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              FCheck: The filesystem baseline integrity checker.
                    Copyright (C) 1996 Michael A. Gumienny


      Please send your comments, updates, improvements, wishes and
                        bug reports for fcheck to:

                           Michael A. Gumienny
                           gumienny@hotmail.com

     ###################################################################
   This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
   Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your
   option) any later version.

   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
   WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General
   Public License for more details.

   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
   with this program; if not, write to:

             Free Software Foundation, Inc.
             59 Temple Place - Suite 330
             Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.

        Or you can find the full GNU GPL online at: http://www.gnu.org
     ###################################################################



Files:
Your distribution should contain the following seven (5) files:

    README                      Your reading this file.
    fcheck                      PERL script fcheck.
    fcheck.cfg                  Required configuration file.
    license                     GNU GPL License agreement.
    install                     Installation guide for all platforms.

This documentation contains the following sections.

    Files:                      This sections you are reading now. Contains
                                listing of files you should have included in
                                your distribution.
    History behind FCheck:      A brief introduction as to why FCheck was
                                written.
    FCheck Features:            What FCheck cna do for you.
    Changelog:                  Small, because FCheck was really written a
                                few years ago but is now being added to.
    Operation:                  A brief intro to normal flag usage when you
                                run FCheck.
    Closing Hints:              A few tips from the author from real time
                                usage experience.
    Mini FAQ:                   Questions that have filtered back to the
                                author concerning operational problems.

Complete detailed configuration and setup procedures can be found in the
install.unix and install.win documents also included.



     ###################################################################



History behind FCheck:
Fcheck was developed out of necessity from a situation when my company
outsourced its UNIX administrators. Originally intended for monitoring the
administrators whimsical changes to the systems, it grew into a full-blown
security tool.

Being the person that went to the meetings and responsible for the systems
(I.E. the guy with his head on the block), not knowing that a complete
filesystem had been removed, happened only once. My "staff" had forgotten to
notify me of the change, along with several other changes. I needed a way to
monitor the system for any modifications and would report back to me
immediately to stay abreast of whimsical changes. Thus, FCheck was born. 

FCheck grew into an overnight success, even though I did not see its complete
potential at first. When a surprise Security Audit Team arrived, the full
potential was recognized.

Having several tools already in place to satisfy the auditors demands, they
thought they had us when a baseline snapshot of the system was requested.
Expecting to hear that we had no such tool in place, they were eager to learn
more about FCheck and its capabilities. 



     ###################################################################



FCheck Features:
Essentially, FCheck has the ability to monitor directories, files or complete
filesystems for any additions, deletions, and modifications. It is configurable
to exclude active log files, and can be ran as often as needed from the command
line or cron making it extremely difficult to circumvent. It is written in
standard PERL and requires no special outside library modules.

Currently there are a few 'Tripwire' style baseline system security tools and
most are purchasable with licensing agreements, etc. Personally I hate software
that you must purchase so this is distributed under the GNU license. (I.E. It's
yours to play with, but keep my name in it, and let me know what you modified
so that others can share the benefits).  FCheck was further developed with the
junior administrator in mind that do not yet understand the complex
configuration files and operation required to run many security products.

All code is written from scratch, and is owned solely by the author, but rights
are granted for its usage under the GNU license agreement to any site that
desires free baseline security measures. 



     ###################################################################



Changelog:
See the script, it's getting big!


Major Updates Provided in this release:
 o Added ability to determine version of MD5 being used.

 o Modified the routines that call MD5 and "file" to pipes, slight speed
   increase and less vulnerable to shell exploits.


Update in last release:
 o Databases merged into one database, DATABASE= configuration keyword now
   points to the full path and filename to use for that database.

 o Added the "-h" option to look for the configuration file with the $HOSTNAME
   environment variable appended to the end fo it. (This is useful in
   distributed system environments.)

     (Example)
     $HOSTNAME=myhost
     fcheck -ahf A_Config.dbf
     Result: fcheck would use a configuration file of "A_Config.dbf.myhost" 

 o Added the "-r" option to create a report suitable for email. The generated
   report will show good, and bad integrity checks.

 o Added the "-x" option to allow monitoring the "number of links", "UID",
   "GID", and the "Major/Minor" numbers of device files.

 o Added the "FILE=" keyword in the configuration file. This will allow you to
   monitor single files, rather than entire directory contents.

 o Added the "FILETYPER=" keyword in the configuration file. This needs to be
   set if you use the "-x" option, and is what will allow you to determine
   file types, and major/minor numbers of device files.


   ###################################################################



Operation, and Getting Started:
Flag passing is a fairly simple process. Primarily you will be using two
commands. One builds (or rebuilds) your baseline database files (system
snapshots). The second runs in a scanning comparison mode.

  "fcheck -ac"   Builds the baseline database.
  "fcheck -a"    Comparison scans the system against the baseline database.

For normal operation: Initially you will run fcheck by issuing the command
"fcheck -ac" to create the initial baseline file used for comparison. Any
runs after the creation of the basline will normally be with the flags
"fcheck -a" to scan for any system modifications.

After a scan is completed, you will probably want to have fcheck re-create its
baseline database for the next comparison cycle. Otherwise you will be seeing
every system modification since the last baseline re-build. In other words, run
the "fcheck -ac" command again.

(Advanced Note:)
A more intensive system check would be accomplished by building your database
to include GID/UID checks, directories, and CRC checks by using the following
sample syntax:

  "fcheck -cadsxlhf /usr/local/admtools/etc/fcheck.dbf.yourhost"

And provide periodic integrity scans from cron by using the following sample
syntax:

  "fcheck -adsxlhf /usr/local/admtools/etc/fcheck.dbf.yourhost"



     ###################################################################



Closing Hints:
I would also suggest using the "l" flag to send messages to syslog unless you
really want to watch the output from this all the time. You could also make
use of some log monitoring packages like CA-Unicenter, HP-Openview, or
several other shareware alternatives including 'xlog' or even the 'pmem' Tcl/Tk
interface that I also wrote.

FCheck was ran from cron in a production environment at 10 minute intervals
with no impact to system performance. Message logging was handled by syslog
with the "-l" flag and imported to a commercial event monitoring package that
monitored and displayed system logfiles, highlighting only the important
events. A shorter duration can be obtained on smaller systems, but you must
allow FCheck to complete its baseline comparison before re-building the
baseline to alleviate false readings. Actual interval times will vary
depending on how active a system you are running FCheck on.

Those of you that have scanned the early code may have noticed the remote shell
feature has been removed. I felt this offered too much temptation to open a
security hole and was removed. Fcheck does NOT have to run as root, but it does
need to have read permissions to each of the directories and files that you
want to monitor.

Other flags for you to play with are as follows:

   -a    Automatic mode, do all directories in configuration file.
   -c    Create a new base line database for the given directory.
   -d    Directory names are to be monitored for changes also.
   -f    Use alternate 'filename' as the configuration file.
   -i    Ignore creation times, check permissions, adds, deletes only.
   -h    Append the $HOSTNAME to the configuration filename.
   -l    Log information to logger rather than stdout messages.
   -r    Report mode, great for emailed status reports.
   -s    Sign each file with a CRC/hash signature.
   -v    Verbose mode, not used for report generation.
   -x    eXtended unix checks, # of links, UID, GID, Major/Minor checks.


Final Notes:
As stated elsewhere in this README. If you have suggestions please forward
them to me and I'll try to accommodate them. If they make sense and others have
requested the same changes, then they may make it into the next release.

* THREATS ARE IGNORED WHEN YOUR SUGGESTION DOES NOT GET WRITTEN INTO A RELEASE *

This is free software and I don't make a living from it. It is also distributed
under the terms of the GNU General Public License WITHOUT WARRANTY!



     ###################################################################



Mini FAQ:

Q: When I try to initialize with the command "FCheck -ac" I get the following
   error message back. Why?

      FCheck: Can't find C:/Work/temp/perl/fcheck/FCheck.cfg
      terminating...

A: FCheck can't locate the configuration file that you have instructed it to
   use. Edit the executable (FCheck) and ensure that the variable "$config="
   is set properly to reflect your configuration files location.
  


Q: When I try to initialize with the command "FCheck -ac" I get the following
   error message back. Why?

      FCheck: no base file directory exist! [C:/Work/temp/perl/fcheck/data]
      terminating...

A: The directory that you have instructed FCheck to utilize to store its
   database does not exist. Either modify the configuration file (FCheck.cfg)
   to use an existing directory, or create the one it needs.



Q: I have removed a directory "/usr/local/etc" and told FCheck to exclude it
   from future scans with the line "Exclusion = /usr/local/etc/", now it is
   being reported as deleted.

A: But, the scanned directory does still exist in FChecks databases. After a
   modification to any scanned area of a system. You must tell FCheck to
   re-initialize its database (FCheck -ac) to stop this behaviour. Otherwise
   FCheck will continue to report any changes that it has detected, including
   the directory you told it to exclude from future scans. Once you have
   re-initialize the databases, only then will FCheck ignore any directories
   or files that you instructed it to exclude.



Q: FCheck says "debug: (GetDir) No can do (/some_file)..." when I try to monitor
   a file.  Does "Directory =" have to be a Directory for File Name?

A: Okay, you caught me! FCheck never had any real documentation until recently
   which means there is bound to be an error or two. Some more noticeable than
   others.

   You must use the directories name that you wish to monitor. As an option,
   you can monitor that directory recursively by placing a "/" at the end of
   the path ("/etc" for the immediate directory, or "/etc/" for recursive).

   For you to monitor only your "/etc/passwd" you would have an entry of
   "Directory = /etc" and then you would use several excludes such as
   "Exclude = /etc/group", "Exclude = /etc/motd", and so on. But I think that
   you will probably want to monitor the entire "/etc" directory for
   changes.



Q: Gzip says "decompression OK, trailing garbage ignored." When I uncompress
   FCheck, is my tar file damaged?

A: The Netscape WEB site appears to be padding GZipped files with NULLS,
   although it does not happen to the identical Pkzipped file. As expressed in
   the warning message, GZip ignores the trailing NULL characters with no
   impact to the extracted tar file. If the displayed warning bothers you too
   much, then try the Pkzipped version of FCheck as it is an identical varsion.