File: readelf.c

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#include "file.h"

#ifdef BUILTIN_ELF
#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#include <config.h>
#endif
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#ifdef HAVE_UNISTD_H
#include <unistd.h>
#endif
#include <errno.h>

#include "readelf.h"

#ifndef lint
FILE_RCSID("@(#)$Id: readelf.c,v 1.17 2000/08/05 19:00:12 christos Exp $")
#endif

#ifdef	ELFCORE
static void dophn_core __P((int, int, int, off_t, int, size_t));
#endif
static void dophn_exec __P((int, int, int, off_t, int, size_t));
static void doshn __P((int, int, int, off_t, int, size_t));

static uint16_t getu16 __P((int, int));
static uint32_t getu32 __P((int, uint32_t));
static uint64_t getu64 __P((int, uint64_t));

static uint16_t
getu16(swap, value)
	int swap;
	uint16_t value;
{
	union {
		uint16_t ui;
		char c[2];
	} retval, tmpval;

	if (swap) {
		tmpval.ui = value;

		retval.c[0] = tmpval.c[1];
		retval.c[1] = tmpval.c[0];
		
		return retval.ui;
	} else
		return value;
}

static uint32_t
getu32(swap, value)
	int swap;
	uint32_t value;
{
	union {
		uint32_t ui;
		char c[4];
	} retval, tmpval;

	if (swap) {
		tmpval.ui = value;

		retval.c[0] = tmpval.c[3];
		retval.c[1] = tmpval.c[2];
		retval.c[2] = tmpval.c[1];
		retval.c[3] = tmpval.c[0];
		
		return retval.ui;
	} else
		return value;
}

static uint64_t
getu64(swap, value)
	int swap;
	uint64_t value;
{
	union {
		uint64_t ui;
		char c[8];
	} retval, tmpval;

	if (swap) {
		tmpval.ui = value;

		retval.c[0] = tmpval.c[7];
		retval.c[1] = tmpval.c[6];
		retval.c[2] = tmpval.c[5];
		retval.c[3] = tmpval.c[4];
		retval.c[4] = tmpval.c[3];
		retval.c[5] = tmpval.c[2];
		retval.c[6] = tmpval.c[1];
		retval.c[7] = tmpval.c[0];
		
		return retval.ui;
	} else
		return value;
}

#define sh_addr		(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? (void *) &sh32		\
			 : (void *) &sh64)
#define sh_size		(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? sizeof sh32			\
			 : sizeof sh64)
#define shs_type	(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? getu32(swap, sh32.sh_type)	\
			 : getu32(swap, sh64.sh_type))
#define ph_addr		(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? (void *) &ph32		\
			 : (void *) &ph64)
#define ph_size		(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? sizeof ph32			\
			 : sizeof ph64)
#define ph_type		(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? getu32(swap, ph32.p_type)	\
			 : getu32(swap, ph64.p_type))
#define ph_offset	(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? getu32(swap, ph32.p_offset)	\
			 : getu64(swap, ph64.p_offset))
#define nh_size		(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? sizeof *nh32			\
			 : sizeof *nh64)
#define nh_type		(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? getu32(swap, nh32->n_type)	\
			 : getu32(swap, nh64->n_type))
#define nh_namesz	(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? getu32(swap, nh32->n_namesz)	\
			 : getu32(swap, nh64->n_namesz))
#define nh_descsz	(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? getu32(swap, nh32->n_descsz)	\
			 : getu32(swap, nh64->n_descsz))
#define prpsoffsets(i)	(class == ELFCLASS32		\
			 ? prpsoffsets32[i]		\
			 : prpsoffsets64[i])

static void
doshn(class, swap, fd, off, num, size)
	int class;
	int swap;
	int fd;
	off_t off;
	int num;
	size_t size;
{
	Elf32_Shdr sh32;
	Elf64_Shdr sh64;

	if (size != sh_size)
		error("corrupted section header size.\n");

	if (lseek(fd, off, SEEK_SET) == -1)
		error("lseek failed (%s).\n", strerror(errno));

	for ( ; num; num--) {
		if (read(fd, sh_addr, sh_size) == -1)
			error("read failed (%s).\n", strerror(errno));
		if (shs_type == SHT_SYMTAB /* || shs_type == SHT_DYNSYM */) {
			(void) printf (", not stripped");
			return;
		}
	}
	(void) printf (", stripped");
}

/*
 * Look through the program headers of an executable image, searching
 * for a PT_INTERP section; if one is found, it's dynamically linked,
 * otherwise it's statically linked.
 */
static void
dophn_exec(class, swap, fd, off, num, size)
	int class;
	int swap;
	int fd;
	off_t off;
	int num;
	size_t size;
{
	Elf32_Phdr ph32;
	Elf64_Phdr ph64;
	char *linking_style = "statically";
	char *shared_libraries = "";

	if (size != ph_size)
		error("corrupted program header size.\n");
	if (lseek(fd, off, SEEK_SET) == -1)
		error("lseek failed (%s).\n", strerror(errno));

  	for ( ; num; num--) {
  		if (read(fd, ph_addr, ph_size) == -1)
  			error("read failed (%s).\n", strerror(errno));

		switch (ph_type) {
		case PT_DYNAMIC:
			linking_style = "dynamically";
			break;
		case PT_INTERP:
			shared_libraries = " (uses shared libs)";
			break;
		}
	}
	printf(", %s linked%s", linking_style, shared_libraries);
}

#ifdef ELFCORE
size_t	prpsoffsets32[] = {
	8,		/* FreeBSD */
	28,		/* Linux 2.0.36 */
	32,		/* Linux (I forget which kernel version) */
	84,		/* SunOS 5.x */
};

size_t	prpsoffsets64[] = {
       120,		/* SunOS 5.x, 64-bit */
};

#define	NOFFSETS32	(sizeof prpsoffsets32 / sizeof prpsoffsets32[0])
#define NOFFSETS64	(sizeof prpsoffsets64 / sizeof prpsoffsets64[0])

#define NOFFSETS	(class == ELFCLASS32 ? NOFFSETS32 : NOFFSETS64)

/*
 * Look through the program headers of an executable image, searching
 * for a PT_NOTE section of type NT_PRPSINFO, with a name "CORE" or
 * "FreeBSD"; if one is found, try looking in various places in its
 * contents for a 16-character string containing only printable
 * characters - if found, that string should be the name of the program
 * that dropped core.  Note: right after that 16-character string is,
 * at least in SunOS 5.x (and possibly other SVR4-flavored systems) and
 * Linux, a longer string (80 characters, in 5.x, probably other
 * SVR4-flavored systems, and Linux) containing the start of the
 * command line for that program.
 *
 * The signal number probably appears in a section of type NT_PRSTATUS,
 * but that's also rather OS-dependent, in ways that are harder to
 * dissect with heuristics, so I'm not bothering with the signal number.
 * (I suppose the signal number could be of interest in situations where
 * you don't have the binary of the program that dropped core; if you
 * *do* have that binary, the debugger will probably tell you what
 * signal it was.)
 */
static void
dophn_core(class, swap, fd, off, num, size)
	int class;
	int swap;
	int fd;
	off_t off;
	int num;
	size_t size;
{
	Elf32_Phdr ph32;
	Elf32_Nhdr *nh32;
	Elf64_Phdr ph64;
	Elf64_Nhdr *nh64;
	size_t offset, nameoffset, noffset, reloffset;
	unsigned char c;
	int i, j;
	char nbuf[BUFSIZ];
	int bufsize;
	int is_freebsd;

	if (size != ph_size)
		error("corrupted program header size.\n");
	/*
	 * Loop through all the program headers.
	 */
	for ( ; num; num--) {
		if (lseek(fd, off, SEEK_SET) == -1)
			error("lseek failed (%s).\n", strerror(errno));
		if (read(fd, ph_addr, ph_size) == -1)
			error("read failed (%s).\n", strerror(errno));
		off += size;
		if (ph_type != PT_NOTE)
			continue;

		/*
		 * This is a PT_NOTE section; loop through all the notes
		 * in the section.
		 */
		if (lseek(fd, (off_t) ph_offset, SEEK_SET) == -1)
			error("lseek failed (%s).\n", strerror(errno));
		bufsize = read(fd, nbuf, BUFSIZ);
		if (bufsize == -1)
			error(": " "read failed (%s).\n", strerror(errno));
		offset = 0;
		for (;;) {
			if (offset >= bufsize)
				break;
			if (class == ELFCLASS32)
				nh32 = (Elf32_Nhdr *)&nbuf[offset];
			else
				nh64 = (Elf64_Nhdr *)&nbuf[offset];
			offset += nh_size;

			/*
			 * Check whether this note has the name "CORE" or
			 * "FreeBSD".
			 */
			if (offset + nh_namesz >= bufsize) {
				/*
				 * We're past the end of the buffer.
				 */
				break;
			}

			nameoffset = offset;
			offset += nh_namesz;
			offset = ((offset + 3)/4)*4;

			/*
			 * Sigh.  The 2.0.36 kernel in Debian 2.1, at
			 * least, doesn't correctly implement name
			 * sections, in core dumps, as specified by
			 * the "Program Linking" section of "UNIX(R) System
			 * V Release 4 Programmer's Guide: ANSI C and
			 * Programming Support Tools", because my copy
			 * clearly says "The first 'namesz' bytes in 'name'
			 * contain a *null-terminated* [emphasis mine]
			 * character representation of the entry's owner
			 * or originator", but the 2.0.36 kernel code
			 * doesn't include the terminating null in the
			 * name....
			 */
			if ((nh_namesz == 4 &&
			      strncmp(&nbuf[nameoffset], "CORE", 4) == 0) ||
			    (nh_namesz == 5 &&
			      strcmp(&nbuf[nameoffset], "CORE") == 0))
				is_freebsd = 0;
			else if ((nh_namesz == 8 &&
			      strcmp(&nbuf[nameoffset], "FreeBSD") == 0))
				is_freebsd = 1;
			else
				continue;
			if (nh_type == NT_PRPSINFO) {
				/*
				 * Extract the program name.  We assume
				 * it to be 16 characters (that's what it
				 * is in SunOS 5.x and Linux).
				 *
				 * Unfortunately, it's at a different offset
				 * in varous OSes, so try multiple offsets.
				 * If the characters aren't all printable,
				 * reject it.
				 */
				for (i = 0; i < NOFFSETS; i++) {
					reloffset = prpsoffsets(i);
					noffset = offset + reloffset;
					for (j = 0; j < 16;
					    j++, noffset++, reloffset++) {
						/*
						 * Make sure we're not past
						 * the end of the buffer; if
						 * we are, just give up.
						 */
						if (noffset >= bufsize)
							goto tryanother;

						/*
						 * Make sure we're not past
						 * the end of the contents;
						 * if we are, this obviously
						 * isn't the right offset.
						 */
						if (reloffset >= nh_descsz)
							goto tryanother;

						c = nbuf[noffset];
						if (c == '\0') {
							/*
							 * A '\0' at the
							 * beginning is
							 * obviously wrong.
							 * Any other '\0'
							 * means we're done.
							 */
							if (j == 0)
								goto tryanother;
							else
								break;
						} else {
							/*
							 * A nonprintable
							 * character is also
							 * wrong.
							 */
#define isquote(c) (strchr("'\"`", (c)) != NULL)
							if (!isprint(c) ||
							     isquote(c))
								goto tryanother;
						}
					}

					/*
					 * Well, that worked.
					 */
					printf(", from '%.16s'",
					    &nbuf[offset + prpsoffsets(i)]);
					break;

				tryanother:
					;
				}
				break;
			}
			offset += nh_descsz;
			offset = ((offset + 3)/4)*4;
		}
	}
}
#endif

pipe2file(int fd, char *startbuf, int nbytes)
{
	FILE *tmp = tmpfile();
	char buf[4096];
	int r = 0, w = 0, available = 4096, rc;
	if (tmp == NULL) {
		error("can't create temporary file for pipe copy(%s).\n", strerror(errno));
		/*NOTREACHED*/
	}
	while(w!=-1 && nbytes)
	{
		nbytes-=fwrite(startbuf, 1, nbytes, tmp);
		if(nbytes && errno!=EINTR)
			w=-1;
	}
	while (r!=-1 && w!=-1)
	{
		char *ptr;
		r = read(fd, buf, available);
		if (r == -1 && errno == EINTR)
			continue;
		if (r <= 0)
			break;
		ptr = buf;
		while (r) {
			w = fwrite(ptr, 1, r, tmp);
			if (w < r && errno != EINTR)
			{
				w=-1;
				break;
			}
			r -= w;
			ptr += w;
		}
	}
	if (r == -1) {
		error("error while copying from pipe to tempfile(%s).\n", strerror(errno));
		/*NOTREACHED*/
	}
	if (w == -1) {
		error("error while writing to tempfile(%s).\n", strerror(errno));
		/*NOTREACHED*/
	}
	/* We duplicate the file descriptor, because fclose on a
	 * tmpfile will delete the file, but any open descriptors
	 * can still access the phantom inode.
	 */
	if ((fd = dup2(fileno(tmp), fd)) == -1) {
		error("couldn't dup destcriptor for tmpfile(%s).\n", strerror(errno));
		/*NOTREACHED*/
	}
	fclose(tmp);
	if (lseek(fd, 0, SEEK_SET)) {
		error("couldn't seek on tmpfile(%s).\n", strerror(errno));
		/*NOTREACHED*/
	}
	return fd;
}

void
tryelf(fd, buf, nbytes)
	int fd;
	unsigned char *buf;
	int nbytes;
{
	union {
		int32 l;
		char c[sizeof (int32)];
	} u;
	int class;
	int swap;

	/*
	 * ELF executables have multiple section headers in arbitrary
	 * file locations and thus file(1) cannot determine it from easily.
	 * Instead we traverse thru all section headers until a symbol table
	 * one is found or else the binary is stripped.
	 */
	if (buf[EI_MAG0] != ELFMAG0
	    || (buf[EI_MAG1] != ELFMAG1 && buf[EI_MAG1] != OLFMAG1)
	    || buf[EI_MAG2] != ELFMAG2 || buf[EI_MAG3] != ELFMAG3)
	    return;

	/*
	 * If we can't seek, it must be a pipe, socket or fifo.
	 */
	if((lseek(fd,5,SEEK_SET) == (off_t)-1) && (errno == ESPIPE))
		fd=pipe2file(fd,buf,nbytes);

	class = buf[4];

	if (class == ELFCLASS32) {
		Elf32_Ehdr elfhdr;
		if (nbytes <= sizeof (Elf32_Ehdr))
			return;


		u.l = 1;
		(void) memcpy(&elfhdr, buf, sizeof elfhdr);
		swap = (u.c[sizeof(int32) - 1] + 1) != elfhdr.e_ident[5];

		if (getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_type) == ET_CORE) 
#ifdef ELFCORE
			dophn_core(class, swap,
				   fd,
				   getu32(swap, elfhdr.e_phoff),
				   getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_phnum), 
				   getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_phentsize));
#else
			;
#endif
		else {
			if (getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_type) == ET_EXEC) {
				dophn_exec(class, swap,
					   fd,
					   getu32(swap, elfhdr.e_phoff),
					   getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_phnum), 
					   getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_phentsize));
			}
			doshn(class, swap,
			      fd,
			      getu32(swap, elfhdr.e_shoff),
			      getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_shnum),
			      getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_shentsize));
		}
		return;
	}

        if (class == ELFCLASS64) {
		Elf64_Ehdr elfhdr;
		if (nbytes <= sizeof (Elf64_Ehdr))
			return;


		u.l = 1;
		(void) memcpy(&elfhdr, buf, sizeof elfhdr);
		swap = (u.c[sizeof(int32) - 1] + 1) != elfhdr.e_ident[5];

		if (getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_type) == ET_CORE) 
#ifdef ELFCORE
			dophn_core(class, swap,
				   fd,
#ifdef USE_ARRAY_FOR_64BIT_TYPES
				   getu32(swap, elfhdr.e_phoff[1]),
#else
				   getu64(swap, elfhdr.e_phoff),
#endif
				   getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_phnum), 
				   getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_phentsize));
#else
			;
#endif
		else
		{
			if (getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_type) == ET_EXEC) {
				dophn_exec(class, swap,
					   fd,
#ifdef USE_ARRAY_FOR_64BIT_TYPES
					   getu32(swap, elfhdr.e_phoff[1]),
#else
					   getu64(swap, elfhdr.e_phoff),
#endif
					   getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_phnum), 
					   getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_phentsize));
			}
			doshn(class, swap,
			      fd,
#ifdef USE_ARRAY_FOR_64BIT_TYPES
			      getu32(swap, elfhdr.e_shoff[1]),
#else
			      getu64(swap, elfhdr.e_shoff),
#endif
			      getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_shnum),
			      getu16(swap, elfhdr.e_shentsize));
		}
		return;
	}
}
#endif