11    minutes from UTC          0..59

            * Notes:
            - the value of year is in network-byte order
            - daylight saving time in New Zealand is +13

            For example, Tuesday May 26, 1992 at 1:30:15 PM EDT would be
            displayed as:

                             1992-5-26,13:30:15.0,-4:0


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            Note that if only local time is known, then timezone
            information (fields 8-10) is not present."
    SYNTAX       OCTET STRING (SIZE (8 | 11))


StorageType ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
            "Describes the memory realization of a conceptual row.  A
            row which is volatile(2) is lost upon reboot.  A row which
            is either nonVolatile(3), permanent(4) or readOnly(5), is
            backed up by stable storage.  A row which is permanent(4)
            can be changed but not deleted.  A row which is readOnly(5)
            cannot be changed nor deleted.

            If the value of an object with this syntax is either
            permanent(4) or readOnly(5), it cannot be written.
            Conversely, if the value is either other(1), volatile(2) or
            nonVolatile(3), it cannot be modified to be permanent(4) or
            readOnly(5).  (All illegal modifications result in a
            'wrongValue' error.)

            Every usage of this textual convention is required to
            specify the columnar objects which a permanent(4) row must
            at a minimum allow to be writable."
    SYNTAX       INTEGER {
                     other(1),       -- eh?
                     volatile(2),    -- e.g., in RAM
                     nonVolatile(3), -- e.g., in NVRAM
                     permanent(4),   -- e.g., partially in ROM
                     readOnly(5)     -- e.g., completely in ROM
                 }


















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TDomain ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
          "Denotes a kind of transport service.

          Some possible values, such as snmpUDPDomain, are defined in
          the SNMPv2-TM MIB module.  Other possible values are defined
          in other MIB modules."
    REFERENCE    "The SNMPv2-TM MIB module is defined in RFC 1906."
    SYNTAX       OBJECT IDENTIFIER


TAddress ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
    STATUS       current
    DESCRIPTION
          "Denotes a transport service address.

          A TAddress value is always interpreted within the context of a
          TDomain value.  Thus, each definition of a TDomain value must
          be accompanied by a definition of a textual convention for use
          with that TDomain.  Some possible textual conventions, such as
          SnmpUDPAddress for snmpUDPDomain, are defined in the SNMPv2-TM
          MIB module.  Other possible textual conventions are defined in
          other MIB modules."
    REFERENCE    "The SNMPv2-TM MIB module is defined in RFC 1906."
    SYNTAX       OCTET STRING (SIZE (1..255))


END

3.  Mapping of the TEXTUAL-CONVENTION macro

   The TEXTUAL-CONVENTION macro is used to convey the syntax and
   semantics associated with a textual convention.  It should be noted
   that the expansion of the TEXTUAL-CONVENTION macro is something which
   conceptually happens during implementation and not during run-time.

   The name of a textual convention must consist of one or more letters
   or digits, with the initial character being an upper case letter.
   The name must not conflict with any of the reserved words listed in
   section 3.7 of [2], should not consist of all upper case letters, and
   shall not exceed 64 characters in length.  (However, names longer
   than 32 characters are not recommended.)  The hyphen is not allowed
   in the name of a textual convention (except for use in information
   modules converted from SMIv1 which allowed hyphens in ASN.1 type
   assignments).  Further, all names used for the textual conventions
   defined in all "standard" information modules shall be unique.



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3.1.  Mapping of the DISPLAY-HINT clause

   The DISPLAY-HINT clause, which need not be present, gives a hint as
   to how the value of an instance of an object with the syntax defined
   using this textual convention might be displayed.  The DISPLAY-HINT
   clause must not be present if the Textual Convention is defined with
   a syntax of:  OBJECT IDENTIFIER, IpAddress, Counter32, Counter64, or
   any enumerated syntax (BITS or INTEGER).  The determination of
   whether it makes sense for other syntax types is dependent on the
   specific definition of the Textual Convention.

   When the syntax has an underlying primitive type of INTEGER, the hint
   consists of an integer-format specification, containing two parts.
   The first part is a single character suggesting a display format,
   either: `x' for hexadecimal, or `d' for decimal, or `o' for octal, or
   `b' for binary.  For all types, when rendering the value, leading
   zeros are omitted, and for negative values, a minus sign is rendered
   immediately before the digits.  The second part is always omitted for
   `x', `o' and `b', and need not be present for `d'.  If present, the
   second part starts with a hyphen and is followed by a decimal number,
   which defines the implied decimal point when rendering the value.
   For example:

        Hundredths ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
            DISPLAY-HINT "d-2"
            ...
            SYNTAX     INTEGER (0..10000)

   suggests that a Hundredths value of 1234 be rendered as "12.34"


   When the syntax has an underlying primitive type of OCTET STRING, the
   hint consists of one or more octet-format specifications.  Each
   specification consists of five parts, with each part using and
   removing zero or more of the next octets from the value and producing
   the next zero or more characters to be displayed.  The octets within
   the value are processed in order of significance, most significant
   first.

   The five parts of a octet-format specification are:

(1)  the (optional) repeat indicator; if present, this part is a `*',
     and indicates that the current octet of the value is to be used as
     the repeat count.  The repeat count is an unsigned integer (which
     may be zero) which specifies how many times the remainder of this
     octet-format specification should be successively applied.  If the
     repeat indicator is not present, the repeat count is one.



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(2)  the octet length: one or more decimal digits specifying the number
     of octets of the value to be used and formatted by this octet-
     specification.  Note that the octet length can be zero.  If less
     than this number of octets remain in the value, then the lesser
     number of octets are used.

(3)  the display format, either:  `x' for hexadecimal, `d' for decimal,
     `o' for octal, `a' for ascii, or `t' for UTF-8.  If the octet
     length part is greater than one, and the display format part refers
     to a numeric format, then network-byte ordering (big-endian
     encoding) is used interpreting the octets in the value.  The octets
     processed by the `t' display format do not necessarily form an
     integral number of UTF-8 characters.  Trailing octets which do not
     form a valid UTF-8 encoded character are discarded.

(4)  the (optional) display separator character; if present, this part
     is a single character which is produced for display after each
     application of this octet-specification; however, this character is
     not produced for display if it would be immediately followed by the
     display of the repeat terminator character for this octet-
     specification.  This character can be any character other than a
     decimal digit and a `*'.

(5)  the (optional) repeat terminator character, which can be present
     only if the display separator character is present and this octet-
     specification begins with a repeat indicator; if present, this part
     is a single character which is produced after all the zero or more
     repeated applications (as given by the repeat count) of this
     octet-specification.  This character can be any character other
     than a decimal digit and a `*'.

   Output of a display separator character or a repeat terminator
   character is suppressed if it would occur as the last character of
   the display.

   If the octets of the value are exhausted before all the octet-format
   specification have been used, then the excess specifications are
   ignored.  If additional octets remain in the value after interpreting
   all the octet-format specifications, then the last octet-format
   specification is re-interpreted to process the additional octets,
   until no octets remain in the value.

3.2.  Mapping of the STATUS clause

   The STATUS clause, which must be present, indicates whether this
   definition is current or historic.

   The value "current" means that the definition is current and valid.


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   The value "obsolete" means the definition is obsolete and should not
   be implemented and/or can be removed if previously implemented.
   While the value "deprecated" also indicates an obsolete definition,
   it permits new/continued implementation in order to foster
   interoperability with older/existing implementations.

3.3.  Mapping of the DESCRIPTION clause

   The DESCRIPTION clause, which must be present, contains a textual
   definition of the textual convention, which provides all semantic
   definitions necessary for implementation, and should embody any
   information which would otherwise be communicated in any ASN.1
   commentary annotations associated with the object.

3.4.  Mapping of the REFERENCE clause

   The REFERENCE clause, which need not be present, contains a textual
   cross-reference to some other document, either another information
   module which defines a related assignment, or some other document
   which provides additional information relevant to this definition.

3.5.  Mapping of the SYNTAX clause

   The SYNTAX clause, which must be present, defines abstract data
   structure corresponding to the textual convention.  The data
   structure must be one of the alternatives defined in the ObjectSyntax
   CHOICE or the BITS construct (see section 7.1 in [2]).  Note that
   this means that the SYNTAX clause of a Textual Convention can not
   refer to a previously defined Textual Convention.

   An extended subset of the full capabilities of ASN.1 (1988) sub-
   typing is allowed, as appropriate to the underlying ASN.1 type.  Any
   such restriction on size, range or enumerations specified in this
   clause represents the maximal level of support which makes "protocol
   sense".  Restrictions on sub-typing are specified in detail in
   Section 9 and Appendix A of [2].

4.  Sub-typing of Textual Conventions

   The SYNTAX clause of a TEXTUAL CONVENTION macro may be sub-typed in
   the same way as the SYNTAX clause of an OBJECT-TYPE macro (see
   section 11 of [2]).

5.  Revising a Textual Convention Definition

   It may be desirable to revise the definition of a textual convention
   after experience is gained with it.  However, changes are not allowed
   if they have any potential to cause interoperability problems "over


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   the wire" between an implementation using an original specification
   and an implementation using an updated specification(s).  Such
   changes can only be accommodated by defining a new textual convention
   (i.e., a new name).

   The following revisions are allowed:

(1)  A SYNTAX clause containing an enumerated INTEGER may have new
     enumerations added or existing labels changed.  Similarly, named
     bits may be added or existing labels changed for the BITS
     construct.

(2)  A STATUS clause value of "current" may be revised as "deprecated"
     or "obsolete".  Similarly, a STATUS clause value of "deprecated"
     may be revised as "obsolete".  When making such a change, the
     DESCRIPTION clause should be updated to explain the rationale.

(3)  A REFERENCE clause may be added or updated.

(4)  A DISPLAY-HINTS clause may be added or updated.

(5)  Clarifications and additional information may be included in the
     DESCRIPTION clause.

(6)  Any editorial change.

   Note that with the introduction of the TEXTUAL-CONVENTION macro,
   there is no longer any need to define types in the following manner:

        DisplayString ::= OCTET STRING (SIZE (0..255))

   When revising an information module containing a definition such as
   this, that definition should be replaced by a TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
   macro.

6.  Security Considerations

   This document defines the means to define new data types for the
   language used to write and read descriptions of management
   information.  These data types have no security impact on the
   Internet.









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7.  Editors' Addresses

   Keith McCloghrie
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 West Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134-1706
   USA
   Phone: +1 408 526 5260
   EMail: kzm@cisco.com

   David Perkins
   SNMPinfo
   3763 Benton Street
   Santa Clara, CA 95051
   USA
   Phone: +1 408 221-8702
   EMail: dperkins@snmpinfo.com

   Juergen Schoenwaelder
   TU Braunschweig
   Bueltenweg 74/75
   38106 Braunschweig
   Germany
   Phone: +49 531 391-3283
   EMail: schoenw@ibr.cs.tu-bs.de


8.  References

[1]  Information processing systems - Open Systems Interconnection -
     Specification of Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1),
     International Organization for Standardization.  International
     Standard 8824, (December, 1987).

[2]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., Schoenwaelder, J., Case, J., Rose, M.
     and S. Waldbusser, "Structure of Management Information Version 2
     (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

[3]  The SNMPv2 Working Group, Case, J., McCloghrie, K., Rose, M. and
     Waldbusser, S., "Transport Mappings for Version 2 of the" Simple
     Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2)", RFC 1906, January 1996.









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9.  Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE."























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