File: ascmagic.c

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/*
 * ASCII magic -- file types that we know based on keywords
 * that can appear anywhere in the file.
 *
 * Copyright (c) Ian F. Darwin, 1987.
 * Written by Ian F. Darwin.
 *
 * Extensively modified by Eric Fischer <enf@pobox.com> in July, 2000,
 * to handle character codes other than ASCII on a unified basis.
 *
 * Joerg Wunsch <joerg@freebsd.org> wrote the original support for 8-bit
 * international characters, now subsumed into this file.
 */

/*
 * This software is not subject to any license of the American Telephone
 * and Telegraph Company or of the Regents of the University of California.
 *
 * Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose on
 * any computer system, and to alter it and redistribute it freely, subject
 * to the following restrictions:
 *
 * 1. The author is not responsible for the consequences of use of this
 *    software, no matter how awful, even if they arise from flaws in it.
 *
 * 2. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented, either by
 *    explicit claim or by omission.  Since few users ever read sources,
 *    credits must appear in the documentation.
 *
 * 3. Altered versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not be
 *    misrepresented as being the original software.  Since few users
 *    ever read sources, credits must appear in the documentation.
 *
 * 4. This notice may not be removed or altered.
 */

#include "file.h"
#include <memory.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include "names.h"

typedef unsigned long unichar;

#define MAXLINELEN 300	/* longest sane line length */
#define ISSPC(x) ((x) == ' ' || (x) == '\t' || (x) == '\r' || (x) == '\n' \
		  || (x) == 0x85 || (x) == '\f')

static int looks_ascii __P((const unsigned char *, int, unichar *, int *));
static int looks_utf8 __P((const unsigned char *, int, unichar *, int *));
static int looks_unicode __P((const unsigned char *, int, unichar *, int *));
static int looks_latin1 __P((const unsigned char *, int, unichar *, int *));
static int looks_extended __P((const unsigned char *, int, unichar *, int *));
static void from_ebcdic __P((const unsigned char *, int, unsigned char *));
static int ascmatch __P((const unsigned char *, const unichar *, int));

int
ascmagic(buf, nbytes)
	unsigned char *buf;
	int nbytes;	/* size actually read */
{
#define fputs(a, b) ( sprintf((buf+=strlen(a)) - strlen(a), a) )
	int i;
	char nbuf[FSIZE+1];		/* one extra for terminating '\0' */
	unichar ubuf[FSIZE+1];	/* one extra for terminating '\0' */
	int ulen;
	struct names *p;

	char *code = NULL;
	char *code_mime = NULL;
	char *type = NULL;
	char *subtype = NULL;
	char *subtype_mime = NULL;

	int has_escapes = 0;
	int has_backspace = 0;

	int n_crlf = 0;
	int n_lf = 0;
	int n_cr = 0;
	int n_nel = 0;

	int last_line_end = -1;
	int has_long_lines = 0;

	/*
	 * Do the tar test first, because if the first file in the tar
	 * archive starts with a dot, we can confuse it with an nroff file.
	 */

	switch (is_tar(buf, nbytes)) {
	case 1:
		fputs("tar archive", stdout);
		return 1;
	case 2:
		fputs("POSIX tar archive", stdout);
		return 1;
	}

	/* Undo the NUL-termination kindly provided by process() */

	while (nbytes > 0 && buf[nbytes - 1] == '\0')
		nbytes--;

	/*
	 * Then try to determine whether it's any character code we can
	 * identify.  Each of these tests, if it succeeds, will leave
	 * the text converted into one-unichar-per-character Unicode in
	 * ubuf, and the number of characters converted in ulen.
	 */
	if (looks_ascii(buf, nbytes, ubuf, &ulen)) {
		code = "ASCII";
		code_mime = "us-ascii";
		type = "text";
	} else if (looks_utf8(buf, nbytes, ubuf, &ulen)) {
		code = "UTF-8 Unicode";
		code_mime = "utf-8";
		type = "text";
	} else if ((i = looks_unicode(buf, nbytes, ubuf, &ulen))) {
		if (i == 1)
			code = "Little-endian UTF-16 Unicode";
		else
			code = "Big-endian UTF-16 Unicode";

		type = "character data";
		code_mime = "utf-16";    /* is this defined? */
	} else if (looks_latin1(buf, nbytes, ubuf, &ulen)) {
		code = "ISO-8859";
		type = "text";
		code_mime = "iso-8859-1"; 
	} else if (looks_extended(buf, nbytes, ubuf, &ulen)) {
		code = "Non-ISO extended-ASCII";
		type = "text";
		code_mime = "unknown";
	} else {
		from_ebcdic(buf, nbytes, nbuf);

		if (looks_ascii(nbuf, nbytes, ubuf, &ulen)) {
			code = "EBCDIC";
			type = "character data";
			code_mime = "ebcdic";
		} else if (looks_latin1(nbuf, nbytes, ubuf, &ulen)) {
			code = "International EBCDIC";
			type = "character data";
			code_mime = "ebcdic";
		} else {
			return 0;  /* doesn't look like text at all */
		}
	}

	/*
	 * for troff, look for . + letter + letter or .\";
	 * this must be done to disambiguate tar archives' ./file
	 * and other trash from real troff input.
	 *
	 * I believe Plan 9 troff allows non-ASCII characters in the names
	 * of macros, so this test might possibly fail on such a file.
	 */
	if (*ubuf == '.') {
		unichar *tp = ubuf + 1;

		while (ISSPC(*tp))
			++tp;	/* skip leading whitespace */
		if ((tp[0] == '\\' && tp[1] == '\"') ||
		    (isascii(tp[0]) && isalnum(tp[0]) &&
		     isascii(tp[1]) && isalnum(tp[1]) &&
		     ISSPC(tp[2]))) {
			subtype_mime = "text/troff";
			subtype = "troff or preprocessor input";
			goto subtype_identified;
		}
	}

	if ((*buf == 'c' || *buf == 'C') && ISSPC(buf[1])) {
		subtype_mime = "text/fortran";
		subtype = "fortran program";
		goto subtype_identified;
	}

	/* look for tokens from names.h - this is expensive! */

	i = 0;
	while (i < ulen) {
		int end;

		/*
		 * skip past any leading space
		 */
		while (i < ulen && ISSPC(ubuf[i]))
			i++;
		if (i >= ulen)
			break;

		/*
		 * find the next whitespace
		 */
		for (end = i + 1; end < nbytes; end++)
			if (ISSPC(ubuf[end]))
				break;

		/*
		 * compare the word thus isolated against the token list
		 */
		for (p = names; p < names + NNAMES; p++) {
			if (ascmatch(p->name, ubuf + i, end - i)) {
				subtype = types[p->type].human;
				subtype_mime = types[p->type].mime;
				goto subtype_identified;
			}
		}

		i = end;
	}

subtype_identified:

	/*
	 * Now try to discover other details about the file.
	 */
	for (i = 0; i < ulen; i++) {
		if (i > last_line_end + MAXLINELEN)
			has_long_lines = 1;

		if (ubuf[i] == '\033')
			has_escapes = 1;
		if (ubuf[i] == '\b')
			has_backspace = 1;

		if (ubuf[i] == '\r' && (i + 1 <  ulen && ubuf[i + 1] == '\n')) {
			n_crlf++;
			last_line_end = i;
		}
		if (ubuf[i] == '\r' && (i + 1 >= ulen || ubuf[i + 1] != '\n')) {
			n_cr++;
			last_line_end = i;
		}
		if (ubuf[i] == '\n' && (i - 1 <  0    || ubuf[i - 1] != '\r')) {
			n_lf++;
			last_line_end = i;
		}
		if (ubuf[i] == 0x85) { /* X3.64/ECMA-43 "next line" character */
			n_nel++;
			last_line_end = i;
		}
	}

	fputs(code, stdout);

	if (subtype) {
		fputs(" ", stdout);
		fputs(subtype, stdout);
	}

	fputs(" ", stdout);
	fputs(type, stdout);

/*
	if (has_long_lines)
		fputs(", with very long lines", stdout);
*/
	/*
	 * Only report line terminators if we find one other than LF,
	 * or if we find none at all.
	 */

/*
	if ((n_crlf == 0 && n_cr == 0 && n_nel == 0 && n_lf == 0) ||
	    (n_crlf != 0 || n_cr != 0 || n_nel != 0)) {
	fputs(", with", stdout);

	if (n_crlf == 0 && n_cr == 0 && n_nel == 0 && n_lf == 0)
		fputs(" no", stdout);
	else {
		if (n_crlf) {
			fputs(" CRLF", stdout);
			if (n_cr || n_lf || n_nel)
				fputs(",", stdout);
		}
		if (n_cr) {
			fputs(" CR", stdout);
			if (n_lf || n_nel)
				fputs(",", stdout);
		}
		if (n_lf) {
			fputs(" LF", stdout);
			if (n_nel)
					fputs(",", stdout);
			}
			if (n_nel)
				fputs(" NEL", stdout);
		}

		fputs(" line terminators", stdout);
	}

	if (has_escapes)
		fputs(", with escape sequences", stdout);
	if (has_backspace)
		fputs(", with overstriking", stdout);
*/
	return 1;
}

static int
ascmatch(s, us, ulen)
	const unsigned char *s;
	const unichar *us;
	int ulen;
{
	size_t i;

	for (i = 0; i < ulen; i++) {
		if (s[i] != us[i])
			return 0;
	}

	if (s[i])
		return 0;
	else
		return 1;
}

/*
 * This table reflects a particular philosophy about what constitutes
 * "text," and there is room for disagreement about it.
 *
 * Version 3.31 of the file command considered a file to be ASCII if
 * each of its characters was approved by either the isascii() or
 * isalpha() function.  On most systems, this would mean that any
 * file consisting only of characters in the range 0x00 ... 0x7F
 * would be called ASCII text, but many systems might reasonably
 * consider some characters outside this range to be alphabetic,
 * so the file command would call such characters ASCII.  It might
 * have been more accurate to call this "considered textual on the
 * local system" than "ASCII."
 *
 * It considered a file to be "International language text" if each
 * of its characters was either an ASCII printing character (according
 * to the real ASCII standard, not the above test), a character in
 * the range 0x80 ... 0xFF, or one of the following control characters:
 * backspace, tab, line feed, vertical tab, form feed, carriage return,
 * escape.  No attempt was made to determine the language in which files
 * of this type were written.
 *
 *
 * The table below considers a file to be ASCII if all of its characters
 * are either ASCII printing characters (again, according to the X3.4
 * standard, not isascii()) or any of the following controls: bell,
 * backspace, tab, line feed, form feed, carriage return, esc, nextline.
 *
 * I include bell because some programs (particularly shell scripts)
 * use it literally, even though it is rare in normal text.  I exclude
 * vertical tab because it never seems to be used in real text.  I also
 * include, with hesitation, the X3.64/ECMA-43 control nextline (0x85),
 * because that's what the dd EBCDIC->ASCII table maps the EBCDIC newline
 * character to.  It might be more appropriate to include it in the 8859
 * set instead of the ASCII set, but it's got to be included in *something*
 * we recognize or EBCDIC files aren't going to be considered textual.
 * Some old Unix source files use SO/SI (^N/^O) to shift between Greek
 * and Latin characters, so these should possibly be allowed.  But they
 * make a real mess on VT100-style displays if they're not paired properly,
 * so we are probably better off not calling them text.
 *
 * A file is considered to be ISO-8859 text if its characters are all
 * either ASCII, according to the above definition, or printing characters
 * from the ISO-8859 8-bit extension, characters 0xA0 ... 0xFF.
 *
 * Finally, a file is considered to be international text from some other
 * character code if its characters are all either ISO-8859 (according to
 * the above definition) or characters in the range 0x80 ... 0x9F, which
 * ISO-8859 considers to be control characters but the IBM PC and Macintosh
 * consider to be printing characters.
 */

#define F 0   /* character never appears in text */
#define T 1   /* character appears in plain ASCII text */
#define I 2   /* character appears in ISO-8859 text */
#define X 3   /* character appears in non-ISO extended ASCII (Mac, IBM PC) */

static char text_chars[256] = {
	/*                  BEL BS HT LF    FF CR    */
	F, F, F, F, F, F, F, T, T, T, T, F, T, T, F, F,  /* 0x0X */
        /*                              ESC          */
	F, F, F, F, F, F, F, F, F, F, F, T, F, F, F, F,  /* 0x1X */
	T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T,  /* 0x2X */
	T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T,  /* 0x3X */
	T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T,  /* 0x4X */
	T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T,  /* 0x5X */
	T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T,  /* 0x6X */
	T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, F,  /* 0x7X */
	/*            NEL                            */
	X, X, X, X, X, T, X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X,  /* 0x8X */
	X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X, X,  /* 0x9X */
	I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I,  /* 0xaX */
	I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I,  /* 0xbX */
	I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I,  /* 0xcX */
	I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I,  /* 0xdX */
	I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I,  /* 0xeX */
	I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I, I   /* 0xfX */
};

static int
looks_ascii(buf, nbytes, ubuf, ulen)
	const unsigned char *buf;
	int nbytes;
	unichar *ubuf;
	int *ulen;
{
	int i;

	*ulen = 0;

	for (i = 0; i < nbytes; i++) {
		int t = text_chars[buf[i]];

		if (t != T)
			return 0;

		ubuf[(*ulen)++] = buf[i];
	}

	return 1;
}

static int
looks_latin1(buf, nbytes, ubuf, ulen)
	const unsigned char *buf;
	int nbytes;
	unichar *ubuf;
	int *ulen;
{
	int i;

	*ulen = 0;

	for (i = 0; i < nbytes; i++) {
		int t = text_chars[buf[i]];

		if (t != T && t != I)
			return 0;

		ubuf[(*ulen)++] = buf[i];
	}

	return 1;
}

static int
looks_extended(buf, nbytes, ubuf, ulen)
	const unsigned char *buf;
	int nbytes;
	unichar *ubuf;
	int *ulen;
{
	int i;

	*ulen = 0;

	for (i = 0; i < nbytes; i++) {
		int t = text_chars[buf[i]];

		if (t != T && t != I && t != X)
			return 0;

		ubuf[(*ulen)++] = buf[i];
	}

	return 1;
}

int
looks_utf8(buf, nbytes, ubuf, ulen)
	const unsigned char *buf;
	int nbytes;
	unichar *ubuf;
	int *ulen;
{
	int i, n;
	unichar c;
	int gotone = 0;

	*ulen = 0;

	for (i = 0; i < nbytes; i++) {
		if ((buf[i] & 0x80) == 0) {	   /* 0xxxxxxx is plain ASCII */
			/*
			 * Even if the whole file is valid UTF-8 sequences,
			 * still reject it if it uses weird control characters.
			 */

			if (text_chars[buf[i]] != T)
				return 0;

			ubuf[(*ulen)++] = buf[i];
		} else if ((buf[i] & 0x40) == 0) { /* 10xxxxxx never 1st byte */
			return 0;
		} else {			   /* 11xxxxxx begins UTF-8 */
			int following;

			if ((buf[i] & 0x20) == 0) {		/* 110xxxxx */
				c = buf[i] & 0x1f;
				following = 1;
			} else if ((buf[i] & 0x10) == 0) {	/* 1110xxxx */
				c = buf[i] & 0x0f;
				following = 2;
			} else if ((buf[i] & 0x08) == 0) {	/* 11110xxx */
				c = buf[i] & 0x07;
				following = 3;
			} else if ((buf[i] & 0x04) == 0) {	/* 111110xx */
				c = buf[i] & 0x03;
				following = 4;
			} else if ((buf[i] & 0x02) == 0) {	/* 1111110x */
				c = buf[i] & 0x01;
				following = 5;
			} else
				return 0;

			for (n = 0; n < following; n++) {
				i++;
				if (i >= nbytes)
					goto done;

				if ((buf[i] & 0x80) == 0 || (buf[i] & 0x40))
					return 0;

				c = (c << 6) + (buf[i] & 0x3f);
			}

			ubuf[(*ulen)++] = c;
			gotone = 1;
		}
	}
done:
	return gotone;   /* don't claim it's UTF-8 if it's all 7-bit */
}

static int
looks_unicode(buf, nbytes, ubuf, ulen)
	const unsigned char *buf;
	int nbytes;
	unichar *ubuf;
	int *ulen;
{
	int bigend;
	int i;

	if (nbytes < 2)
		return 0;

	if (buf[0] == 0xff && buf[1] == 0xfe)
		bigend = 0;
	else if (buf[0] == 0xfe && buf[1] == 0xff)
		bigend = 1;
	else
		return 0;

	*ulen = 0;

	for (i = 2; i + 1 < nbytes; i += 2) {
		/* XXX fix to properly handle chars > 65536 */

		if (bigend)
			ubuf[(*ulen)++] = buf[i + 1] + 256 * buf[i];
		else
			ubuf[(*ulen)++] = buf[i] + 256 * buf[i + 1];

		if (ubuf[*ulen - 1] == 0xfffe)
			return 0;
		if (ubuf[*ulen - 1] < 128 && text_chars[ubuf[*ulen - 1]] != T)
			return 0;
	}

	return 1;
}

#undef F
#undef T
#undef I
#undef X

/*
 * This table maps each EBCDIC character to an (8-bit extended) ASCII
 * character, as specified in the rationale for the dd(1) command in
 * draft 11.2 (September, 1991) of the POSIX P1003.2 standard.
 *
 * Unfortunately it does not seem to correspond exactly to any of the
 * five variants of EBCDIC documented in IBM's _Enterprise Systems
 * Architecture/390: Principles of Operation_, SA22-7201-06, Seventh
 * Edition, July, 1999, pp. I-1 - I-4.
 *
 * Fortunately, though, all versions of EBCDIC, including this one, agree
 * on most of the printing characters that also appear in (7-bit) ASCII.
 * Of these, only '|', '!', '~', '^', '[', and ']' are in question at all.
 *
 * Fortunately too, there is general agreement that codes 0x00 through
 * 0x3F represent control characters, 0x41 a nonbreaking space, and the
 * remainder printing characters.
 *
 * This is sufficient to allow us to identify EBCDIC text and to distinguish
 * between old-style and internationalized examples of text.
 */

unsigned char ebcdic_to_ascii[] = {
  0,   1,   2,   3, 156,   9, 134, 127, 151, 141, 142,  11,  12,  13,  14,  15,
 16,  17,  18,  19, 157, 133,   8, 135,  24,  25, 146, 143,  28,  29,  30,  31,
128, 129, 130, 131, 132,  10,  23,  27, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140,   5,   6,   7,
144, 145,  22, 147, 148, 149, 150,   4, 152, 153, 154, 155,  20,  21, 158,  26,
' ', 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 213, '.', '<', '(', '+', '|',
'&', 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, '!', '$', '*', ')', ';', '~',
'-', '/', 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 203, ',', '%', '_', '>', '?',
186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, '`', ':', '#', '@', '\'','=', '"',
195, 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g', 'h', 'i', 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201,
202, 'j', 'k', 'l', 'm', 'n', 'o', 'p', 'q', 'r', '^', 204, 205, 206, 207, 208,
209, 229, 's', 't', 'u', 'v', 'w', 'x', 'y', 'z', 210, 211, 212, '[', 214, 215,
216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, ']', 230, 231,
'{', 'A', 'B', 'C', 'D', 'E', 'F', 'G', 'H', 'I', 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237,
'}', 'J', 'K', 'L', 'M', 'N', 'O', 'P', 'Q', 'R', 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243,
'\\',159, 'S', 'T', 'U', 'V', 'W', 'X', 'Y', 'Z', 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249,
'0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255
};

/*
 * The following EBCDIC-to-ASCII table may relate more closely to reality,
 * or at least to modern reality.  It comes from
 *
 *   http://ftp.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxqp9.html
 *
 * and maps the characters of EBCDIC code page 1047 (the code used for
 * Unix-derived software on IBM's 390 systems) to the corresponding
 * characters from ISO 8859-1.
 *
 * If this table is used instead of the above one, some of the special
 * cases for the NEL character can be taken out of the code.
 */

unsigned char ebcdic_1047_to_8859[] = {
0x00,0x01,0x02,0x03,0x9C,0x09,0x86,0x7F,0x97,0x8D,0x8E,0x0B,0x0C,0x0D,0x0E,0x0F,
0x10,0x11,0x12,0x13,0x9D,0x0A,0x08,0x87,0x18,0x19,0x92,0x8F,0x1C,0x1D,0x1E,0x1F,
0x80,0x81,0x82,0x83,0x84,0x85,0x17,0x1B,0x88,0x89,0x8A,0x8B,0x8C,0x05,0x06,0x07,
0x90,0x91,0x16,0x93,0x94,0x95,0x96,0x04,0x98,0x99,0x9A,0x9B,0x14,0x15,0x9E,0x1A,
0x20,0xA0,0xE2,0xE4,0xE0,0xE1,0xE3,0xE5,0xE7,0xF1,0xA2,0x2E,0x3C,0x28,0x2B,0x7C,
0x26,0xE9,0xEA,0xEB,0xE8,0xED,0xEE,0xEF,0xEC,0xDF,0x21,0x24,0x2A,0x29,0x3B,0x5E,
0x2D,0x2F,0xC2,0xC4,0xC0,0xC1,0xC3,0xC5,0xC7,0xD1,0xA6,0x2C,0x25,0x5F,0x3E,0x3F,
0xF8,0xC9,0xCA,0xCB,0xC8,0xCD,0xCE,0xCF,0xCC,0x60,0x3A,0x23,0x40,0x27,0x3D,0x22,
0xD8,0x61,0x62,0x63,0x64,0x65,0x66,0x67,0x68,0x69,0xAB,0xBB,0xF0,0xFD,0xFE,0xB1,
0xB0,0x6A,0x6B,0x6C,0x6D,0x6E,0x6F,0x70,0x71,0x72,0xAA,0xBA,0xE6,0xB8,0xC6,0xA4,
0xB5,0x7E,0x73,0x74,0x75,0x76,0x77,0x78,0x79,0x7A,0xA1,0xBF,0xD0,0x5B,0xDE,0xAE,
0xAC,0xA3,0xA5,0xB7,0xA9,0xA7,0xB6,0xBC,0xBD,0xBE,0xDD,0xA8,0xAF,0x5D,0xB4,0xD7,
0x7B,0x41,0x42,0x43,0x44,0x45,0x46,0x47,0x48,0x49,0xAD,0xF4,0xF6,0xF2,0xF3,0xF5,
0x7D,0x4A,0x4B,0x4C,0x4D,0x4E,0x4F,0x50,0x51,0x52,0xB9,0xFB,0xFC,0xF9,0xFA,0xFF,
0x5C,0xF7,0x53,0x54,0x55,0x56,0x57,0x58,0x59,0x5A,0xB2,0xD4,0xD6,0xD2,0xD3,0xD5,
0x30,0x31,0x32,0x33,0x34,0x35,0x36,0x37,0x38,0x39,0xB3,0xDB,0xDC,0xD9,0xDA,0x9F
};

/*
 * Copy buf[0 ... nbytes-1] into out[], translating EBCDIC to ASCII.
 */
static void
from_ebcdic(buf, nbytes, out)
	const unsigned char *buf;
	int nbytes;
	unsigned char *out;
{
	int i;

	for (i = 0; i < nbytes; i++) {
		out[i] = ebcdic_to_ascii[buf[i]];
	}
}