File: magic.man

package info (click to toggle)
file 3.37-3.1.woody.1
  • links: PTS
  • area: main
  • in suites: woody
  • size: 1,176 kB
  • ctags: 506
  • sloc: ansic: 4,299; sh: 352; makefile: 127; perl: 61
file content (222 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 7,526 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
.TH MAGIC __FSECTION__ "Public Domain"
.\" install as magic.4 on USG, magic.5 on V7 or Berkeley systems.
.SH NAME
magic \- file command's magic number file
.SH DESCRIPTION
This manual page documents the format of the magic file as
used by the
.BR file (__CSECTION__)
command, version __VERSION__. The
.BR file (__CSECTION__)
command identifies the type of a file using,
among other tests,
a test for whether the file begins with a certain
.IR "magic number" .
The file
.I __MAGIC__
specifies what magic numbers are to be tested for,
what message to print if a particular magic number is found,
and additional information to extract from the file.
.PP
Each line of the file specifies a test to be performed.
A test compares the data starting at a particular offset
in the file with a 1-byte, 2-byte, or 4-byte numeric value or
a string.  If the test succeeds, a message is printed.
The line consists of the following fields:
.IP offset \w'message'u+2n
A number specifying the offset, in bytes, into the file of the data
which is to be tested.
.IP type
The type of the data to be tested.  The possible values are:
.RS
.IP byte \w'message'u+2n
A one-byte value.
.IP short
A two-byte value (on most systems) in this machine's native byte order.
.IP long
A four-byte value (on most systems) in this machine's native byte order.
.IP string
A string of bytes. The string type specification can be optionally followed
by /[Bbc]*. The ``B'' flag compacts whitespace in the target, which must
contain at least one whitespace character. If the magic has "n" consecutive
blanks, the target needs at least "n" consecutive blanks to match. The ``b''
flag treats every blank in the target as an optional blank. Finally the ``c''
flag, specifies case insensitive matching: lowercase characters in the magic
match both lower and upper case characters in the targer, whereas upper case
characters in the magic, only much uppercase characters in the target.
.IP date
A four-byte value interpreted as a UNIX date.
.IP ldate
A four-byte value interpreted as a UNIX-style date, but interpreted as
local time rather than UTC.
.IP beshort
A two-byte value (on most systems) in big-endian byte order.
.IP belong
A four-byte value (on most systems) in big-endian byte order.
.IP bedate
A four-byte value (on most systems) in big-endian byte order,
interpreted as a unix date.
.IP leshort
A two-byte value (on most systems) in little-endian byte order.
.IP lelong
A four-byte value (on most systems) in little-endian byte order.
.IP ledate
A four-byte value (on most systems) in little-endian byte order,
interpreted as a UNIX date.
.IP leldate
A four-byte value (on most systems) in little-endian byte order,
interpreted as a UNIX-style date, but interpreted as local time rather
than UTC.
.RE
.PP
The numeric types may optionally be followed by
.B &
and a numeric value,
to specify that the value is to be AND'ed with the
numeric value before any comparisons are done.  Prepending a
.B u
to the type indicates that ordered comparisons should be unsigned.
.IP test
The value to be compared with the value from the file.  If the type is
numeric, this value
is specified in C form; if it is a string, it is specified as a C string
with the usual escapes permitted (e.g. \en for new-line).
.IP
Numeric values
may be preceded by a character indicating the operation to be performed.
It may be
.BR = ,
to specify that the value from the file must equal the specified value,
.BR < ,
to specify that the value from the file must be less than the specified
value,
.BR > ,
to specify that the value from the file must be greater than the specified
value,
.BR & ,
to specify that the value from the file must have set all of the bits 
that are set in the specified value,
.BR ^ ,
to specify that the value from the file must have clear any of the bits 
that are set in the specified value, or
.BR x ,
to specify that any value will match. If the character is omitted,
it is assumed to be
.BR = .
.IP
Numeric values are specified in C form; e.g.
.B 13
is decimal,
.B 013
is octal, and
.B 0x13
is hexadecimal.
.IP
For string values, the byte string from the
file must match the specified byte string. 
The operators
.BR = ,
.B <
and
.B >
(but not
.BR & )
can be applied to strings.
The length used for matching is that of the string argument
in the magic file.  This means that a line can match any string, and
then presumably print that string, by doing
.B >\e0
(because all strings are greater than the null string).
.IP message
The message to be printed if the comparison succeeds.  If the string
contains a
.BR printf (3)
format specification, the value from the file (with any specified masking
performed) is printed using the message as the format string.
.PP
Some file formats contain additional information which is to be printed
along with the file type.  A line which begins with the character
.B >
indicates additional tests and messages to be printed.  The number of
.B >
on the line indicates the level of the test; a line with no
.B >
at the beginning is considered to be at level 0.
Each line at level
.IB n \(pl1
is under the control of the line at level
.IB n
most closely preceding it in the magic file.
If the test on a line at level
.I n
succeeds, the tests specified in all the subsequent lines at level
.IB n \(pl1
are performed, and the messages printed if the tests succeed.  The next
line at level
.I n
terminates this.
If the first character following the last
.B >
is a
.B (
then the string after the parenthesis is interpreted as an indirect offset.
That means that the number after the parenthesis is used as an offset in
the file. The value at that offset is read, and is used again as an offset
in the file. Indirect offsets are of the form:
.BI (( x [.[bslBSL]][+-][ y ]).
The value of 
.I x
is used as an offset in the file. A byte, short or long is read at that offset
depending on the 
.B [bslBSL] 
type specifier. The capitalized types interpret the number as a big endian
value, whereas the small letter versions interpet the number as a little
endian value. To that number the value of
.I y
is added and the result is used as an offset in the file. The default type
if one is not specified is long.
.PP
Sometimes you do not know the exact offset as this depends on the length of
preceding fields. You can specify an offset relative to the end of the
last uplevel field (of course this may only be done for sublevel tests, i.e.
test beginning with 
.B >
). Such a relative offset is specified using
.B &
as a prefix to the offset.
.SH BUGS
The formats 
.IR long ,
.IR belong ,
.IR lelong ,
.IR short ,
.IR beshort ,
.IR leshort ,
.IR date ,
.IR bedate ,
and
.I ledate
are system-dependent; perhaps they should be specified as a number
of bytes (2B, 4B, etc), 
since the files being recognized typically come from
a system on which the lengths are invariant.
.PP
There is (currently) no support for specified-endian data to be used in
indirect offsets.
.SH SEE ALSO
.BR file (__CSECTION__)
\- the command that reads this file.
.\"
.\" From: guy@sun.uucp (Guy Harris)
.\" Newsgroups: net.bugs.usg
.\" Subject: /etc/magic's format isn't well documented
.\" Message-ID: <2752@sun.uucp>
.\" Date: 3 Sep 85 08:19:07 GMT
.\" Organization: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
.\" Lines: 136
.\" 
.\" Here's a manual page for the format accepted by the "file" made by adding
.\" the changes I posted to the S5R2 version.
.\"
.\" Modified for Ian Darwin's version of the file command.
.\" @(#)$Id: magic.man,v 1.17 2001/08/07 15:38:42 christos Exp $