File: libdwarf2.1.mm

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dwarfutils 20180809-1
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file content (12680 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 399,967 bytes parent folder | download
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\." ==============================================
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.nr Cl 4
.SA 1
.TL
A Consumer Library Interface to DWARF 
.AF ""
.AU "David Anderson"
.PF "'\*(vE'- \\\\nP -''"
.AS 1
This document describes an interface to a library of functions
.FS 
UNIX is a registered trademark of UNIX System Laboratories, Inc.
in the United States and other countries.
.FE
to access DWARF debugging information entries and DWARF line number
information (and other DWARF2/3/4/5 information). 
It does not make recommendations as to how the functions
described in this document should be implemented nor does it
suggest possible optimizations. 
.P
The document is oriented to reading DWARF version 2 and later.
There are certain sections which are SGI-specific (those
are clearly identified in the document).
.P
\*(vE

.AE
.MT 4

.H 1 "INTRODUCTION"
This document describes an interface to \fIlibdwarf\fP, a
library of functions to provide access to DWARF debugging information
records, DWARF line number information, DWARF address range and global 
names information, weak names information, DWARF frame description 
information, DWARF static function names, DWARF static variables, and 
DWARF type information.
.P
The document has long mentioned the  
"Unix International Programming Languages Special Interest Group" 
(PLSIG), under whose auspices the
DWARF committee was formed around 1991.
"Unix International"  
was disbanded in the 1990s and no longer exists.
.P
The DWARF committee published DWARF2 July 27, 1993.
.P
In the mid 1990s this document and the library it describes
(which the committee never endorsed, having decided
not to endorse or approve any particular library interface)
was made available on the internet by Silicon Graphics, Inc.
.P
In 2005 the DWARF committee began an affiliation with FreeStandards.org.
In 2007 FreeStandards.org merged with The Linux Foundation.
The DWARF committee dropped its affiliation with FreeStandards.org
in 2007 and established the dwarfstd.org website.
See "http://www.dwarfstd.org" for current
information on standardization activities 
and a copy of the standard.
.H 2 "Copyright"
Copyright 1993-2006 Silicon Graphics, Inc.

Copyright 2007-2018 David Anderson. 

Permission is hereby granted to 
copy or republish or use any or all of this document without
restriction except that when publishing more than a small amount
of the document
please acknowledge Silicon Graphics, Inc and David Anderson.

This document is distributed in the hope that it would be useful, but
WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  

.H 2 "Purpose and Scope"
The purpose of this document is to document a library of functions 
to access DWARF debugging information. There is no effort made in 
this document to address the creation of these records as those
issues are addressed separately 
(see "A Producer Library Interface to DWARF").

.P
Additionally, the focus of this document is the functional interface,
and as such, implementation as well as optimization issues are
intentionally ignored.


.H 2 "Document History"
.P
A document was written about 1991 which had similar
layout and interfaces. 
Written by people from Hal Corporation,
That document described a library for reading DWARF1.
The authors distributed paper copies to the committee
with the clearly expressed intent to propose the document as
a supported interface definition.
The committee decided not to pursue a library definition.
.P
SGI wrote the document you are now reading in 1993
with a similar layout and content and organization, but 
it was complete document rewrite with the intent to read DWARF2
(the DWARF version then in existence).
The intent was (and is) to also cover
future revisions of DWARF.
All the function interfaces were changed 
in 1994 to uniformly
return a simple integer success-code (see DW_DLV_OK etc), 
generally following
the recommendations in the chapter titled "Candy Machine Interfaces"
of "Writing Solid Code", a book by
Steve Maguire (published by Microsoft Press).
.H 2 "Definitions"
DWARF debugging information entries (DIEs) are the segments of information 
placed in the \f(CW.debug_*\fP sections by compilers, assemblers, and 
linkage editors that, in conjunction with line number entries, are 
necessary for symbolic source-level debugging.  
Refer to the latest
"\fIDWARF Debugging Information Format\fP" from www.dwarfstd.org for a more 
complete description of these entries.

.P
This document adopts all the terms and definitions in "\fIDWARF Debugging 
Information Format\fP" versions 2,3,4, and 5.  
It originally focused on the implementation at
Silicon Graphics, Inc., but now
attempts to be more generally useful.

.H 2 "Overview"
The remaining sections of this document describe the proposed interface
to \f(CWlibdwarf\fP, first by describing the purpose of additional types
defined by the interface, followed by descriptions of the available 
operations.  This document assumes you are thoroughly familiar with the 
information contained in the \fIDWARF Debugging Information Format\fP 
document. 
.P
We separate the functions into several categories to emphasize that not 
all consumers want to use all the functions.  We call the categories 
Debugger, Internal-level, High-level, and Miscellaneous not because one is more 
important than another but as a way of making the rather large set of 
function calls easier to understand.
.P
Unless otherwise specified, all functions and structures should be
taken as being designed for Debugger consumers.
.P
The Debugger Interface of this library is intended to be used by debuggers. 
The interface is low-level (close to dwarf) but suppresses irrelevant detail.
A debugger will want to absorb all of some sections at startup and will 
want to see little or nothing of some sections except at need.  And even 
then will probably want to absorb only the information in a single compilation 
unit at a time.  A debugger does not care about
implementation details of the library.
.P
The Internal-level Interface is for a DWARF prettyprinter and checker.  
A 
thorough prettyprinter will want to know all kinds of internal things 
(like actual FORM numbers and actual offsets) so it can check for 
appropriate structure in the DWARF data and print (on request) all 
that internal information for human users and libdwarf authors and 
compiler-writers.  
Calls in this interface provide data a debugger 
does not normally care about.
.P
The High-level Interface is for higher level access
(it is not really a high level interface!).  
Programs such as 
disassemblers will want to be able to display relevant information 
about functions and line numbers without having to invest too much 
effort in looking at DWARF.
.P
The miscellaneous interface is just what is left over: the error handler 
functions.
.P
The following is a brief mention of the changes in this libdwarf from 
the libdwarf draft for DWARF Version 1 and recent changes.

.H 2 "Items Changed"
.P
All references to Dwarf_Frame_Op3 have been removed
as that struct was never created or available.
The new function dwarf_get_fde_info_for_reg3_b()
is documented.
(May 12, 2018)
.P
With DWARF5 it became harder to use
dwarf_srclines_data_b() as DWARF5 changed
each line table header file table to zero-based
indexing from one-based (and made the primary
file index zero).
So a new function dwarf_srclines_file_indexes()
returns values that make it easy to step through
and call dwarf_srclines_data_b() sensibly whether
the line table is DWARF2,3,4, or 5.
(March 23, 2018)
.P
Added COMDAT support. 
Recent compilers generate COMDAT sections (for some DWARF
information) routinely so this became important
recently. The new libdwarf COMDAT support 
extends the groupnumber
idea as suggested just below.
(May 17, 2017)
.P
Adding dwarf_init_b() and dwarf_elf_init_b()
and dwarf_object_init_b() with a groupnumber
option added. DWARF5 adds split-dwarf and
we call original sections like .debug_info
group one and new sections like .debug_info.dwo
group two.
It has not escaped our attention that this
numbering can be extended to deal with 
Elf COMDAT
section groups of DWARF information, though
COMDAT groups are not currently supported.
(April 02, 2017)
.P
Adding support for DWARF5 .debug_loc.dwo
and split dwarf range tables.
Added dwarf_get_offset_size().
(November 08, 2015)
.P
Adding support for reading DWARF5 line tables
and GNU two-level line tables.
The function dwarf_srclines() still works
but those using DWARF4 or DWARF5 are 
advised to switch to dwarf_srclines_b().
dwarf_srclines()
cannot handle skeleton line tables sensibly
and a new interface was needed for two-level
line tables so the new approach satisfies both.
(October 5,2015)
.P
Adding support for Package Files (DWARF5)
to enable access of address data using DW_FORM_addrx.
See dwarf_set_tied_dbg().
(September 13, 2015)
.P
Adding some DWARF5 support and improved DWP Package File
support, using dwarf_next_cu_header_d().
.P
Added a note about dwarf_errmsg(): the string pointer
returned should be considered ephemeral, not a
string which remains valid permanently.
User code should print it or copy it before calling
other libdwarf functions on the specific Dwarf_Debug
instance.
(May 15, 2014)
.P
Added a printf-callback so libdwarf will not actually print
to stdout.  Added dwarf_highpc_b()
so return of a DWARF4 DW_AT_high_pc of class constant
can be returned properly.
(August 15 2013)
.P
Defined how the new operator DW_OP_GNU_const_type is handled.
(January 26 2013)
.P
Added dwarf_loclist_from_expr_b()
function which adds arguments of the DWARF version
(2 for DWARF2, etc) and the offset size 
to the dwarf_loclist_from_expr_a()
function.  Because the DW_OP_GNU_implicit_pointer
opcode is defined differently for DWARF2 than for
later versions.
(November 2012)
.P
Added new functions (some for libdwarf client code) 
and internal logic support for the 
DWARF4 .debug_types section.
The new functions are
dwarf_next_cu_header_c(),
dwarf_siblingof_b(), dwarf_offdie_b(),
dwarf_get_cu_die_offset_given_cu_header_offset_b(),
dwarf_get_die_infotypes_flag(),
dwarf_get_section_max_offsets_b().
.P
New functions and logic support additional detailed error reporting
so that more compiler bugs can be reported sensibly 
by consumer code (as opposed
to having libdwarf just assume 
things are ok and blindly continuing on
with erroneous data).
November 20, 2010
.P
It seems impossible to default to both DW_FRAME_CFA_COL
and DW_FRAME_CFA_COL3 in a single build of libdwarf,
so the default is now unambiguously DW_FRAME_CFA_COL3
unless the configure option --enable-oldframecol 
is specified at configure time.
The function dwarf_set_frame_cfa_value()
may be used to override the default : using that function gives
consumer applications full control (its use is highly
recommended). 
(January 17,2010)
.P
Added dwarf_set_reloc_application() and the default
automatic application of Elf 'rela' relocations
to DWARF sections (such rela sections appear in .o files, not
in executables or shared objects, in general).
The  dwarf_set_reloc_application() routine lets a consumer
turn off the automatic application of 'rela' relocations
if desired (it is not clear why anyone would really want to do that,
but possibly a consumer could write its own relocation application).
An example application that traverses a set of DIEs
was added to the new dwarfexample directory (not
in this libdwarf directory, but in parallel to it).
(July 10, 2009)
.P
Added dwarf_get_TAG_name() (and the FORM AT and so on)
interface functions so applications can get the string
of the TAG, Attribute, etc as needed. (June 2009)
.P
Added dwarf_get_ranges_a() and dwarf_loclist_from_expr_a()
functions which add arguments allowing a correct address_size
when the address_size varies by compilation unit (a varying
address_size is quite rare as of May 2009).
(May 2009)
.P
Added dwarf_set_frame_same_value(), and
dwarf_set_frame_undefined_value() to complete
the set of frame-information functions needed to allow
an application get all frame information
returned correctly (meaning that it
can be correctly interpreted) for all ABIs.  
Documented dwarf_set_frame_cfa_value().
Corrected spelling to dwarf_set_frame_rule_initial_value().
(April 2009).
.P
Added support for various DWARF3 features, but primarily
a new frame-information interface tailorable at run-time
to more than a single ABI.
See dwarf_set_frame_rule_initial_value(), dwarf_set_frame_rule_table_size(),
dwarf_set_frame_cfa_value().
See also dwarf_get_fde_info_for_reg3() and
dwarf_get_fde_info_for_cfa_reg3().  (April 2006)
.P
Added support for DWARF3 .debug_pubtypes section.
Corrected various leaks (revising dealloc() calls, adding
new functions) and corrected dwarf_formstring() documentation.
.P 
Added dwarf_srclines_dealloc() as the previous deallocation
method documented for data returned by
dwarf_srclines() was incapable of freeing
all the allocated storage (14 July 2005).
.P
dwarf_nextglob(), dwarf_globname(), and dwarf_globdie() were all changed 
to operate on the items in the .debug_pubnames section.
.P
All functions were modified to return solely an error code.
Data is returned through pointer arguments.
This makes writing safe and correct library-using-code far easier.
For justification for this approach, see 
the chapter titled "Candy Machine Interfaces"
in the book "Writing Solid Code" by
Steve Maguire.

.H 2 "Items Removed"
.P
Dwarf_Type
was removed since types are no longer special.
.P
dwarf_typeof()
was removed since types are no longer special.
.P
Dwarf_Ellist
was removed since element lists no longer are a special format.
.P
Dwarf_Bounds
was removed since bounds have been generalized.
.P
dwarf_nextdie()
was replaced by dwarf_next_cu_header() to reflect the
real way DWARF is organized.
The dwarf_nextdie() was only useful for getting to compilation
unit beginnings, so it does not seem harmful to remove it in favor
of a more direct function.
.P
dwarf_childcnt() is removed on grounds
that no good use was apparent.
.P
dwarf_prevline() and dwarf_nextline() were removed on grounds this
is better left to a debugger to do.
Similarly, dwarf_dieline() was removed.
.P
dwarf_is1stline() was removed as it was not meaningful for the
revised DWARF line operations.
.P
Any libdwarf implementation might well decide to support all the
removed functionality and to retain the DWARF Version 1 meanings
of that functionality.  
This would be difficult because the
original libdwarf draft
specification used traditional C library interfaces which
confuse the values returned by successful calls with
exceptional conditions like failures and 'no more data' indications.

.H 2 "Revision History"
.VL 15
.LI "July 2014"
Added support for the .gdb_index section and
started support for the .debug_cu_index and .debug_tu_index
sections.
.LI "October 2011"
DWARF4 support for reading .debug_types added.
.LI "March 93"
Work on DWARF2 SGI draft begins
.LI "June 94"
The function returns are changed to return an error/success code
only.
.LI "April 2006:
Support for DWARF3 consumer operations is close to completion.
.LI "November 2010:
Added various new functions and improved error checking.
.LI "March 2017:
Adding support for DWARF5 split dwarf.
.LE

.H 1 "Types Definitions"

.H 2 "General Description"
The \fIlibdwarf.h\fP header file contains typedefs and preprocessor 
definitions of types and symbolic names used to reference objects 
of \fIlibdwarf\fP. The types defined by typedefs contained in 
\fIlibdwarf.h\fP all use the convention of adding \f(CWDwarf_\fP 
as a prefix and can be placed in three categories: 

.BL
.LI
Scalar types : The scalar types defined in \fIlibdwarf.h\fP are
defined primarily for notational convenience and identification.
Depending on the individual definition, they are interpreted as a 
value, a pointer, or as a flag.
.LI
Aggregate types : Some values can not be represented by a single 
scalar type; they must be represented by a collection of, or as a 
union of, scalar and/or aggregate types. 
.LI
Opaque types : The complete definition of these types is intentionally
omitted; their use is as handles for query operations, which will yield
either an instance of another opaque type to be used in another query, or 
an instance of a scalar or aggregate type, which is the actual result.
.P

.H 2 "Scalar Types"
The following are the defined by \fIlibdwarf.h\fP:

.DS
\f(CW
typedef int                Dwarf_Bool;
typedef unsigned long long Dwarf_Off;
typedef unsigned long long Dwarf_Unsigned;
typedef unsigned short     Dwarf_Half;
typedef unsigned char      Dwarf_Small;
typedef signed long long   Dwarf_Signed;
typedef unsigned long long Dwarf_Addr;
typedef void 		  *Dwarf_Ptr;
typedef void   (*Dwarf_Handler)(Dwarf_Error error, Dwarf_Ptr errarg);
.DE

.nr aX \n(Fg+1
Dwarf_Ptr is an address for use by the host program calling the library,
not for representing pc-values/addresses within the target object file.
Dwarf_Addr is for pc-values within the target object file.  The sample 
scalar type assignments above are for a \fIlibdwarf.h\fP that can read 
and write
32-bit or 64-bit binaries on a 32-bit or 64-bit host machine.
The types must be  defined appropriately
for each implementation of libdwarf.
A description of these scalar types in the SGI/MIPS
environment is given in Figure \n(aX.

.DS
.TS
center box, tab(:);
lfB lfB lfB lfB
l c c l.
NAME:SIZE:ALIGNMENT:PURPOSE
_
Dwarf_Bool:4:4:Boolean states
Dwarf_Off:8:8:Unsigned file offset
Dwarf_Unsigned:8:8:Unsigned large integer
Dwarf_Half:2:2:Unsigned medium integer
Dwarf_Small:1:1:Unsigned small integer
Dwarf_Signed:8:8:Signed large integer
Dwarf_Addr:8:8:Program address
:::(target program)
Dwarf_Ptr:4|8:4|8:Dwarf section pointer 
:::(host program)
Dwarf_Handler:4|8:4|8:Pointer to
:::error handler function 
.TE
.FG "Scalar Types"
.DE

.H 2 "Aggregate Types"
The following aggregate types are defined by 
\fIlibdwarf.h\fP:
\f(CWDwarf_Loc\fP,
\f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP,
\f(CWDwarf_Block\fP, 
\f(CWDwarf_Frame_Op\fP. 
\f(CWDwarf_Regtable\fP. 
\f(CWDwarf_Regtable3\fP. 
While most of \f(CWlibdwarf\fP acts on or returns simple values or
opaque pointer types, this small set of structures seems useful.
Yet, at the same time, these public structures are inflexible
as any change in format or content
breaks binary (and possibly source in some cases)
compatibility.

.H 3 "Location Record"
The \f(CWDwarf_Loc\fP type identifies a single atom of a location description
or a location expression.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct {
        Dwarf_Small        lr_atom;
        Dwarf_Unsigned     lr_number;
        Dwarf_Unsigned     lr_number2;
        Dwarf_Unsigned     lr_offset;  
} Dwarf_Loc;\fP
.DE

The \f(CWlr_atom\fP identifies the atom corresponding to the \f(CWDW_OP_*\fP 
definition in \fIdwarf.h\fP and it represents the operation to be performed 
in order to locate the item in question.

.P
The \f(CWlr_number\fP field is the operand to be used in the calculation
specified by the \f(CWlr_atom\fP field; not all atoms use this field.
Some atom operations imply signed numbers so it is necessary to cast 
this to a \f(CWDwarf_Signed\fP type for those operations.

.P
The \f(CWlr_number2\fP field is the second operand specified by the 
\f(CWlr_atom\fP field; only \f(CWDW_OP_BREGX\fP has this field.  Some 
atom operations imply signed numbers so it may be necessary to cast 
this to a \f(CWDwarf_Signed\fP type for those operations.
.P
For a \f(CWDW_OP_implicit_value\fP operator the \f(CWlr_number2\fP
field is a pointer to the bytes of the value. The field pointed to
is \f(CWlr_number\fP bytes long.  There is no explicit terminator.
Do not attempt to \f(CWfree\fP the bytes which \f(CWlr_number2\fP
points at and do not alter those bytes. The pointer value
remains valid till the open Dwarf_Debug is closed.
This is a rather ugly use of a host integer to hold a pointer. 
You will normally have to do a 'cast' operation to use the value. 
.P
For a \f(CWDW_OP_GNU_const_type\fP operator the \f(CWlr_number2\fP
field is a pointer to a block with an initial
unsigned byte giving the number of bytes
following, followed immediately that number of const
value bytes. 
There is no explicit terminator.
Do not attempt to \f(CWfree\fP the bytes which \f(CWlr_number2\fP
points at and do not alter those bytes. The pointer value
remains valid till the open Dwarf_Debug is closed.
This is a rather ugly use of a host integer to hold a pointer. 
You will normally have to do a 'cast' operation to use the value. 
.P
The \f(CWlr_offset\fP field is the byte offset (within the block the 
location record came from) of the atom specified by the \f(CWlr_atom\fP 
field.  This is set on all atoms.  This is useful for operations 
\f(CWDW_OP_SKIP\fP and \f(CWDW_OP_BRA\fP.

.H 3 "Location Description"
The \f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP type represents an ordered list of 
\f(CWDwarf_Loc\fP records used in the calculation to locate 
an item.  Note that in many cases, the location can only be 
calculated at runtime of the associated program.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct {
        Dwarf_Addr        ld_lopc;
        Dwarf_Addr        ld_hipc;
        Dwarf_Unsigned    ld_cents;
        Dwarf_Loc*        ld_s;
} Dwarf_Locdesc;\fP
.DE

The \f(CWld_lopc\fP and \f(CWld_hipc\fP fields provide an address range for
which this location descriptor is valid.  Both of these fields are set to
\fIzero\fP if the location descriptor is valid throughout the scope of the
item it is associated with.  These addresses are virtual memory addresses, 
not offsets-from-something.  The virtual memory addresses do not account 
for dso movement (none of the pc values from libdwarf do that, it is up to 
the consumer to do that).

.P
The \f(CWld_cents\fP field contains a count of the number of \f(CWDwarf_Loc\fP 
entries pointed to by the \f(CWld_s\fP field.

.P
The \f(CWld_s\fP field points to an array of \f(CWDwarf_Loc\fP records. 

.H 3 "Data Block"
.SP
The \f(CWDwarf_Block\fP type is used to contain the value of an attribute
whose form is either \f(CWDW_FORM_block1\fP, \f(CWDW_FORM_block2\fP, 
\f(CWDW_FORM_block4\fP, \f(CWDW_FORM_block8\fP, or \f(CWDW_FORM_block\fP.
Its intended use is to deliver the value for an attribute of any of these 
forms.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct {
        Dwarf_Unsigned     bl_len;
        Dwarf_Ptr          bl_data;
} Dwarf_Block;\fP
.DE

.P
The \f(CWbl_len\fP field contains the length in bytes of the data pointed
to by the \f(CWbl_data\fP field. 

.P
The \f(CWbl_data\fP field contains a pointer to the uninterpreted data.
Since we use  a \f(CWDwarf_Ptr\fP here one must copy the pointer to some 
other type (typically an \f(CWunsigned char *\fP) so one can add increments 
to index through the data.  The data pointed to by \f(CWbl_data\fP is not 
necessarily at any useful alignment.

.H 3 "Frame Operation Codes: DWARF 2"
FIXME
This interface is adequate for DWARF2 but 
not entirely suitable for DWARF3 or later.
A new (functional) interface is needed.
This interface DWARF2 interface is deprecated. 
Use the interface for DWARF3 (see below) for all versions
of DWARF.
See also the section "Low Level Frame Operations" below.
.P
The DWARF2 \f(CWDwarf_Frame_Op\fP type is
used to contain the data of a single
instruction of an instruction-sequence of low-level information from the 
section containing frame information.
This is ordinarily used by 
Internal-level Consumers trying to print everything in detail.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct {
	Dwarf_Small  fp_base_op;
	Dwarf_Small  fp_extended_op;
	Dwarf_Half   fp_register;
	Dwarf_Signed fp_offset;
	Dwarf_Offset fp_instr_offset;
} Dwarf_Frame_Op;
.DE

\f(CWfp_base_op\fP is the 2-bit basic op code.  \f(CWfp_extended_op\fP is 
the 6-bit extended opcode (if \f(CWfp_base_op\fP indicated there was an 
extended op code) and is zero otherwise.
.P
\f(CWfp_register\fP 
is any (or the first) register value as defined
in the \f(CWCall frame instruction encodings\fP
in the \f(CWdwarf\fP document
(in DWARF3 see Figure 40,in DWARF5 see table 7.29).
If not used with the operation it is 0.
.P
\f(CWfp_offset\fP
is the address, delta, offset, or second register as defined
in the 
\f(CWCall frame instruction encodings\fP
documentation.
If this is an \f(CWaddress\fP then the value should be cast to
\f(CW(Dwarf_Addr)\fP before being used.

In any implementation this field *must* be as large as the
largest of Dwarf_Ptr, Dwarf_Signed, and Dwarf_Addr
for this to work properly.
If not used with the op it is 0.
If the fp_extended_op is 
\f(CWDW_CFA_def_cfa\fP
or
\f(CWDW_CFA_val_expression\fP
or
\f(CWDW_CFA_expression\fP
then 
\f(CWfp_offset\fP
is a pointer to an expression block in the in-memory
copy of the frame section.
.P
\f(CWfp_instr_offset\fP is the byte_offset (within the instruction
stream of the frame instructions) of this operation.  It starts at 0
for a given frame descriptor.

.H 3 "Frame Regtable: DWARF 2"
This interface is adequate for DWARF2 
and MIPS but not for DWARF3 or later.
A separate and preferred interface usable for DWARF3 and for DWARF2
is described below.
See also the section "Low Level Frame Operations" below.
.P
The \f(CWDwarf_Regtable\fP type is used to contain the 
register-restore information for all registers at a given
PC value.
Normally used by debuggers.
If you wish to default to this interface and to the use
of DW_FRAME_CFA_COL, specify --enable_oldframecol
at libdwarf configure time.
Or add a call dwarf_set_frame_cfa_value(dbg,DW_FRAME_CFA_COL)
after your dwarf_init_b() call, this call replaces the 
default libdwarf-compile-time value with DW_FRAME_CFA_COL.
.DS
/* DW_REG_TABLE_SIZE must reflect the number of registers
 *(DW_FRAME_LAST_REG_NUM) as defined in dwarf.h
 */
#define DW_REG_TABLE_SIZE  <fill in size here, 66 for MIPS/IRIX>
\f(CWtypedef struct {
    struct {
        Dwarf_Small         dw_offset_relevant;
        Dwarf_Half          dw_regnum;
        Dwarf_Addr          dw_offset;
    }                       rules[DW_REG_TABLE_SIZE];
} Dwarf_Regtable;\fP
.DE
.P
The array is indexed by register number.
The field values for each index are described next.
For clarity we describe the field values for index rules[M]
(M being any legal array element index).
.P
\f(CWdw_offset_relevant\fP is non-zero to indicate the \f(CWdw_offset\fP
field is meaningful. If zero then the \f(CWdw_offset\fP is zero
and should be ignored.
.P
\f(CWdw_regnum \fPis the register number applicable.
If \f(CWdw_offset_relevant\fP is zero, then this is the register
number of the register containing the value for register M.
If \f(CWdw_offset_relevant\fP is non-zero, then this is
the register number of the register to use as a base (M may be
DW_FRAME_CFA_COL, for example) and the \f(CWdw_offset\fP
value applies.  The value of register M is therefore
the value of register \f(CWdw_regnum\fP.
.P
\f(CWdw_offset\fP should be ignored if \f(CWdw_offset_relevant\fP is zero.
If \f(CWdw_offset_relevant\fP is non-zero, then 
the consumer code should add the value to
the value of the register \f(CWdw_regnum\fP to produce the
value.  

.H 3 "Frame Operation Codes: DWARF 3 (for DWARF2 and later )
This interface was intended
to be  adequate for DWARF3 and for DWARF2 (and DWARF4)
but was never implemented.


.H 3 "Frame Regtable: DWARF 3 (for DWARF2 and later)"
This interface is adequate for DWARF2 and later versions.
It is new in libdwarf as of April 2006.
The default configure of libdwarf 
inserts DW_FRAME_CFA_COL3 as the default CFA column.
Or add a call dwarf_set_frame_cfa_value(dbg,DW_FRAME_CFA_COL3)
after your dwarf_init_b() call, this call replaces the 
default libdwarf-compile-time value with DW_FRAME_CFA_COL3.
.P
The \f(CWDwarf_Regtable3\fP type is used to contain the 
register-restore information for all registers at a given
PC value.
Normally used by debuggers.
.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Regtable_Entry3_s {
        Dwarf_Small         dw_offset_relevant;
        Dwarf_Small         dw_value_type;
        Dwarf_Half          dw_regnum;
        Dwarf_Unsigned      dw_offset_or_block_len;
        Dwarf_Ptr           dw_block_ptr;
}Dwarf_Regtable_Entry3;

typedef struct Dwarf_Regtable3_s {
    struct Dwarf_Regtable_Entry3_s   rt3_cfa_rule;

    Dwarf_Half                       rt3_reg_table_size;
    struct Dwarf_Regtable_Entry3_s * rt3_rules;
} Dwarf_Regtable3;\fP

.DE
.P
The array is indexed by register number.
The field values for each index are described next.
For clarity we describe the field values for index rules[M]
(M being any legal array element index).
(DW_FRAME_CFA_COL3  DW_FRAME_SAME_VAL, DW_FRAME_UNDEFINED_VAL
are not legal array indexes, nor is any index < 0 or >=
rt3_reg_table_size);
The caller  of routines using this
struct must create data space for rt3_reg_table_size entries
of struct Dwarf_Regtable_Entry3_s and arrange that
rt3_rules points to that space and that rt3_reg_table_size
is set correctly.  The caller need not (but may)
initialize the contents of the rt3_cfa_rule or the rt3_rules array.
The following applies to each rt3_rules rule M:
.P
.in +4
\f(CWdw_regnum\fP is the register number applicable.
If \f(CWdw_regnum\fP is DW_FRAME_UNDEFINED_VAL, then the
register I has undefined value.
If \f(CWdw_regnum\fP is DW_FRAME_SAME_VAL, then the
register I has the same value as in the previous frame.
.P
If \f(CWdw_regnum\fP is neither of these two, then the following apply:
.P
.P
\f(CWdw_value_type\fP determines the meaning of the other fields.
It is one of DW_EXPR_OFFSET (0),
DW_EXPR_VAL_OFFSET(1), DW_EXPR_EXPRESSION(2) or 
DW_EXPR_VAL_EXPRESSION(3).

.P
If \f(CWdw_value_type\fP is DW_EXPR_OFFSET (0) then
this is as in DWARF2 and the offset(N) rule  or the register(R)
rule
of the DWARF3 and DWARF2 document applies.
The value is either:
.in +4
If \f(CWdw_offset_relevant\fP is non-zero, then \f(CWdw_regnum\fP  
is effectively ignored but must be identical to
DW_FRAME_CFA_COL3 (and the \f(CWdw_offset\fP value applies. 
The value of register M is therefore
the value of CFA plus the value
of \f(CWdw_offset\fP.   The result of the calculation
is the address in memory where the value of register M resides.
This is the offset(N) rule of the DWARF2 and DWARF3 documents.
.P
\f(CWdw_offset_relevant\fP is zero it indicates the \f(CWdw_offset\fP
field is not meaningful. 
The value of register M is 
the value currently in register \f(CWdw_regnum\fP (the
value DW_FRAME_CFA_COL3 must not appear, only real registers).
This is the register(R) rule of the DWARF3 spec.
.in -4

.P
If \f(CWdw_value_type\fP is DW_EXPR_OFFSET (1) then
this is the the val_offset(N) rule of the DWARF3 spec applies.
The calculation is identical to that of DW_EXPR_OFFSET (0) 
but the value is interpreted as the value of register M
(rather than the address where register M's value is stored).
.P
If \f(CWdw_value_type\fP is DW_EXPR_EXPRESSION (2) then
this is the the expression(E) rule of the DWARF3 document.
.P
.in +4
\f(CWdw_offset_or_block_len\fP is the length in bytes of
the in-memory block  pointed at by \f(CWdw_block_ptr\fP.
\f(CWdw_block_ptr\fP is a DWARF expression.
Evaluate that expression and the result is the address
where the previous value of register M is found.
.in -4
.P
If \f(CWdw_value_type\fP is DW_EXPR_VAL_EXPRESSION (3) then
this is the the val_expression(E) rule of the DWARF3 spec.
.P
.in +4
\f(CWdw_offset_or_block_len\fP is the length in bytes of
the in-memory block  pointed at by \f(CWdw_block_ptr\fP.
\f(CWdw_block_ptr\fP is a DWARF expression.
Evaluate that expression and the result is the 
previous value of register M.
.in -4
.P
The rule \f(CWrt3_cfa_rule\fP is the current value of
the CFA. It is interpreted exactly like
any register M rule (as described just above) except that 
\f(CWdw_regnum\fP cannot be CW_FRAME_CFA_REG3 or
DW_FRAME_UNDEFINED_VAL or DW_FRAME_SAME_VAL but must
be a real register number.
.in -4



.H 3 "Macro Details Record"
The \f(CWDwarf_Macro_Details\fP type gives information about
a single entry in the .debug.macinfo section (DWARF2, 
DWARF3, and DWARF4).
It is not useful for DWARF 5 .debug_macro section data.
.DS
\f(CWstruct Dwarf_Macro_Details_s {
  Dwarf_Off    dmd_offset;
  Dwarf_Small  dmd_type;  
  Dwarf_Signed dmd_lineno;
  Dwarf_Signed dmd_fileindex;
  char *       dmd_macro;
};
typedef struct Dwarf_Macro_Details_s Dwarf_Macro_Details;
.DE
.P
\f(CWdmd_offset\fP is the byte offset, within the .debug_macinfo
section, of this macro information.
.P
\f(CWdmd_type\fP is the type code of this macro info entry
(or 0, the type code indicating that this is the end of
macro information entries for a compilation unit.
See \f(CWDW_MACINFO_define\fP, etc in the DWARF document.
.P
\f(CWdmd_lineno\fP is the line number where this entry was found,
or 0 if there is no applicable line number.
.P
\f(CWdmd_fileindex\fP is the file index of the file involved.
This is only guaranteed meaningful on a \f(CWDW_MACINFO_start_file\fP
\f(CWdmd_type\fP.  Set to -1 if unknown (see the functional
interface for more details).
.P
\f(CWdmd_macro\fP is the applicable string.
For a \f(CWDW_MACINFO_define\fP
this is the macro name and value.
For a
\f(CWDW_MACINFO_undef\fP, or
this is the macro name.
For a
\f(CWDW_MACINFO_vendor_ext\fP
this is the vendor-defined string value.
For other \f(CWdmd_type\fPs this is 0.

.H 2 "Opaque Types"
The opaque types declared in \fIlibdwarf.h\fP are used as descriptors
for queries against DWARF information stored in various debugging 
sections.  Each time an instance of an opaque type is returned as a 
result of a \fIlibdwarf\fP operation (\f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP excepted), 
it should be freed, using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP when it is no longer 
of use (read the following documentation for details, as in at least
one case there is a special routine provided for deallocation
and \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP is not directly called: 
see \f(CWdwarf_srclines()\fP).
Some functions return a number of instances of an opaque type 
in a block, by means of a pointer to the block and a count of the number
of opaque descriptors in the block:
see the function description for deallocation rules for such functions.
The list of opaque types defined 
in \fIlibdwarf.h\fP that are pertinent to the Consumer Library, and their 
intended use is described below.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Debug_s* Dwarf_Debug;\fP
.DE
An instance of the \f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP type is created as a result of a 
successful call to \f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP, or \f(CWdwarf_elf_init_b()\fP, 
and is used as a descriptor for subsequent access to most \f(CWlibdwarf\fP
functions on that object.  The storage pointed to by this descriptor 
should be not be freed, using the \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP function.
Instead free it with \f(CWdwarf_finish()\fP.
.P

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Die_s* Dwarf_Die;\fP
.DE
An instance of a \f(CWDwarf_Die\fP type is returned from a successful 
call to the \f(CWdwarf_siblingof()\fP, \f(CWdwarf_child\fP, or 
\f(CWdwarf_offdie_b()\fP function, and is used as a descriptor for queries 
about information related to that DIE.  The storage pointed to by this 
descriptor should be freed, using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with the allocation 
type \f(CWDW_DLA_DIE\fP when no longer needed.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Line_s* Dwarf_Line;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Line\fP type are returned from a successful call 
to the \f(CWdwarf_srclines()\fP function, and are used as descriptors for 
queries about source lines.  The storage pointed to by these descriptors
should be individually freed, using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with the 
allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_LINE\fP when no longer needed.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Global_s* Dwarf_Global;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Global\fP type are returned from a successful 
call to the \f(CWdwarf_get_globals()\fP function, and are used as 
descriptors for queries about global names (pubnames).

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Weak_s* Dwarf_Weak;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Weak\fP type are returned from a successful call 
to the 
SGI-specific \f(CWdwarf_get_weaks()\fP
function, and are used as descriptors for 
queries about weak names.  The storage pointed to by these descriptors 
should be individually freed, using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with the 
allocation type 
\f(CWDW_DLA_WEAK_CONTEXT\fP 
(or
\f(CWDW_DLA_WEAK\fP, an older name, supported for compatibility)
when no longer needed.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Func_s* Dwarf_Func;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Func\fP type are returned from a successful
call to the 
SGI-specific \f(CWdwarf_get_funcs()\fP
function, and are used as 
descriptors for queries about static function names.  

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Type_s* Dwarf_Type;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Type\fP type are returned from a successful call 
to the 
SGI-specific \f(CWdwarf_get_types()\fP
function, and are used as descriptors for 
queries about user defined types.  

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Var_s* Dwarf_Var;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Var\fP type are returned from a successful call 
to the SGI-specific \f(CWdwarf_get_vars()\fP
function, and are used as descriptors for 
queries about static variables.  

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Error_s* Dwarf_Error;\fP
.DE
This descriptor points to a structure that provides detailed information
about errors detected by \f(CWlibdwarf\fP.  Users typically provide a
location for \f(CWlibdwarf\fP to store this descriptor for the user to
obtain more information about the error.  The storage pointed to by this
descriptor should be freed, using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with the 
allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_ERROR\fP when no longer needed.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Attribute_s* Dwarf_Attribute;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Attribute\fP type are returned from a successful 
call to the \f(CWdwarf_attrlist()\fP, or \f(CWdwarf_attr()\fP functions, 
and are used as descriptors for queries about attribute values.  The storage 
pointed to by this descriptor should be individually freed, using 
\f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_ATTR\fP when 
no longer needed.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Abbrev_s* Dwarf_Abbrev;\fP
.DE
An instance of a \f(CWDwarf_Abbrev\fP type is returned from a successful 
call to \f(CWdwarf_get_abbrev()\fP, and is used as a descriptor for queries 
about abbreviations in the .debug_abbrev section.  The storage pointed to 
by this descriptor should be freed, using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with the
allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_ABBREV\fP when no longer needed.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Fde_s* Dwarf_Fde;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Fde\fP type are returned from a successful call 
to the \f(CWdwarf_get_fde_list()\fP, \f(CWdwarf_get_fde_for_die()\fP, or
\f(CWdwarf_get_fde_at_pc()\fP functions, and are used as descriptors for 
queries about frames descriptors.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Cie_s* Dwarf_Cie;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Cie\fP type are returned from a successful call 
to the \f(CWdwarf_get_fde_list()\fP function, and are used as descriptors 
for queries about information that is common to several frames.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Arange_s* Dwarf_Arange;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Arange\fP type are returned from successful calls 
to the \f(CWdwarf_get_aranges()\fP, or \f(CWdwarf_get_arange()\fP functions, 
and are used as descriptors for queries about address ranges.  The storage 
pointed to by this descriptor should be individually freed, using 
\f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_ARANGE\fP when 
no longer needed.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Gdbindex_s* Dwarf_Gdbindex;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Gdbindex\fP type are returned from successful calls 
to the \f(CWdwarf_gdbindex_header()\fP function and are used to
extract information from a .gdb_index section.
This section is a gcc/gdb extension and is designed to allow
a debugger fast access to data in .debug_info.
The storage pointed to by this descriptor should be freed 
using a call to \f(CWdwarf_gdbindex_free()\fP with 
a valid \f(CWDwarf_Gdbindex\fP pointer as the argument.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Xu_Index_Header_s* Dwarf_Xu_Index_header;\fP
.DE
Instances of \f(CWDwarf_Xu_Index_Header_s\fP type 
are returned from successful calls 
to the \f(CWdwarf_get_xu_index_header()\fP function and are used to
extract information from a .debug_cu_index or .debug_tu_index 
section. These sections are used to make possible
access to .dwo sections gathered into a .dwp object
as part of the DebugFission project allowing separation
of an executable from most of its DWARF debugging information.
As of May 2015 these sections
are accepted into DWARF5 but the standard has not
been released.
The storage pointed to by this descriptor should be freed 
using a call to \f(CWdwarf_xh_header_free()\fP with 
a valid \f(CWDwarf_XuIndexHeader\fP pointer as the argument.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Line_Context_s * Dwarf_Line_Context;\fP
.DE
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_b()\fP returns a Dwarf_Line_Context through an argument
and the new structure pointer lets us access line header information
conveniently.
.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Loc_c_s * Dwarf_Loc_c;\fP
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Locdesc_c_s * Dwarf_Locdesc_c;\fP
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Loc_Head_c_s * Dwarf_Loc_Head_c;\fP
.DE
\f(CWDwarf_Loc*\fP are involved in the DWARF5
interfaces to location lists. 
The new interfaces are all functional and contents
of the above types
are not exposed. 

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Macro_Context_s * Dwarf_Macro_Context;\fP
.DE
\f(CWdwarf_get_macro_context()\fP 
and
\f(CWdwarf_get_macro_context_by_offset()\fP 
return a Dwarf_Line_Context through an argument
and the new structure pointer lets us access 
macro data from the .debug_macro section.

.DS
\f(CWtypedef struct Dwarf_Dsc_Head_s * Dwarf_Dsc_Head;\fP
.DE
\f(CWdwarf_discr_list()\fP
returns a Dwarf_Dsc_Head through an argument
and the new structure pointer lets us access
macro data from a 
\f(CWDW_AT_discr_list\fP
attribute.


.H 1 "UTF-8 strings"
\fIlibdwarf\fP 
is defined, at various points, to return 
string pointers or to copy strings into
string areas you define.
DWARF allows the use of
\f(CWDW_AT_use_UTF8\fP
(DWARF3 and later)
\f(CWDW_ATE_UTF\fP
(DWARF4 and later)
to specify that the strings returned are actually
in UTF-8 format. 
What this means is that if UTF-8 is specfied on
a particular object it is up to callers that wish
to print all the characters properly to use language-appropriate
functions to print Unicode strings appropriately.
All ASCII characters in the strings will print properly
whether printed as wide characters or not.
The methods to convert UTF-8 strings so they will print
correctly for all  such strings 
is beyond the scope of this document.
.P
If UTF-8 is not specified then one is probably safe
in assuming the strings are iso_8859-15 and normal
C printf() will work fine..
.P
In either case  one should be wary of corrupted 
(accidentally or intentionally)
strings
with ASCII control characters in the text.
Such can cause bad effects if simply printed to a device
(such as a terminal).

.H 1 "Error Handling"
The method for detection and disposition of error conditions that arise 
during access of debugging information via \fIlibdwarf\fP is consistent
across all 
\fIlibdwarf\fP 
functions that are capable of producing an
error.  This section describes the method used by \fIlibdwarf\fP in
notifying client programs of error conditions. 
.P
Most functions within \fIlibdwarf\fP accept as an argument a pointer to 
a \f(CWDwarf_Error\fP descriptor where a \f(CWDwarf_Error\fP descriptor 
is stored if an error is detected by the function.  Routines in the client 
program that provide this argument can query the \f(CWDwarf_Error\fP 
descriptor to determine the nature of the error and perform appropriate 
processing. 
The intent is that clients do the appropriate processing
immediately on encountering an error and then the client
calls \f(CWdwarf_dealloc\fP to free the descriptor.
.P
In the rare case where the malloc arena is exhausted when
trying to create a Dwarf_Error descriptor a 
pointer to a statically allocated
descriptor will be returned.   
This static descriptor is new in December 2014.
A call to 
\f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP 
to free the statically
allocated descriptor is harmless (it sets the error value
in the descriptor to  DW_DLE_FAILSAFE_ERRVAL).
The possible conflation of errors when the arena
is exhausted
(and a dwarf_error descriptor is saved past
the next reader call in any thread)
is considered better than having
\fIlibdwarf\fP 
call
\f(CWabort()\fP (as earlier 
\fIlibdwarf\fP 
did).
.P
A client program can also specify a function to be invoked upon detection 
of an error at the time the library is initialized (see \f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP). 
When a \fIlibdwarf\fP routine detects an error, this function is called
with two arguments: a code indicating the nature of the error and a pointer
provided by the client at initialization (again see \f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP).
This pointer argument can be used to relay information between the error 
handler and other routines of the client program.  A client program can 
specify or change both the error handling function and the pointer argument 
after initialization using \f(CWdwarf_seterrhand()\fP and 
\f(CWdwarf_seterrarg()\fP.
.P
In the case where 
\fIlibdwarf\fP 
functions are not provided a pointer
to a \f(CWDwarf_Error\fP descriptor, and no error handling function was 
provided at initialization, \fIlibdwarf\fP functions 
print a short message to stdout
and terminate exectution with
\f(CWabort()\fP.
.P
Before March 2016 
\fIlibdwarf\fP 
gave up when there was no error handling
by 
emitting a short message on 
\f(CWstderr\fP
calling \f(CWabort(3C)\fP.

.P
The following lists the processing steps taken upon detection of an
error:
.AL 1
.LI
Check the \f(CWerror\fP argument; if not a \fINULL\fP pointer, allocate
and initialize a \f(CWDwarf_Error\fP descriptor with information describing
the error, place this descriptor in the area pointed to by \f(CWerror\fP,
and return a value indicating an error condition.
.LI
If an \f(CWerrhand\fP argument was provided to \f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP
at initialization, call \f(CWerrhand()\fP passing it the error descriptor
and the value of the \f(CWerrarg\fP argument provided to \f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP. 
If the error handling function returns, return 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
indicating an 
error condition.
.LI
If neither  the \f(CWerror\fP argument nor
an \f(CWerrhand\fP argument was provided
Terminate program execution by calling 
\f(CWabort(3C)\fP.
.LE
.SP

In all cases, it is clear from the value returned from a function 
that an error occurred in executing the function, since
DW_DLV_ERROR is returned.
.P
As can be seen from the above steps, the client program can provide
an error handler at initialization, and still provide an \f(CWerror\fP
argument to \fIlibdwarf\fP functions when it is not desired to have
the error handler invoked.

.P
If a \f(CWlibdwarf\fP function is called with invalid arguments, the 
behavior is undefined.  In particular, supplying a \f(CWNULL\fP pointer 
to a \f(CWlibdwarf\fP function (except where explicitly permitted), 
or pointers to invalid addresses or uninitialized data causes undefined 
behavior; the return value in such cases is undefined, and the function 
may fail to invoke the caller supplied error handler or to return a 
meaningful error number.  Implementations also may abort execution for 
such cases.

.P
Some errors are so inconsequential that it does not warrant
rejecting an object or returning an error.
An example would be a frame length not being a multiple of
an address-size (right now this is the only such inconsequential
error).  To make it possible for a client  to report such errors
the function \f(CWdwarf_get_harmless_error_list\fP
returns strings with error text in them.  This function
may be ignored if client code does not want to bother with
such error reporting. See \f(CWDW_DLE_DEBUG_FRAME_LENGTH_NOT_MULTIPLE\fP
in the libdwarf source code.

.P
.H 2 "Returned values in the functional interface"
Values returned by \f(CWlibdwarf\fP functions to indicate 
success and errors
.nr aX \n(Fg+1
are enumerated in Figure \n(aX.
The \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
case is useful for functions 
need to indicate that while there was no data to return
there was no error either.
For example, \f(CWdwarf_siblingof()\fP
may return \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP to indicate that that there was
no sibling to return.
.DS
.TS
center box, tab(:);
lfB cfB lfB 
l c l.
SYMBOLIC NAME:VALUE:MEANING
_
DW_DLV_ERROR:1:Error
DW_DLV_OK:0:Successful call
DW_DLV_NO_ENTRY:-1:No applicable value
.TE
.FG "Error Indications"
.DE
.P
Each function in the interface that returns a value returns one
of the integers in the above figure.
.P
If \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP is returned and a pointer to a \f(CWDwarf_Error\fP
pointer is passed to the function, then a Dwarf_Error handle is returned
through the pointer. No other pointer value in the interface returns a value.
After the \f(CWDwarf_Error\fP is no longer of interest,
a  \f(CWdwarf_dealloc(dbg,dw_err,DW_DLA_ERROR)\fP on the error
pointer is appropriate to free any space used by the error information.
.P
If \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP is returned no pointer value in the
interface returns a value.
.P
If \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP is returned, the \f(CWDwarf_Error\fP pointer, if
supplied, is not touched, but any other values to be returned
through pointers are returned.
In this case calls (depending on the exact function
returning the error) to \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP may be appropriate
once the particular pointer returned is no longer of interest.
.P
Pointers passed to allow values to be returned through them are 
uniformly the last pointers
in each argument list.
.P
All the interface functions are defined from the point of view of
the writer-of-the-library (as is traditional for UN*X library
documentation), not from the point of view of the user of the library.
The caller might code:
.P
.DS
\f(CWDwarf_Line line;
Dwarf_Signed ret_loff;
Dwarf_Error  err;
int retval = dwarf_lineoff(line,&ret_loff,&err);\fP
.DE
for the function defined as
.P
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_lineoff(Dwarf_Line line,Dwarf_Signed *return_lineoff,
  Dwarf_Error* err);\fP
.DE
and this document refers to the function as 
returning the value through *err or *return_lineoff or 
uses the phrase "returns in
the location pointed to by err".
Sometimes other similar phrases are used.

.H 1 "Memory Management"
Several of the functions that comprise \fIlibdwarf\fP return pointers 
(opaque descriptors) to structures that have been dynamically allocated 
by the library.  
To manage dynamic memory the function 
\f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP is provided to free storage allocated as a result 
of a call to a \fIlibdwarf\fP function.  
Some additional functions (described later)
are provided to free storage
in particular circumstances.
This section describes the general strategy 
that should be taken by a client program in managing dynamic storage.

.H 2 "Read-only Properties"
All pointers (opaque descriptors) returned by or as a result of a 
\fIlibdwarf Consumer Library\fP 
call should be assumed to point to read-only memory.  
The results are undefined for \fIlibdwarf\fP  clients that attempt 
to write to a region pointed to by a value returned by a 
\fIlibdwarf Consumer Library\fP 
call.

.H 2 "Storage Deallocation"
See the section "Returned values in the functional interface",
above, for the general rules where 
calls to \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP
is appropriate.
.P
In some cases the pointers returned by a \fIlibdwarf\fP call are pointers
to data which is not freeable.  
The library knows from the allocation type
provided to it whether the space is freeable or not and will not free 
inappropriately when \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP is called.  
So it is vital
that \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP be called with the proper allocation type.
.P
For most storage allocated by \fIlibdwarf\fP, the client can free the
storage for reuse by calling \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP, providing it with 
the \f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP descriptor specifying the object for which the
storage was allocated, a pointer to the area to be free-ed, and an 
identifier that specifies what the pointer points to (the allocation
type).  For example, to free a \f(CWDwarf_Die die\fP belonging the the
object represented by \f(CWDwarf_Debug dbg\fP, allocated by a call to 
\f(CWdwarf_siblingof()\fP, the call to \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP would be:
.DS
    \f(CWdwarf_dealloc(dbg, die, DW_DLA_DIE);\fP
.DE

To free storage allocated in the form of a list of pointers (opaque 
descriptors), each member of the list should be deallocated, followed 
by deallocation of the actual list itself.  The following code fragment 
uses an invocation of \f(CWdwarf_attrlist()\fP as an example to illustrate 
a technique that can be used to free storage from any \fIlibdwarf\fP 
routine that returns a list:
.DS
.FG "Example1 dwarf_attrlist()"
\f(CW
void example1(Dwarf_Die somedie)
{
    Dwarf_Debug dbg = 0;
    Dwarf_Signed atcount;
    Dwarf_Attribute *atlist;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    Dwarf_Signed i = 0;
    int errv;

    errv = dwarf_attrlist(somedie, &atlist,&atcount, &error);
    if (errv == DW_DLV_OK) {
        for (i = 0; i < atcount; ++i) {
            /* use atlist[i] */
            dwarf_dealloc(dbg, atlist[i], DW_DLA_ATTR);
        }
        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, atlist, DW_DLA_LIST);
    }
}
\fP
.DE

The \f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP returned from \f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP 
or \f(CWdwarf_elf_init_b()\fP 
cannot be freed using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP.
The function \f(CWdwarf_finish()\fP will deallocate all dynamic storage
associated with an instance of a \f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP type.  In particular,
it will deallocate all dynamically allocated space associated with the
\f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP descriptor, and finally make the descriptor invalid.

An \f(CWDwarf_Error\fP returned from \f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP
or \f(CWdwarf_elf_init_b()\fP
in case of a failure cannot be freed
using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP.
The only way to free the \f(CWDwarf_Error\fP from either of those
calls is to use \f2free(3)\fP directly.
Every \f(CWDwarf_Error\fP must be freed 
by \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP except those
returned by \f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP
or \f(CWdwarf_elf_init_b()\fP.

.P
The codes that identify the storage pointed to in calls to 
.nr aX \n(Fg+1
\f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP are described in figure \n(aX.
.DS
.TS
center box, tab(:);
lfB lfB 
l l.
IDENTIFIER:USED TO FREE 
_
DW_DLA_STRING           :     char* 
DW_DLA_LOC              :     Dwarf_Loc 
DW_DLA_LOCDESC          :     Dwarf_Locdesc 
DW_DLA_ELLIST           :     Dwarf_Ellist (not used)
DW_DLA_BOUNDS           :     Dwarf_Bounds (not used) 
DW_DLA_BLOCK            :     Dwarf_Block 
DW_DLA_DEBUG            :     Dwarf_Debug (do not use)
DW_DLA_DIE              :     Dwarf_Die
DW_DLA_LINE             :     Dwarf_Line 
DW_DLA_ATTR             :     Dwarf_Attribute 
DW_DLA_TYPE             :     Dwarf_Type  (not used) 
DW_DLA_SUBSCR           :     Dwarf_Subscr (not used) 
DW_DLA_GLOBAL_CONTEXT   :     Dwarf_Global 
DW_DLA_ERROR            :     Dwarf_Error 
DW_DLA_LIST             :     a list of opaque descriptors
DW_DLA_LINEBUF          :     Dwarf_Line* (not used) 
DW_DLA_ARANGE           :     Dwarf_Arange 
DW_DLA_ABBREV           :     Dwarf_Abbrev 
DW_DLA_FRAME_OP         :     Dwarf_Frame_Op 
DW_DLA_CIE              :     Dwarf_Cie 
DW_DLA_FDE              :     Dwarf_Fde
DW_DLA_LOC_BLOCK        :     Dwarf_Loc Block
DW_DLA_FRAME_BLOCK      :     Dwarf_Frame Block (not used) 
DW_DLA_FUNC_CONTEXT     :     Dwarf_Func 
DW_DLA_TYPENAME_CONTEXT :     Dwarf_Type
DW_DLA_VAR_CONTEXT      :     Dwarf_Var
DW_DLA_WEAK_CONTEXT	:     Dwarf_Weak
DW_DLA_PUBTYPES_CONTEXT	:     Dwarf_Type
.TE
.FG "Allocation/Deallocation Identifiers"
.DE

.P
.H 1 "Functional Interface"
This section describes the functions available in the \fIlibdwarf\fP
library.  Each function description includes its definition, followed 
by one or more paragraph describing the function's operation.

.P
The following sections describe these functions.

.H 2 "Initialization Operations"
These functions are concerned with preparing an object file for subsequent
access by the functions in \fIlibdwarf\fP and with releasing allocated
resources when access is complete. 

.H 3 "dwarf_init_b()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_init_b(
        int fd,
        Dwarf_Unsigned access,
        unsigned group_number,
        Dwarf_Handler errhand, 
        Dwarf_Ptr errarg,
	Dwarf_Debug * dbg,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP,
the function \f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP returns through
\f(CWdbg\fP a \f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP descriptor 
that represents a handle for accessing debugging records associated with 
the open file descriptor \f(CWfd\fP.  
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP is returned if the object
does not contain DWARF debugging information.
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP is returned if
an error occurred.
.P
The 
\f(CWaccess\fP argument indicates what access is allowed for the section. 
The \f(CWDW_DLC_READ\fP parameter is valid
for read access (only read access is defined or discussed in this
document).  
.P
The 
\f(CWgroupnumber\fP argument indicates which group is to be accessed
Group one is normal dwarf sections such as .debug_info.
Group two is DWARF5 dwo split-dwarf dwarf sections such as .debug_info.dwo.
Groups three and higher are for COMDAT groups.
If an object file has only sections from one of the groups then
passing zero will access that group.
Otherwise passing zero will access only group one.
See 
\f(CWdwarf_sec_group_sizes()\fP
and
\f(CWdwarf_sec_group_map()\fP
for more group information.

.P
The \f(CWerrhand\fP 
argument is a pointer to a function that will be invoked whenever an error 
is detected as a result of a \fIlibdwarf\fP operation.  The \f(CWerrarg\fP 
argument is passed as an argument to the \f(CWerrhand\fP function.  
.P
The file 
descriptor associated with the \f(CWfd\fP argument must refer to an ordinary 
file (i.e. not a pipe, socket, device, /proc entry, etc.), be opened with 
the at least as much permission as specified by the \f(CWaccess\fP argument, 
and cannot be closed or used as an argument to any system calls by the 
client until after \f(CWdwarf_finish()\fP is called.  
The seek position of 
the file associated with \f(CWfd\fP is undefined upon return of 
\f(CWdwarf_init()\fP.
.P
With SGI IRIX, by default it is allowed that the app
\f(CWclose()\fP \f(CWfd\fP immediately after calling \f(CWdwarf_init()\fP,
but that is not  a portable approach (that it
works is an accidental
side effect of the fact that SGI IRIX uses \f(CWELF_C_READ_MMAP\fP 
in its hidden internal call to \f(CWelf_begin()\fP).
The portable approach is to consider that \f(CWfd\fP
must be left open till after the corresponding dwarf_finish() call
has returned.

Since \f(CWdwarf_init()\fP uses the same error handling processing as other 
\fIlibdwarf\fP functions (see \fIError Handling\fP above), client programs 
will generally supply an \f(CWerror\fP parameter to bypass the default actions 
during initialization unless the default actions are appropriate. 

.H 3 "dwarf_init()"

.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_init(
        int fd,
        Dwarf_Unsigned access,
        Dwarf_Handler errhand, 
        Dwarf_Ptr errarg,
	Dwarf_Debug * dbg,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
This identical to dwarf_init()
\f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP
except that it is missing the groupnumber
argument so access to an object file containing
both dwo and non-dwo DWARF5 object sections will
access only group one (and will ignore the dwo sections).

.H 3 "Dwarf_Handler function"
This is an example of a valid error handler function.
A pointer to this  (or another like it)
may be passed to 
\f(CWdwarf_elf_init_b()\fP
or
\f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP.
.DS
\f(CWstatic void
simple_error_handler(Dwarf_Error error, Dwarf_Ptr errarg)
{
    printf("libdwarf error: %d  %s\n",
        dwarf_errno(error), dwarf_errmsg(error));
    exit(1);
}\fP
.DE
.P
This will only be called if an error is detected inside libdwarf
and the 
Dwarf_Error 
argument passed to libdwarf is NULL.
A Dwarf_Error will be created with the error number
assigned by the library and passed to the error handler.
.P
The second argument is a copy of the value passed in to
\f(CWdwarf_elf_init_b()\fP
or
\f(CWdwarf_init()\fP
as the 
\f(CWerrarg()\fP argument.
Typically the init function would be passed
a pointer to an application-created struct
containing the data the application needs to 
do what it wants to do in the error handler.
.P
In a language with exceptions or exception-like features
an exception could be thrown here.
Or the application could simply give up and call
\f(CWexit()\fP
as in the sample given above.

.H 3 "dwarf_elf_init_b()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_elf_init_b(
        Elf * elf_file_pointer,
        Dwarf_Unsigned access,
        unsigned groupnumber,
        Dwarf_Handler errhand, 
        Dwarf_Ptr errarg,
	Dwarf_Debug * dbg,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_elf_init_b()\fP is identical to \f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP 
except that an open \f(CWElf *\fP pointer is passed instead of a file 
descriptor.  
.P
In systems supporting \f(CWElf\fP object files this may be 
more space or time-efficient than using \f(CWdwarf_init_b()\fP,
see that function for more detailed description of the
arguments here..
.P
The client is allowed to use the \f(CWElf *\fP pointer
for its own purposes without restriction during the time the 
\f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP
is open, except that the client should not  \f(CWelf_end()\fP the
pointer till after  \f(CWdwarf_finish\fP is called.

.H 3 "dwarf_elf_init()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_elf_init(
        Elf * elf_file_pointer,
        Dwarf_Unsigned access,
        Dwarf_Handler errhand,
        Dwarf_Ptr errarg,
        Dwarf_Debug * dbg,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_elf_init()\fP is identical to \f(CWdwarf_init()\fP
except that an open \f(CWElf *\fP pointer is passed instead of a file
descriptor.


.H 3 "dwarf_get_elf()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_elf(
        Dwarf_Debug dbg,
        Elf **      elf,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP,
the function \f(CWdwarf_get_elf()\fP returns through the
pointer \f(CWelf\fP the \f(CWElf *\fP handle
used to access the object represented by the \f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP
descriptor \f(CWdbg\fP.  It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
.P
Because \f(CWint dwarf_init()\fP opens an Elf descriptor
on its fd and \f(CWdwarf_finish()\fP does not close that
descriptor, an app should use \f(CWdwarf_get_elf\fP
and should call \f(CWelf_end\fP with the pointer returned
through the \f(CWElf**\fP handle created by \f(CWint dwarf_init()\fP.
.P
This function is not meaningful for a system that does not use the
Elf format for objects.

.H 3 "dwarf_set_tied_dbg()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_set_tied_dbg(
        Dwarf_Debug dbg,
        Dwarf_Debug tieddbg,
	Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWdwarf_set_tied_dbg()\fP
enables cross-object
access of DWARF data.   
If a DWARF5 Package object
has 
\f(CWDW_FORM_addrx\fP
or
\f(CWDW_FORM_GNU_addr_index\fP
in an address attribute
one needs both the Package file
and the executable to extract the actual address with
\f(CWdwarf_formaddr()\fP.
So one does a normal 
\f(CWdwarf_elf_init_b()\fP
or
\f(CWdwarf_init()_b\fP
on each object and then tie the two together with
a call  such as:
.in +2
.DS
.FG "Example2 dwarf_set_died_dbg()"
\f(CW
void example2(Dwarf_Debug dbg, Dwarf_Debug tieddbg)
{ 
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int res = 0;

    /*  Do the dwarf_init_b() or dwarf_elf_init_b()
        calls to set
        dbg, tieddbg at this point. Then: */
    res = dwarf_set_tied_dbg(dbg,tieddbg,&error);
    if (res != DW_DLV_OK) {
        /* Something went wrong*/
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2

When done with both dbg and tieddbg 
do the normal finishing operations on both
in any order.

It is possible to undo the tieing operation with
.in +2
.FG "Example3 dwarf_set_tied_dbg() obsolete"
.DS
\f(CW
void example3(Dwarf_Debug dbg)
{ 
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int res = 0;
    res = dwarf_set_tied_dbg(dbg,NULL,&error);
    if (res != DW_DLV_OK) {
        /* Something went wrong*/
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2
.P
It is not necessary to undo the tieing operation
before finishing on the dbg and tieddbg.
.H 3 "dwarf_get_tied_dbg()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_tied_dbg(
        Dwarf_Debug   /*dbg*/,
        Dwarf_Debug * /*tieddbg_out*/,
	Dwarf_Error * /*error*/)\fP
.DE
\f(CWdwarf_get_tied_dbg\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets 
\f(CWtieddbg_out\fP to the pointer to
the 'tied' Dwarf_Debug.
If there is no 'tied' object
\f(CWtieddbg_out\fP is set to NULL.
.P
On error it returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP.
.P
It never returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.H 3 "dwarf_finish()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_finish(
        Dwarf_Debug dbg,
	Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWdwarf_finish()\fP releases all \fILibdwarf\fP internal resources 
associated with the descriptor \f(CWdbg\fP, and invalidates \f(CWdbg\fP.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if there is an error during the
finishing operation.  It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP 
for a successful operation.

Because \f(CWint dwarf_init()\fP opens an Elf descriptor
on its fd and \f(CWdwarf_finish()\fP does not close that
descriptor, an app should use \f(CWdwarf_get_elf\fP
and should call \f(CWelf_end\fP with the pointer returned
through the \f(CWElf**\fP handle created by \f(CWint dwarf_init()\fP.

.H 3 "dwarf_set_stringcheck()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_set_stringcheck(
        int stringcheck)\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWint dwarf_set_stringcheck()\fP sets a global flag
and returns the previous value of the global flag.

If the stringcheck global flag is zero (the default)
libdwarf does string length validity checks
(the checks do slow libdwarf down very slightly).
If the stringcheck global flag is non-zero 
libdwarf does not do string length validity 
checks.

The global flag is really just 8 bits long, upperbits are not noticed
or recorded.

.H 3 "dwarf_set_reloc_application()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_set_reloc_application(
        int apply)\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWint dwarf_set_reloc_application()\fP sets a global flag
and returns the previous value of the global flag.

If the reloc_application global flag is non-zero (the default)
then the applicable .rela section (if one exists) will be
processed and applied to any DWARF section when it is read in.
If the reloc_application global flag is zero no such
relocation-application is attempted.

Not all 
machine types (elf header e_machine) 
or all relocations are supported, but then very few
relocation types apply to DWARF debug sections.

The global flag is really just 8 bits long, upperbits are not noticed
or recorded. 

It seems unlikely anyone will need to call this function.

.H 3 "dwarf_record_cmdline_options()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_record_cmdline_options(
        Dwarf_Cmdline_Options options)\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWint dwarf_record_cmdline_options()\fP 
copies a Dwarf_Cmdline_Options structure from
consumer code to libdwarf.

The structure is defined in \f(CWlibdwarf.h\fP. 

The initial version of this structure has a single field
\f(CWcheck_verbose_mode\fP which, if non-zero, tells
libdwarf to print some detailed messages to stdout in case
certain errors are detected.

The default for this value is FALSE (0) so the extra messages
are off by default.

.H 3 "dwarf_object_init_b()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_object_init_b(
    Dwarf_Obj_Access_Interface* obj,
    Dwarf_Handler errhand,
    Dwarf_Ptr     errarg,
    unsigned      groupnumber,
    Dwarf_Debug*  dbg,
    Dwarf_Error*  error)\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWint dwarf_object_init_b()\fP 
enables access to non-Elf object files
by allowing the caller to
then provide
function pointers to code (user-written,
not part of libdwarf)  that will
look, to libdwarf, as if libdwarf was
reading Elf.
.P
See
\f(CWint dwarf_init_b()\fP 
for additional information on the arguments
passed in (the
\f(CWobj\fP argument here
is a set of function pointers
and describing how to access non-Elf
files is beyond the scope of this document.
.P
As a hint, note that the source files with
dwarf_elf_init_file_ownership() (dwarf_original_elf_init.c)
and 
dwarf_elf_object_access_init() (dwarf_elf_access.c)
are the only sources that would need replacement
for a different object format.
The replacement would need to emulate certain
conventions of Elf objects, (mainly that 
section index
0 is an empty section) but the rest of
libdwarf uses what these two source files set up
without knowing how to operate on Elf.

.P
Writing the functions needed to support
non-Elf will require study of Elf
and of the object format involved.
The topic is beyond the scope of
this document.

.H 3 "dwarf_object_init()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_object_init(
    Dwarf_Obj_Access_Interface* obj,
    Dwarf_Handler errhand,
    Dwarf_Ptr     errarg,
    Dwarf_Debug*  dbg,
    Dwarf_Error*  error)\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWint dwarf_object_init()\fP 
is the same as 
\f(CWint dwarf_object_init_b()\fP 
except 
\f(CWint dwarf_object_init()\fP 
is missing the groupnumber argument so
DWARF5 split dwarf objects cannot be
fully handled.

.H 3 "dwarf_get_real_section_name()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_real_section_name( Dwarf_Debug dbg,
    const char  * std_section_name,
    const char ** actual_sec_name_out,
    Dwarf_Small * marked_compressed,
    Dwarf_Small * marked_zlib_compressed,
    Dwarf_Small * marked_shf_compressed,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * compressed_length,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * uncompressed_length,
    Dwarf_Error * error);
.DE
FIXME
Elf sections are sometimes compressed to reduce the disk
footprint of the sections.
It's sometimes interesting to library users
what the real name was in the object file and whether it
was compressed.  Libdwarf uncompresses such sections
automatically.
It's not usually necessary to know the true name or
anything about compression.
.P
\f(CW
\fP 
The caller passes in a  
\f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP 
pointer
and a standard section name such as ".debug_info" .
On success the function returns (through the
other arguments) the true section name and a
flag which, if non-zero means the section was compressed
and a flag which, if non-zero means the section had
the Elf section flag SHF_COMPRESSED set.
The caller must ensure that the memory pointed to
by 
\f(CWactual_sec_name_out\fP, 
\f(CWmarked_zcompressed\fP, and 
\f(CWmarked_zlib_compressed\fP,
\f(CWmarked_shf_compressed\fP,
\f(CWcompressed_length\fP,
\f(CWuncompressed_length\fP, 
is zero at the point of call.
.P
The flag
\f(CW*marked_compressed\fP,
if non-zero,
means the section name started
with .zdebug (indicating compression
was done). 
.P
The flag
\f(CWmarked_zlib_compressed\fP, 
if non-zero means the
initial bytes of the section starte
with the ASCII characters ZLIB
and the section was compressed.
.P
The flag
\f(CWmarked_shf_compressed\fP 
if non-zero means the Elf section
sh_flag SHF_COMPRESSED is set
and the section was compressed..
The flag value in an elf section
header is (1<<11) (0x800).
.P
The value
\f(CWcompressed_length\fP 
is passed back through the pointer
if and only if the section is compressed
and the pointer is non-null.
.P
The value
\f(CWuncompressed_length\fP 
is passed back through the pointer
if and only if the section is compressed
and the pointer is non-null.
.P
If the section name passed in is not used by libdwarf
for this object file
the function returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP 
.P
On error the function returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP.
.P
The string pointed to by 
\f(CW*actual_sec_name_out\fP
must not be free()d.

.H 2 "Section Group Operations"
The section group data is essential information
when processing an object with COMDAT section group DWARF sections
or with both split-dwarf (.dwo sections) 
and non-split dwarf sections.
A standard DWARF2 or DWARF3 or DWARF4 object
(Old Standard Object, or OSO) will
not contain any of those new sections.
The DWARF4 standard, Appendix E.1 "Using Compilation Units"
offers an overview of COMDAT section groups.
\f(CWlibdwarf\fP
assigns  the group number one(1) to
OSO DWARF.
Any sections that are split dwarf (section name ending in .dwo
or one of the two special DWP index sections)
are assigned group number two(2)
by libdwarf.
COMDAT section groups are assigned groups numbers 3 and higher as needed.
.P
The COMDAT section group uses are not well defined, but
popular compilations systems are using such sections.
There is no meaningful documentation
that we can find (so far) on how the COMDAT
section groups are used,
so 
\f(CWlibdwarf\fP
is based on observations
of what compilers generate.

.H 3 "dwarf_sec_group_sizes()"
.DS
\f(CW int dwarf_dwarf_sec_group_sizes(
    Dwarf_Debug dbg,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * section_count_out,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * group_count_out,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * selected_group_out,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * map_entry_count_out,
    Dwarf_Error    * error)
\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWdwarf_sec_group_sizes()\fP
may be called on any open 
\f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP.
It returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
on success and returns
values via the pointer arguments.
.P
Once the
\f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP
is open the group
information is set and it will not change
for the life of this
\f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP.
.P
The
\f(CW*section_count_out\fP
is set to the number of sections
in the object. Many of the sections
will be irrelevant to 
\f(CWlibdwarf\fP.
.P
The
\f(CW*group_count_out\fP
is set to the number of groups
in the object (as 
\f(CWlibdwarf\fP
counts them).
An OSO will have exactly one group.
A DWP object will have exactly one group.
If is more than one group consumer code
will likely want to open additional
\f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP
objects and request
relevant information to process the 
DWARF contents.
An executable or a DWP object will
always have a
\f(CW*group_count_out\fP
of one(1).
An executable or a shared library
cannot have any COMDAT section groups
as the linker will have dealt with them.
.P
The
\f(CW*selected_group_out\fP
is set to the group number that
this
\f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP
will focus on.
See 
\f(CWdwarf_sec_group_map()\fP
for additional details on how
\f(CW*selected_group_out\fP
is interpreted.
.P
The
\f(CW*map_entry_count_out\fP
is set to the number of 
entries in the map.
See 
\f(CWdwarf_sec_group_map()\fP.

.P
On failure it returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
and sets \f(CW*error\fP
.P
The initial implementation never returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
or
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
but callers should allow for that possibility.

.H 3 " dwarf_sec_group_map()"
.DS
\f(CW int dwarf_sec_group_map(
    Dwarf_Debug      dbg,
    Dwarf_Unsigned   map_entry_count,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * group_numbers_array,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * section_numbers_array,
    const char     ** sec_names_array,
    Dwarf_Error    * error)
\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWdwarf_sec_group_map()\fP
may be called on any open
\f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP.
.P
The caller must allocate
\f(CWmap_entry_count\fP
arrays used in the
following three arguments
the and pass the appropriate
pointer into the function as well
as passing in
\f(CWmap_entry_count\fP
itself.
.P
The map entries returned cover all the
DWARF related sections in the object
though the
\f(CWselected_group\fP
value will dictate which of the sections
in the 
\f(CWDwarf_Debug\fP
will actually be accessed via the usual
\f(CWlibdwarf\fP
functions.
That is, only sections in the selected group
may be directly accessed though libdwarf may
indirectly access sections in section group
one(1) so relevant details can be accessed,
such as abbreviation tables etc.
Describing the details of this access outside
the current
\f(CWselected_group\fP
goes beyond what this document covers (as of this
writing).

.P
It returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
on success and sets
values into the user-allocated
array elements (sorted by section number):
.in +2
.DS
\f(CW
group_numbers_array[0]...  group_numbers_array[map_entry_count-1]
section_numbers_array[0]...  section_numbers_array[map_entry_count-1]
sec_names_array[0]...  sec_names_array[map_entry_count-1]
\fP
.DE
.in -2
.P
\f(CWgroup_numbers_array[0]\fP
for example
is set to a group number. One(1), or two(2) or if there are
COMDAT groups it will be three(3) or higher.
.P
\f(CWsection_numbers_array[0]\fP
for example
is set to a valid Elf section number
relevant to  
\f(CWDWARF\fP
(each section number shown will be greater than zero). 
.P
\f(CWsec_names_array[0]\fP
for example
is set to a pointer to a string containing
the Elf section name of the Elf section number in
\f(CWsections_number_array[0]\fP.
.P
On error the function will return
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
or
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
which indicates a serious problem with this object.


.P
Here is an example of use of these functions.
.in +2
.DS
\f(CW
void examplesecgroup(Dwarf_Debug dbg)
{
    int res = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned  section_count = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned  group_count;
    Dwarf_Unsigned  selected_group = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned  group_map_entry_count = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned *sec_nums = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned *group_nums = 0;
    const char **   sec_names = 0;
    Dwarf_Error     error = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned  i = 0;


    res = dwarf_sec_group_sizes(dbg,&section_count,
        &group_count,&selected_group, &group_map_entry_count,
        &error);
    if(res != DW_DLV_OK) {
        /* Something is badly wrong*/
        return;
    }
    /*  In an object without split-dwarf sections
        or COMDAT sections we now have
        selected_group == 1. */
    sec_nums = calloc(group_map_entry_count,sizeof(Dwarf_Unsigned));
    if(!sec_nums) {
        /* FAIL. out of memory */
        return;
    }
    group_nums = calloc(group_map_entry_count,sizeof(Dwarf_Unsigned));
    if(!group_nums) {
        free(group_nums);
        /* FAIL. out of memory */
        return;
    }
    sec_names = calloc(group_map_entry_count,sizeof(char*));
    if(!sec_names) {
        free(group_nums);
        free(sec_nums);
        /* FAIL. out of memory */
        return;
    }

    res = dwarf_sec_group_map(dbg,group_map_entry_count,
        group_nums,sec_nums,sec_names,&error);
    if(res != DW_DLV_OK) {
        /* FAIL. Something badly wrong. */
    }
    for( i = 0; i < group_map_entry_count; ++i) {
        /*  Now do something with
            group_nums[i],sec_nums[i],sec_names[i] */
    }
    free(group_nums);
    free(sec_nums);
    /*  The strings are in Elf data.
        Do not free() the strings themselves.*/
    free(sec_names);
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2

.H 2 "Section size operations"
.P
These operations are informative but not normally needed.
.H 3 "dwarf_get_section_max_offsets_b()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_section_max_offsets_b(Dwarf_debug dbg,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_info_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_abbrev_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_line_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_loc_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_aranges_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_macinfo_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_pubnames_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_str_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_frame_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_ranges_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_pubtypes_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_types_size*/);
.DE
.P
The function
\f(CWdwarf_get_section_max_offsets_b()\fP an open
Dwarf_Dbg and reports on the section sizes by pushing
section size values  back through the pointers.

Created in October 2011.

.H 3 "dwarf_get_section_max_offsets()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_section_max_offsets(Dwarf_debug dbg,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_info_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_abbrev_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_line_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_loc_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_aranges_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_macinfo_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_pubnames_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_str_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_frame_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_ranges_size*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * /*debug_pubtypes_size*/);
.DE
.P
The function is the same as \f(CWdwarf_get_section_max_offsets_b()\fP
except it is missing the \f(CWdebug_types_size()\fP argument.
Though obsolete it is still supported.

.H 2 "Printf Callbacks"
.P
This is new in August 2013.
.P
The \f(CWdwarf_print_lines()\fP function
is intended as a helper to programs like \f(CWdwarfdump\fP
and show some line internal details in a way only the interals
of libdwarf can show these details.
But using printf directly in libdwarf means the caller
has limited control of where the output appears.
So now the 'printf' output is passed back to the
caller through a callback function whose implementation
is provided by the caller. 
.P
Any code calling libdwarf can ignore
the functions described in this section completely.   
If the functions are ignored the messages
(if any) from libdwarf will simply not appear anywhere.
.P
The \f(CWlibdwarf.h\fP header file defines
\f(CWstruct Dwarf_Printf_Callback_Info_s\fP
and
\f(CWdwarf_register_printf_callback\fP
for those libdwarf callers wishing to implement the callback.
In this section we describe how one uses that interface.
The applications \f(CWdwarfdump\fP  and
\f(CWdwarfdump2\fP are examples of how these may be used.



.H 3 "dwarf_register_printf_callback"
.DS
\f(CWstruct  Dwarf_Printf_Callback_Info_s
    dwarf_register_printf_callback(Dwarf_Debug dbg,
    struct  Dwarf_Printf_Callback_Info_s * newvalues);
.DE
.P
The  \f(CWdwarf_register_printf_callback()\fP function
can only be called after the Dwarf_Debug instance
has been initialized, the call makes no sense at other times.
The function returns the current value of the structure.
If \f(CWnewvalues\fP is non-null then the passed-in
values are used to initialize the libdwarf internal
callback data (the values returned are the values
before the \f(CWnewvalues\fP are recorded). 
If \f(CWnewvalues\fP is null no change is made to
the libdwarf internal callback data.




.H 3 "Dwarf_Printf_Callback_Info_s"
.DS
\f(CWstruct Dwarf_Printf_Callback_Info_s {
    void *                        dp_user_pointer;
    dwarf_printf_callback_function_type dp_fptr;
    char *                        dp_buffer;
    unsigned int                  dp_buffer_len;
    int                           dp_buffer_user_provided;
    void *                        dp_reserved;
};
.DE
.P
First we describe the fields as applicable in setting up
for a call to \f(CWdwarf_register_printf_callback()\fP.
.P
The field \f(CWdp_user_pointer\fP is remembered by libdwarf
and passed back in any call libdwarf makes to the 
user's callback function.  
It is otherwise ignored by libdwarf.
.P
The field \f(CWdp_fptr\fP is either NULL or a pointer to
a user-implemented function.
.P
If the field \f(CWdp_buffer_user_provided\fP is non-zero
then \f(CWdp_buffer_len\fP and \f(CWdp_buffer\fP
must be set by the user and libdwarf will use that buffer
without doing any malloc of space.
If the field \f(CWdp_buffer_user_provided\fP is zero
then the input fields \f(CWdp_buffer_len\fP and \f(CWdp_buffer\fP
are ignored by libdwarf and space is malloc'd as needed.
.P
The field \f(CWdp_reserved\fP is ignored, it is reserved for
future use.
.P
When the structure is returned by \f(CWdwarf_register_printf_callback()\fP
the values of the fields before the
\f(CWdwarf_register_printf_callback()\fP call are returned.


.H 3 "dwarf_printf_callback_function_type"
.DS
\f(CWtypedef void (* dwarf_printf_callback_function_type)(void * user_pointer,
    const char * linecontent);
.DE
.P
Any application using the callbacks needs to use the function
\f(CWdwarf_register_printf_callback()\fP and supply a function matching
the above function prototype from libdwarf.h.

.H 3 "Example of printf callback use in a C++ application using libdwarf"
.DS
\f(CWstruct Dwarf_Printf_Callback_Info_s printfcallbackdata;
    memset(&printfcallbackdata,0,sizeof(printfcallbackdata));
    printfcallbackdata.dp_fptr = printf_callback_for_libdwarf;
    dwarf_register_printf_callback(dbg,&printfcallbackdata);

Assuming the user implements something
like the following function in her application:

void
printf_callback_for_libdwarf(void *userdata,const char *data)
{
     cout << data;
}
.DE
.P
It is crucial that the user's callback function copies or
prints the data immediately. Once the user callback
function returns the \f(CWdata\fP
pointer may change or become stale without warning.


.H 2 "Debugging Information Entry Delivery Operations"
These functions are concerned with accessing debugging information 
entries, whether from a .debug_info, .debug_types, .debug_info.dwo, 
or .debug_types.dwo . 
.P
Since all such sections use similar formats, one
set of functions suffices.

.H 3 "dwarf_get_die_section_name()"
.DS
int
dwarf_get_die_section_name(Dwarf_Debug dbg,
    Dwarf_Bool    is_info,
    const char ** sec_name,
    Dwarf_Error * error);
.DE
\f(CWdwarf_get_die_section_name()\fP lets consumers
access the object section name when no specific
DIE is at hand.
This is useful for applications wanting to print
the name, but of course the object section name is not 
really a part of the DWARF information.
Most applications will
probably not call this function.
It can be called at any time
after the Dwarf_Debug initialization is done.
See  also \f(CWdwarf_get_die_section_name_b()\fP.
.P
The function
\f(CWdwarf_get_die_section_name()\fP operates on
the either the .debug_info[.dwo] section
(if \f(CWis_info\fP is non-zero) 
or .debug_types[.dwo]
section
(if \f(CWis_info\fP is zero).
.P
If the function succeeds, \f(CW*sec_name\fP is set to
a pointer to a string with the object section name and 
the function returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP.
Do not free the string whose pointer is returned.
For non-Elf objects it is possible the string pointer
returned will be NULL or will point to an empty string.
It is up to the calling application to recognize this
possibility and deal with it appropriately.
.P
If the section does not exist the function returns
DW_DLV_NO_ENTRY.
.P 
If there is an internal error detected the
function returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP and sets the
\f(CW*error\fP pointer.
.H 3 "dwarf_get_die_section_name_b()"
.DS
int
dwarf_get_die_section_name_b(Dwarf_Die die,
    const char ** sec_name,
    Dwarf_Error * error);
.DE
\f(CWdwarf_get_die_section_name_b()\fP lets consumers
access the object section name when one has a DIE.
This is useful for applications wanting to print
the name, but of course the object section name is not
really a part of the DWARF information.
Most applications will
probably not call this function.
It can be called at any time
after the Dwarf_Debug initialization is done.
See  also \f(CWdwarf_get_die_section_name()\fP.
.P
If the function succeeds, \f(CW*sec_name\fP is set to
a pointer to a string with the object section name and
the function returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP.
Do not free the string whose pointer is returned.
For non-Elf objects it is possible the string pointer
returned will be NULL or will point to an empty string.
It is up to the calling application to recognize this
possibility and deal with it appropriately.
.P
If the section does not exist the function returns
DW_DLV_NO_ENTRY.
.P
If there is an internal error detected the
function returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP and sets the
\f(CW*error\fP pointer.




.H 3 "dwarf_next_cu_header_d()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_next_cu_header_d(
        Dwarf_debug dbg,
        Dwarf_Bool is_info,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *cu_header_length,
        Dwarf_Half     *version_stamp,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *abbrev_offset,
        Dwarf_Half     *address_size,
        Dwarf_Half     *offset_size,
        Dwarf_Half     *extension_size,
        Dwarf_Sig8     *signature,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *typeoffset
        Dwarf_Unsigned *next_cu_header,
        Dwarf_Half     *header_cu_type,
        Dwarf_Error    *error);
.DE
The function
\f(CWdwarf_next_cu_header_d()\fP operates on
the either the .debug_info   section
(if \f(CWis_info\fP is non-zero) or .debug_types
section   
(if \f(CWis_info\fP is zero).
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP 
if it fails, and
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP if it succeeds.
.P
If it succeeds, \f(CW*next_cu_header\fP is set to
the offset in the .debug_info section of the next 
compilation-unit header if it succeeds.  On reading the last 
compilation-unit header in the .debug_info section it contains 
the size of the .debug_info or debug_types section.
The next call to 
\f(CWdwarf_next_cu_header_b()\fP returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
without reading a 
compilation-unit or setting \f(CW*next_cu_header\fP.  
Subsequent calls to \f(CWdwarf_next_cu_header()\fP 
repeat the cycle by reading the first compilation-unit and so on.  
.P
The other 
values returned through pointers are the values in the compilation-unit 
header.  If any of \f(CWcu_header_length\fP, \f(CWversion_stamp\fP,
\f(CWabbrev_offset\fP, \f(CWaddress_size\fP, 
\f(CWoffset_size\fP, \f(CWextension_size\fP,
\f(CWsignature\fP, or \f(CWtypeoffset\fP,
is \f(CWNULL\fP, the 
argument is ignored (meaning it is not an error to provide a 
\f(CWNULL\fP pointer for any or all of these arguments).
.P
\f(CWcu_header_length\fP returns the length in bytes of the compilation
unit header.
.P
\f(CWversion_stamp\fP returns the section version, which
would be (for .debug_info) 2 for DWARF2, 3 for DWARF4, or
4 for DWARF4.
.P
\f(CWabbrev_offset\fP returns the .debug_abbrev
section offset of the abbreviations
for this compilation unit.
.P
\f(CWaddress_size\fP returns the size of an address in this
compilation unit.  Which is usually 4 or 8.
.P
\f(CWoffset_size\fP returns the size in bytes of
an offset for the compilation unit.  The offset size
is 4 for 32bit dwarf
and 8 for 64bit dwarf.
This is the offset size in dwarf data, not
the address size inside the executable code.
The offset size can be 4 even
if embedded in a 64bit elf file (which
is normal for 64bit elf), and can be 8 even in
a 32bit elf file (which probably will never be seen 
in practice).
.P
The 
\f(CWextension_size\fP pointer is only relevant if
the \f(CWoffset_size\fP pointer returns 8.
The value is not normally useful but is returned
through the pointer for completeness.
The pointer \f(CWextension_size\fP returns 0 
if the CU is MIPS/IRIX non-standard 64bit dwarf
(MIPS/IRIX 64bit dwarf was created years before DWARF3
defined 64bit dwarf)
and returns 4 if the dwarf uses the standard 64bit
extension (the 4 is the size in bytes of the 0xffffffff
in the initial length field
which indicates the following 8 bytes in the .debug_info section
are the real length).
See the DWARF3 or DWARF4 standard, section 7.4.
.P
The
\f(CWsignature\fP pointer is only relevant if
 the CU has a type signature, and if relevant the 8 byte type
signature of the .debug_types CU header is assigned through
the pointer.
.P
The
\f(CWtypeoffset\fP pointer is only relevant
the CU has a type signature
if relevant the local offset
within the CU of the the type offset the .debug_types entry
represents is assigned through the pointer.
The
\f(CWtypeoffset\fP matters because a
DW_AT_type referencing the type unit may reference an inner type,
such as a  C++ class in a C++ namespace, but the type itself
has the enclosing namespace in the .debug_type type_unit.
.P
The
\f(CWheader_cu_type\fP pointer is applicable to 
all  CU headers.
The value returned through the pointer is either
\f(CWDW_UT_compile\fP
\f(CWDW_UT_partial\fP
\f(CWDW_UT_type\fP
and identifies the header type of this CU.
In \f(CWDWARF4\fP a \f(CWDW_UT_type\fP
will be in \f(CW.debug_types\fP, but in
\f(CWDWARF5\fP these compilation units are in \f(CW.debug_info\fP
and the Debug Fission \f(CW.debug_info.dwo\fP . 

.H 3 "dwarf_next_cu_header_c()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_next_cu_header_c(
        Dwarf_debug dbg,
        Dwarf_Bool is_info,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *cu_header_length,
        Dwarf_Half     *version_stamp,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *abbrev_offset,
        Dwarf_Half     *address_size,
        Dwarf_Half     *offset_size,
        Dwarf_Half     *extension_size,
        Dwarf_Sig8     *signature,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *typeoffset
        Dwarf_Unsigned *next_cu_header,
        Dwarf_Error    *error);
.DE
The function
\f(CWdwarf_next_cu_header_c()\fP operates on
the either the .debug_info   section
(if \f(CWis_info\fP is non-zero) or .debug_types
section
(if \f(CWis_info\fP is zero).
.P
It operates exactly like
\f(CWdwarf_next_cu_header_d()\fP but
is missing the
\f(CWheader_type\fP field.
This is kept for compatibility.
All code using this should be changed to use
\f(CWdwarf_next_cu_header_d()\fP


.H 3 "dwarf_next_cu_header_b()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_next_cu_header_b(
        Dwarf_debug dbg,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *cu_header_length,
        Dwarf_Half     *version_stamp,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *abbrev_offset,
        Dwarf_Half     *address_size,
        Dwarf_Half     *offset_size,
        Dwarf_Half     *extension_size,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *next_cu_header,
        Dwarf_Error    *error);
.DE
.P
This is obsolete as of October 2011 though supported.
.P
The function
\f(CWdwarf_next_cu_header_b()\fP  operates on 
the .debug_info section.  It operates exactly like
\f(CWdwarf_next_cu_header_c()\fP but
is missing the
\f(CWsignature\fP, and \f(CWtypeoffset\fP
fields.
This is kept for compatibility.
All code using this should be changed to use
\f(CWdwarf_next_cu_header_c()\fP

.H 3 "dwarf_next_cu_header()"
.P
The following is the original form, missing the
\f(CWoffset_size\fP, \f(CWextension_size\fP,
\f(CWsignature\fP, and \f(CWtypeoffset\fP
fields in
\f(CWdwarf_next_cu_header_c()\fP. 
This is kept for compatibility.
All code using this should be changed to use
\f(CWdwarf_next_cu_header_c()\fP
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_next_cu_header(
        Dwarf_debug dbg,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *cu_header_length,
        Dwarf_Half     *version_stamp,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *abbrev_offset,
        Dwarf_Half     *address_size,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *next_cu_header,
        Dwarf_Error    *error);
.DE

.H 3 "dwarf_siblingof_b()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_siblingof_b(
        Dwarf_Debug dbg, 
        Dwarf_Die die, 
        Dwarf_Bool is_info,
	Dwarf_Die *return_sib,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_siblingof_b()\fP 
returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP and sets the \f(CWerror\fP pointer on error.
If there is no sibling it returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_siblingof_b()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP  and sets \f(CW*return_sib\fP to the \f(CWDwarf_Die\fP 
descriptor of the sibling of \f(CWdie\fP.

If \f(CWis_info\fP is non-zero then the  \f(CWdie\fP
is assumed to refer to a .debug_info DIE.  
If \f(CWis_info\fP is zero then the  \f(CWdie\fP
is assumed to refer to a .debug_types DIE.  
Note that the first call (the call that gets the compilation-unit
DIE in a compilation unit) passes in a NULL \f(CWdie\fP
so having the caller pass in \f(CWis_info\fP is essential.
And if \f(CWdie\fP is non-NULL it is still essential for the
call to pass in  \f(CWis_info\fP set properly to reflect the
section the DIE came from.
The function
\f(CWdwarf_get_die_infotypes_flag()\fP  is of interest as
it returns the proper is_info value from any non-NULL \f(CWdie\fP
pointer.


If \f(CWdie\fP is \fINULL\fP, the \f(CWDwarf_Die\fP descriptor of the
first die in the compilation-unit is returned.  
This die has the
\f(CWDW_TAG_compile_unit\fP,
\f(CWDW_TAG_partial_unit\fP,
or \f(CWDW_TAG_type_unit\fP
tag.

.in +2
.FG "Example4 dwarf_siblingof()"
.DS
\f(CW
void example4(Dwarf_Debug dbg,Dwarf_Die in_die,Dwarf_Bool is_info)
{
    Dwarf_Die return_sib = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int res = 0;

    /* in_die might be NULL or a valid Dwarf_Die */
    res = dwarf_siblingof_b(dbg,in_die,is_info,&return_sib, &error);
    if (res == DW_DLV_OK) {
        /* Use return_sib here. */
        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, return_sib, DW_DLA_DIE);
        /*  return_sib is no longer usable for anything, we
            ensure we do not use it accidentally with: */
        return_sib = 0;
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2

.H 3 "dwarf_siblingof()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_siblingof(
        Dwarf_Debug dbg,
        Dwarf_Die die,
        Dwarf_Die *return_sib,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
.P
\f(CWint dwarf_siblingof()\fP operates exactly the same as
\f(CWint dwarf_siblingof_b()\fP, but 
\f(CWint dwarf_siblingof()\fP refers only to .debug_info
DIEs.


.H 3 "dwarf_child()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_child(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
	Dwarf_Die *return_kid,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_child()\fP 
returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP and sets the \f(CWerror\fP die on error.
If there is no child it returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_child()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_kid\fP
to the \f(CWDwarf_Die\fP descriptor 
of the first child of \f(CWdie\fP.
The function 
\f(CWdwarf_siblingof()\fP can be used with the return value of 
\f(CWdwarf_child()\fP to access the other children of \f(CWdie\fP. 

.in +2
.FG "Example5 dwarf_child()"
.DS
\f(CW
void example5(Dwarf_Debug dbg,Dwarf_Die in_die)
{
    Dwarf_Die return_kid = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int res = 0;

    res = dwarf_child(in_die,&return_kid, &error);
    if (res == DW_DLV_OK) {
        /* Use return_kid here. */
        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, return_kid, DW_DLA_DIE);
        /*  return_die is no longer usable for anything, we
            ensure we do not use it accidentally with: */
        return_kid = 0;
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2

.H 3 "dwarf_offdie_b()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_offdie_b(
        Dwarf_Debug dbg,
        Dwarf_Off offset, 
        Dwarf_Bool is_info,
	Dwarf_Die *return_die,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_offdie_b()\fP 
returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP and sets the \f(CWerror\fP die on error.
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_offdie_b()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_die\fP
to the
the \f(CWDwarf_Die\fP 
descriptor of the debugging information entry at \f(CWoffset\fP in 
the section containing debugging information entries i.e the .debug_info
section.  
A return of \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
means that the \f(CWoffset\fP in the section is of a byte containing
all 0 bits, indicating that there
is no abbreviation code. Meaning this 'die offset' is not
the offset of a real die, but is instead an offset of a null die,
a padding die, or of some random zero byte: this should
not be returned in normal use.
.P
It is the user's 
responsibility to make sure that \f(CWoffset\fP is the start of a valid 
debugging information entry.  The result of passing it an invalid 
offset could be chaos.
.P
If \f(CWis_info\fP is non-zero the \f(CWoffset\fP must refer
to a .debug_info section offset. 
If \f(CWis_info\fP zero the \f(CWoffset\fP must refer
to a .debug_types section offset. 
Error returns or misleading
values may result if the 
\f(CWis_info\fP flag 
or the \f(CWoffset\fP value
are incorrect.

.in +2
.FG "Example6 dwarf_offdie_b()"
.DS
\f(CW
void example6(Dwarf_Debug dbg,Dwarf_Off die_offset,Dwarf_Bool is_info)
{
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    Dwarf_Die return_die = 0;
    int res = 0;

    res = dwarf_offdie_b(dbg,die_offset,is_info,&return_die, &error);
    if (res == DW_DLV_OK) {
        /* Use return_die here. */
        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, return_die, DW_DLA_DIE);
        /*  return_die is no longer usable for anything, we
            ensure we do not use it accidentally with: */
        return_die = 0; 
    } else {
        /*  res could be NO ENTRY or ERROR, so no
            dealloc necessary.  */
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2

.H 3 "dwarf_offdie()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_offdie(
        Dwarf_Debug dbg,
        Dwarf_Off offset, 
	Dwarf_Die *return_die,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
.P
The function \f(CWdwarf_offdie()\fP is obsolete, use
\f(CWdwarf_offdie_b()\fP instead.
The function is still supported in the library, but only
references the .debug_info section.


.H 3 "dwarf_validate_die_sibling()"
.DS
\f(CWint validate_die_sibling(
        Dwarf_Die sibling,
        Dwarf_Off *offset)\fP
.DE
When used correctly in a depth-first walk of a DIE tree this
function validates that any DW_AT_sibling attribute gives
the same offset as the direct tree walk.
That is the only purpose of this function.

The function \f(CWdwarf_validate_die_sibling()\fP
returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP  if the last die processed
in a depth-first DIE tree walk was the same offset as
generated by a call to \f(CWdwarf_siblingof()\fP.
Meaning that the DW_AT_sibling attribute value, if any, was correct.

If the conditions are not met then DW_DLV_ERROR is returned
and  \f(CW*offset\fP is set to the offset
in the .debug_info section of the last DIE processed.
If the application prints the offset a knowledgeable
user may be able to figure out what the compiler did wrong.

.H 2 "Debugging Information Entry Query Operations"
These queries return specific information about debugging information 
entries or a descriptor that can be used on subsequent queries when 
given a \f(CWDwarf_Die\fP descriptor.  Note that some operations are 
specific to debugging information entries that are represented by a 
\f(CWDwarf_Die\fP descriptor of a specific type. 
For example, not all 
debugging information entries contain an attribute having a name, so 
consequently, a call to \f(CWdwarf_diename()\fP using a \f(CWDwarf_Die\fP 
descriptor that does not have a name attribute will return
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.
This is not an error, i.e. calling a function that needs a specific
attribute is not an error for a die that does not contain that specific
attribute.
.P
There are several methods that can be used to obtain the value of an
attribute in a given die:
.AL 1
.LI
Call \f(CWdwarf_hasattr()\fP to determine if the debugging information
entry has the attribute of interest prior to issuing the query for
information about the attribute.

.LI
Supply an \f(CWerror\fP argument, and check its value after the call to 
a query indicates an unsuccessful return, to determine the nature of the 
problem.  The \f(CWerror\fP argument will indicate whether an error occurred, 
or the specific attribute needed was missing in that die.

.LI
Arrange to have an error handling function invoked upon detection of an 
error (see \f(CWdwarf_init()\fP).

.LI
Call \f(CWdwarf_attrlist()\fP and iterate through the returned list of
attributes, dealing with each one as appropriate.
.LE
.P

.H 3 "dwarf_get_die_infotypes_flag()"
.DS
\f(CWDwarf_Bool dwarf_get_die_infotypes_flag(Dwarf_Die die)\fP
.DE
.P
The function \f(CWdwarf_tag()\fP returns the section flag
indicating which section the DIE originates from.
If the returned value is non-zero the DIE 
originates from the .debug_info section.
If the returned value is zero the DIE 
originates from the .debug_types section.

.H 3 "dwarf_tag()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_tag(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
	Dwarf_Half *tagval,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_tag()\fP returns the \f(CWtag\fP of \f(CWdie\fP
through the pointer  \f(CWtagval\fP if it succeeds. 
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP if it succeeds.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.

.H 3 "dwarf_dieoffset()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_dieoffset(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
	Dwarf_Off * return_offset,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
the function \f(CWdwarf_dieoffset()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_offset\fP
to the position of \f(CWdie\fP 
in the section containing debugging information entries
(the \f(CWreturn_offset\fP is a section-relative offset).  
In other words,
it sets \f(CWreturn_offset\fP 
to the offset of the start of the debugging information entry
described by \f(CWdie\fP in the section containing dies i.e .debug_info.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.


.H 3 "dwarf_debug_addr_index_to_addr()"
.DS
int dwarf_debug_addr_index_to_addr(Dwarf_Die /*die*/,
    Dwarf_Unsigned  index,
    Dwarf_Addr    * return_addr,
    Dwarf_Error   * error);
.DE
Attributes with form DW_FORM_addrx, the
operation DW_OP_addrx, or
certain of the split-dwarf location list entries
give an index value to
a machine address in the .debug_addr section
(which is always in .debug_addr even when
the form/operation are in a split dwarf .dwo section).
.P
On successful return this function turns such an index
into a target address value through the pointer
\f(CWreturn_addr\fP .
.P
If there is an error this may return DW_
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP and it will have
returned an error through \f(CW*error\fP.
.P
If there is no available .debug_addr section this
may return \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.H 3 "dwarf_die_CU_offset()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_die_CU_offset(
        Dwarf_Die die,
  	Dwarf_Off *return_offset,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_die_CU_offset()\fP is similar to 
\f(CWdwarf_dieoffset()\fP, except that it puts the offset of the DIE 
represented by the \f(CWDwarf_Die\fP \f(CWdie\fP, from the 
start of the compilation-unit that it belongs to rather than the start 
of .debug_info (the \f(CWreturn_offset\fP is a CU-relative offset).  

.H 3 "dwarf_die_offsets()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_die_offsets(
        Dwarf_Die die,
        Dwarf_Off *global_off,
        Dwarf_Off *cu_off,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_die_offsets()\fP is a combination of
\f(CWdwarf_dieoffset()\fP and \f(CWdwarf_die_cu_offset()\fP
in that it returns both the global .debug_info offset and
the CU-relative offset of the \f(CWdie\fP in a single call.


.H 3 "dwarf_ptr_CU_offset()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_ptr_CU_offset(
        Dwarf_CU_Context cu_context,
  	Dwarf_Byte_ptr di_ptr ,
        Dwarf_Off *cu_off)\fP
.DE
Given a valid CU context pointer and a pointer into that CU
context,
the function \f(CWdwarf_ptr_CU_offset()\fP returns DW_DLV_OK
and sets \f(CW*cu_off\fP to the CU-relative (local) offset
in that CU. 


.H 3 "dwarf_CU_dieoffset_given_die()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_CU_dieoffset_given_die(
        Dwarf_Die given_die,
  	Dwarf_Off *return_offset,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_CU_dieoffset_given_die()\fP is similar to 
\f(CWdwarf_die_CU_offset()\fP, except that it puts the 
global offset of the CU DIE owning \f(CWgiven_die\fP 
of .debug_info (the \f(CWreturn_offset\fP is a global section offset).  
.P
This is useful when processing a DIE tree and encountering
an error or other surprise in a DIE, as the \f(CWreturn_offset\fP
can be passed to \f(CWdwarf_offdie_b()\fP to return a pointer
to the CU die of the CU owning the \f(CWgiven_die\fP passed
to \f(CWdwarf_CU_dieoffset_given_die()\fP. The consumer can
extract information from the CU die and the \f(CWgiven_die\fP  
(in the normal way) and print it.

An example  (a snippet) of code using this function
follows. It assumes that \f(CWin_die\fP is a DIE
in .debug_info
that, for some reason, you have decided needs CU context
printed (assuming \f(CWprint_die_data\fP 
does some reasonable printing).

.in +2
.FG "Example7 dwarf_CU_dieoffset_given_die()"
.DS
\f(CW
void example7(Dwarf_Debug dbg, Dwarf_Die in_die,Dwarf_Bool is_info)
{ 
    int res = 0;
    Dwarf_Off cudieoff = 0;
    Dwarf_Die cudie = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
  
    res = dwarf_CU_dieoffset_given_die(in_die,&cudieoff,&error);
    if(res != DW_DLV_OK) {
        /*  FAIL */
        return;
    }
    res = dwarf_offdie_b(dbg,cudieoff,is_info,&cudie,&error);
    if(res != DW_DLV_OK) {
        /* FAIL */
        return;
    }
    /* do something with cu_die */
    dwarf_dealloc(dbg,cudie, DW_DLA_DIE);
}
\fPy
.DE
.in -2



.H 3 "dwarf_die_CU_offset_range()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_die_CU_offset_range(
        Dwarf_Die die,
        Dwarf_Off *cu_global_offset,
        Dwarf_Off *cu_length,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_die_CU_offset_range()\fP 
returns the offset of the beginning of the CU and the length of the CU.
The offset and length are of the entire CU that this DIE is
a part of.  It is used by dwarfdump (for example) to check
the validity of offsets.
Most applications will have no reason to call this function.


.H 3 "dwarf_diename()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_diename(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
	char  ** return_name,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
the function \f(CWdwarf_diename()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_name\fP
to
a pointer to a
null-terminated string of characters that represents the 
name attribute 
(\f(CWDW_AT_name\fP)
of 
\f(CWdie\fP.
.P
The storage pointed to by a successful return of 
\f(CWdwarf_diename()\fP should be freed using the allocation type
\f(CWDW_DLA_STRING\fP when no longer of interest (see 
\f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP).
.P
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if 
\f(CWdie\fP does not have a name attribute.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if
an error occurred.  


.H 3 "dwarf_die_text()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_die_text(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
        Dwarf_Half attrnum,
	char  ** return_name,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
the function 
\f(CWdwarf_die_text()\fP
returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
and sets 
\f(CW*return_name\fP
to
a pointer to a
null-terminated string of characters that represents a
string-value
attribute of 
\f(CWdie\fP
if an
attribute 
\f(CWattrnum\fP
is present.
.P
The storage pointed to by a successful return of 
\f(CWdwarf_die_text()\fP should be freed using the allocation type
\f(CWDW_DLA_STRING\fP when no longer of interest (see 
\f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP).
.P
It returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP 
if \f(CWdie\fP does not have the attribute
\f(CWattrnum\fP.
It returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if
an error occurred.  

.H 3 "dwarf_die_abbrev_code()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_die_abbrev_code( Dwarf_Die die)\fP
.DE
The function returns
the abbreviation code of the DIE.
That is, it returns the abbreviation "index"
into the abbreviation table for the compilation unit
of which the DIE is a part.
It cannot fail. No errors are possible.
The pointer \f(CWdie()\fP must not be NULL.

.H 3 "dwarf_die_abbrev_children_flag()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_die_abbrev_children_flag( Dwarf_Die die,
      Dwarf_Half *has_child)\fP
.DE
The function returns the has-children flag of the \f(CWdie\fP
passed in through the \f(CW*has_child\fP passed in and returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP on success.
A non-zero value of \f(CW*has_child\fP means the \f(CWdie\fP
has children.

On failure it returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP.

The function was developed to let
consumer code do better error reporting
in some circumstances, it is not generally needed.

.H 3 "dwarf_die_abbrev_global_offset()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_die_abbrev_global_offset(Dwarf_Die die,
    Dwarf_Off       * abbrev_offset,
    Dwarf_Unsigned  * abbrev_count,
    Dwarf_Error*      error);\fP
.DE
The function allows more detailed printing of abbreviation
data.  
It is handy for analyzing abbreviations but is not
normally needed by applications.
The function first appears in March 2016.  
.P
On success the function returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
and sets 
\f(CW*abbrev_offset\fP
to the global offset
in the 
\f(CW.debug_abbrev\fP
section of the abbreviation.
It also sets 
\f(CW*abbrev_count\fP
to the number of attribute/form
pairs in the abbreviation entry. 
It is possible, though unusual, for the
count to be zero (meaning there is abbreviation
instance and a TAG instance which have no attributes).
.P
On failure it returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
and sets \f(CW*error\fP
.P
It should never return \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP,
but callers should allow for that possibility..

.H 3 "dwarf_get_version_of_die()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_version_of_die(Dwarf_Die die,
    Dwarf_Half *version,
    Dwarf_Half *offset_size)\fP
.DE
The function returns the CU context version through \f(CW*version\fP
and the CU context offset-size through \f(CW*offset_size\fP and
returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP on success.

In case of error, the only errors possible involve
an inappropriate NULL \f(CWdie\fP pointer so no Dwarf_Debug
pointer is available.  Therefore setting a Dwarf_Error would not
be very meaningful (there is no Dwarf_Debug to
attach it to).  The function returns DW_DLV_ERROR on error.

The values returned through the pointers are the values
two arguments to  dwarf_get_form_class() requires.

.H 3 "dwarf_attrlist()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_attrlist(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
        Dwarf_Attribute** attrbuf, 
	Dwarf_Signed *attrcount,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP,
the function \f(CWdwarf_attrlist()\fP sets \f(CWattrbuf\fP to point 
to an array of \f(CWDwarf_Attribute\fP descriptors corresponding to
each of the attributes in die, and returns the number of elements in 
the array through \f(CWattrcount\fP.  
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP is returned if the count is zero (no 
\f(CWattrbuf\fP is allocated in this case).
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP is returned on error.
On a successful return from \f(CWdwarf_attrlist()\fP, each of the
\f(CWDwarf_Attribute\fP descriptors should be individually freed using 
\f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_ATTR\fP, 
followed by free-ing the list pointed to by \f(CW*attrbuf\fP using
\f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_LIST\fP, 
when no longer of interest (see \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP).

Freeing the attrlist:
.in +2
.FG "Example8 dwarf_attrlist() free"
.DS
\f(CW
void example8(Dwarf_Debug dbg, Dwarf_Die somedie)
{
    Dwarf_Signed atcount = 0;
    Dwarf_Attribute *atlist = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int errv = 0;

    errv = dwarf_attrlist(somedie, &atlist,&atcount, &error);
    if (errv == DW_DLV_OK) {
        Dwarf_Signed i = 0;

        for (i = 0; i < atcount; ++i) {
            /* use atlist[i] */
            dwarf_dealloc(dbg, atlist[i], DW_DLA_ATTR);
        }
        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, atlist, DW_DLA_LIST);
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2
.P
.H 3 "dwarf_hasattr()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_hasattr(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
        Dwarf_Half attr, 
	Dwarf_Bool *return_bool,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds, the
function \f(CWdwarf_hasattr()\fP returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
and sets \f(CW*return_bool\fP to \fInon-zero\fP if 
\f(CWdie\fP has the attribute \f(CWattr\fP and \fIzero\fP otherwise.
If it fails, it returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP.

.H 3 "dwarf_attr()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_attr(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
        Dwarf_Half attr, 
	Dwarf_Attribute *return_attr,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
.P
When it returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP,
the function \f(CWdwarf_attr()\fP
sets 
\f(CW*return_attr\fP to the  \f(CWDwarf_Attribute\fP 
descriptor of \f(CWdie\fP having the attribute \f(CWattr\fP.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if \f(CWattr\fP is not contained 
in \f(CWdie\fP. 
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if an error occurred.


.H 3 "dwarf_lowpc()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_lowpc(
        Dwarf_Die     die, 
	Dwarf_Addr  * return_lowpc,
        Dwarf_Error * error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_lowpc()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_lowpc\fP
to the low program counter 
value associated with the \f(CWdie\fP descriptor if \f(CWdie\fP 
represents a debugging information entry with the
\f(CWDW_AT_low_pc\fP attribute.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if \f(CWdie\fP does not have this 
attribute. 
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if an error occurred. 

.H 3 "dwarf_highpc_b()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_highpc_b(
        Dwarf_Die               die,
        Dwarf_Addr  *           return_highpc,
        Dwarf_Half  *           return_form*/,
        enum Dwarf_Form_Class * return_class*/,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_highpc_b()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_highpc\fP
to the value of the \f(CWDW_AT_high_pc\fP attribute.
It also sets \f(CWreturn_form\fP to the FORM
of the attribute. 
It also sets \f(CWreturn_class\fP to the form class
of the attribute.

If the form class  returned is \f(CWDW_FORM_CLASS_ADDRESS\fP
the \f(CWreturn_highpc\fP is an actual pc address (1 higher
than the address of the last pc in the address range).. 
If the form class  returned is \f(CWDW_FORM_CLASS_CONSTANT\fP
the \f(CWreturn_highpc\fP is an offset from the value of
the the DIE's  low PC address (see DWARF4 section 2.17.2 Contiguous
Address Range).

It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if \f(CWdie\fP does not have 
the \f(CWDW_AT_high_pc\fP attribute.

It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if an error occurred.

.H 3 "dwarf_highpc()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_highpc(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
	Dwarf_Addr  * return_highpc,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_highpc()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_highpc\fP
the high program counter 
value associated with the \f(CWdie\fP descriptor if \f(CWdie\fP 
represents a debugging information entry with the
\f(CWDW_AT_high_pc attribute\fP and the form is \f(CWDW_FORM_addr\fP
(meaning the form is of class address).  
.P
This function is useless for a \f(CWDW_AT_high_pc\fP
which is encoded as a constant (which was first possible in
DWARF4).
.P
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if \f(CWdie\fP does not have this 
attribute.
.P
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if an error occurred or if the
form is not of class address.

.H 3 "dwarf_dietype_offset()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_dietype_offset(Dwarf_Die /*die*/,
    Dwarf_Off   * /*return_off*/, 
    Dwarf_Error * /*error*/);\fP
.DE
On success the function 
\f(CWdwarf_dietype_offset()\fP
returns 
the offset referred to by 
\f(CWDW_AT_type\fP
attribute of
\f(CWdie\fP.
.P
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
is returned if the 
\f(CWdie\fP
has no
\f(CWDW_AT_type\fP
attribute.
.P
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned if an error is
detected.
.P
This feature was introduced in February 2016.

.H 3 "dwarf_offset_list()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_offset_list(Dwarf_Debug dbg,
    Dwarf_Off         offset,
    Dwarf_Bool        is_info,
    Dwarf_Off      ** offbuf,
    Dwarf_Unsigned *  offcnt,
    Dwarf_Error    *  error);
.DE
On success The function 
\f(CWdwarf_offset_list()\fP
returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and
sets
\f(CW*offbuf\fP to point to
an array of the offsets of the direct children
of the die
at
\f(CWoffset\fP.
It sets
\f(CW*offcnt\fP to point to
the count of entries in
the
\f(CWoffset\fP array
.P
In case of error it returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP.
.P
It does not return
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
but callers should allow 
for that possibility anyway.
.P
This feature was introduced in March 2016.
.P
Freeing the offset_list is done as follows.:
.in +2
.FG "Exampleoffset_list dwarf_offset_list() free"
.DS
\f(CW
void exampleoffset_list(Dwarf_Debug dbg, Dwarf_Off dieoffset,
    Dwarf_Bool is_info)
{
    Dwarf_Unsigned offcnt = 0;
    Dwarf_Off *offbuf = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int errv = 0;

    errv = dwarf_offset_list(dbg,dieoffset, is_info,
        &offbuf,&offcnt, &error);
    if (errv == DW_DLV_OK) {
        Dwarf_Unsigned i = 0;
    
        for (i = 0; i < offcnt; ++i) {
            /* use offbuf[i] */
        }
        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, offbuf, DW_DLA_LIST);
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2
.P



.H 3 "dwarf_bytesize()"
.DS
\f(CWDwarf_Signed dwarf_bytesize(
        Dwarf_Die        die, 
	Dwarf_Unsigned  *return_size,
        Dwarf_Error     *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_bytesize()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_size\fP
to the number of bytes 
needed to contain an instance of the aggregate debugging information 
entry represented by \f(CWdie\fP.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if 
\f(CWdie\fP does not contain the byte size attribute \f(CWDW_AT_byte_size\fP.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if 
an error occurred.

.H 3 "dwarf_bitsize()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_bitsize(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
	Dwarf_Unsigned  *return_size,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_bitsize()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_size\fP
to the number of 
bits 
occupied by the bit field value that is an attribute of the given
die.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if \f(CWdie\fP does not 
contain the bit size attribute \f(CWDW_AT_bit_size\fP.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if 
an error occurred.

.H 3 "dwarf_bitoffset()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_bitoffset(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
	Dwarf_Unsigned  *return_size,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_bitoffset()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_size\fP
to the number of bits 
to the left of the most significant bit of the bit field value. 
This bit offset is not necessarily the net bit offset within the
structure or class , since \f(CWDW_AT_data_member_location\fP
may give a byte offset to this \f(CWDIE\fP and the bit offset
returned through the pointer
does not include the bits in the byte offset.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if \f(CWdie\fP does not contain the 
bit offset attribute \f(CWDW_AT_bit_offset\fP.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if 
an error occurred.

.H 3 "dwarf_srclang()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_srclang(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
	Dwarf_Unsigned  *return_lang,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_srclang()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_lang\fP
to
a code indicating the 
source language of the compilation unit represented by the descriptor 
\f(CWdie\fP.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if \f(CWdie\fP does not 
represent a source file debugging information entry (i.e. contain the 
attribute \f(CWDW_AT_language\fP).
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if 
an error occurred.

.H 3 "dwarf_arrayorder()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_arrayorder(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
	Dwarf_Unsigned  *return_order,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_arrayorder()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_order\fP
a code indicating 
the ordering of the array represented by the descriptor \f(CWdie\fP.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if \f(CWdie\fP does not contain the
array order attribute \f(CWDW_AT_ordering\fP.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP if 
an error occurred.

.H 2 "Attribute Queries"
Based on the attributes form, these operations are concerned with 
returning uninterpreted attribute data.  Since it is not always 
obvious from the return value of these functions if an error occurred, 
one should always supply an 
\f(CWerror\fP
parameter or have arranged 
to have an error handling function invoked (see 
\f(CWdwarf_init()\fP
)
to determine the validity of the returned value and the nature of any 
errors that may have occurred.

A \f(CWDwarf_Attribute\fP descriptor describes an attribute of a
specific die.  Thus, each \f(CWDwarf_Attribute\fP descriptor is
implicitly associated with a specific die.

.H 3 "dwarf_hasform()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_hasform(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr, 
        Dwarf_Half form, 
        Dwarf_Bool  *return_hasform,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_hasform()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and  and puts a 
\fInon-zero\fP
 value in the 
\f(CW*return_hasform\fP boolean if the 
attribute represented by the \f(CWDwarf_Attribute\fP descriptor 
\f(CWattr\fP has the attribute form \f(CWform\fP.  
If the attribute does not have that form \fIzero\fP
is put into \f(CW*return_hasform\fP. 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP is returned on error.

.H 3 "dwarf_whatform()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_whatform(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr,
        Dwarf_Half     *return_form,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_whatform()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_form\fP
to the attribute form code of 
the attribute represented by the \f(CWDwarf_Attribute\fP descriptor 
\f(CWattr\fP.  
It returns  \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP  on error.

An attribute using DW_FORM_indirect effectively has two forms.
This function returns the 'final' form for \f(CWDW_FORM_indirect\fP,
not the \f(CWDW_FORM_indirect\fP itself. This function is
what most applications will want to call.

.H 3 "dwarf_whatform_direct()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_whatform_direct(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr,
        Dwarf_Half     *return_form,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_whatform_direct()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_form\fP
to the attribute form code of 
the attribute represented by the \f(CWDwarf_Attribute\fP descriptor 
\f(CWattr\fP.  
It returns  \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP  on error.
An attribute using \f(CWDW_FORM_indirect\fP effectively has two forms.
This returns the form 'directly' in the initial form field.
That is, it returns the 'initial' form of the attribute.
.P
So when the form field is \f(CWDW_FORM_indirect\fP
this call returns the \f(CWDW_FORM_indirect\fP form, 
which is sometimes useful for dump utilities.
.P
It is confusing that the _direct() function returns 
DW_FORM_indirect if an indirect form is involved.
Just think of this as returning the initial form the first
form value seen for the attribute, which is also the final
form unless the initial form is \f(CWDW_FORM_indirect\fP.

.H 3 "dwarf_whatattr()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_whatattr(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr,
        Dwarf_Half     *return_attr,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_whatattr()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_attr\fP
to the attribute code 
represented by the \f(CWDwarf_Attribute\fP descriptor \f(CWattr\fP.  
It returns  \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP  on error.

.H 3 "dwarf_formref()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_formref(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr, 
	Dwarf_Off     *return_offset,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_formref()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_offset\fP
to the CU-relative offset
represented by the descriptor \f(CWattr\fP if the form of the attribute 
belongs to the \f(CWREFERENCE\fP class.
\f(CWattr\fP must be a CU-local reference, 
not form \f(CWDW_FORM_ref_addr\fP and not \f(CWDW_FORM_sec_offset\fP .  
It is an error for the form to
not belong to the \f(CWREFERENCE\fP class.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.

Beginning November 2010:
All \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP returns set \f(CW*return_offset\fP. Most
errors set \f(CW*return_offset\fP to zero, but
for error \f(CWDW_DLE_ATTR_FORM_OFFSET_BAD\fP 
the function sets \f(CW*return_offset\fP to the invalid
offset (which allows the caller to print a more
detailed error message).

See also \f(CWdwarf_global_formref\fP below.


.H 3 "dwarf_global_formref()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_global_formref(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr, 
	Dwarf_Off     *return_offset,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_global_formref()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_offset\fP
to the section-relative offset
represented by the descriptor \f(CWattr\fP if the form of the attribute 
belongs to the \f(CWREFERENCE\fP or other section-references classes. 
.P
\f(CWattr\fP can be any legal 
\f(CWREFERENCE\fP class form plus \f(CWDW_FORM_ref_addr\fP or
\f(CWDW_FORM_sec_offset\fP.
It is an error for the form to
not belong to one of the reference classes.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
See also \f(CWdwarf_formref\fP above.
.P
The caller must determine which section the offset returned applies to.
The function \f(CWdwarf_get_form_class()\fP  is useful to determine
the applicable section.
.P
The function converts CU relative offsets from forms 
such as DW_FORM_ref4 into
global section offsets.

.H 3 "dwarf_convert_to_global_offset()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_convert_to_global_offset(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr,
        Dwarf_Off     offset,
        Dwarf_Off     *return_offset,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_convert_to_global_offset()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_offset\fP
to the section-relative offset
represented by the cu-relative offset \f(CWoffset\fP 
if the form of the attribute
belongs to the \f(CWREFERENCE\fP class.
\f(CWattr\fP must be a CU-local reference (DWARF class REFERENCE) 
or form \f(CWDW_FORM_ref_addr\fP and the \f(CWattr\fP
must be directly relevant for the calculated \f(CW*return_offset\fP
to mean anything.

The function returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.

The function is not strictly necessary but may be a 
convenience for attribute printing  in case of error.


.H 3 "dwarf_formaddr()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_formaddr(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr, 
        Dwarf_Addr    * return_addr,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_formaddr()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_addr\fP
to
the address 
represented by the descriptor \f(CWattr\fP if the form of the attribute
belongs to the \f(CWADDRESS\fP class.  
It is an error for the form to
not belong to this class.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.

One possible error that can arise (in a .dwo object file
or a .dwp package file) is 
\f(CWDW_DLE_MISSING_NEEDED_DEBUG_ADDR_SECTION\fP.
Such an error means that the  .dwo or .dwp file
is missing the 
\f(CW.debug_addr\fP
section.
When opening a .dwo object file or a .dwp package file
one should also open the corresponding executable
and use 
\f(CWdwarf_set_tied_dbg()\fP
to associate the objects before calling dwarf_formaddr().



H 3 "dwarf_get_debug_addr_index()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_debug_addr_index(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr,
        Dwarf_Unsigned  * return_index,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
\f(CWdwarf_get_debug_addr_index()\fP 
is only valid on attributes with form
\f(CWDW_FORM_GNU_addr_index\fP 
or
\f(CWDW_FORM_addrx\fP.

The function makes it possible
to print the
index from a dwarf dumper program.

When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_get_debug_addr_index()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_index\fP
to
the attribute's index (into the
\f(CW.debug_addr\fP section).

It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.



.H 3 "dwarf_get_debug_str_index()"

.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_debug_str_index(
        Dwarf_Attribute  attr,
        Dwarf_Unsigned * return_index,
        Dwarf_Error *    error);\fP
.DE
.P
For an attribute with  form
\f(CWDW_FORM_strx\fP
or
\f(CWDW_FORM_GNU_str_index\fP
this function retrieves the index (which refers
to a .debug_str_offsets section in this .dwo).
.P
If successful, the function
\f(CWdwarf_get_debug_str_index()\fP
returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
and
returns the index through the
\f(CWreturn_index()\fP pointer.
.P
If the passed in attribute does not have
this form or there is no valid compilation
unit context for the attribute the
function returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP.
.P
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP is not returned.

.H 3 "dwarf_formflag()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_formflag(
	Dwarf_Attribute attr,
	Dwarf_Bool * return_bool,
	Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_formflag()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_bool\fP
to the (one unsigned byte) flag value. 
Any non-zero value means true.
A zero value means false.

Before 29 November 2012 this would only return 1 or zero
through the pointer, but that was always a strange thing to do.
The DWARF specification has always been clear that any non-zero
value means true.  The function should report the value
found truthfully, and now it does.

It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error or if the \f(CWattr\fP
does not have form flag.

.H 3 "dwarf_formudata()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_formudata(
        Dwarf_Attribute   attr, 
	Dwarf_Unsigned  * return_uvalue,
        Dwarf_Error     * error)\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWdwarf_formudata()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_uvalue\fP
to
the \f(CWDwarf_Unsigned\fP 
value of the attribute represented by the descriptor \f(CWattr\fP if the
form of the attribute belongs to the \f(CWCONSTANT\fP class.  
It is an 
error for the form to not belong to this class.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.

Never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

For DWARF2 and DWARF3, \f(CWDW_FORM_data4\fP and \f(CWDW_FORM_data8\fP
are possibly class \f(CWCONSTANT\fP, 
and for DWARF4 and later they
are definitely class \f(CWCONSTANT\fP.

.H 3 "dwarf_formsdata()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_formsdata(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr, 
	Dwarf_Signed  * return_svalue,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_formsdata()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_svalue\fP
to
the \f(CWDwarf_Signed\fP 
value of the attribute represented by the descriptor \f(CWattr\fP if the
form of the attribute belongs to the \f(CWCONSTANT\fP class.  
It is an 
error for the form to not belong to this class.  
If the size of the data 
attribute referenced is smaller than the size of the \f(CWDwarf_Signed\fP
type, its value is sign extended.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.

Never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

For DWARF2 and DWARF3, \f(CWDW_FORM_data4\fP and \f(CWDW_FORM_data8\fP
are possibly class \f(CWCONSTANT\fP, 
and for DWARF4 and later they
are definitely class \f(CWCONSTANT\fP.

.H 3 "dwarf_formblock()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_formblock(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr, 
	Dwarf_Block  ** return_block,
        Dwarf_Error *   error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_formblock()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_block\fP
to
a pointer to a 
\f(CWDwarf_Block\fP structure containing the value of the attribute 
represented by the descriptor \f(CWattr\fP if the form of the 
attribute belongs to the \f(CWBLOCK\fP class.  
It is an error
for the form to not belong to this class.  
The storage pointed 
to by a successful return of \f(CWdwarf_formblock()\fP should 
be freed using the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_BLOCK\fP,  when 
no longer of interest (see \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP).  
It returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.


.H 3 "dwarf_formstring()"

.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_formstring(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr, 
	char        **  return_string,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_formstring()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_string\fP
to
a pointer to a 
null-terminated string containing  the value of the attribute 
represented by the descriptor \f(CWattr\fP if the form of the
attribute belongs to the \f(CWSTRING\fP class.  
It is an error
for the form to not belong to this class.  
The storage pointed 
to by a successful return of \f(CWdwarf_formstring()\fP 
should not be freed.  The pointer points into
existing DWARF memory and the pointer becomes stale/invalid
after a call to \f(CWdwarf_finish\fP.
\f(CWdwarf_formstring()\fP returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.

.H 3 "dwarf_formsig8()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_formsig8(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr,
        Dwarf_Sig8  * return_sig8,
        Dwarf_Error *   error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_formsig8()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and copies the 8 byte signature
to a \f(CWDwarf_Sig8\fP structure provided by the caller
if the form of the
attribute is of form \f(CWDW_FORM_ref_sig8\fP
( a member of the \f(CWREFERENCE\fP class).  
It is an error
for the form to be anything but \f(CWDW_FORM_ref_sig8\fP. 
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
.P
This form is used to refer to a type unit.

.H 3 "dwarf_formexprloc()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_formexprloc(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr,
        Dwarf_Unsigned * return_exprlen,
        Dwarf_Ptr  * block_ptr,
        Dwarf_Error *   error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_formexprloc()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets the two values thru the pointers
to the length and bytes of the DW_FORM_exprloc entry
if the form of the
attribute is of form \f(CWDW_FORM_experloc\fP.
It is an error
for the form to be anything but \f(CWDW_FORM_exprloc\fP. 
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
.P
On success the value set through the
\f(CWreturn_exprlen\fP pointer is the length
of the location expression.
On success the value set through the
\f(CWblock_ptr\fP pointer is a pointer to 
the bytes of the location expression itself.

.H 3 "dwarf_get_form_class()"
.DS
\f(CWenum Dwarf_Form_Class dwarf_get_form_class(
    Dwarf_Half dwversion,
    Dwarf_Half attrnum,
    Dwarf_Half offset_size,
    Dwarf_Half form)\fP
.DE
.P
The function is just for the convenience
of libdwarf clients that might wish to categorize
the FORM of a particular attribute.
The DWARF specification divides FORMs into classes
in Chapter 7 and this function figures out the correct
class for a form. 
.P
The \f(CWdwversion\fP passed in shall be the dwarf version
of the compilation unit involved (2 for DWARF2, 3 for
DWARF3, 4 for DWARF 4).
The \f(CWattrnum\fP passed in shall be the attribute
number of the attribute involved (for example, \f(CWDW_AT_name\fP ).
The \f(CWoffset_size\fP passed in shall be the 
length of an offset in the current compilation unit 
(4 for 32bit dwarf or 8 for 64bit dwarf).
The \f(CWform\fP passed in shall be the attribute form number.
If \f(CWform\fP 
\f(CWDW_FORM_indirect\fP
is passed in \f(CWDW_FORM_CLASS_UNKNOWN\fP will be returned
as this form has no defined 'class'.
.P
When it returns \f(CWDW_FORM_CLASS_UNKNOWN\fP the
function is simply saying it could not determine the
correct class given the arguments
presented.  Some user-defined
attributes might have this problem.

The function \f(CWdwarf_get_version_of_die()\fP may be helpful
in filling out arguments for a call to \f(CWdwarf_get_form_class()\fP.

.H 3 "dwarf_discr_list()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_discr_list(
    Dwarf_Debug dbg,
    Dwarf_Small    * blockpointer,
    Dwarf_Unsigned   blocklen,
    Dwarf_Dsc_Head * dsc_head_out,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * dsc_array_length_out,
    Dwarf_Error    * error)
    Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_discr_list()\fP
returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets 
\f(CW*dsc_head_out\fP
to a pointer to the discriminant information
for the discriminant list and sets
\f(CW*dsc_array_length_out\fP
to the count of discriminant entries.
The only current applicability is
the block value of a
\f(CWDW_AT_discr_list\fP
attribute.
.P
Those values are useful for calls to
\f(CWdwarf_discr_entry_u()\fP
or
\f(CWdwarf_discr_entry_s()\fP
to get the actual discriminant values.
See the example below.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if 
the block is empty.
It returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
if 
an error occurred.
.P
When the call was successful and
the
\f(CWDwarf_Dsc_Head\fP
is no longer needed, call
\f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP
to free all the space 
related to this.

.DS
void example_discr_list(Dwarf_Debug dbg,
    Dwarf_Die die,
    Dwarf_Attribute attr,
    Dwarf_Half attrnum,
    Dwarf_Bool isunsigned,
    Dwarf_Half theform,
    Dwarf_Error *err)
{
    /*  The example here assumes that
        attribute attr is a DW_AT_discr_list. 
        isunsigned should be set from the signedness
        of the parent of 'die' per DWARF rules for
        DW_AT_discr_list. */
    enum Dwarf_Form_Class fc = DW_FORM_CLASS_UNKNOWN;
    Dwarf_Half version = 0;
    Dwarf_Half offset_size = 0;
    int wres = 0;

    wres = dwarf_get_version_of_die(die,&version,&offset_size);
    if (wres != DW_DLV_OK) {
        /* FAIL */
        return;
    }
    fc = dwarf_get_form_class(version,attrnum,offset_size,theform);
    if (fc == DW_FORM_CLASS_BLOCK) {
        int fres = 0;
        Dwarf_Block *tempb = 0;
        fres = dwarf_formblock(attr, &tempb, err);
        if (fres == DW_DLV_OK) {
            Dwarf_Dsc_Head h = 0;
            Dwarf_Unsigned u = 0;
            Dwarf_Unsigned arraycount = 0;
            int sres = 0;

            sres = dwarf_discr_list(dbg,
                (Dwarf_Small *)tempb->bl_data,
                tempb->bl_len,
                &h,&arraycount,err);
            if (sres == DW_DLV_NO_ENTRY) {
                /* Nothing here. */
                dwarf_dealloc(dbg, tempb, DW_DLA_BLOCK);
                return;
            }
            if (sres == DW_DLV_ERROR) {
                /* FAIL . */
                dwarf_dealloc(dbg, tempb, DW_DLA_BLOCK);
                return;
            }
            for(u = 0; u < arraycount; u++) {
                int u2res = 0;
                Dwarf_Half dtype = 0;
                Dwarf_Signed dlow = 0;
                Dwarf_Signed dhigh = 0;
                Dwarf_Unsigned ulow = 0;
                Dwarf_Unsigned uhigh = 0;

                if (isunsigned) {
                  u2res = dwarf_discr_entry_u(h,u, 
                      &dtype,&ulow,&uhigh,err);
                } else {
                  u2res = dwarf_discr_entry_s(h,u, 
                      &dtype,&dlow,&dhigh,err);
                }
                if( u2res == DW_DLV_ERROR) {
                    /* Something wrong */
                    dwarf_dealloc(dbg,h,DW_DLA_DSC_HEAD);
                    dwarf_dealloc(dbg, tempb, DW_DLA_BLOCK);
                    return;
                }
                if( u2res == DW_DLV_NO_ENTRY) {
                    /* Impossible. u < arraycount. */
                    dwarf_dealloc(dbg,h,DW_DLA_DSC_HEAD);
                    dwarf_dealloc(dbg, tempb, DW_DLA_BLOCK);
                    return;
                }
                /*  Do something with dtype, and whichever
                    of ulow, uhigh,dlow,dhigh got set.
                    Probably save the values somewhere. 
                    Simple casting of dlow to ulow (or vice versa)
                    will not get the right value due to the nature
                    of LEB values. Similarly for uhigh, dhigh.
                    One must use the right call.
                    
                     */
            }
            dwarf_dealloc(dbg,h,DW_DLA_DSC_HEAD);
            dwarf_dealloc(dbg, tempb, DW_DLA_BLOCK);
        }
    }
}
.DE

.H 3 "dwarf_discr_entry_u()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_discr_entry_u(
    Dwarf_Dsc_Head dsc_head,
    Dwarf_Unsigned dsc_array_index,
    Dwarf_Half *dsc_type,
    Dwarf_Unsigned *dsc_low,
    Dwarf_Unsigned *dsc_high,
    Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds,
\f(CWdwarf_discr_entry_u()\fP
returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets 
\f(CW*dsc_type\fP,
\f(CW*dsc_low\fP,
and
\f(CW*dsc_high\fP
to the discriminent values for that index.
Valid 
\f(CWdsc_array_index\fP
values 
are zero to 
\f(CW(dsc_array_length_out -1)\fP
from a
\f(CWdwarf_discr_list()\fP
call.
.P
If 
\f(CW*dsc_type\fP is
\f(CWDW_DSC_label\fP
\f(CW*dsc_low\fP is
set to the discriminant value
and
\f(CW*dsc_high\fP is set to zero.
.P
If 
\f(CW*dsc_type\fP
is
\f(CWDW_DSC_range\fP
\f(CW*dsc_low\fP
is
set to the low end of the discriminant
range and
and
\f(CW*dsc_high\fP is set to
the high end of the discriminant range.
.P
Due to the nature of the LEB numbers in
the discriminant representation in DWARF
one must call the correct one of 
\f(CWdwarf_discr_entry_u()\fP
or
\f(CWdwarf_discr_entry_s()\fP
based on whether the discriminant is
signed or unsigned.
Casting an unsigned to signed is 
not always going to get the right value.
.P
If 
\f(CWdsc_array_index\fP
is outside the range of valid indexes
the function returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.
On error it returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
and sets
\f(CW*error\fP
to an error pointer.

.H 3 "dwarf_discr_entry_s()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_discr_entry_s(
    Dwarf_Dsc_Head dsc_head,
    Dwarf_Unsigned dsc_array_index,
    Dwarf_Half *dsc_type,
    Dwarf_Signed *dsc_low,
    Dwarf_Signed *dsc_high,
    Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
This is identical to
\f(CWdwarf_discr_entry_u()\fP
except that the discriminant values
are signed values in this interface.
Callers must check the discriminant type
and call the correct function.


.H 2 "Location List operations"
.H 3 "dwarf_get_loclist_c()"
.DS
int dwarf_get_loclist_c (Dwarf_Attribute attr,
   Dwarf_Loc_Head_c * loclist_head,
   Dwarf_Unsigned   * locCount,
   Dwarf_Error      * error);
.DE
This function returns a pointer that is, in turn,
used to make possible calls to return the details
of the location list.
.P
The incoming argument
\f(CWattr\fP
should have one of the FORMs of a location
expression or location list.
.P
On success this returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
and sets 
\f(CW*loclist_head\fP
to a pointer used in further calls (see the example
and descriptions that follow it).
\f(CWlocCount\fP 
is set to the number of entries
in the location list (or if the FORM is of a location
expression the
\f(CWlocCount\fP 
will be set to one).
At this point one cannot yet tell if it was a location
list or a location expression (see .
\f(CWdwarf_get_locdesc_entry_c{}\fP). 
.P
In case of error
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and
\f(CW*error\fP
is set to an error designation.
.P
A return of
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
may be possible but is a bit odd.
.DS
\f(CW
void
example_loclistc(Dwarf_Debug dbg,Dwarf_Attribute someattr)
{
    Dwarf_Unsigned lcount = 0;
    Dwarf_Loc_Head_c loclist_head = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int lres = 0;

    lres = dwarf_get_loclist_c(someattr,&loclist_head,&lcount,&error);
    if (lres == DW_DLV_OK) {
        Dwarf_Unsigned i = 0;

        /*  Before any return remember to call
            dwarf_loc_head_c_dealloc(loclist_head); */
        for (i = 0; i < lcount; ++i) {
            Dwarf_Small loclist_source = 0;
            Dwarf_Small lle_value = 0; /* DWARF5 */
            Dwarf_Addr lopc = 0;
            Dwarf_Addr hipc = 0;
            Dwarf_Unsigned ulocentry_count = 0;
            Dwarf_Locdesc_c locentry = 0;

            /*  section_offset is the section offset of the expression, not
                the location description prefix. */
            Dwarf_Unsigned section_offset = 0;

            /*  locdesc_offset is the section offset of the
                location description prefix. */
            Dwarf_Unsigned locdesc_offset = 0;

            lres = dwarf_get_locdesc_entry_c(loclist_head,
                i,
                &lle_value,&lopc,&hipc,
                &ulocentry_count,
                &locentry,
                &loclist_source,
                &section_offset,
                &locdesc_offset,
                &error);
            if (lres == DW_DLV_OK) {
                /*  Here, use loclist_source and
                    lle_value to determine what
                    sort of loclist it is and what to do with
                    the values. locentry_count will only be
                    more than zero if there is a set of location
                    operators.  
                    One must use lle_value to determine how
                    to interpret lopc,hipc as sometimes they
                    are a target address and sometimes an
                    index into .debug_addr or even a length. */
                Dwarf_Unsigned j = 0;
                int opres = 0;
                 Dwarf_Small op = 0;

                for (j = 0; j < ulocentry_count; ++j) {
                    Dwarf_Unsigned opd1 = 0;
                    Dwarf_Unsigned opd2 = 0;
                    Dwarf_Unsigned opd3 = 0;
                    Dwarf_Unsigned offsetforbranch = 0;

                    opres = dwarf_get_location_op_value_c(locentry,
                        j,&op,&opd1, &opd2,&opd3,&offsetforbranch,
                        &error);
                    if (opres == DW_DLV_OK) {
                        /* Do something with the operators. */
                    } else {
                        /*Something is wrong. */
                    }
                 
                }
                
            } else {
                /* Something is wrong. Do something. */
            }
             
        }
        /* In case of error or any other situation where one
            is giving up one can call dwarf_loc_head_c_dealloc()
            to free all the memory associated with loclist_head.  */
        dwarf_loc_head_c_dealloc(loclist_head);
        loclist_head = 0;
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.H 3 "dwarf_get_locdesc_entry_c()"
.DS
int dwarf_get_locdesc_entry_c(Dwarf_Loc_Head_c /*loclist_head*/,
   Dwarf_Unsigned    /*index*/,

   /* identifies type of locdesc entry*/
   Dwarf_Small    *  /*lle_value_out*/,
   Dwarf_Addr     *  /*lowpc_out*/,
   Dwarf_Addr     *  /*hipc_out*/,
   Dwarf_Unsigned *  /*loclist_count_out*/,

   /* Returns pointer to specific Locdesc index refers to */
   Dwarf_Locdesc_c * /*locentry_out*/,
   Dwarf_Small    *  /*loclist_source_out*/, /* 0,1, or 2 */
   Dwarf_Unsigned *  /*expression_offset_out*/,
   Dwarf_Unsigned *  /*locdesc_offset_out*/,
   Dwarf_Error    *  /*error*/);
.DE
This function returns overall information about a
location list or location description.
Details about location operators are retrieved
by a call to 
\f(CWdwarf_get_location_op_value_c()\fP
(described
below).
The values returned here have been unified, hiding
irrelevant differences between DWARF2 location expressions/lists
and DWARF5 split-dwarf location expressions/lists.
.P
In case of success
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
is returned and arguments are set through
the pointers to return values to the caller.
Now we describe each argument.
.P
Return value
\f(CW*loclist_source_out\fP
is critical as it identifies the sort of entry we have.
If its value is zero (0) it identifies the location description
is a location expression.  In that case 
\f(CW*lle_value_out\fP,
\f(CW*lowpc_out\fP, and
\f(CW*hipc_out\fP are not really interesting.
And because it is a location expression the 
\f(CWindex\fP has to have been zero as there is no
real list, just an expression made to look like a list
entry.
.P
If 
\f(CW*loclist_source_out\fP is one (1) then this is
a location list entry in DWARF2,3,4 loclist form.
Here the 
\f(CW*lle_value_out\fP
has been created by libdwarf to match the split-dwarf
\f(CWDW_LLE_\fP value that the standard loclist entry
represents
(
\f(CWDW_LLE_end_of_list_entry\fP,
\f(CWDW_LLE_base_address_selection_entry\fP, or
\f(CWDW_LLE_offset_pair_entry\fP
).
.P
If 
\f(CW*loclist_source_out\fP is two (2) then this is
a location list entry in DWARF5 split-dwarf (.dwo)
location-entry-form.
\f(CW*lle_value_out\fP
is set to the
\f(CWDW_LLE_\fP value that the split-dwarf loclist
entry contains.
.P
The
\f(CWDW_LLE_\fP value 
determines how one is to interpret
\f(CWlopc_out\fP and
\f(CWhipc_out\fP.
See the DWARF5 standard.
.P
The argument
\f(CWloclist_count_out\fP
returns the number of operators in the location expression
involved (which may be zero).
.P
The argument
\f(CWlocentry_out\fP
returns an identifier used in calls to
\f(CWdwarf_get_location_op_value_c()\fP.
.P
The argument
\f(CWexpression_offset_out\fP
returns the offset (in the .debug_loc(.dso) or .debug_info(.dwo)
of the location expression itself
(possibly useful for debugging).
.P
The argument
\f(CWlocdesc_offset_out\fP
returns the offset (in the .debug_loc(.dso) 
of the location list entry itself
(possibly useful for debugging).
.P
In case of error
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and
\f(CW*error\fP
is set to an error designation.
.P
A return of
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
may be possible but is a bit odd.

.H 3 "dwarf_get_location_op_value_c()"
.DS
int dwarf_get_location_op_value_c(Dwarf_Locdesc_c locdesc,
   Dwarf_Unsigned   index,
   Dwarf_Small    * atom_out,
   Dwarf_Unsigned * operand1,
   Dwarf_Unsigned * operand2,
   Dwarf_Unsigned * operand3,
   Dwarf_Unsigned * offset_for_branch,
   Dwarf_Error*     error);
.DE
On sucess
The function
\f(CWdwarf_get_location_op_value_c()\fP
returns 
the information for the single operator
number 
\f(CWindex\fP
from the location expression
\f(CWlocdesc\fP.
It sets the following values.
.P
\f(CWatom_out\fP
is set to the applicable operator code, for example 
\f(CWDW_OP_reg5\fP.
.P
\f(CWoperand1\fP,
\f(CWoperand2\fP, and
\f(CWoperand3\fP are set to the
operator operands as applicable (see
DWARF documents on the operands
for each operator).
\f(CWoperand3\fP is new as of DWARF5.
.P
When a DWARF operand is not of a size
fixed by dwarf, or is possibly too large for
a dwarf stack entry, libdwarf will
insert a pointer (to memory
in the dwarf data somewhere) as the operand value.
\f(CWDW_OP_implicit_value operand 2\fP,
\f(CWDW_OP_[GNU_]entry_value operand 2\fP,
and
\f(CWDW_OP_[GNU_]const_type operand 3\fP
are instances of this.
.P
\f(CWoffset_for_branch\fP is set to the
offset (in bytes) in this expression of this
operator.  
The value makes it possible for callers
to implement the operator branch
operators.
.P
In case of an error, the
function returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
and sets
\f(CW*error\fP to an error
value.
.P
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
is probably not a possible return value, but
please test for it anyway.

.H 3 "dwarf_loclist_from_expr_c()"
.DS
int dwarf_loclist_from_expr_c(Dwarf_Debug dbg,
    Dwarf_Ptr         expression_in,
    Dwarf_Unsigned    expression_length,
    Dwarf_Half        address_size,
    Dwarf_Half        offset_size,
    Dwarf_Small       dwarf_version,
    Dwarf_Loc_Head_c* loc_head,
    Dwarf_Unsigned  * listlen,
    Dwarf_Error     * error);
.DE
Frame operators such as
DW_CFA_def_cfa_expression have a location expression
and the location_expression is accessed with
this function.
.P
On success it returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets the two return arguments
(explained a few lines later here).
.P
The
\f(CWexpression_in\fP
argument must contain a valid pointer
to location expression bytes.
The
\f(CWexpression_length\fP
argument must contain the length of
that location expression in bytes.
.P
The
\f(CWaddress_size\fP
argument must contain the size of an address
on the target machine for this expression
(normally 4 or 8).
The
\f(CWoffset_size\fP
argument must contain the size of an offset
in the expression
(normally 4, sometimes 8).
The
\f(CWversion\fP
argument must contain the dwarf_version
of the expression 
(2,3,4, or 5).
.P
The returned value
\f(CW*loc_head\fP
is  used to actually access the location expression
details (see the example following).
.P
The returned value
\f(CW*listlen\fP
is  the number of location expressions
(ie 1) in the location list
(for uniformity of access we make it look like
a single-entry location list).
.P
On error the function returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
and sets
\f(CW*error\fP to reflect
the error.
.P
A return of
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP 
is probably impossible, but
callers should assume it is possible.
No return arguments are set in this case.

.DS
void
example_locexprc(Dwarf_Debug dbg,Dwarf_Ptr expr_bytes,
    Dwarf_Unsigned expr_len,
    Dwarf_Half addr_size,
    Dwarf_Half offset_size,
    Dwarf_Half version)
{
    Dwarf_Loc_Head_c head = 0;
    Dwarf_Locdesc_c locentry = 0;
    int res2 = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned lopc = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned hipc = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned ulistlen = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned ulocentry_count = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned section_offset = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned locdesc_offset = 0;
    Dwarf_Small lle_value = 0;
    Dwarf_Small loclist_source = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned i = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;

    res2 = dwarf_loclist_from_expr_c(dbg,
        expr_bytes,expr_len,
        addr_size,
        offset_size,
        version,
        &head,
        &ulistlen,
        &error);
    if(res2 == DW_DLV_NO_ENTRY) {
        return;
    }
    if(res2 == DW_DLV_ERROR) {
        return;
    }
    /*  These are a location expression, not loclist.
        So we just need the 0th entry. */
    res2 = dwarf_get_locdesc_entry_c(head,
        0, /* Data from 0th LocDesc */
        &lle_value,
        &lopc, &hipc,
        &ulocentry_count,
        &locentry,
        &loclist_source,
        &section_offset,
        &locdesc_offset,
        &error);
    if (res2 == DW_DLV_ERROR) {
        dwarf_loc_head_c_dealloc(head);
        return;
    } else if (res2 == DW_DLV_NO_ENTRY) {
        dwarf_loc_head_c_dealloc(head);
        return;
    }
    /*  ASSERT: ulistlen == 1 */
    for (i = 0; i < ulocentry_count;++i) {
        Dwarf_Small op = 0;
        Dwarf_Unsigned opd1 = 0;
        Dwarf_Unsigned opd2 = 0;
        Dwarf_Unsigned opd3 = 0;
        Dwarf_Unsigned offsetforbranch = 0;

        res2 = dwarf_get_location_op_value_c(locentry,
            i, &op,&opd1,&opd2,&opd3,&offsetforbranch,
            &error);
        /* Do something with the expression operator and operands */
        if (res2 != DW_DLV_OK) {
            dwarf_loc_head_c_dealloc(head);
            return;
        }
    }
    dwarf_loc_head_c_dealloc(head);
}
.DE
.H 3 "dwarf_loc_head_c_dealloc()"
.DS
void dwarf_loc_head_c_dealloc(Dwarf_Loc_Head_c loclist_head);
.DE
This function frees all the memory associated with
the
\f(CWloclist_head\fP.
There is no return value.

.H 3 "dwarf_loclist_n()"

.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_loclist_n(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr, 
        Dwarf_Locdesc ***llbuf,
        Dwarf_Signed  *listlen,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
This interface cannot handle DWARF5 or Split Dwarf.
Use  \f(CWdwarf_get_loclist_c()\fP and related functions
instead (as of November 2015).
The function \f(CWdwarf_loclist_n()\fP sets \f(CW*llbuf\fP to point to 
an array of \f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP pointers corresponding to each of
the location expressions in a location list, and sets
\f(CW*listlen\fP to the number 
of elements in the array and 
returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP if the attribute is
appropriate.
.P
This is the preferred function for Dwarf_Locdesc as
it is the interface allowing access to an entire
loclist. (use of \f(CWdwarf_loclist_n()\fP is
suggested as the better interface, though 
\f(CWdwarf_loclist()\fP is still
supported.)
.P
If the attribute is a reference to a location list
(DW_FORM_data4 or DW_FORM_data8)
the location list entries are used to fill
in all the fields of the \f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP(s) returned.
.P
If the attribute is a location description
(DW_FORM_block2 or DW_FORM_block4)
then some of the \f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP values of the single
\f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP record are set to 'sensible'
but arbitrary values.  Specifically, ld_lopc is set to 0 and
ld_hipc is set to all-bits-on. And \f(CW*listlen\fP is set to 1.
.P
If the attribute is a reference to a location expression
(DW_FORM_locexper)
then some of the \f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP values of the single
\f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP record are set to 'sensible'
but arbitrary values.  Specifically, ld_lopc is set to 0 and
ld_hipc is set to all-bits-on. And \f(CW*listlen\fP is set to 1.
.P
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error. 
.P
\f(CWdwarf_loclist_n()\fP works on \f(CWDW_AT_location\fP, 
\f(CWDW_AT_data_member_location\fP, \f(CWDW_AT_vtable_elem_location\fP,
\f(CWDW_AT_string_length\fP, \f(CWDW_AT_use_location\fP, and 
\f(CWDW_AT_return_addr\fP attributes.  
.P
If the attribute is \f(CWDW_AT_data_member_location\fP the value
may be of class CONSTANT.  \f(CWdwarf_loclist_n()\fP is unable
to read class CONSTANT, so you need to first determine the
class using \f(CWdwarf_get_form_class()\fP and if it is
class CONSTANT call
\f(CWdwarf_formsdata()\fP or \f(CWdwarf_formudata()\fP
to get the constant value (you may need to call both as
DWARF4 does not define the signedness of the constant value).
.P
Storage allocated by a successful call of \f(CWdwarf_loclist_n()\fP should 
be deallocated when no longer of interest (see \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP).
The block of \f(CWDwarf_Loc\fP structs pointed to by the \f(CWld_s\fP 
field of each \f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP structure 
should be deallocated with the allocation type 
\f(CWDW_DLA_LOC_BLOCK\fP. 
and  the \f(CWllbuf[]\fP space pointed to should be deallocated with
allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_LOCDESC\fP.
This should be followed by deallocation of the \f(CWllbuf\fP
using the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_LIST\fP.
.in +2
.DS
\f(CW
void example9(Dwarf_Debug dbg,Dwarf_Attribute someattr)
{ 
    Dwarf_Signed lcount = 0;
    Dwarf_Locdesc **llbuf = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int lres = 0;
    
    lres = dwarf_loclist_n(someattr, &llbuf,&lcount,&error);
    if (lres == DW_DLV_OK) {
        Dwarf_Signed i = 0;
        for (i = 0; i < lcount; ++i) {
            /*  Use llbuf[i]. Both Dwarf_Locdesc and the
                array of Dwarf_Loc it points to are
                defined in libdwarf.h: they are
                not opaque structs. */
            dwarf_dealloc(dbg, llbuf[i]->ld_s, DW_DLA_LOC_BLOCK);
            dwarf_dealloc(dbg,llbuf[i], DW_DLA_LOCDESC);
        }
        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, llbuf, DW_DLA_LIST);
    }
} 
\fP
.DE
.in -2
.P

.H 3 "dwarf_loclist()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_loclist(
        Dwarf_Attribute attr, 
        Dwarf_Locdesc **llbuf,
        Dwarf_Signed  *listlen,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
Use  \f(CWdwarf_get_loclist_c()\fP and related functions
instead (as of November 2015).
The function \f(CWdwarf_loclist()\fP sets \f(CW*llbuf\fP to point to 
a \f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP pointer for the single location expression
it can return.
It sets
\f(CW*listlen\fP to 1.
and returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP 
if the attribute is
appropriate.
.P
It is less flexible than \f(CWdwarf_loclist_n()\fP in that
\f(CWdwarf_loclist()\fP can handle a maximum of one
location expression, not a full location list.
If a location-list is present it returns only
the first location-list entry location description.
Use \f(CWdwarf_loclist_n()\fP instead.
.P
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error. 
\f(CWdwarf_loclist()\fP works on \f(CWDW_AT_location\fP, 
\f(CWDW_AT_data_member_location\fP, \f(CWDW_AT_vtable_elem_location\fP,
\f(CWDW_AT_string_length\fP, \f(CWDW_AT_use_location\fP, and 
\f(CWDW_AT_return_addr\fP attributes.  
.P
Storage allocated by a successful call of \f(CWdwarf_loclist()\fP should 
be deallocated when no longer of interest (see \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP).
The block of \f(CWDwarf_Loc\fP structs pointed to by the \f(CWld_s\fP 
field of each \f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP structure 
should be deallocated with the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_LOC_BLOCK\fP. 
This should be followed by deallocation of the \f(CWllbuf\fP
using the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_LOCDESC\fP.
.in +2
.FG "Examplea dwarf_loclist()"
.DS
\f(CW
void examplea(Dwarf_Debug dbg,Dwarf_Attribute someattr)
{
    Dwarf_Signed lcount = 0;
    Dwarf_Locdesc *llbuf = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int lres = 0;

    lres = dwarf_loclist(someattr, &llbuf,&lcount,&error);
    if (lres == DW_DLV_OK) {
        /* lcount is always 1, (and has always been 1) */
        /* Use llbuf here. */

        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, llbuf->ld_s, DW_DLA_LOC_BLOCK);
        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, llbuf, DW_DLA_LOCDESC);
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2
.P

.H 3 "dwarf_loclist_from_expr()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_loclist_from_expr(
        Dwarf_Debug dbg,
        Dwarf_Ptr bytes_in, 
        Dwarf_Unsigned bytes_len,
        Dwarf_Locdesc **llbuf,
        Dwarf_Signed  *listlen,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
Use \f(CWdwarf_loclist_from_expr_b()\fP instead. 
This function is obsolete.
.P
The function \f(CWdwarf_loclist_from_expr()\fP 
sets \f(CW*llbuf\fP to point to 
a \f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP pointer for the single location expression
which is pointed to by \f(CW*bytes_in\fP (whose length is
\f(CW*bytes_len\fP).
It sets
\f(CW*listlen\fP to 1.
and returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP 
if decoding is successful.
Some sources of bytes of expressions are dwarf expressions
in frame operations like \f(CWDW_CFA_def_cfa_expression\fP,
\f(CWDW_CFA_expression\fP, and  \f(CWDW_CFA_val_expression\fP.
.P
Any address_size data in the location expression is assumed
to be the same size as the default address_size for the object
being read (normally 4 or 8).
.P
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error. 
.P
Storage allocated by a successful call 
of \f(CWdwarf_loclist_from_expr()\fP should 
be deallocated when no longer of interest (see \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP).
The block of \f(CWDwarf_Loc\fP structs pointed to by the \f(CWld_s\fP 
field of each \f(CWDwarf_Locdesc\fP structure 
should be deallocated with the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_LOC_BLOCK\fP. 
This should be followed by deallocation of the \f(CWllbuf\fP
using the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_LOCDESC\fP.
.in +2
.FG "Exampleb dwarf_loclist_from_expr()"
.DS
\f(CW
void exampleb(Dwarf_Debug dbg,Dwarf_Ptr data, Dwarf_Unsigned len)
{
    Dwarf_Signed lcount = 0;
    Dwarf_Locdesc *llbuf = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int lres = 0;

    lres = dwarf_loclist_from_expr(dbg,data,len, &llbuf,&lcount,
        &error);
    if (lres == DW_DLV_OK) {
        /* lcount is always 1 */
        /* Use llbuf  here.*/

        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, llbuf->ld_s, DW_DLA_LOC_BLOCK);
        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, llbuf, DW_DLA_LOCDESC);
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2
.P
.H 3 "dwarf_loclist_from_expr_b()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_loclist_from_expr_a(
        Dwarf_Ptr bytes_in, 
        Dwarf_Unsigned bytes_len,
        Dwarf_Half addr_size,
        Dwarf_Half offset_size,
        Dwarf_Half version_stamp,
        Dwarf_Locdesc **llbuf,
        Dwarf_Signed  *listlen,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_loclist_from_expr_b()\fP 
is identical to  \f(CWdwarf_loclist_from_expr_a()\fP
in every way except that the caller passes an additional argument 
\f(CWversion_stamp\fP containing the 
version stamp (2 for DWARF2, etc) of the CU using
this location expression and an additional argument
of the offset size of the CU using this location expression.
The DW_OP_GNU_implicit_pointer operation requires this version 
and offset information to be correctly processed.
.P
The \f(CWaddr_size\fP argument (from 27April2009) is needed
to correctly interpret frame information as different compilation
units can have different address sizes.
DWARF4 adds address_size to the CIE header.

.P
.H 3 "dwarf_loclist_from_expr_a()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_loclist_from_expr_a(
        Dwarf_Ptr bytes_in, 
        Dwarf_Unsigned bytes_len,
        Dwarf_Half addr_size,
        Dwarf_Locdesc **llbuf,
        Dwarf_Signed  *listlen,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
Use \f(CWdwarf_loclist_from_expr_b()\fP instead. 
This function is obsolete.
.P
The function \f(CWdwarf_loclist_from_expr_a()\fP 
is identical to  \f(CWdwarf_loclist_from_expr()\fP
in every way except that the caller passes the additional argument 
\f(CWaddr_size\fP containing the address size (normally 4 or 8)
applying this location expression.
.P
The \f(CWaddr_size\fP argument (added 27April2009) is needed
to correctly interpret frame information as different compilation
units can have different address sizes.
DWARF4 adds address_size to the CIE header.

.P
.H 2 "Line Number Operations"
These functions are concerned with accessing line number entries,
mapping debugging information entry objects to their corresponding
source lines, and providing a mechanism for obtaining information
about line number entries.  Although, the interface talks of "lines"
what is really meant is "statements".  In case there is more than
one statement on the same line, there will be at least one descriptor
per statement, all with the same line number.  If column number is
also being represented they will have the column numbers of the start
of the statements also represented.
.P
There can also be more than one Dwarf_Line per statement.
For example, if a file is preprocessed by a language translator,
this could result in translator output showing 2 or more sets of line
numbers per translated line of output.
.P
\f(CW
\fP 
As of October 2015 there are two sets of overall access
and release functions.
The older set of functions is
\f(CWdwarf_srclines()\fP 
with
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_dealloc()\fP. 
This set does not handle line table
headers with no lines.
.P
A newer set is
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_b()\fP 
with
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_from_linecontext()\fP 
and 
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_dealloc_b()\fP. 
These functions provide for handling
both DWARF2 through DWARF5 details
and give access to line header
information even if there are no lines
in a particular compilation unit's line
table.
.P



.H 3 "Get A Set of Lines (including skeleton line tables)"
This set of functions works on any DWARF version.
DWARF2,3,4,5 and the DWARF4 based experimental
two-level line tables are all supported. 
What was once done by dwarf_srclines() alone
is now done with two calls as described here.
.P
The interfaces support reading GNU two-level line tables.
The format of such tables is a topic beyond
the scope of this document.
.P

.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_b()"
This is the
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_srclines_b(
        Dwarf_Die die,
        Dwarf_Unsigned *version_out,
        Dwarf_Bool     *is_single_table,
        Dwarf_Line_Context *context_out,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_b()\fP
takes a single argument as input,
a pointer to a compilation-unit (CU)  DIE.
The other arguments are used to return values 
to the caller.
On success 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
is returned and values
are returned through the pointers.
If there is no line table
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
is returned
and no values are returned though the pointers.
If 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned the
involved is returned through the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
.P
The values returned on success are:
.P
\f(CW*version_out()\fP
is set to the version number from
the line table header for this CU.
The experimental two-level line table
value is 0xf006.  Standard numbers
are 2,3,4 and 5.
.P
\f(CW*is_single_table()\fP
is set to non-zero if the line table
is an ordinary single line table.
If the line table is anything else
(either a line table header with no lines
or an experimental two-level line table)
it is set to zero.
.P
\f(CW*context_out()\fP
is set to an opaque pointer to a 
\f(CWDwarf_Line_Context\fP
record
which in turn is used to get
other data from this line table.
See below.
.P
See
\f(CW*dwarf_srclines_dealloc_b()\fP
for examples showing correct use.


.H 3 "dwarf_get_line_section_name_from_die()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_line_section_name_from_die(
        Dwarf_Die die,
        const char ** sec_name,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
\f(CW*dwarf_get_line_section_name_from_die()\fP
retrieves the object file section name of
the applicable line section.
This is useful for applications wanting to print
the name, but of course the object section name is not
really a part of the DWARF information.
Most applications will
probably not call this function.
It can be called at any time
after the Dwarf_Debug initialization is done.
.P
If the function succeeds, \f(CW*sec_name\fP is set to
a pointer to a string with the object section name and
the function returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP.
Do not free the string whose pointer is returned.
For non-Elf objects it is possible the string pointer
returned will be NULL or will point to an empty string.
It is up to the calling application to recognize this
possibility and deal with it appropriately.
.P
If the section does not exist the function returns
DW_DLV_NO_ENTRY.
.P
If there is an internal error detected the
function returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP and sets the
\f(CW*error\fP pointer.

.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_from_linecontext()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_srclines_from_linecontext(
        Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
        Dwarf_Line ** linebuf,
        Dwarf_Signed *linecount,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
\f(CW*dwarf_srclines_from_linecontext()\fP
gives access to the line tables.
On success it returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
and passes back line tables
through the pointers.
.P
Though
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
will not be returned callers should
assume it is possible.
.P
On error
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and the error code set through
the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
.P
On success:
.P
\f(CW*linebuf\fP
is set to an array of Dwarf_Line pointers.
.P
\f(CW*linecount\fP is set 
to the number of pointers in the array.
.P

.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_two_levelfrom_linecontext()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_srclines_from_linecontext(
        Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
        Dwarf_Line ** linebuf,
        Dwarf_Signed *linecount,
        Dwarf_Line ** linebuf_actuals,
        Dwarf_Signed *linecount_actuals,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
\f(CW*dwarf_srclines_two_levelfrom_linecontext()\fP
gives access to the line tables.
On success it returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
and passes back line tables
through the pointers.
.P
Though
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
will not be returned callers should
assume it is possible.
.P
On error
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and the error code set through
the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
.P
On success:
.P
\f(CW*linebuf\fP
is set to an array of Dwarf_Line pointers.
.P
\f(CW*linecount\fP is set
to the number of pointers in the array.
.P
If one is not intending that the experimental two-level
line tables are of interest then pass NULL
for
\f(CW*linebuf_actuals\fP
and
\f(CW*linecount_actuals\fP.
The NULL pointers notify the library
that the second table is not to be passed back.
.P
If a line table is actually a two-level tables
\f(CW*linebuf\fP is set to point to an array of
Logicals lines.
\f(CW*linecount\fP is set to the number of Logicals.
\f(CW*linebuf_actals\fP is set to point to an array of
Actuals lines.
\f(CW*linecount_actuals\fP is set to the number of Actuals.

.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_dealloc_b()"
.DS
\f(CWvoid dwarf_srclines_dealloc_b(
        Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
This does a complete deallocation of
the memory of the 
\f(CWDwarf_Line_Context\fP
and the 
\f(CWDwarf_Line\fP array (or arrays)
that came from the
\f(CWDwarf_Line_Context\fP.
On return you should set any local pointers
to these buffers to NULL as a reminder
that any use of the local pointers would 
be to stale memory.

.in +2
.FG "Examplec dwarf_srclines_b()"
.DS
\f(CW
void examplec(Dwarf_Die cu_die)
{
    /* EXAMPLE: DWARF5 style access.  */
    Dwarf_Line  *linebuf = 0;
    Dwarf_Signed linecount = 0;
    Dwarf_Line  *linebuf_actuals = 0;
    Dwarf_Signed linecount_actuals = 0;
    Dwarf_Line_Context line_context = 0;
    Dwarf_Signed linecount_total = 0;
    Dwarf_Small  table_count = 0;
    Dwarf_Unsigned lineversion = 0;
    Dwarf_Error err = 0;
    int sres = 0;
    /* ... */
    /*  we use 'return' here to signify we can do nothing more
        at this point in the code. */
    sres = dwarf_srclines_b(cu_die,&lineversion,
        &table_count,&line_context,&err);
    if (sres != DW_DLV_OK) {
        /*  Handle the DW_DLV_NO_ENTRY  or DW_DLV_ERROR
            No memory was allocated so there nothing
            to dealloc. */
        return;
    }
    if (table_count == 0) {
        /*  A line table with no actual lines.  */
        /*...do something, see dwarf_srclines_files_count()
            etc below. */

        dwarf_srclines_dealloc_b(line_context);
        /*  All the memory is released, the line_context
            and linebuf zeroed now
            as a reminder they are stale. */
        linebuf = 0;
        line_context = 0;
    } else if (table_count == 1) {
        Dwarf_Signed i = 0;
        Dwarf_Signed baseindex = 0;
        Dwarf_Signed file_count = 0;
        Dwarf_Signed endindex = 0;
        /*  Standard dwarf 2,3,4, or 5 line table */
        /*  Do something. */

        /*  First let us index through all the files listed
            in the line table header. */
        sres = dwarf_srclines_files_indexes(line_context,
            &baseindex,&file_count,&endindex,&err);
        if (sres != DW_DLV_OK) {
            /* Something badly wrong! */
            return;
        }
        /*  Works for DWARF2,3,4 (one-based index)
            and DWARF5 (zero-based index) */
        for (i = baseindex; i < endindex; i++) {
            Dwarf_Unsigned dirindex = 0;
            Dwarf_Unsigned modtime = 0;
            Dwarf_Unsigned flength = 0;
            Dwarf_Form_Data16 *md5data = 0;
            int vres = 0;
            const char *name = 0;

            vres = dwarf_srclines_files_data_b(line_context,i,
                &name,&dirindex, &modtime,&flength,
                &md5data,&err);
            if (vres != DW_DLV_OK) {
                /* something very wrong. */
                return;
            }
            /* Do something. */
        }


        /*  For this case where we have a line table we will likely
            wish to get the line details: */
        sres = dwarf_srclines_from_linecontext(line_context,
            &linebuf,&linecount,
            &err);
        if (sres != DW_DLV_OK) {
            /* Error. Clean up the context information. */
            dwarf_srclines_dealloc_b(line_context);
            return;
        }
        /* The lines are normal line table lines. */
        for (i = 0; i < linecount; ++i) {
            /* use linebuf[i] */
        }
        dwarf_srclines_dealloc_b(line_context);
        /*  All the memory is released, the line_context
            and linebuf zeroed now as a reminder they are stale */
        linebuf = 0;
        line_context = 0;
        linecount = 0;
    } else {
        Dwarf_Signed i = 0;
        /*  ASSERT: table_count == 2,
            Experimental two-level line table. Version 0xf006
            We do not define the meaning of this non-standard
            set of tables here. */

        /*  For 'something C' (two-level line tables)
            one codes something like this
            Note that we do not define the meaning or use of two-level line
            tables as these are experimental, not standard DWARF. */
        sres = dwarf_srclines_two_level_from_linecontext(line_context,
            &linebuf,&linecount,
            &linebuf_actuals,&linecount_actuals,
            &err);
        if (sres == DW_DLV_OK) {
            for (i = 0; i < linecount; ++i) {
                /* use linebuf[i], these are the 'logicals' entries. */
            }
            for (i = 0; i < linecount_actuals; ++i) {
                /* use linebuf_actuals[i], these are the actuals entries */
            }
            dwarf_srclines_dealloc_b(line_context);
            line_context = 0;
            linebuf = 0;
            linecount = 0;
            linebuf_actuals = 0;
            linecount_actuals = 0;
        } else if (sres == DW_DLV_NO_ENTRY) {
            /* This should be impossible, but do something.   */
            /* Then Free the line_context */
            dwarf_srclines_dealloc_b(line_context);
            line_context = 0;
            linebuf = 0;
            linecount = 0;
            linebuf_actuals = 0;
            linecount_actuals = 0;
        } else {
            /*  ERROR, show the error or something.
                Free the line_context. */
            dwarf_srclines_dealloc_b(line_context);
            line_context = 0;
            linebuf = 0;
            linecount = 0;
            linebuf_actuals = 0;
            linecount_actuals = 0;
        }
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2

.H 2 "Line Context Details (DWARF5 style)"
New in October 2015.
When a 
\f(CW
Dwarf_Line_Context
\fP
has been returned by
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_b()\fP
that line context data's details can be retrieved
with the following set of calls.
.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_table_offset()"
.DS
\f(CW
int dwarf_srclines_table_offset(Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * offset,
    Dwarf_Error    * error);
\fP
.DE
On success, this function returns the offset (in the object file
line section) of the actual line data (i.e. after the line
header for this compilation unit) through the
\f(CWoffset\fP
pointer.
The offset is probably only of interest when
printing detailed information about a line table header.
.P
In case of error, 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and the error is set through
the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
will not be returned.

.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_version()"
.DS
\f(CW
int dwarf_srclines_version(Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * version,
    Dwarf_Error    * error);
\fP
.DE
On success 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
is returned and the line table version number is returned
through  the 
\f(CWversion\fP pointer.
.P
In case of error,
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and the error is set through
the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
will not be returned.


.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_comp_dir()"
.DS
\f(CW
int dwarf_srclines_comp_dir(Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
    const char ** compilation_directory,
    Dwarf_Error * error);
\fP
.DE
On success this returns a pointer to
the compilation directory string for this
line table in
\f(CW*compilation_directory\fP.
That compilation string may be NULL or the empty
string.
.P
In case of error, 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and the error is set through
the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
will not be returned.

.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_files_indexes()"
.DS
\f(CW
int dwarf_srclines_files_indexes(Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
    Dwarf_Signed  *  baseindex,
    Dwarf_Signed  *  count,
    Dwarf_Signed  *  endindex,
    Dwarf_Error   *  error);
\fP
.DE
With DWARF5 the base file number index in the
line table changed from zero (DWARF2,3,4)
to one (DWARF5).
Which meant iterating through the valid source file
indexes became messy if one used the older
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_files_count()\fP
function (zero-based and one-based indexing
being incompatible).
See Figure  "Examplec dwarf_srclines_b()"
above
for use of this function in accessing file names.
.P
The base index of  files in the files list of
a line table header will be returned through
\f(CWbaseindex\fP.
.P
The number of files in the files list of
a line table header will be returned through
\f(CWcount\fP.
.P
The end index of  files in the files list of
a line table header will be returned through
\f(CWendindex\fP.
.P
In case of error,
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and the error is set through
the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
will not be returned.



.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_files_count()"
.DS
\f(CW
int dwarf_srclines_files_count(Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
    Dwarf_Signed  *  count,
    Dwarf_Error   *  error);
\fP
.DE
On success, the number of files in the files list of
a line table header will be returned through
\f(CWcount\fP.
.P
In case of error, 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and the error is set through
the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
will not be returned.


.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_files_data_b()"
This supplants
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_files_data()\fP
as of March 2018
to allow access to the md5 value in DWARF5.
The function
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_files_data()\fP
continues to be supported.
.DS
\f(CW
int dwarf_srclines_files_data_b(Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
    Dwarf_Signed     index,
    const char **    name,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * directory_index,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * last_mod_time,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * file_length,
    Dwarf_Form_Data16 ** md5_value,
    Dwarf_Error    * error);
\fP
.DE
On success, data about a single file in
the files list will be returned through the pointers.
See DWARF documentation for the meaning of these
fields.
\f(CWcount\fP.
Valid
\f(CWindex\fP.
values are 1 through
\f(CWcount\fP,
reflecting the way the table is defined by DWARF2,3,4.
For a dwarf5 line table index values 0...count-1 are legal.
This is certainly awkward.
.P
If 
\f(CWmd5_value\fP 
is non-null it is used to pass a back
a pointer to a 
\f(CWDwarf_Form_Data16\fP md5 value if
the md5 value is present. Otherwise
a zero value is passed back to indicate there
was no such field.
The 16-byte value pointed to is inside
the line_context, so if you want to keep
the value you should probably copy it
to storage you control.
.P
This returns the raw files data from the
line table header.
.P
In case of error,
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and the error is set through
the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
will not be returned.


.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_files_data()"
This interface was created in October 2015.
It cannot return the DWARF5 MD5 value.
See the newer dwarf_srclines_files_data_b().
.DS
\f(CW
int dwarf_srclines_files_data(Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
    Dwarf_Signed     index,
    const char **    name,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * directory_index,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * last_mod_time,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * file_length,
    Dwarf_Error    * error);
\fP
.DE
On success, data about a single file in
the files list will be returned through the pointers.
See DWARF documentation for the meaning of these
fields.
\f(CWcount\fP.
Valid 
\f(CWindex\fP.
values are 1 through 
\f(CWcount\fP,
reflecting the way the table is defined by DWARF2,3,4.
For a dwarf5 line table index values 0...count-1 are legal.
This is certainly awkward.
.P
This returns the raw files data from the
line table header.
.P
In case of error, 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and the error is set through
the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
will not be returned.


.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_include_dir_count()"
.DS
\f(CW
int dwarf_srclines_include_dir_count(Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
    Dwarf_Signed * count,
    Dwarf_Error  * error);
\fP
.DE
On success, the number of files in the includes list of
a line table header will be returned through
\f(CWcount\fP.
.P
Valid 
\f(CWindex\fP.
values are 1 through 
\f(CWcount\fP,
reflecting the way the table is defined by DWARF 2,3 and 4.
For a dwarf5 line table index values 0...count-1 are legal.
This is certainly awkward.
.P
In case of error, 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and the error is set through
the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
will not be returned.
.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_include_dir_data()"
.DS
\f(CW
int dwarf_srclines_include_dir_data(Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
    Dwarf_Signed    index,
    const char **   name,
    Dwarf_Error  *  error);
\fP
.DE
On success, data about a single file in
the include files list will be returned through the pointers.
See DWARF documentation for the meaning of these
fields.
.P
Valid 
\f(CWindex\fP.
values are 1 through 
\f(CWcount\fP,
reflecting the way the table is defined by DWARF.
.P
In case of error, 
\f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP
is returned and the error is set through
the
\f(CWerror\fP
pointer.
\f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
will not be returned.
.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_subprog_count()"
\f(CW
int dwarf_srclines_subprog_count(Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
    Dwarf_Signed * count,
    Dwarf_Error  * error);
\fP
This is only useful with experimental two-level line tables.
.H 3 "dwarf_srclines_subprog_data()"
\f(CW
int dwarf_srclines_subprog_data(Dwarf_Line_Context line_context,
    Dwarf_Signed     index,
    const char **    name,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * decl_file,
    Dwarf_Unsigned * decl_line,
    Dwarf_Error   *  error);
\fP
This is only useful with experimental two-level line tables.

.H 2 "Get A Set of Lines (DWARF2,3,4 style)"
The function returns information about every source line for a 
particular compilation-unit.  
The compilation-unit is specified
by the corresponding die.
It does not support line tables with no lines very well
nor does it support experimental two-level linetables.
.H 3 "dwarf_srclines()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_srclines(
        Dwarf_Die die, 
        Dwarf_Line **linebuf, 
	Dwarf_Signed *linecount,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
This function is not useful for DWARF5 skeleton line tables nor
for two-level line tables.
It works for DWARF2,3,4,5 ordinary single line tables.
The function \f(CWdwarf_srclines()\fP places all line number descriptors 
for a single compilation unit into a single block, sets \f(CW*linebuf\fP 
to point to that block, 
sets \f(CW*linecount\fP to the number of descriptors in this block
and returns \f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP.
.in +2
.P
To get a more detailed view of the contents of a dwarf line
table header see \f(CWdwarf_srclines_b()\fP and
the routines that use the Dwarf_Line_Context
information, such as \f(CWdwarf_srcfiles_comp_dir()\fP,
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_files_count()\fP,
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_include_dir_count()\fP
and similar functions.  

.in -2

.P
The compilation-unit is indicated by the given \f(CWdie\fP which must be
a compilation-unit die.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.  
On
successful return, line number information 
should be freed using \f(CWdwarf_srclines_dealloc()\fP
when no longer of interest. 
.P
.in +2
.FG "Exampled dwarf_srclines()"
.DS
\f(CW
/*  dwarf_srclines_b() should be used instead. */
void exampled(Dwarf_Debug dbg,Dwarf_Die somedie)
{
    Dwarf_Signed count = 0;
    Dwarf_Line *linebuf = 0;
    Dwarf_Signed i = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int sres = 0;

    sres = dwarf_srclines(somedie, &linebuf,&count, &error);
    if (sres == DW_DLV_OK) {
        for (i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
            /* use linebuf[i] */
        }
        dwarf_srclines_dealloc(dbg, linebuf, count);
    }
}
\fP
.DE

.in -2
.P
An alternative using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP directly
is no longer (as of 2015) described here. It works as well
as ever, but it has been obsolete since 2005.
still works, but does not completely free all data allocated.
The \f(CWdwarf_srclines_dealloc()\fP routine was created
to fix the problem of incomplete deallocation.

.H 2 "Get the set of Source File Names"

The function returns the names of the source files that have contributed
to the compilation-unit represented by the given DIE.  Only the source
files named in the statement program prologue are returned.
.H 3 dwarf_srcfiles() 
This works for for all line tables.
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_srcfiles(
        Dwarf_Die die,
        char ***srcfiles,
        Dwarf_Signed *srccount,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
When it succeeds
\f(CWdwarf_srcfiles()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP
and puts
the number of source
files named in the statement program prologue indicated by the given
\f(CWdie\fP
into \f(CW*srccount\fP.  
Source files defined in the statement program are ignored.
The given \f(CWdie\fP should have the tag 
\f(CWDW_TAG_compile_unit\fP,
\f(CWDW_TAG_partial_unit\fP,
or \f(CWDW_TAG_type_unit\fP
.
The location pointed to by \f(CWsrcfiles\fP is set to point to a list
of pointers to null-terminated strings that name the source
files.
.P
On a successful return from  \f(CWdwarf_srcfiles()\fP each of the
strings returned should be individually freed using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP
with the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_STRING\fP when no longer of
interest.  
This should be followed by free-ing the list using
\f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_LIST\fP.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error. 
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP
if there is no
corresponding statement program (i.e., if there is no line information).
.in +2
.FG "Exampled dwarf_srcfiles()"
.DS
\f(CW
void examplee(Dwarf_Debug dbg,Dwarf_Die somedie)
{
    Dwarf_Signed count = 0;
    char **srcfiles = 0;
    Dwarf_Signed i = 0;
    Dwarf_Error error = 0;
    int res = 0;

    res = dwarf_srcfiles(somedie, &srcfiles,&count,&error);
    if (res == DW_DLV_OK) {
        for (i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
            /* use srcfiles[i] */
            dwarf_dealloc(dbg, srcfiles[i], DW_DLA_STRING);
        }
        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, srcfiles, DW_DLA_LIST);
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2
.H 2 "Get Information About a Single Line Table Line"
The following functions can be used on the \f(CWDwarf_Line\fP descriptors
returned by 
\f(CWdwarf_srclines()\fP 
or
\f(CWdwarf_srclines_from_linecontext()\fP 
to obtain information about the
source lines.

.H 3 "dwarf_linebeginstatement()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_linebeginstatement(
        Dwarf_Line line, 
	Dwarf_Bool *return_bool,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_linebeginstatement()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_bool\fP
to
\fInon-zero\fP 
(if \f(CWline\fP represents a line number entry that is marked as
beginning a statement).  
or
\fIzero\fP ((if \f(CWline\fP represents a line number entry
that is not marked as beginning a statement).
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.P
.H 3 "dwarf_lineendsequence()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_lineendsequence(
	Dwarf_Line line,
	Dwarf_Bool *return_bool,
	Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_lineendsequence()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_bool\fP
\fInon-zero\fP
(in which case 
\f(CWline\fP represents a line number entry that is marked as
ending a text sequence)
or
\fIzero\fP (in which case 
\f(CWline\fP represents a line number entry
that is not marked as ending a text sequence).
A line number entry that is marked as
ending a text sequence is an entry with an address 
one beyond the highest address used by the current
sequence of line table entries (that is, the table entry is
a DW_LNE_end_sequence entry (see the DWARF specification)).
.P
The function \f(CWdwarf_lineendsequence()\fP 
returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.P
.H 3 "dwarf_lineno()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_lineno(
        Dwarf_Line       line, 
	Dwarf_Unsigned * returned_lineno,
        Dwarf_Error    * error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_lineno()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_lineno\fP to
the source statement line 
number corresponding to the descriptor \f(CWline\fP.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.P
.H 3 "dwarf_line_srcfileno()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_line_srcfileno(
        Dwarf_Line       line, 
	Dwarf_Unsigned * returned_fileno,
        Dwarf_Error    * error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_line_srcfileno()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*returned_fileno\fP to
the source statement line 
number corresponding to the descriptor \f(CWfile number\fP.  
When the number returned through \f(CW*returned_fileno\fP is zero it means
the file name is unknown (see the DWARF2/3 line table specification).
When the number returned through \f(CW*returned_fileno\fP is non-zero
it is a file number:
subtract 1 from this file number
to get an
index into the array of strings returned by \f(CWdwarf_srcfiles()\fP
(verify the resulting index is in range for the array of strings
before indexing into the array of strings).
The file number may exceed the size of 
the array of strings returned by \f(CWdwarf_srcfiles()\fP
because \f(CWdwarf_srcfiles()\fP does not return files names defined with
the  \f(CWDW_DLE_define_file\fP  operator.
The function \f(CWdwarf_line_srcfileno()\fP returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.P
.H 3 "dwarf_lineaddr()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_lineaddr(
        Dwarf_Line   line, 
	Dwarf_Addr  *return_lineaddr,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_lineaddr()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_lineaddr\fP to
the address associated 
with the descriptor \f(CWline\fP.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP  on error.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.P
.H 3 "dwarf_lineoff()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_lineoff(
        Dwarf_Line line, 
	Dwarf_Signed   * return_lineoff,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_lineoff()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_lineoff\fP to
the column number at which
the statement represented by \f(CWline\fP begins.  
.P
It sets \f(CWreturn_lineoff\fP to zero
if the column number of the statement is not represented
(meaning the producer library call was given zero
as the column number).  Zero is the correct value meaning "left edge" 
as defined in the DWARF2/3/4 specication (section 6.2.2).
.P
Before December 2011 zero was not returned through 
the  \f(CWreturn_lineoff\fP pointer, -1 was returned through the pointer.
The reason for this oddity is unclear, lost in history.
But there is no good reason for -1.
.P
The type of  \f(CWreturn_lineoff\fP is a pointer-to-signed, but there
is no good reason for the value to be signed, the DWARF specification
does not deal with negative column numbers.  However, changing the
declaration would cause compilation errors for little benefit, so
the pointer-to-signed is left unchanged.
.P
On error it returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.
.H 3 "dwarf_lineoff_b()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_lineoff_b(
        Dwarf_Line line, 
	Dwarf_Unsigned   * return_lineoff,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function 
\f(CWdwarf_lineoff_b()\fP
returns 
exactly the same as
\f(CWdwarf_lineoff()\fP
except the line offset returned
through 
\f(CWreturn_lineoff()\fP
is an unsigned value.
The signed return offset never made much sense
but was harmless since line lengths are limited
by most language standards.

.H 3 "dwarf_linesrc()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_linesrc(
        Dwarf_Line line, 
	char  **   return_linesrc,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_linesrc()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_linesrc\fP to
a pointer to a
null-terminated string of characters that represents the name of the 
source-file where \f(CWline\fP occurs.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on 
error.  
.P
If the applicable file name in the line table Statement Program Prolog 
does not start with a '/' character
the string in \f(CWDW_AT_comp_dir\fP (if applicable and present)
or the applicable
directory name from the line Statement Program Prolog 
is prepended to the
file name in the line table Statement Program Prolog
to make a full path.
.P
The storage pointed to by a successful return of 
\f(CWdwarf_linesrc()\fP should be freed using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with
the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_STRING\fP when no longer of interest.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.H 3 "dwarf_lineblock()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_lineblock(
        Dwarf_Line line, 
	Dwarf_Bool *return_bool,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWdwarf_lineblock()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_linesrc\fP to
non-zero (i.e. true)(if the line is marked as 
beginning a basic block)
or zero (i.e. false) (if the line is marked as not
beginning a basic block).  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.H 3 "dwarf_is_addr_set()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_line_is_addr_set(
        Dwarf_Line line, 
	Dwarf_Bool *return_bool,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function
\f(CWdwarf_line_is_addr_set()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_bool\fP to
non-zero (i.e. true)(if the line is marked as 
being a DW_LNE_set_address operation)
or zero (i.e. false) (if the line is marked as not
being a DW_LNE_set_address operation).  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

This is intended to allow consumers to do a more useful job
printing and analyzing DWARF data, it is not strictly
necessary.

.H 3 "dwarf_prologue_end_etc()" 
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_prologue_end_etc(Dwarf_Line  line,
        Dwarf_Bool  *    prologue_end,
        Dwarf_Bool  *    epilogue_begin,
        Dwarf_Unsigned * isa,
        Dwarf_Unsigned * discriminator,
        Dwarf_Error *    error)\fP
.DE
The function 
\f(CWdwarf_prologue_end_etc()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets  the returned fields to
values currently set.
While it is pretty safe to assume that the
\f(CWisa\fP
and
\f(CWdiscriminator\fP
values returned are very small integers, there is
no restriction in the standard.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

This function is new in December 2011.


.H 2 "Global Name Space Operations" 
These operations operate on the .debug_pubnames section of the debugging 
information.

.H 3 "Debugger Interface Operations"

.H 4 "dwarf_get_globals()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_globals(
        Dwarf_Debug dbg,
        Dwarf_Global **globals,
        Dwarf_Signed * return_count,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_get_globals()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_count\fP to
the count of pubnames
represented in the section containing pubnames i.e. .debug_pubnames.
It also stores at \f(CW*globals\fP, a pointer 
to a list of \f(CWDwarf_Global\fP descriptors, one for each of the 
pubnames in the .debug_pubnames section.  
The returned results are for the entire section.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error. 
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if the .debug_pubnames 
section does not exist.

.P
On a successful return from
\f(CWdwarf_get_globals()\fP, the \f(CWDwarf_Global\fP 
descriptors should be
freed using \f(CWdwarf_globals_dealloc()\fP.
\f(CWdwarf_globals_dealloc()\fP is new as of July 15, 2005
and is the preferred approach to freeing this memory..
.P
Global names refer exclusively to names and offsets
in the .debug_info section.
See section 6.1.1 "Lookup by Name" in the dwarf standard.

.in +2
.FG "Exampled dwarf_get_globals()"
.DS
\f(CW
void examplef(Dwarf_Debug dbg)
{
    Dwarf_Signed count = 0;
    Dwarf_Global *globs = 0;
    Dwarf_Signed i = 0;
    Dwarf_Error  error = 0;
    int res = 0;

    res = dwarf_get_globals(dbg, &globs,&count, &error);
    if (res == DW_DLV_OK) {
        for (i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
            /* use globs[i] */
        }
        dwarf_globals_dealloc(dbg, globs, count);
    }
}
\fP
.DE
.in -2
.P
The following code is deprecated as of July 15, 2005 as it does not
free all relevant memory.
This approach  still works as well as it ever did.
On a successful return from 
\f(CWdwarf_get_globals()\fP, the \f(CWDwarf_Global\fP 
descriptors should be individually 
freed using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP with the allocation type 
\f(CWDW_DLA_GLOBAL_CONTEXT\fP, 
(or
\f(CWDW_DLA_GLOBAL\fP, an older name, supported for compatibility)
followed by the deallocation of the list itself 
with the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_LIST\fP when the descriptors are 
no longer of interest.

.in +2
.DS
\f(CWDwarf_Signed cnt;
Dwarf_Global *globs;
int res;

res = dwarf_get_globals(dbg, &globs,&cnt, &error);
if (res == DW_DLV_OK) {

        /* OBSOLETE: DO NOT USE to deallocate*/
        for (i = 0; i < cnt; ++i) {
                /* use globs[i] */
                dwarf_dealloc(dbg, globs[i], DW_DLA_GLOBAL_CONTEXT);
        }
        dwarf_dealloc(dbg, globs, DW_DLA_LIST);
}\fP
.DE
.in -2

.H 4 "dwarf_globname()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_globname(
        Dwarf_Global global,
        char **      return_name,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_globname()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_name\fP to
a pointer to a 
null-terminated string that names the pubname represented by the 
\f(CWDwarf_Global\fP descriptor, \f(CWglobal\fP.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.  
On a successful return from this function, the string should
be freed using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP, with the allocation type
\f(CWDW_DLA_STRING\fP when no longer of interest.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.H 4 "dwarf_global_die_offset()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_global_die_offset(
        Dwarf_Global global,
	Dwarf_Off   *return_offset,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_global_die_offset()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_offset\fP to
the offset in
the section containing DIEs, i.e. .debug_info, of the DIE representing
the pubname that is described by the \f(CWDwarf_Global\fP descriptor, 
\f(CWglob\fP.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.H 4 "dwarf_global_cu_offset()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_global_cu_offset(
        Dwarf_Global global,
	Dwarf_Off   *return_offset,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_global_cu_offset()\fP returns 
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_offset\fP to
the offset in
the section containing DIEs, i.e. .debug_info, of the compilation-unit
header of the compilation-unit that contains the pubname described 
by the \f(CWDwarf_Global\fP descriptor, \f(CWglobal\fP.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.

.H 4 "dwarf_get_cu_die_offset_given_cu_header_offset()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_cu_die_offset_given_cu_header_offset_b(
	Dwarf_Debug dbg,
	Dwarf_Off   in_cu_header_offset,
        Dwarf_Bool  is_info,
        Dwarf_Off * out_cu_die_offset,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_get_cu_die_offset_given_cu_header_offset()\fP 
returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*out_cu_die_offset\fP to
the offset of the compilation-unit DIE given the
offset \f(CWin_cu_header_offset\fP of a compilation-unit header.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.
.P
If \f(CWis_info\fP is non-zero the \f(CWin_cu_header_offset\fP must refer
to a .debug_info section offset. 
If \f(CWis_info\fP zero the \f(CWin_cu_header_offset\fP must refer
to a .debug_types section offset. 
Chaos may result if the \f(CWis_info\fP flag is incorrect.

This effectively turns a compilation-unit-header offset
into a compilation-unit DIE offset (by adding the
size of the applicable CU header).
This function is also sometimes useful with the 
\f(CWdwarf_weak_cu_offset()\fP,
\f(CWdwarf_func_cu_offset()\fP,
\f(CWdwarf_type_cu_offset()\fP,
and
\f(CWint dwarf_var_cu_offset()\fP 
functions, though for those functions the data is
only in .debug_info by definition.

.H 4 "dwarf_get_cu_die_offset_given_cu_header_offset()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_cu_die_offset_given_cu_header_offset(
	Dwarf_Debug dbg,
	Dwarf_Off   in_cu_header_offset,
        Dwarf_Off * out_cu_die_offset,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
This function is superseded by 
\f(CWdwarf_get_cu_die_offset_given_cu_header_offset_b()\fP,
a function which is still supported thought it refers only
to the .debug_info section.


\f(CWdwarf_get_cu_die_offset_given_cu_header_offset()\fP 
added Rev 1.45, June, 2001.

This function is declared as 'optional' in libdwarf.h
on IRIX systems so the _MIPS_SYMBOL_PRESENT
predicate may be used at run time to determine if the version of
libdwarf linked into an application has this function.

.H 4 "dwarf_global_name_offsets()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_global_name_offsets(
        Dwarf_Global global,
        char     **return_name,
        Dwarf_Off *die_offset,
        Dwarf_Off *cu_offset,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_global_name_offsets()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*return_name\fP to
a pointer to
a null-terminated string that gives the name of the pubname
described by the \f(CWDwarf_Global\fP descriptor \f(CWglobal\fP.  
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_ERROR\fP on error.  
It never returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP.
It also returns in the locations 
pointed to by \f(CWdie_offset\fP, and \f(CWcu_offset\fP, 
the offset of the DIE representing the pubname, 
and 
the offset of the DIE representing the compilation-unit 
containing the 
pubname, respectively.
On a 
successful return from \f(CWdwarf_global_name_offsets()\fP the storage 
pointed to by \f(CWreturn_name\fP 
should be freed using \f(CWdwarf_dealloc()\fP, 
with the allocation type \f(CWDW_DLA_STRING\fP when no longer of interest.


.H 2 "DWARF3 Type Names Operations"
Section ".debug_pubtypes" is new in DWARF3.
.P
These functions operate on the .debug_pubtypes section of the debugging
information.  The .debug_pubtypes section contains the names of file-scope
user-defined types, the offsets of the \f(CWDIE\fPs that represent the
definitions of those types, and the offsets of the compilation-units 
that contain the definitions of those types.

.H 3 "Debugger Interface Operations"

.H 4 "dwarf_get_pubtypes()"
.DS
\f(CWint dwarf_get_pubtypes(
        Dwarf_Debug dbg,
        Dwarf_Type **types,
        Dwarf_Signed *typecount,
        Dwarf_Error *error)\fP
.DE
The function \f(CWdwarf_get_pubtypes()\fP returns
\f(CWDW_DLV_OK\fP and sets \f(CW*typecount\fP to
the count of user-defined
type names represented in the section containing user-defined type names,
i.e. .debug_pubtypes.
It also stores at \f(CW*types\fP, 
a pointer to a list of \f(CWDwarf_Type\fP descriptors, one for each of the 
user-defined type names in the .debug_pubtypes section.  
The returned results are for the entire section.
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NOCOUNT\fP on error. 
It returns \f(CWDW_DLV_NO_ENTRY\fP if 
the .debug_pubtypes section does not exist.  

.P
On a successful 
return from \f(CWdwarf_get_pubtypes()\fP, 
the \f(CWDwarf_Type\fP descriptors should be 
freed using \f(CWdwarf_types_dealloc()\fP.
\f(CWdwarf_types_dealloc()\fP is used for both
\f(CWdwarf_get_pubtypes()\fP and \f(CWdwarf_get_types()\fP
as the data types are the same.
.P
Global type names refer exclusively to names and offsets
in the .debug_info section.   
See section 6.1.1 "Lookup by Name" in the dwarf standard.


.in +2