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<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=euc-jp">
<META NAME="Generator" CONTENT="Jim's Markup Program - V0.99">
<TITLE> JMdict/EDICT Project</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY BGCOLOR="white">
<!-- DO NOT EDIT!!
This HTML document was generated by the "markup" program.
Edit the original file instead. -->
<H1 ALIGN=CENTER> JMdict/EDICT </H1>
<P>
</P>
<H2 ALIGN=CENTER> JAPANESE/ENGLISH DICTIONARY PROJECT</H2>
<BASEFONT SIZE="3">
<P>
<I>Copyright (C) 2006 The Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group,</I>
<I>Monash University.</I>
</P>
<P>
<h2>Contents</h2>
<a href="#IREF00">INTRODUCTION</a>&nbsp;
<a href="#IREF01">CURRENT VERSION </a>&nbsp;
<a href="#IREF01a">PROJECT FORUM </a>&nbsp;
<a href="#IREF02">FORMAT</a>&nbsp;
<a href="#IREF03">PROJECT HISTORY</a>&nbsp;
<a href="#IREF04">COPYRIGHT</a>&nbsp;
<a href="#IREF05">LEXICOGRAPHICAL DETAILS</a>&nbsp;
<a href="#IREF08">CONTRIBUTIONS</a>&nbsp;
<a href="#IREF08a">RELATED PROJECTS</a>&nbsp;
<a href="#IREF09">ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS</a>&nbsp;
<a href="#IREF10">PUBLICATIONS</a>&nbsp;
<a href="#IREF11">APPENDIX A. LANGUAGE CODES FROM ISO 639</a>&nbsp;
</P>
<P>
<a name="IREF00"><h2>INTRODUCTION</h2></a>
</P>
<P>
The JMdict/EDICT  project has as its goal the production of a freely 
available Japanese/English Dictionary in machine-readable form. 
</P>
<P>
The project began in 1991 with the expansion of the "EDICT" simple 
Japanese-English dictionary file. (See below under History)
</P>
<P>
At present the project has the following dictionary files available:
</P>
<UL>
<P>
</P>
<LI>the full JMdict file in XML format. The JMdict file is aimed at
being a multilingual lexical database with Japanese as the pivot language
and also includes
translations of words and phrases in a number of languages other
than English. More information is available from the 
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/j_jmdict.html">JMdict overview page. </a>
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>the EDICT file, which contains a reduced amount of information, and
is provided to maintain support for software which uses the original 
EDICT file format. A short 
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/edict.html">EDICT overview page </a>
is available which lists some of the software which uses this file;
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>the EDICT2 file, which is in an expanded format and  contains almost
all the information in the JMdict file;
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>the EDICT_SUB file, which contains about 20% of the most common
entries in the  EDICT file.
</LI>
</UL>
<P>
An internal database is used to hold all the data associated with the project,
and the files are generated from using conversion utility software.
</P>
<P>
The files are copyright, and distributed in accordance with the 
Licence Statement, which can found at the WWW site of the 
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/edrdg/">Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group </a>
who are the owners of the copyright.
</P>
<P>
<a name="IREF01"><h2>CURRENT VERSION</h2> </a>
</P>
<P>
The project's master database is continuously being updated and new
versions of the file are generated daily. The date of generation is
included in the header of the file.
</P>
<P>
The files are currently distributed via the Monash University
 <a HREF="http://ftp.cc.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/00INDEX.html">ftp server, </a>
which also provides an rsync service.
</P>
<P>
<a name="IREF01a"><h2>PROJECT FORUM</h2></a>
</P>
<P>
The are several forums where this project is actively discussed.
</P>
<P>
The original forum was the 
<TT> sci.lang.japan</TT>
 <a HREF="http://groups.google.com/group/sci.lang.japan">Usenet newsgroup. </a>
More recently a 
 <a HREF="http://groups.yahoo.com/group/edict-jmdict/">mailing list </a>
specifically for project discussion has begun. (Mail to 
<TT> edict-jmdict-subscribe@yahoogroups.com</TT>
to initiate subscription.)
</P>
<P>
<a name="IREF02"><h2>FORMAT</h2></a>
</P>
<P>
The basic format of the entries in the dictionary files can be seen in
detail by examining the 
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/jmdict_dtd_h.html">DTD </a>
(Document Type Declaration) of the XML-format JMdict file. The DTD is
heavily annotated with content and structural information.
</P>
<P>
In summary, each dictionary entry is independent, although there may
be cross-reference fields pointing to other entries. Each entry consists of
</P>
<OL type="a">
<P>
</P>
<LI>kanji elements, i.e. headwords containing at least one kanji character,
plus associated tags indicating some status or characteristic of the 
headword;
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>reading elements, containing either the reading in kana of the headword,
or the headword itself in the case of headwords only in kana. The elements
also include tags indicating some status or characteristics;
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>general coded information relating to the entry as a whole, such as 
original language, date-of-creation, etc.
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>sense elements, containing the translational equivalents or glosses of
the headword(s). As Japanese is not highly polysemous, there is often only
one sense. Associated with the sense elements is other coded data indicating
the part-of-speech, field of application, miscellaneous information, etc.
</LI>
</OL>
<P>
The format and coding of the distributed files is as follows:
</P>
<OL type="a">
<P>
</P>
<LI>the JMdict file contains the complete dictionary information
in XML format as per the
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/jmdict_dtd_h.html">DTD. </a>
This file is in Unicode/ISO-10646 coding using  UTF-8 encapsulation.
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>the EDICT file is in a relatively simple format based on the text data
file of the SKK input-method. Each entry is in the form:
<P>
</P>
<DL><DD>
KANJI [KANA] /(general information) gloss/gloss/.../
</DL>
<P>
or
</P>
<P>
</P>
<DL><DD>
KANA /(general information) gloss/gloss/.../
</DL>
<P>
Where there are multiple senses, these are indicated by (1), (2), etc.
before the first gloss in each sense. As this format only allows a single
kanji headword and reading, entries are generated for each possible
headword/reading combination. As the format restricts Japanese characters
to the kanji and kana fields, any cross-reference data and other 
informational fields are omitted.
</P>
<P>
The EDICT file is distributed in JIS X 0208 coding in EUC-JP encapsulation;
</P>
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>the EDICT2 file is in an expanded form of the original EDICT format.
The main differences are the inclusion of multiple kanji headwords and
readings, and the inclusion of cross-reference and other information
fields, e.g.:
<P>
</P>
<DL><DD>
KANJI-1;KANJI-2 [KANA-1;KANA-2] /(general information) (see xxxx) gloss/gloss/.../
</DL>
<P>
The EDICT2 file is also distributed in JIS X 0208 coding in EUC-JP 
encapsulation;
</P>
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>the EDICT_SUB file is in the same format as the EDICT file.
<P>
</P>
</LI>
</OL>
<P>
None of the files have the entries in any particular order.
</P>
<P>
<a name="IREF03"><h2>PROJECT HISTORY</h2></a>
</P>
<P>
The project was begun in 1991 by the current editor
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/">(Jim Breen) </a>
when an early DOS-based Japanese word-processor 
(MOKE  - Mark's Own Kanji Editor) was released, containing an initial
small version of the EDICT file. This was progressively expanded and edited over
the following years. In 1999 the EDICT, which by this time contained
about 60,000 entries, was converted into an expanded format and the first
XML-format JMdict file released. The EDICT2 format was created in 2003,
primarily for use with the 
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/wwwjdic.html">WWWJDIC </a>
dictionary server.
</P>
<P>
The growth in entries in the file is largely due to the efforts of Jim and the
many people who contributed entries to it over the years. The increase in entry
numbers has slowed as the file has achieved coverage of a large proportion
of the Japanese lexicon. Much of the editorial work in recent years has
concentrated on amendments and expansion to existing entries.
</P>
<P>
A more expanded explanation of the early developments in the EDICT file
can be found in the
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/edict_doc_old.html">original documentation. </a>
</P>
<P>
<a name="IREF04"><h2>COPYRIGHT</h2></a>
</P>
<P>
Dictionary copyright is a difficult point, because clearly the first 
lexicographer who published "inu means dog" could not claim a copyright 
violation over all subsequent Japanese dictionaries. While it is usual to 
consult other dictionaries for "accurate lexicographic information", as 
Nelson put it, wholesale copying is, of course, not permissible, and
contributors have been advised to avoid direct copying from other sources. 
What makes 
each dictionary unique (and copyright-able) is the particular selection of 
words, the phrasing of the meanings, the presentation of the contents (a very 
important point in the case of this project), and the means of publication.
</P>
<P>
The files of the project are copyright, and distributed in accordance with the 
Licence Statement, which can found at the WWW site of the 
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/edrdg/">Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group </a>
who are the current owners of the copyright. As explained in the licence, the
files are available for use for most purposes provided acknowledgement
and distribution of the documentation is made.
</P>
<P>
<a name="IREF05"><h2>LEXICOGRAPHICAL DETAILS</h2></a>
</P>
<P>
</P>
<OL type="A">
<LI>Inflections, etc.
<P>
In general no inflections of verbs or adjectives have been included, 
except in idiomatic  expressions. Adverbs 
formed from adjectives (e.g., -ku or -ni) are generally not included. 
Verbs are, of  course, in the plain or "dictionary" form. 
</P>
<P>
Composed forms, such as adverbs taking the "to" particle, keiyoudoushi
adjectives, etc. are only included in their root from, however the
part-of-speech (POS) marker is used to indicate their status.
</P>
<P>
Nouns which can form a verb withe the auxiliary verb "suru" only appear
in their noun form, but have a POS marker: "vs", to indicate the existence
of a verbal form. In general the gloss only relates to the noun itself, but
entries are being progressively expanded to include the verbal glosses as well.
</P>
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>Part of Speech Marking
<P>
The following POS markings are currently used:
</P>
<PRE>
adj	adjective (keiyoushi)
adj-na	adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi)
adj-no	nouns which may take the genitive case particle `no'
adj-pn	pre-noun adjectival (rentaishi)
adj-t	`taru' adjective
adv	adverb (fukushi)
adv-n	adverbial noun
adv-to	adverb taking the `to' particle
aux	auxiliary
aux-v	auxiliary verb
aux-adj	auxiliary adjective
conj	conjunction
exp	Expressions (phrases, clauses, etc.)
id	idiomatic expression
int	interjection (kandoushi)
iv	irregular verb
n	noun (common) (futsuumeishi)
n-adv	adverbial noun (fukushitekimeishi)
n-pref	noun, used as a prefix
n-suf	noun, used as a suffix
n-t	noun (temporal) (jisoumeishi)
neg	negative (in a negative sentence, or with negative verb)
neg-v	negative verb (when used with)
num	numeric
pref	prefix
prt	particle
suf	suffix
v1	Ichidan verb
v5	Godan verb (not completely classified)
v5aru	Godan verb - -aru special class
v5b	Godan verb with `bu' ending
v5g	Godan verb with `gu' ending
v5k	Godan verb with `ku' ending
v5k-s	Godan verb - iku/yuku special class
v5m	Godan verb with `mu' ending
v5n	Godan verb with `nu' ending
v5r	Godan verb with `ru' ending
v5r-i	Godan verb with `ru' ending (irregular verb)
v5s	Godan verb with `su' ending
v5t	Godan verb with `tsu' ending
v5u	Godan verb with `u' ending
v5u-s	Godan verb with `u' ending (special class)
v5uru	Godan verb - uru old class verb (old form of Eru)
vi	intransitive verb
vk	kuru verb - special class
vs	noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru
vs-i	suru verb - irregular
vs-s	suru verb - special class
vt	transitive verb
vz	zuru verb - (alternative form of -jiru verbs)
</PRE>
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>Field of Application
<P>
A number of entries are marked with a specific field of application.
Current fields and tags are:
</P>
<P>
</P>
<PRE>
Buddh	Buddhist term
MA	martial arts term
comp	computer terminology
food	food term
geom	geometry term
gram	grammatical term
ling	linguistics terminology
math	mathematics
mil	military
physics	physics terminology
</PRE>
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>Miscellaneous Markings
<P>
</P>
<PRE>
X	rude or X-rated term
abbr	abbreviation
arch	archaism
ateji	ateji (phonetic) reading
chn	children's language
col	colloquialism
derog	derogatory
ek	exclusively kanji
fam	familiar language
fem	female term or language
gikun	gikun (meaning) reading
hon	honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language
hum	humble (kenjougo) language
id	idiomatic expression
m-sl	manga slang
male	male term or language
male-sl	male slang
ng	neuter gender
obs	obsolete term
obsc	obscure term
pol	polite (teineigo) language
rare	rare
uK	word usually written using kanji alone
uk	word usually written using kana alone
vulg	vulgar expression or word
</PRE>
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>Okurigana Variants
<P>
Okurigana variants in headwords are handled by including each variant form
as a headword. This is to enable software to match with  variant forms.
</P>
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>Spellings
<P>
As far as possible variants of English translation  and spelling are included. 
Where appropriate different translations are included for 
national variants (e.g. autumn/fall, tap/faucet, etc.). Common spelling
variations such as -our/-or and -ize/-ise are handled either by repeating
the gloss in both spellings or appending spelling variants in parentheses.
No attempt is made to tag English spellings according to country of usage.
</P>
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>Gairaigo and Regional Words
<P>
For gairaigo which have not been derived from English words, 
the source language and the word in that language are included. Languages have
been coded in the two-letter codes from the ISO 639:1988 "Code for the
representation of names of languages" standard, e.g. "(fr: avec)".
In the case of gairaigo which have a meaning which is not apparent from the
original (usually English) words, the words in the source language are
included as: (trans: original words).
</P>
<P>
In addition to the language codes described in Appendix C, a number of tags 
are used to indicate that a word or phrase is associated with a particular 
regional language variant within Japan. The tags are:
</P>
<P>
</P>
<PRE>
kyb	Kyoto-ben
osb	Osaka-ben
ksb	Kansai-ben
ktb	Kantou-ben
tsb	Tosa-ben
</PRE>
</LI>
</OL>
<P>
<a name="IREF08"><h2>CONTRIBUTIONS</h2></a>
</P>
<P>
Contribution of new entries and amendments to existing entries is most
welcome. A special 
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/wwwnewword.html">WWW page </a>
is available for this purpose.
</P>
<P>
<a name="IREF08a"><h2>RELATED PROJECTS</h2></a>
</P>
<P>
A number of other Japanese dictionary projects are closely related to this
one. Among them are:
</P>
<OL type="a">
<P>
</P>
<LI>the 
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/enamdict_doc.html">ENAMDICT/JMnedict </a>
Japanese Proper Names Dictionary project, which currently has nearly
600,000 named entities. The files are available in EDICT or XML formats.
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>the
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/kanjidic.html">KANJIDIC </a>
and
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/kanjidic2/index.html">KANJIDIC2 </a>
project, which maintains and distributes databases of information about
kanji.
<P>
</P>
</LI>
<LI>the
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/compdic_doc.html">COMPDIC </a>
file in EDICT format of computing and telecomms terminology.
</LI>
</OL>
<P>
<a name="IREF09"><h2>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS</h2></a>
</P>
<P>
Since 1991 a large number of people have contributed to this project; far too 
many to list here. All their contributions have been most welcome, indeed
without the assistance of speakers and students of Japanese this
project would not have achieved as much.
</P>
<P>
<a name="IREF10"><h2>PUBLICATIONS</h2></a>
</P>
<P>
Some publications by Jim Breen about the EDICT/JMdict project:
</P>
<UL>
<LI>An early technical report from 1993;
 <a HREF="ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/ejdic_report1.ps.gz">(postscript) </a>
</LI>
<LI>an overview paper from 1995;
 <a HREF="jsaa_paper/hpaper.html">(html) </a>
 <a HREF="ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/elec_dic.ps.gz">(postscript) </a>
</LI>
<LI>a 1999 conference paper about WWWJDIC;
 <a HREF="ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/www-jdict.ps.gz">(postscript) </a>
 <a HREF="ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/www-jdict.pdf">(pdf) </a>
 <a HREF="wwwjdic_article/wwwjdic_article.html">(html). </a>
</LI>
<LI>a
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/jmdictart.html">paper </a>
about JMdict presented at the COLING Multilingual
Linguistic Resources Workshop in Geneva in August 2004.
</LI>
<LI>an earlier
 <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/ws2002_paper.html">JMdict paper </a>
about some of the practical issues, presented at the Papillon
Project workshop in Tokyo in July 2002.
</LI>
</UL>
<P>
<a name="IREF11"><h2>APPENDIX A. LANGUAGE CODES FROM ISO 639</h2></a>
</P>
<P>
The following language codes have been used with non-English derived
gairaigo. They have been derived from the ISO 639:1988 "Code for the
representation of names of languages" standard.
</P>
<P>
</P>
<PRE>
ar 	Arabic
zh 	Chinese (Zhongwen)
de 	German (Deutsch)
en 	English
fr 	French
el 	Greek (Ellinika)
iw 	Hebrew (Iwrith)
ja 	Japanese
ko 	Korean
nl 	Dutch (Nederlands)
no 	Norwegian
pl 	Polish
ru 	Russian
sv 	Swedish
bo 	Tibetan (Bodskad)
eo 	Esperanto
es 	Spanish
in 	Indonesian
it 	Italian
lt 	Latin
pt 	Portugese
hi 	Hindi
ur 	Urdu
mn 	Mongolian
kl 	Inuit (formerly Eskimo)
</PRE>
<P>
And the following, which are not in the Standard, are used:
</P>
<P>
</P>
<PRE>
ai 	Ainu
</PRE>
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