File: stat.c

package info (click to toggle)
fio 3.12-2
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: buster, sid
  • size: 4,488 kB
  • sloc: ansic: 65,165; sh: 3,284; python: 1,978; makefile: 657; yacc: 204; lex: 184
file content (2783 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 75,466 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
2511
2512
2513
2514
2515
2516
2517
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
2537
2538
2539
2540
2541
2542
2543
2544
2545
2546
2547
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
2565
2566
2567
2568
2569
2570
2571
2572
2573
2574
2575
2576
2577
2578
2579
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
2588
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
2599
2600
2601
2602
2603
2604
2605
2606
2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
2624
2625
2626
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
2635
2636
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
2647
2648
2649
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
2661
2662
2663
2664
2665
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
2677
2678
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
2705
2706
2707
2708
2709
2710
2711
2712
2713
2714
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
2726
2727
2728
2729
2730
2731
2732
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
2738
2739
2740
2741
2742
2743
2744
2745
2746
2747
2748
2749
2750
2751
2752
2753
2754
2755
2756
2757
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
2765
2766
2767
2768
2769
2770
2771
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
2777
2778
2779
2780
2781
2782
2783
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <math.h>

#include "fio.h"
#include "diskutil.h"
#include "lib/ieee754.h"
#include "json.h"
#include "lib/getrusage.h"
#include "idletime.h"
#include "lib/pow2.h"
#include "lib/output_buffer.h"
#include "helper_thread.h"
#include "smalloc.h"
#include "zbd.h"

#define LOG_MSEC_SLACK	1

struct fio_sem *stat_sem;

void clear_rusage_stat(struct thread_data *td)
{
	struct thread_stat *ts = &td->ts;

	fio_getrusage(&td->ru_start);
	ts->usr_time = ts->sys_time = 0;
	ts->ctx = 0;
	ts->minf = ts->majf = 0;
}

void update_rusage_stat(struct thread_data *td)
{
	struct thread_stat *ts = &td->ts;

	fio_getrusage(&td->ru_end);
	ts->usr_time += mtime_since_tv(&td->ru_start.ru_utime,
					&td->ru_end.ru_utime);
	ts->sys_time += mtime_since_tv(&td->ru_start.ru_stime,
					&td->ru_end.ru_stime);
	ts->ctx += td->ru_end.ru_nvcsw + td->ru_end.ru_nivcsw
			- (td->ru_start.ru_nvcsw + td->ru_start.ru_nivcsw);
	ts->minf += td->ru_end.ru_minflt - td->ru_start.ru_minflt;
	ts->majf += td->ru_end.ru_majflt - td->ru_start.ru_majflt;

	memcpy(&td->ru_start, &td->ru_end, sizeof(td->ru_end));
}

/*
 * Given a latency, return the index of the corresponding bucket in
 * the structure tracking percentiles.
 *
 * (1) find the group (and error bits) that the value (latency)
 * belongs to by looking at its MSB. (2) find the bucket number in the
 * group by looking at the index bits.
 *
 */
static unsigned int plat_val_to_idx(unsigned long long val)
{
	unsigned int msb, error_bits, base, offset, idx;

	/* Find MSB starting from bit 0 */
	if (val == 0)
		msb = 0;
	else
		msb = (sizeof(val)*8) - __builtin_clzll(val) - 1;

	/*
	 * MSB <= (FIO_IO_U_PLAT_BITS-1), cannot be rounded off. Use
	 * all bits of the sample as index
	 */
	if (msb <= FIO_IO_U_PLAT_BITS)
		return val;

	/* Compute the number of error bits to discard*/
	error_bits = msb - FIO_IO_U_PLAT_BITS;

	/* Compute the number of buckets before the group */
	base = (error_bits + 1) << FIO_IO_U_PLAT_BITS;

	/*
	 * Discard the error bits and apply the mask to find the
	 * index for the buckets in the group
	 */
	offset = (FIO_IO_U_PLAT_VAL - 1) & (val >> error_bits);

	/* Make sure the index does not exceed (array size - 1) */
	idx = (base + offset) < (FIO_IO_U_PLAT_NR - 1) ?
		(base + offset) : (FIO_IO_U_PLAT_NR - 1);

	return idx;
}

/*
 * Convert the given index of the bucket array to the value
 * represented by the bucket
 */
static unsigned long long plat_idx_to_val(unsigned int idx)
{
	unsigned int error_bits;
	unsigned long long k, base;

	assert(idx < FIO_IO_U_PLAT_NR);

	/* MSB <= (FIO_IO_U_PLAT_BITS-1), cannot be rounded off. Use
	 * all bits of the sample as index */
	if (idx < (FIO_IO_U_PLAT_VAL << 1))
		return idx;

	/* Find the group and compute the minimum value of that group */
	error_bits = (idx >> FIO_IO_U_PLAT_BITS) - 1;
	base = ((unsigned long long) 1) << (error_bits + FIO_IO_U_PLAT_BITS);

	/* Find its bucket number of the group */
	k = idx % FIO_IO_U_PLAT_VAL;

	/* Return the mean of the range of the bucket */
	return base + ((k + 0.5) * (1 << error_bits));
}

static int double_cmp(const void *a, const void *b)
{
	const fio_fp64_t fa = *(const fio_fp64_t *) a;
	const fio_fp64_t fb = *(const fio_fp64_t *) b;
	int cmp = 0;

	if (fa.u.f > fb.u.f)
		cmp = 1;
	else if (fa.u.f < fb.u.f)
		cmp = -1;

	return cmp;
}

unsigned int calc_clat_percentiles(uint64_t *io_u_plat, unsigned long long nr,
				   fio_fp64_t *plist, unsigned long long **output,
				   unsigned long long *maxv, unsigned long long *minv)
{
	unsigned long long sum = 0;
	unsigned int len, i, j = 0;
	unsigned int oval_len = 0;
	unsigned long long *ovals = NULL;
	bool is_last;

	*minv = -1ULL;
	*maxv = 0;

	len = 0;
	while (len < FIO_IO_U_LIST_MAX_LEN && plist[len].u.f != 0.0)
		len++;

	if (!len)
		return 0;

	/*
	 * Sort the percentile list. Note that it may already be sorted if
	 * we are using the default values, but since it's a short list this
	 * isn't a worry. Also note that this does not work for NaN values.
	 */
	if (len > 1)
		qsort((void *)plist, len, sizeof(plist[0]), double_cmp);

	/*
	 * Calculate bucket values, note down max and min values
	 */
	is_last = false;
	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_PLAT_NR && !is_last; i++) {
		sum += io_u_plat[i];
		while (sum >= (plist[j].u.f / 100.0 * nr)) {
			assert(plist[j].u.f <= 100.0);

			if (j == oval_len) {
				oval_len += 100;
				ovals = realloc(ovals, oval_len * sizeof(*ovals));
			}

			ovals[j] = plat_idx_to_val(i);
			if (ovals[j] < *minv)
				*minv = ovals[j];
			if (ovals[j] > *maxv)
				*maxv = ovals[j];

			is_last = (j == len - 1) != 0;
			if (is_last)
				break;

			j++;
		}
	}

	*output = ovals;
	return len;
}

/*
 * Find and display the p-th percentile of clat
 */
static void show_clat_percentiles(uint64_t *io_u_plat, unsigned long long nr,
				  fio_fp64_t *plist, unsigned int precision,
				  const char *pre, struct buf_output *out)
{
	unsigned int divisor, len, i, j = 0;
	unsigned long long minv, maxv;
	unsigned long long *ovals;
	int per_line, scale_down, time_width;
	bool is_last;
	char fmt[32];

	len = calc_clat_percentiles(io_u_plat, nr, plist, &ovals, &maxv, &minv);
	if (!len || !ovals)
		goto out;

	/*
	 * We default to nsecs, but if the value range is such that we
	 * should scale down to usecs or msecs, do that.
	 */
	if (minv > 2000000 && maxv > 99999999ULL) {
		scale_down = 2;
		divisor = 1000000;
		log_buf(out, "    %s percentiles (msec):\n     |", pre);
	} else if (minv > 2000 && maxv > 99999) {
		scale_down = 1;
		divisor = 1000;
		log_buf(out, "    %s percentiles (usec):\n     |", pre);
	} else {
		scale_down = 0;
		divisor = 1;
		log_buf(out, "    %s percentiles (nsec):\n     |", pre);
	}


	time_width = max(5, (int) (log10(maxv / divisor) + 1));
	snprintf(fmt, sizeof(fmt), " %%%u.%ufth=[%%%dllu]%%c", precision + 3,
			precision, time_width);
	/* fmt will be something like " %5.2fth=[%4llu]%c" */
	per_line = (80 - 7) / (precision + 10 + time_width);

	for (j = 0; j < len; j++) {
		/* for formatting */
		if (j != 0 && (j % per_line) == 0)
			log_buf(out, "     |");

		/* end of the list */
		is_last = (j == len - 1) != 0;

		for (i = 0; i < scale_down; i++)
			ovals[j] = (ovals[j] + 999) / 1000;

		log_buf(out, fmt, plist[j].u.f, ovals[j], is_last ? '\n' : ',');

		if (is_last)
			break;

		if ((j % per_line) == per_line - 1)	/* for formatting */
			log_buf(out, "\n");
	}

out:
	if (ovals)
		free(ovals);
}

bool calc_lat(struct io_stat *is, unsigned long long *min,
	      unsigned long long *max, double *mean, double *dev)
{
	double n = (double) is->samples;

	if (n == 0)
		return false;

	*min = is->min_val;
	*max = is->max_val;
	*mean = is->mean.u.f;

	if (n > 1.0)
		*dev = sqrt(is->S.u.f / (n - 1.0));
	else
		*dev = 0;

	return true;
}

void show_group_stats(struct group_run_stats *rs, struct buf_output *out)
{
	char *io, *agg, *min, *max;
	char *ioalt, *aggalt, *minalt, *maxalt;
	const char *str[] = { "   READ", "  WRITE" , "   TRIM"};
	int i;

	log_buf(out, "\nRun status group %d (all jobs):\n", rs->groupid);

	for (i = 0; i < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; i++) {
		const int i2p = is_power_of_2(rs->kb_base);

		if (!rs->max_run[i])
			continue;

		io = num2str(rs->iobytes[i], rs->sig_figs, 1, i2p, N2S_BYTE);
		ioalt = num2str(rs->iobytes[i], rs->sig_figs, 1, !i2p, N2S_BYTE);
		agg = num2str(rs->agg[i], rs->sig_figs, 1, i2p, rs->unit_base);
		aggalt = num2str(rs->agg[i], rs->sig_figs, 1, !i2p, rs->unit_base);
		min = num2str(rs->min_bw[i], rs->sig_figs, 1, i2p, rs->unit_base);
		minalt = num2str(rs->min_bw[i], rs->sig_figs, 1, !i2p, rs->unit_base);
		max = num2str(rs->max_bw[i], rs->sig_figs, 1, i2p, rs->unit_base);
		maxalt = num2str(rs->max_bw[i], rs->sig_figs, 1, !i2p, rs->unit_base);
		log_buf(out, "%s: bw=%s (%s), %s-%s (%s-%s), io=%s (%s), run=%llu-%llumsec\n",
				rs->unified_rw_rep ? "  MIXED" : str[i],
				agg, aggalt, min, max, minalt, maxalt, io, ioalt,
				(unsigned long long) rs->min_run[i],
				(unsigned long long) rs->max_run[i]);

		free(io);
		free(agg);
		free(min);
		free(max);
		free(ioalt);
		free(aggalt);
		free(minalt);
		free(maxalt);
	}
}

void stat_calc_dist(uint64_t *map, unsigned long total, double *io_u_dist)
{
	int i;

	/*
	 * Do depth distribution calculations
	 */
	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_MAP_NR; i++) {
		if (total) {
			io_u_dist[i] = (double) map[i] / (double) total;
			io_u_dist[i] *= 100.0;
			if (io_u_dist[i] < 0.1 && map[i])
				io_u_dist[i] = 0.1;
		} else
			io_u_dist[i] = 0.0;
	}
}

static void stat_calc_lat(struct thread_stat *ts, double *dst,
			  uint64_t *src, int nr)
{
	unsigned long total = ddir_rw_sum(ts->total_io_u);
	int i;

	/*
	 * Do latency distribution calculations
	 */
	for (i = 0; i < nr; i++) {
		if (total) {
			dst[i] = (double) src[i] / (double) total;
			dst[i] *= 100.0;
			if (dst[i] < 0.01 && src[i])
				dst[i] = 0.01;
		} else
			dst[i] = 0.0;
	}
}

/*
 * To keep the terse format unaltered, add all of the ns latency
 * buckets to the first us latency bucket
 */
static void stat_calc_lat_nu(struct thread_stat *ts, double *io_u_lat_u)
{
	unsigned long ntotal = 0, total = ddir_rw_sum(ts->total_io_u);
	int i;

	stat_calc_lat(ts, io_u_lat_u, ts->io_u_lat_u, FIO_IO_U_LAT_U_NR);

	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_LAT_N_NR; i++)
		ntotal += ts->io_u_lat_n[i];

	io_u_lat_u[0] += 100.0 * (double) ntotal / (double) total;
}

void stat_calc_lat_n(struct thread_stat *ts, double *io_u_lat)
{
	stat_calc_lat(ts, io_u_lat, ts->io_u_lat_n, FIO_IO_U_LAT_N_NR);
}

void stat_calc_lat_u(struct thread_stat *ts, double *io_u_lat)
{
	stat_calc_lat(ts, io_u_lat, ts->io_u_lat_u, FIO_IO_U_LAT_U_NR);
}

void stat_calc_lat_m(struct thread_stat *ts, double *io_u_lat)
{
	stat_calc_lat(ts, io_u_lat, ts->io_u_lat_m, FIO_IO_U_LAT_M_NR);
}

static void display_lat(const char *name, unsigned long long min,
			unsigned long long max, double mean, double dev,
			struct buf_output *out)
{
	const char *base = "(nsec)";
	char *minp, *maxp;

	if (nsec_to_msec(&min, &max, &mean, &dev))
		base = "(msec)";
	else if (nsec_to_usec(&min, &max, &mean, &dev))
		base = "(usec)";

	minp = num2str(min, 6, 1, 0, N2S_NONE);
	maxp = num2str(max, 6, 1, 0, N2S_NONE);

	log_buf(out, "    %s %s: min=%s, max=%s, avg=%5.02f,"
		 " stdev=%5.02f\n", name, base, minp, maxp, mean, dev);

	free(minp);
	free(maxp);
}

static void show_ddir_status(struct group_run_stats *rs, struct thread_stat *ts,
			     int ddir, struct buf_output *out)
{
	unsigned long runt;
	unsigned long long min, max, bw, iops;
	double mean, dev;
	char *io_p, *bw_p, *bw_p_alt, *iops_p, *zbd_w_st = NULL;
	int i2p;

	if (ddir_sync(ddir)) {
		if (calc_lat(&ts->sync_stat, &min, &max, &mean, &dev)) {
			log_buf(out, "  %s:\n", "fsync/fdatasync/sync_file_range");
			display_lat(io_ddir_name(ddir), min, max, mean, dev, out);
			show_clat_percentiles(ts->io_u_sync_plat,
						ts->sync_stat.samples,
						ts->percentile_list,
						ts->percentile_precision,
						io_ddir_name(ddir), out);
		}
		return;
	}

	assert(ddir_rw(ddir));

	if (!ts->runtime[ddir])
		return;

	i2p = is_power_of_2(rs->kb_base);
	runt = ts->runtime[ddir];

	bw = (1000 * ts->io_bytes[ddir]) / runt;
	io_p = num2str(ts->io_bytes[ddir], ts->sig_figs, 1, i2p, N2S_BYTE);
	bw_p = num2str(bw, ts->sig_figs, 1, i2p, ts->unit_base);
	bw_p_alt = num2str(bw, ts->sig_figs, 1, !i2p, ts->unit_base);

	iops = (1000 * (uint64_t)ts->total_io_u[ddir]) / runt;
	iops_p = num2str(iops, ts->sig_figs, 1, 0, N2S_NONE);
	if (ddir == DDIR_WRITE)
		zbd_w_st = zbd_write_status(ts);

	log_buf(out, "  %s: IOPS=%s, BW=%s (%s)(%s/%llumsec)%s\n",
			rs->unified_rw_rep ? "mixed" : io_ddir_name(ddir),
			iops_p, bw_p, bw_p_alt, io_p,
			(unsigned long long) ts->runtime[ddir],
			zbd_w_st ? : "");

	free(zbd_w_st);
	free(io_p);
	free(bw_p);
	free(bw_p_alt);
	free(iops_p);

	if (calc_lat(&ts->slat_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev))
		display_lat("slat", min, max, mean, dev, out);
	if (calc_lat(&ts->clat_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev))
		display_lat("clat", min, max, mean, dev, out);
	if (calc_lat(&ts->lat_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev))
		display_lat(" lat", min, max, mean, dev, out);

	if (ts->clat_percentiles || ts->lat_percentiles) {
		const char *name = ts->clat_percentiles ? "clat" : " lat";
		uint64_t samples;

		if (ts->clat_percentiles)
			samples = ts->clat_stat[ddir].samples;
		else
			samples = ts->lat_stat[ddir].samples;

		show_clat_percentiles(ts->io_u_plat[ddir],
					samples,
					ts->percentile_list,
					ts->percentile_precision, name, out);
	}
	if (calc_lat(&ts->bw_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev)) {
		double p_of_agg = 100.0, fkb_base = (double)rs->kb_base;
		const char *bw_str;

		if ((rs->unit_base == 1) && i2p)
			bw_str = "Kibit";
		else if (rs->unit_base == 1)
			bw_str = "kbit";
		else if (i2p)
			bw_str = "KiB";
		else
			bw_str = "kB";

		if (rs->agg[ddir]) {
			p_of_agg = mean * 100 / (double) (rs->agg[ddir] / 1024);
			if (p_of_agg > 100.0)
				p_of_agg = 100.0;
		}

		if (rs->unit_base == 1) {
			min *= 8.0;
			max *= 8.0;
			mean *= 8.0;
			dev *= 8.0;
		}

		if (mean > fkb_base * fkb_base) {
			min /= fkb_base;
			max /= fkb_base;
			mean /= fkb_base;
			dev /= fkb_base;
			bw_str = (rs->unit_base == 1 ? "Mibit" : "MiB");
		}

		log_buf(out, "   bw (%5s/s): min=%5llu, max=%5llu, per=%3.2f%%, "
			"avg=%5.02f, stdev=%5.02f, samples=%" PRIu64 "\n",
			bw_str, min, max, p_of_agg, mean, dev,
			(&ts->bw_stat[ddir])->samples);
	}
	if (calc_lat(&ts->iops_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev)) {
		log_buf(out, "   iops        : min=%5llu, max=%5llu, "
			"avg=%5.02f, stdev=%5.02f, samples=%" PRIu64 "\n",
			min, max, mean, dev, (&ts->iops_stat[ddir])->samples);
	}
}

static bool show_lat(double *io_u_lat, int nr, const char **ranges,
		     const char *msg, struct buf_output *out)
{
	bool new_line = true, shown = false;
	int i, line = 0;

	for (i = 0; i < nr; i++) {
		if (io_u_lat[i] <= 0.0)
			continue;
		shown = true;
		if (new_line) {
			if (line)
				log_buf(out, "\n");
			log_buf(out, "  lat (%s)   : ", msg);
			new_line = false;
			line = 0;
		}
		if (line)
			log_buf(out, ", ");
		log_buf(out, "%s%3.2f%%", ranges[i], io_u_lat[i]);
		line++;
		if (line == 5)
			new_line = true;
	}

	if (shown)
		log_buf(out, "\n");

	return true;
}

static void show_lat_n(double *io_u_lat_n, struct buf_output *out)
{
	const char *ranges[] = { "2=", "4=", "10=", "20=", "50=", "100=",
				 "250=", "500=", "750=", "1000=", };

	show_lat(io_u_lat_n, FIO_IO_U_LAT_N_NR, ranges, "nsec", out);
}

static void show_lat_u(double *io_u_lat_u, struct buf_output *out)
{
	const char *ranges[] = { "2=", "4=", "10=", "20=", "50=", "100=",
				 "250=", "500=", "750=", "1000=", };

	show_lat(io_u_lat_u, FIO_IO_U_LAT_U_NR, ranges, "usec", out);
}

static void show_lat_m(double *io_u_lat_m, struct buf_output *out)
{
	const char *ranges[] = { "2=", "4=", "10=", "20=", "50=", "100=",
				 "250=", "500=", "750=", "1000=", "2000=",
				 ">=2000=", };

	show_lat(io_u_lat_m, FIO_IO_U_LAT_M_NR, ranges, "msec", out);
}

static void show_latencies(struct thread_stat *ts, struct buf_output *out)
{
	double io_u_lat_n[FIO_IO_U_LAT_N_NR];
	double io_u_lat_u[FIO_IO_U_LAT_U_NR];
	double io_u_lat_m[FIO_IO_U_LAT_M_NR];

	stat_calc_lat_n(ts, io_u_lat_n);
	stat_calc_lat_u(ts, io_u_lat_u);
	stat_calc_lat_m(ts, io_u_lat_m);

	show_lat_n(io_u_lat_n, out);
	show_lat_u(io_u_lat_u, out);
	show_lat_m(io_u_lat_m, out);
}

static int block_state_category(int block_state)
{
	switch (block_state) {
	case BLOCK_STATE_UNINIT:
		return 0;
	case BLOCK_STATE_TRIMMED:
	case BLOCK_STATE_WRITTEN:
		return 1;
	case BLOCK_STATE_WRITE_FAILURE:
	case BLOCK_STATE_TRIM_FAILURE:
		return 2;
	default:
		/* Silence compile warning on some BSDs and have a return */
		assert(0);
		return -1;
	}
}

static int compare_block_infos(const void *bs1, const void *bs2)
{
	uint64_t block1 = *(uint64_t *)bs1;
	uint64_t block2 = *(uint64_t *)bs2;
	int state1 = BLOCK_INFO_STATE(block1);
	int state2 = BLOCK_INFO_STATE(block2);
	int bscat1 = block_state_category(state1);
	int bscat2 = block_state_category(state2);
	int cycles1 = BLOCK_INFO_TRIMS(block1);
	int cycles2 = BLOCK_INFO_TRIMS(block2);

	if (bscat1 < bscat2)
		return -1;
	if (bscat1 > bscat2)
		return 1;

	if (cycles1 < cycles2)
		return -1;
	if (cycles1 > cycles2)
		return 1;

	if (state1 < state2)
		return -1;
	if (state1 > state2)
		return 1;

	assert(block1 == block2);
	return 0;
}

static int calc_block_percentiles(int nr_block_infos, uint32_t *block_infos,
				  fio_fp64_t *plist, unsigned int **percentiles,
				  unsigned int *types)
{
	int len = 0;
	int i, nr_uninit;

	qsort(block_infos, nr_block_infos, sizeof(uint32_t), compare_block_infos);

	while (len < FIO_IO_U_LIST_MAX_LEN && plist[len].u.f != 0.0)
		len++;

	if (!len)
		return 0;

	/*
	 * Sort the percentile list. Note that it may already be sorted if
	 * we are using the default values, but since it's a short list this
	 * isn't a worry. Also note that this does not work for NaN values.
	 */
	if (len > 1)
		qsort((void *)plist, len, sizeof(plist[0]), double_cmp);

	/* Start only after the uninit entries end */
	for (nr_uninit = 0;
	     nr_uninit < nr_block_infos
		&& BLOCK_INFO_STATE(block_infos[nr_uninit]) == BLOCK_STATE_UNINIT;
	     nr_uninit ++)
		;

	if (nr_uninit == nr_block_infos)
		return 0;

	*percentiles = calloc(len, sizeof(**percentiles));

	for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
		int idx = (plist[i].u.f * (nr_block_infos - nr_uninit) / 100)
				+ nr_uninit;
		(*percentiles)[i] = BLOCK_INFO_TRIMS(block_infos[idx]);
	}

	memset(types, 0, sizeof(*types) * BLOCK_STATE_COUNT);
	for (i = 0; i < nr_block_infos; i++)
		types[BLOCK_INFO_STATE(block_infos[i])]++;

	return len;
}

static const char *block_state_names[] = {
	[BLOCK_STATE_UNINIT] = "unwritten",
	[BLOCK_STATE_TRIMMED] = "trimmed",
	[BLOCK_STATE_WRITTEN] = "written",
	[BLOCK_STATE_TRIM_FAILURE] = "trim failure",
	[BLOCK_STATE_WRITE_FAILURE] = "write failure",
};

static void show_block_infos(int nr_block_infos, uint32_t *block_infos,
			     fio_fp64_t *plist, struct buf_output *out)
{
	int len, pos, i;
	unsigned int *percentiles = NULL;
	unsigned int block_state_counts[BLOCK_STATE_COUNT];

	len = calc_block_percentiles(nr_block_infos, block_infos, plist,
				     &percentiles, block_state_counts);

	log_buf(out, "  block lifetime percentiles :\n   |");
	pos = 0;
	for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
		uint32_t block_info = percentiles[i];
#define LINE_LENGTH	75
		char str[LINE_LENGTH];
		int strln = snprintf(str, LINE_LENGTH, " %3.2fth=%u%c",
				     plist[i].u.f, block_info,
				     i == len - 1 ? '\n' : ',');
		assert(strln < LINE_LENGTH);
		if (pos + strln > LINE_LENGTH) {
			pos = 0;
			log_buf(out, "\n   |");
		}
		log_buf(out, "%s", str);
		pos += strln;
#undef LINE_LENGTH
	}
	if (percentiles)
		free(percentiles);

	log_buf(out, "        states               :");
	for (i = 0; i < BLOCK_STATE_COUNT; i++)
		log_buf(out, " %s=%u%c",
			 block_state_names[i], block_state_counts[i],
			 i == BLOCK_STATE_COUNT - 1 ? '\n' : ',');
}

static void show_ss_normal(struct thread_stat *ts, struct buf_output *out)
{
	char *p1, *p1alt, *p2;
	unsigned long long bw_mean, iops_mean;
	const int i2p = is_power_of_2(ts->kb_base);

	if (!ts->ss_dur)
		return;

	bw_mean = steadystate_bw_mean(ts);
	iops_mean = steadystate_iops_mean(ts);

	p1 = num2str(bw_mean / ts->kb_base, ts->sig_figs, ts->kb_base, i2p, ts->unit_base);
	p1alt = num2str(bw_mean / ts->kb_base, ts->sig_figs, ts->kb_base, !i2p, ts->unit_base);
	p2 = num2str(iops_mean, ts->sig_figs, 1, 0, N2S_NONE);

	log_buf(out, "  steadystate  : attained=%s, bw=%s (%s), iops=%s, %s%s=%.3f%s\n",
		ts->ss_state & FIO_SS_ATTAINED ? "yes" : "no",
		p1, p1alt, p2,
		ts->ss_state & FIO_SS_IOPS ? "iops" : "bw",
		ts->ss_state & FIO_SS_SLOPE ? " slope": " mean dev",
		ts->ss_criterion.u.f,
		ts->ss_state & FIO_SS_PCT ? "%" : "");

	free(p1);
	free(p1alt);
	free(p2);
}

static void show_thread_status_normal(struct thread_stat *ts,
				      struct group_run_stats *rs,
				      struct buf_output *out)
{
	double usr_cpu, sys_cpu;
	unsigned long runtime;
	double io_u_dist[FIO_IO_U_MAP_NR];
	time_t time_p;
	char time_buf[32];

	if (!ddir_rw_sum(ts->io_bytes) && !ddir_rw_sum(ts->total_io_u))
		return;
		
	memset(time_buf, 0, sizeof(time_buf));

	time(&time_p);
	os_ctime_r((const time_t *) &time_p, time_buf, sizeof(time_buf));

	if (!ts->error) {
		log_buf(out, "%s: (groupid=%d, jobs=%d): err=%2d: pid=%d: %s",
					ts->name, ts->groupid, ts->members,
					ts->error, (int) ts->pid, time_buf);
	} else {
		log_buf(out, "%s: (groupid=%d, jobs=%d): err=%2d (%s): pid=%d: %s",
					ts->name, ts->groupid, ts->members,
					ts->error, ts->verror, (int) ts->pid,
					time_buf);
	}

	if (strlen(ts->description))
		log_buf(out, "  Description  : [%s]\n", ts->description);

	if (ts->io_bytes[DDIR_READ])
		show_ddir_status(rs, ts, DDIR_READ, out);
	if (ts->io_bytes[DDIR_WRITE])
		show_ddir_status(rs, ts, DDIR_WRITE, out);
	if (ts->io_bytes[DDIR_TRIM])
		show_ddir_status(rs, ts, DDIR_TRIM, out);

	show_latencies(ts, out);

	if (ts->sync_stat.samples)
		show_ddir_status(rs, ts, DDIR_SYNC, out);

	runtime = ts->total_run_time;
	if (runtime) {
		double runt = (double) runtime;

		usr_cpu = (double) ts->usr_time * 100 / runt;
		sys_cpu = (double) ts->sys_time * 100 / runt;
	} else {
		usr_cpu = 0;
		sys_cpu = 0;
	}

	log_buf(out, "  cpu          : usr=%3.2f%%, sys=%3.2f%%, ctx=%llu,"
		 " majf=%llu, minf=%llu\n", usr_cpu, sys_cpu,
			(unsigned long long) ts->ctx,
			(unsigned long long) ts->majf,
			(unsigned long long) ts->minf);

	stat_calc_dist(ts->io_u_map, ddir_rw_sum(ts->total_io_u), io_u_dist);
	log_buf(out, "  IO depths    : 1=%3.1f%%, 2=%3.1f%%, 4=%3.1f%%, 8=%3.1f%%,"
		 " 16=%3.1f%%, 32=%3.1f%%, >=64=%3.1f%%\n", io_u_dist[0],
					io_u_dist[1], io_u_dist[2],
					io_u_dist[3], io_u_dist[4],
					io_u_dist[5], io_u_dist[6]);

	stat_calc_dist(ts->io_u_submit, ts->total_submit, io_u_dist);
	log_buf(out, "     submit    : 0=%3.1f%%, 4=%3.1f%%, 8=%3.1f%%, 16=%3.1f%%,"
		 " 32=%3.1f%%, 64=%3.1f%%, >=64=%3.1f%%\n", io_u_dist[0],
					io_u_dist[1], io_u_dist[2],
					io_u_dist[3], io_u_dist[4],
					io_u_dist[5], io_u_dist[6]);
	stat_calc_dist(ts->io_u_complete, ts->total_complete, io_u_dist);
	log_buf(out, "     complete  : 0=%3.1f%%, 4=%3.1f%%, 8=%3.1f%%, 16=%3.1f%%,"
		 " 32=%3.1f%%, 64=%3.1f%%, >=64=%3.1f%%\n", io_u_dist[0],
					io_u_dist[1], io_u_dist[2],
					io_u_dist[3], io_u_dist[4],
					io_u_dist[5], io_u_dist[6]);
	log_buf(out, "     issued rwts: total=%llu,%llu,%llu,%llu"
				 " short=%llu,%llu,%llu,0"
				 " dropped=%llu,%llu,%llu,0\n",
					(unsigned long long) ts->total_io_u[0],
					(unsigned long long) ts->total_io_u[1],
					(unsigned long long) ts->total_io_u[2],
					(unsigned long long) ts->total_io_u[3],
					(unsigned long long) ts->short_io_u[0],
					(unsigned long long) ts->short_io_u[1],
					(unsigned long long) ts->short_io_u[2],
					(unsigned long long) ts->drop_io_u[0],
					(unsigned long long) ts->drop_io_u[1],
					(unsigned long long) ts->drop_io_u[2]);
	if (ts->continue_on_error) {
		log_buf(out, "     errors    : total=%llu, first_error=%d/<%s>\n",
					(unsigned long long)ts->total_err_count,
					ts->first_error,
					strerror(ts->first_error));
	}
	if (ts->latency_depth) {
		log_buf(out, "     latency   : target=%llu, window=%llu, percentile=%.2f%%, depth=%u\n",
					(unsigned long long)ts->latency_target,
					(unsigned long long)ts->latency_window,
					ts->latency_percentile.u.f,
					ts->latency_depth);
	}

	if (ts->nr_block_infos)
		show_block_infos(ts->nr_block_infos, ts->block_infos,
				  ts->percentile_list, out);

	if (ts->ss_dur)
		show_ss_normal(ts, out);
}

static void show_ddir_status_terse(struct thread_stat *ts,
				   struct group_run_stats *rs, int ddir,
				   int ver, struct buf_output *out)
{
	unsigned long long min, max, minv, maxv, bw, iops;
	unsigned long long *ovals = NULL;
	double mean, dev;
	unsigned int len;
	int i, bw_stat;

	assert(ddir_rw(ddir));

	iops = bw = 0;
	if (ts->runtime[ddir]) {
		uint64_t runt = ts->runtime[ddir];

		bw = ((1000 * ts->io_bytes[ddir]) / runt) / 1024; /* KiB/s */
		iops = (1000 * (uint64_t) ts->total_io_u[ddir]) / runt;
	}

	log_buf(out, ";%llu;%llu;%llu;%llu",
		(unsigned long long) ts->io_bytes[ddir] >> 10, bw, iops,
					(unsigned long long) ts->runtime[ddir]);

	if (calc_lat(&ts->slat_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev))
		log_buf(out, ";%llu;%llu;%f;%f", min/1000, max/1000, mean/1000, dev/1000);
	else
		log_buf(out, ";%llu;%llu;%f;%f", 0ULL, 0ULL, 0.0, 0.0);

	if (calc_lat(&ts->clat_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev))
		log_buf(out, ";%llu;%llu;%f;%f", min/1000, max/1000, mean/1000, dev/1000);
	else
		log_buf(out, ";%llu;%llu;%f;%f", 0ULL, 0ULL, 0.0, 0.0);

	if (ts->clat_percentiles || ts->lat_percentiles) {
		len = calc_clat_percentiles(ts->io_u_plat[ddir],
					ts->clat_stat[ddir].samples,
					ts->percentile_list, &ovals, &maxv,
					&minv);
	} else
		len = 0;

	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_LIST_MAX_LEN; i++) {
		if (i >= len) {
			log_buf(out, ";0%%=0");
			continue;
		}
		log_buf(out, ";%f%%=%llu", ts->percentile_list[i].u.f, ovals[i]/1000);
	}

	if (calc_lat(&ts->lat_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev))
		log_buf(out, ";%llu;%llu;%f;%f", min/1000, max/1000, mean/1000, dev/1000);
	else
		log_buf(out, ";%llu;%llu;%f;%f", 0ULL, 0ULL, 0.0, 0.0);

	if (ovals)
		free(ovals);

	bw_stat = calc_lat(&ts->bw_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev);
	if (bw_stat) {
		double p_of_agg = 100.0;

		if (rs->agg[ddir]) {
			p_of_agg = mean * 100 / (double) (rs->agg[ddir] / 1024);
			if (p_of_agg > 100.0)
				p_of_agg = 100.0;
		}

		log_buf(out, ";%llu;%llu;%f%%;%f;%f", min, max, p_of_agg, mean, dev);
	} else
		log_buf(out, ";%llu;%llu;%f%%;%f;%f", 0ULL, 0ULL, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0);

	if (ver == 5) {
		if (bw_stat)
			log_buf(out, ";%" PRIu64, (&ts->bw_stat[ddir])->samples);
		else
			log_buf(out, ";%lu", 0UL);

		if (calc_lat(&ts->iops_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev))
			log_buf(out, ";%llu;%llu;%f;%f;%" PRIu64, min, max,
				mean, dev, (&ts->iops_stat[ddir])->samples);
		else
			log_buf(out, ";%llu;%llu;%f;%f;%lu", 0ULL, 0ULL, 0.0, 0.0, 0UL);
	}
}

static void add_ddir_status_json(struct thread_stat *ts,
		struct group_run_stats *rs, int ddir, struct json_object *parent)
{
	unsigned long long min, max, minv, maxv;
	unsigned long long bw_bytes, bw;
	unsigned long long *ovals = NULL;
	double mean, dev, iops;
	unsigned int len;
	int i;
	struct json_object *dir_object, *tmp_object, *percentile_object, *clat_bins_object = NULL;
	char buf[120];
	double p_of_agg = 100.0;

	assert(ddir_rw(ddir) || ddir_sync(ddir));

	if (ts->unified_rw_rep && ddir != DDIR_READ)
		return;

	dir_object = json_create_object();
	json_object_add_value_object(parent,
		ts->unified_rw_rep ? "mixed" : io_ddir_name(ddir), dir_object);

	if (ddir_rw(ddir)) {
		bw_bytes = 0;
		bw = 0;
		iops = 0.0;
		if (ts->runtime[ddir]) {
			uint64_t runt = ts->runtime[ddir];

			bw_bytes = ((1000 * ts->io_bytes[ddir]) / runt); /* Bytes/s */
			bw = bw_bytes / 1024; /* KiB/s */
			iops = (1000.0 * (uint64_t) ts->total_io_u[ddir]) / runt;
		}

		json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "io_bytes", ts->io_bytes[ddir]);
		json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "io_kbytes", ts->io_bytes[ddir] >> 10);
		json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "bw_bytes", bw_bytes);
		json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "bw", bw);
		json_object_add_value_float(dir_object, "iops", iops);
		json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "runtime", ts->runtime[ddir]);
		json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "total_ios", ts->total_io_u[ddir]);
		json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "short_ios", ts->short_io_u[ddir]);
		json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "drop_ios", ts->drop_io_u[ddir]);

		if (!calc_lat(&ts->slat_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev)) {
			min = max = 0;
			mean = dev = 0.0;
		}
		tmp_object = json_create_object();
		json_object_add_value_object(dir_object, "slat_ns", tmp_object);
		json_object_add_value_int(tmp_object, "min", min);
		json_object_add_value_int(tmp_object, "max", max);
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp_object, "mean", mean);
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp_object, "stddev", dev);

		if (!calc_lat(&ts->clat_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev)) {
			min = max = 0;
			mean = dev = 0.0;
		}
		tmp_object = json_create_object();
		json_object_add_value_object(dir_object, "clat_ns", tmp_object);
		json_object_add_value_int(tmp_object, "min", min);
		json_object_add_value_int(tmp_object, "max", max);
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp_object, "mean", mean);
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp_object, "stddev", dev);
	} else {
		if (!calc_lat(&ts->sync_stat, &min, &max, &mean, &dev)) {
			min = max = 0;
			mean = dev = 0.0;
		}

		tmp_object = json_create_object();
		json_object_add_value_object(dir_object, "lat_ns", tmp_object);
		json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "total_ios", ts->total_io_u[DDIR_SYNC]);
		json_object_add_value_int(tmp_object, "min", min);
		json_object_add_value_int(tmp_object, "max", max);
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp_object, "mean", mean);
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp_object, "stddev", dev);
	}

	if (ts->clat_percentiles || ts->lat_percentiles) {
		if (ddir_rw(ddir)) {
			uint64_t samples;

			if (ts->clat_percentiles)
				samples = ts->clat_stat[ddir].samples;
			else
				samples = ts->lat_stat[ddir].samples;

			len = calc_clat_percentiles(ts->io_u_plat[ddir],
					samples, ts->percentile_list, &ovals,
					&maxv, &minv);
		} else {
			len = calc_clat_percentiles(ts->io_u_sync_plat,
					ts->sync_stat.samples,
					ts->percentile_list, &ovals, &maxv,
					&minv);
		}

		if (len > FIO_IO_U_LIST_MAX_LEN)
			len = FIO_IO_U_LIST_MAX_LEN;
	} else
		len = 0;

	percentile_object = json_create_object();
	json_object_add_value_object(tmp_object, "percentile", percentile_object);
	for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
		snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%f", ts->percentile_list[i].u.f);
		json_object_add_value_int(percentile_object, (const char *)buf, ovals[i]);
	}

	if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_JSON_PLUS) {
		clat_bins_object = json_create_object();
		if (ts->clat_percentiles)
			json_object_add_value_object(tmp_object, "bins", clat_bins_object);

		for(i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_PLAT_NR; i++) {
			if (ddir_rw(ddir)) {
				if (ts->io_u_plat[ddir][i]) {
					snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%llu", plat_idx_to_val(i));
					json_object_add_value_int(clat_bins_object, (const char *)buf, ts->io_u_plat[ddir][i]);
				}
			} else {
				if (ts->io_u_sync_plat[i]) {
					snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%llu", plat_idx_to_val(i));
					json_object_add_value_int(clat_bins_object, (const char *)buf, ts->io_u_sync_plat[i]);
				}
			}
		}
	}

	if (!ddir_rw(ddir))
		return;

	if (!calc_lat(&ts->lat_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev)) {
		min = max = 0;
		mean = dev = 0.0;
	}
	tmp_object = json_create_object();
	json_object_add_value_object(dir_object, "lat_ns", tmp_object);
	json_object_add_value_int(tmp_object, "min", min);
	json_object_add_value_int(tmp_object, "max", max);
	json_object_add_value_float(tmp_object, "mean", mean);
	json_object_add_value_float(tmp_object, "stddev", dev);
	if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_JSON_PLUS && ts->lat_percentiles)
		json_object_add_value_object(tmp_object, "bins", clat_bins_object);

	if (ovals)
		free(ovals);

	if (calc_lat(&ts->bw_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev)) {
		if (rs->agg[ddir]) {
			p_of_agg = mean * 100 / (double) (rs->agg[ddir] / 1024);
			if (p_of_agg > 100.0)
				p_of_agg = 100.0;
		}
	} else {
		min = max = 0;
		p_of_agg = mean = dev = 0.0;
	}
	json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "bw_min", min);
	json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "bw_max", max);
	json_object_add_value_float(dir_object, "bw_agg", p_of_agg);
	json_object_add_value_float(dir_object, "bw_mean", mean);
	json_object_add_value_float(dir_object, "bw_dev", dev);
	json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "bw_samples",
				(&ts->bw_stat[ddir])->samples);

	if (!calc_lat(&ts->iops_stat[ddir], &min, &max, &mean, &dev)) {
		min = max = 0;
		mean = dev = 0.0;
	}
	json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "iops_min", min);
	json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "iops_max", max);
	json_object_add_value_float(dir_object, "iops_mean", mean);
	json_object_add_value_float(dir_object, "iops_stddev", dev);
	json_object_add_value_int(dir_object, "iops_samples",
				(&ts->iops_stat[ddir])->samples);
}

static void show_thread_status_terse_all(struct thread_stat *ts,
					 struct group_run_stats *rs, int ver,
					 struct buf_output *out)
{
	double io_u_dist[FIO_IO_U_MAP_NR];
	double io_u_lat_u[FIO_IO_U_LAT_U_NR];
	double io_u_lat_m[FIO_IO_U_LAT_M_NR];
	double usr_cpu, sys_cpu;
	int i;

	/* General Info */
	if (ver == 2)
		log_buf(out, "2;%s;%d;%d", ts->name, ts->groupid, ts->error);
	else
		log_buf(out, "%d;%s;%s;%d;%d", ver, fio_version_string,
			ts->name, ts->groupid, ts->error);

	/* Log Read Status */
	show_ddir_status_terse(ts, rs, DDIR_READ, ver, out);
	/* Log Write Status */
	show_ddir_status_terse(ts, rs, DDIR_WRITE, ver, out);
	/* Log Trim Status */
	if (ver == 2 || ver == 4 || ver == 5)
		show_ddir_status_terse(ts, rs, DDIR_TRIM, ver, out);

	/* CPU Usage */
	if (ts->total_run_time) {
		double runt = (double) ts->total_run_time;

		usr_cpu = (double) ts->usr_time * 100 / runt;
		sys_cpu = (double) ts->sys_time * 100 / runt;
	} else {
		usr_cpu = 0;
		sys_cpu = 0;
	}

	log_buf(out, ";%f%%;%f%%;%llu;%llu;%llu", usr_cpu, sys_cpu,
						(unsigned long long) ts->ctx,
						(unsigned long long) ts->majf,
						(unsigned long long) ts->minf);

	/* Calc % distribution of IO depths, usecond, msecond latency */
	stat_calc_dist(ts->io_u_map, ddir_rw_sum(ts->total_io_u), io_u_dist);
	stat_calc_lat_nu(ts, io_u_lat_u);
	stat_calc_lat_m(ts, io_u_lat_m);

	/* Only show fixed 7 I/O depth levels*/
	log_buf(out, ";%3.1f%%;%3.1f%%;%3.1f%%;%3.1f%%;%3.1f%%;%3.1f%%;%3.1f%%",
			io_u_dist[0], io_u_dist[1], io_u_dist[2], io_u_dist[3],
			io_u_dist[4], io_u_dist[5], io_u_dist[6]);

	/* Microsecond latency */
	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_LAT_U_NR; i++)
		log_buf(out, ";%3.2f%%", io_u_lat_u[i]);
	/* Millisecond latency */
	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_LAT_M_NR; i++)
		log_buf(out, ";%3.2f%%", io_u_lat_m[i]);

	/* disk util stats, if any */
	if (ver >= 3 && is_running_backend())
		show_disk_util(1, NULL, out);

	/* Additional output if continue_on_error set - default off*/
	if (ts->continue_on_error)
		log_buf(out, ";%llu;%d", (unsigned long long) ts->total_err_count, ts->first_error);
	if (ver == 2)
		log_buf(out, "\n");

	/* Additional output if description is set */
	if (strlen(ts->description))
		log_buf(out, ";%s", ts->description);

	log_buf(out, "\n");
}

static void json_add_job_opts(struct json_object *root, const char *name,
			      struct flist_head *opt_list)
{
	struct json_object *dir_object;
	struct flist_head *entry;
	struct print_option *p;

	if (flist_empty(opt_list))
		return;

	dir_object = json_create_object();
	json_object_add_value_object(root, name, dir_object);

	flist_for_each(entry, opt_list) {
		const char *pos = "";

		p = flist_entry(entry, struct print_option, list);
		if (p->value)
			pos = p->value;
		json_object_add_value_string(dir_object, p->name, pos);
	}
}

static struct json_object *show_thread_status_json(struct thread_stat *ts,
						   struct group_run_stats *rs,
						   struct flist_head *opt_list)
{
	struct json_object *root, *tmp;
	struct jobs_eta *je;
	double io_u_dist[FIO_IO_U_MAP_NR];
	double io_u_lat_n[FIO_IO_U_LAT_N_NR];
	double io_u_lat_u[FIO_IO_U_LAT_U_NR];
	double io_u_lat_m[FIO_IO_U_LAT_M_NR];
	double usr_cpu, sys_cpu;
	int i;
	size_t size;

	root = json_create_object();
	json_object_add_value_string(root, "jobname", ts->name);
	json_object_add_value_int(root, "groupid", ts->groupid);
	json_object_add_value_int(root, "error", ts->error);

	/* ETA Info */
	je = get_jobs_eta(true, &size);
	if (je) {
		json_object_add_value_int(root, "eta", je->eta_sec);
		json_object_add_value_int(root, "elapsed", je->elapsed_sec);
	}

	if (opt_list)
		json_add_job_opts(root, "job options", opt_list);

	add_ddir_status_json(ts, rs, DDIR_READ, root);
	add_ddir_status_json(ts, rs, DDIR_WRITE, root);
	add_ddir_status_json(ts, rs, DDIR_TRIM, root);
	add_ddir_status_json(ts, rs, DDIR_SYNC, root);

	/* CPU Usage */
	if (ts->total_run_time) {
		double runt = (double) ts->total_run_time;

		usr_cpu = (double) ts->usr_time * 100 / runt;
		sys_cpu = (double) ts->sys_time * 100 / runt;
	} else {
		usr_cpu = 0;
		sys_cpu = 0;
	}
	json_object_add_value_int(root, "job_runtime", ts->total_run_time);
	json_object_add_value_float(root, "usr_cpu", usr_cpu);
	json_object_add_value_float(root, "sys_cpu", sys_cpu);
	json_object_add_value_int(root, "ctx", ts->ctx);
	json_object_add_value_int(root, "majf", ts->majf);
	json_object_add_value_int(root, "minf", ts->minf);

	/* Calc % distribution of IO depths */
	stat_calc_dist(ts->io_u_map, ddir_rw_sum(ts->total_io_u), io_u_dist);
	tmp = json_create_object();
	json_object_add_value_object(root, "iodepth_level", tmp);
	/* Only show fixed 7 I/O depth levels*/
	for (i = 0; i < 7; i++) {
		char name[20];
		if (i < 6)
			snprintf(name, 20, "%d", 1 << i);
		else
			snprintf(name, 20, ">=%d", 1 << i);
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp, (const char *)name, io_u_dist[i]);
	}

	/* Calc % distribution of submit IO depths */
	stat_calc_dist(ts->io_u_submit, ts->total_submit, io_u_dist);
	tmp = json_create_object();
	json_object_add_value_object(root, "iodepth_submit", tmp);
	/* Only show fixed 7 I/O depth levels*/
	for (i = 0; i < 7; i++) {
		char name[20];
		if (i == 0)
			snprintf(name, 20, "0");
		else if (i < 6)
			snprintf(name, 20, "%d", 1 << (i+1));
		else
			snprintf(name, 20, ">=%d", 1 << i);
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp, (const char *)name, io_u_dist[i]);
	}

	/* Calc % distribution of completion IO depths */
	stat_calc_dist(ts->io_u_complete, ts->total_complete, io_u_dist);
	tmp = json_create_object();
	json_object_add_value_object(root, "iodepth_complete", tmp);
	/* Only show fixed 7 I/O depth levels*/
	for (i = 0; i < 7; i++) {
		char name[20];
		if (i == 0)
			snprintf(name, 20, "0");
		else if (i < 6)
			snprintf(name, 20, "%d", 1 << (i+1));
		else
			snprintf(name, 20, ">=%d", 1 << i);
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp, (const char *)name, io_u_dist[i]);
	}

	/* Calc % distribution of nsecond, usecond, msecond latency */
	stat_calc_dist(ts->io_u_map, ddir_rw_sum(ts->total_io_u), io_u_dist);
	stat_calc_lat_n(ts, io_u_lat_n);
	stat_calc_lat_u(ts, io_u_lat_u);
	stat_calc_lat_m(ts, io_u_lat_m);

	/* Nanosecond latency */
	tmp = json_create_object();
	json_object_add_value_object(root, "latency_ns", tmp);
	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_LAT_N_NR; i++) {
		const char *ranges[] = { "2", "4", "10", "20", "50", "100",
				 "250", "500", "750", "1000", };
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp, ranges[i], io_u_lat_n[i]);
	}
	/* Microsecond latency */
	tmp = json_create_object();
	json_object_add_value_object(root, "latency_us", tmp);
	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_LAT_U_NR; i++) {
		const char *ranges[] = { "2", "4", "10", "20", "50", "100",
				 "250", "500", "750", "1000", };
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp, ranges[i], io_u_lat_u[i]);
	}
	/* Millisecond latency */
	tmp = json_create_object();
	json_object_add_value_object(root, "latency_ms", tmp);
	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_LAT_M_NR; i++) {
		const char *ranges[] = { "2", "4", "10", "20", "50", "100",
				 "250", "500", "750", "1000", "2000",
				 ">=2000", };
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp, ranges[i], io_u_lat_m[i]);
	}

	/* Additional output if continue_on_error set - default off*/
	if (ts->continue_on_error) {
		json_object_add_value_int(root, "total_err", ts->total_err_count);
		json_object_add_value_int(root, "first_error", ts->first_error);
	}

	if (ts->latency_depth) {
		json_object_add_value_int(root, "latency_depth", ts->latency_depth);
		json_object_add_value_int(root, "latency_target", ts->latency_target);
		json_object_add_value_float(root, "latency_percentile", ts->latency_percentile.u.f);
		json_object_add_value_int(root, "latency_window", ts->latency_window);
	}

	/* Additional output if description is set */
	if (strlen(ts->description))
		json_object_add_value_string(root, "desc", ts->description);

	if (ts->nr_block_infos) {
		/* Block error histogram and types */
		int len;
		unsigned int *percentiles = NULL;
		unsigned int block_state_counts[BLOCK_STATE_COUNT];

		len = calc_block_percentiles(ts->nr_block_infos, ts->block_infos,
					     ts->percentile_list,
					     &percentiles, block_state_counts);

		if (len) {
			struct json_object *block, *percentile_object, *states;
			int state;
			block = json_create_object();
			json_object_add_value_object(root, "block", block);

			percentile_object = json_create_object();
			json_object_add_value_object(block, "percentiles",
						     percentile_object);
			for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
				char buf[20];
				snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%f",
					 ts->percentile_list[i].u.f);
				json_object_add_value_int(percentile_object,
							  (const char *)buf,
							  percentiles[i]);
			}

			states = json_create_object();
			json_object_add_value_object(block, "states", states);
			for (state = 0; state < BLOCK_STATE_COUNT; state++) {
				json_object_add_value_int(states,
					block_state_names[state],
					block_state_counts[state]);
			}
			free(percentiles);
		}
	}

	if (ts->ss_dur) {
		struct json_object *data;
		struct json_array *iops, *bw;
		int j, k, l;
		char ss_buf[64];

		snprintf(ss_buf, sizeof(ss_buf), "%s%s:%f%s",
			ts->ss_state & FIO_SS_IOPS ? "iops" : "bw",
			ts->ss_state & FIO_SS_SLOPE ? "_slope" : "",
			(float) ts->ss_limit.u.f,
			ts->ss_state & FIO_SS_PCT ? "%" : "");

		tmp = json_create_object();
		json_object_add_value_object(root, "steadystate", tmp);
		json_object_add_value_string(tmp, "ss", ss_buf);
		json_object_add_value_int(tmp, "duration", (int)ts->ss_dur);
		json_object_add_value_int(tmp, "attained", (ts->ss_state & FIO_SS_ATTAINED) > 0);

		snprintf(ss_buf, sizeof(ss_buf), "%f%s", (float) ts->ss_criterion.u.f,
			ts->ss_state & FIO_SS_PCT ? "%" : "");
		json_object_add_value_string(tmp, "criterion", ss_buf);
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp, "max_deviation", ts->ss_deviation.u.f);
		json_object_add_value_float(tmp, "slope", ts->ss_slope.u.f);

		data = json_create_object();
		json_object_add_value_object(tmp, "data", data);
		bw = json_create_array();
		iops = json_create_array();

		/*
		** if ss was attained or the buffer is not full,
		** ss->head points to the first element in the list.
		** otherwise it actually points to the second element
		** in the list
		*/
		if ((ts->ss_state & FIO_SS_ATTAINED) || !(ts->ss_state & FIO_SS_BUFFER_FULL))
			j = ts->ss_head;
		else
			j = ts->ss_head == 0 ? ts->ss_dur - 1 : ts->ss_head - 1;
		for (l = 0; l < ts->ss_dur; l++) {
			k = (j + l) % ts->ss_dur;
			json_array_add_value_int(bw, ts->ss_bw_data[k]);
			json_array_add_value_int(iops, ts->ss_iops_data[k]);
		}
		json_object_add_value_int(data, "bw_mean", steadystate_bw_mean(ts));
		json_object_add_value_int(data, "iops_mean", steadystate_iops_mean(ts));
		json_object_add_value_array(data, "iops", iops);
		json_object_add_value_array(data, "bw", bw);
	}

	return root;
}

static void show_thread_status_terse(struct thread_stat *ts,
				     struct group_run_stats *rs,
				     struct buf_output *out)
{
	if (terse_version >= 2 && terse_version <= 5)
		show_thread_status_terse_all(ts, rs, terse_version, out);
	else
		log_err("fio: bad terse version!? %d\n", terse_version);
}

struct json_object *show_thread_status(struct thread_stat *ts,
				       struct group_run_stats *rs,
				       struct flist_head *opt_list,
				       struct buf_output *out)
{
	struct json_object *ret = NULL;

	if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_TERSE)
		show_thread_status_terse(ts, rs,  out);
	if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_JSON)
		ret = show_thread_status_json(ts, rs, opt_list);
	if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_NORMAL)
		show_thread_status_normal(ts, rs,  out);

	return ret;
}

static void sum_stat(struct io_stat *dst, struct io_stat *src, bool first)
{
	double mean, S;

	if (src->samples == 0)
		return;

	dst->min_val = min(dst->min_val, src->min_val);
	dst->max_val = max(dst->max_val, src->max_val);

	/*
	 * Compute new mean and S after the merge
	 * <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algorithms_for_calculating_variance
	 *  #Parallel_algorithm>
	 */
	if (first) {
		mean = src->mean.u.f;
		S = src->S.u.f;
	} else {
		double delta = src->mean.u.f - dst->mean.u.f;

		mean = ((src->mean.u.f * src->samples) +
			(dst->mean.u.f * dst->samples)) /
			(dst->samples + src->samples);

		S =  src->S.u.f + dst->S.u.f + pow(delta, 2.0) *
			(dst->samples * src->samples) /
			(dst->samples + src->samples);
	}

	dst->samples += src->samples;
	dst->mean.u.f = mean;
	dst->S.u.f = S;
}

void sum_group_stats(struct group_run_stats *dst, struct group_run_stats *src)
{
	int i;

	for (i = 0; i < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; i++) {
		if (dst->max_run[i] < src->max_run[i])
			dst->max_run[i] = src->max_run[i];
		if (dst->min_run[i] && dst->min_run[i] > src->min_run[i])
			dst->min_run[i] = src->min_run[i];
		if (dst->max_bw[i] < src->max_bw[i])
			dst->max_bw[i] = src->max_bw[i];
		if (dst->min_bw[i] && dst->min_bw[i] > src->min_bw[i])
			dst->min_bw[i] = src->min_bw[i];

		dst->iobytes[i] += src->iobytes[i];
		dst->agg[i] += src->agg[i];
	}

	if (!dst->kb_base)
		dst->kb_base = src->kb_base;
	if (!dst->unit_base)
		dst->unit_base = src->unit_base;
	if (!dst->sig_figs)
		dst->sig_figs = src->sig_figs;
}

void sum_thread_stats(struct thread_stat *dst, struct thread_stat *src,
		      bool first)
{
	int l, k;

	for (l = 0; l < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; l++) {
		if (!dst->unified_rw_rep) {
			sum_stat(&dst->clat_stat[l], &src->clat_stat[l], first);
			sum_stat(&dst->slat_stat[l], &src->slat_stat[l], first);
			sum_stat(&dst->lat_stat[l], &src->lat_stat[l], first);
			sum_stat(&dst->bw_stat[l], &src->bw_stat[l], first);
			sum_stat(&dst->iops_stat[l], &src->iops_stat[l], first);

			dst->io_bytes[l] += src->io_bytes[l];

			if (dst->runtime[l] < src->runtime[l])
				dst->runtime[l] = src->runtime[l];
		} else {
			sum_stat(&dst->clat_stat[0], &src->clat_stat[l], first);
			sum_stat(&dst->slat_stat[0], &src->slat_stat[l], first);
			sum_stat(&dst->lat_stat[0], &src->lat_stat[l], first);
			sum_stat(&dst->bw_stat[0], &src->bw_stat[l], first);
			sum_stat(&dst->iops_stat[0], &src->iops_stat[l], first);

			dst->io_bytes[0] += src->io_bytes[l];

			if (dst->runtime[0] < src->runtime[l])
				dst->runtime[0] = src->runtime[l];

			/*
			 * We're summing to the same destination, so override
			 * 'first' after the first iteration of the loop
			 */
			first = false;
		}
	}

	sum_stat(&dst->sync_stat, &src->sync_stat, first);
	dst->usr_time += src->usr_time;
	dst->sys_time += src->sys_time;
	dst->ctx += src->ctx;
	dst->majf += src->majf;
	dst->minf += src->minf;

	for (k = 0; k < FIO_IO_U_MAP_NR; k++) {
		dst->io_u_map[k] += src->io_u_map[k];
		dst->io_u_submit[k] += src->io_u_submit[k];
		dst->io_u_complete[k] += src->io_u_complete[k];
	}
	for (k = 0; k < FIO_IO_U_LAT_N_NR; k++) {
		dst->io_u_lat_n[k] += src->io_u_lat_n[k];
		dst->io_u_lat_u[k] += src->io_u_lat_u[k];
		dst->io_u_lat_m[k] += src->io_u_lat_m[k];
	}
	for (k = 0; k < FIO_IO_U_PLAT_NR; k++)
		dst->io_u_sync_plat[k] += src->io_u_sync_plat[k];

	for (k = 0; k < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; k++) {
		if (!dst->unified_rw_rep) {
			dst->total_io_u[k] += src->total_io_u[k];
			dst->short_io_u[k] += src->short_io_u[k];
			dst->drop_io_u[k] += src->drop_io_u[k];
		} else {
			dst->total_io_u[0] += src->total_io_u[k];
			dst->short_io_u[0] += src->short_io_u[k];
			dst->drop_io_u[0] += src->drop_io_u[k];
		}
	}

	dst->total_io_u[DDIR_SYNC] += src->total_io_u[DDIR_SYNC];

	for (k = 0; k < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; k++) {
		int m;

		for (m = 0; m < FIO_IO_U_PLAT_NR; m++) {
			if (!dst->unified_rw_rep)
				dst->io_u_plat[k][m] += src->io_u_plat[k][m];
			else
				dst->io_u_plat[0][m] += src->io_u_plat[k][m];
		}
	}

	dst->total_run_time += src->total_run_time;
	dst->total_submit += src->total_submit;
	dst->total_complete += src->total_complete;
	dst->nr_zone_resets += src->nr_zone_resets;
}

void init_group_run_stat(struct group_run_stats *gs)
{
	int i;
	memset(gs, 0, sizeof(*gs));

	for (i = 0; i < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; i++)
		gs->min_bw[i] = gs->min_run[i] = ~0UL;
}

void init_thread_stat(struct thread_stat *ts)
{
	int j;

	memset(ts, 0, sizeof(*ts));

	for (j = 0; j < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; j++) {
		ts->lat_stat[j].min_val = -1UL;
		ts->clat_stat[j].min_val = -1UL;
		ts->slat_stat[j].min_val = -1UL;
		ts->bw_stat[j].min_val = -1UL;
		ts->iops_stat[j].min_val = -1UL;
	}
	ts->sync_stat.min_val = -1UL;
	ts->groupid = -1;
}

void __show_run_stats(void)
{
	struct group_run_stats *runstats, *rs;
	struct thread_data *td;
	struct thread_stat *threadstats, *ts;
	int i, j, k, nr_ts, last_ts, idx;
	bool kb_base_warned = false;
	bool unit_base_warned = false;
	struct json_object *root = NULL;
	struct json_array *array = NULL;
	struct buf_output output[FIO_OUTPUT_NR];
	struct flist_head **opt_lists;

	runstats = malloc(sizeof(struct group_run_stats) * (groupid + 1));

	for (i = 0; i < groupid + 1; i++)
		init_group_run_stat(&runstats[i]);

	/*
	 * find out how many threads stats we need. if group reporting isn't
	 * enabled, it's one-per-td.
	 */
	nr_ts = 0;
	last_ts = -1;
	for_each_td(td, i) {
		if (!td->o.group_reporting) {
			nr_ts++;
			continue;
		}
		if (last_ts == td->groupid)
			continue;
		if (!td->o.stats)
			continue;

		last_ts = td->groupid;
		nr_ts++;
	}

	threadstats = malloc(nr_ts * sizeof(struct thread_stat));
	opt_lists = malloc(nr_ts * sizeof(struct flist_head *));

	for (i = 0; i < nr_ts; i++) {
		init_thread_stat(&threadstats[i]);
		opt_lists[i] = NULL;
	}

	j = 0;
	last_ts = -1;
	idx = 0;
	for_each_td(td, i) {
		if (!td->o.stats)
			continue;
		if (idx && (!td->o.group_reporting ||
		    (td->o.group_reporting && last_ts != td->groupid))) {
			idx = 0;
			j++;
		}

		last_ts = td->groupid;

		ts = &threadstats[j];

		ts->clat_percentiles = td->o.clat_percentiles;
		ts->lat_percentiles = td->o.lat_percentiles;
		ts->percentile_precision = td->o.percentile_precision;
		memcpy(ts->percentile_list, td->o.percentile_list, sizeof(td->o.percentile_list));
		opt_lists[j] = &td->opt_list;

		idx++;
		ts->members++;

		if (ts->groupid == -1) {
			/*
			 * These are per-group shared already
			 */
			strncpy(ts->name, td->o.name, FIO_JOBNAME_SIZE - 1);
			if (td->o.description)
				strncpy(ts->description, td->o.description,
						FIO_JOBDESC_SIZE - 1);
			else
				memset(ts->description, 0, FIO_JOBDESC_SIZE);

			/*
			 * If multiple entries in this group, this is
			 * the first member.
			 */
			ts->thread_number = td->thread_number;
			ts->groupid = td->groupid;

			/*
			 * first pid in group, not very useful...
			 */
			ts->pid = td->pid;

			ts->kb_base = td->o.kb_base;
			ts->unit_base = td->o.unit_base;
			ts->sig_figs = td->o.sig_figs;
			ts->unified_rw_rep = td->o.unified_rw_rep;
		} else if (ts->kb_base != td->o.kb_base && !kb_base_warned) {
			log_info("fio: kb_base differs for jobs in group, using"
				 " %u as the base\n", ts->kb_base);
			kb_base_warned = true;
		} else if (ts->unit_base != td->o.unit_base && !unit_base_warned) {
			log_info("fio: unit_base differs for jobs in group, using"
				 " %u as the base\n", ts->unit_base);
			unit_base_warned = true;
		}

		ts->continue_on_error = td->o.continue_on_error;
		ts->total_err_count += td->total_err_count;
		ts->first_error = td->first_error;
		if (!ts->error) {
			if (!td->error && td->o.continue_on_error &&
			    td->first_error) {
				ts->error = td->first_error;
				ts->verror[sizeof(ts->verror) - 1] = '\0';
				strncpy(ts->verror, td->verror, sizeof(ts->verror) - 1);
			} else  if (td->error) {
				ts->error = td->error;
				ts->verror[sizeof(ts->verror) - 1] = '\0';
				strncpy(ts->verror, td->verror, sizeof(ts->verror) - 1);
			}
		}

		ts->latency_depth = td->latency_qd;
		ts->latency_target = td->o.latency_target;
		ts->latency_percentile = td->o.latency_percentile;
		ts->latency_window = td->o.latency_window;

		ts->nr_block_infos = td->ts.nr_block_infos;
		for (k = 0; k < ts->nr_block_infos; k++)
			ts->block_infos[k] = td->ts.block_infos[k];

		sum_thread_stats(ts, &td->ts, idx == 1);

		if (td->o.ss_dur) {
			ts->ss_state = td->ss.state;
			ts->ss_dur = td->ss.dur;
			ts->ss_head = td->ss.head;
			ts->ss_bw_data = td->ss.bw_data;
			ts->ss_iops_data = td->ss.iops_data;
			ts->ss_limit.u.f = td->ss.limit;
			ts->ss_slope.u.f = td->ss.slope;
			ts->ss_deviation.u.f = td->ss.deviation;
			ts->ss_criterion.u.f = td->ss.criterion;
		}
		else
			ts->ss_dur = ts->ss_state = 0;
	}

	for (i = 0; i < nr_ts; i++) {
		unsigned long long bw;

		ts = &threadstats[i];
		if (ts->groupid == -1)
			continue;
		rs = &runstats[ts->groupid];
		rs->kb_base = ts->kb_base;
		rs->unit_base = ts->unit_base;
		rs->sig_figs = ts->sig_figs;
		rs->unified_rw_rep += ts->unified_rw_rep;

		for (j = 0; j < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; j++) {
			if (!ts->runtime[j])
				continue;
			if (ts->runtime[j] < rs->min_run[j] || !rs->min_run[j])
				rs->min_run[j] = ts->runtime[j];
			if (ts->runtime[j] > rs->max_run[j])
				rs->max_run[j] = ts->runtime[j];

			bw = 0;
			if (ts->runtime[j])
				bw = ts->io_bytes[j] * 1000 / ts->runtime[j];
			if (bw < rs->min_bw[j])
				rs->min_bw[j] = bw;
			if (bw > rs->max_bw[j])
				rs->max_bw[j] = bw;

			rs->iobytes[j] += ts->io_bytes[j];
		}
	}

	for (i = 0; i < groupid + 1; i++) {
		int ddir;

		rs = &runstats[i];

		for (ddir = 0; ddir < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; ddir++) {
			if (rs->max_run[ddir])
				rs->agg[ddir] = (rs->iobytes[ddir] * 1000) /
						rs->max_run[ddir];
		}
	}

	for (i = 0; i < FIO_OUTPUT_NR; i++)
		buf_output_init(&output[i]);

	/*
	 * don't overwrite last signal output
	 */
	if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_NORMAL)
		log_buf(&output[__FIO_OUTPUT_NORMAL], "\n");
	if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_JSON) {
		struct thread_data *global;
		char time_buf[32];
		struct timeval now;
		unsigned long long ms_since_epoch;
		time_t tv_sec;

		gettimeofday(&now, NULL);
		ms_since_epoch = (unsigned long long)(now.tv_sec) * 1000 +
		                 (unsigned long long)(now.tv_usec) / 1000;

		tv_sec = now.tv_sec;
		os_ctime_r(&tv_sec, time_buf, sizeof(time_buf));
		if (time_buf[strlen(time_buf) - 1] == '\n')
			time_buf[strlen(time_buf) - 1] = '\0';

		root = json_create_object();
		json_object_add_value_string(root, "fio version", fio_version_string);
		json_object_add_value_int(root, "timestamp", now.tv_sec);
		json_object_add_value_int(root, "timestamp_ms", ms_since_epoch);
		json_object_add_value_string(root, "time", time_buf);
		global = get_global_options();
		json_add_job_opts(root, "global options", &global->opt_list);
		array = json_create_array();
		json_object_add_value_array(root, "jobs", array);
	}

	if (is_backend)
		fio_server_send_job_options(&get_global_options()->opt_list, -1U);

	for (i = 0; i < nr_ts; i++) {
		ts = &threadstats[i];
		rs = &runstats[ts->groupid];

		if (is_backend) {
			fio_server_send_job_options(opt_lists[i], i);
			fio_server_send_ts(ts, rs);
		} else {
			if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_TERSE)
				show_thread_status_terse(ts, rs, &output[__FIO_OUTPUT_TERSE]);
			if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_JSON) {
				struct json_object *tmp = show_thread_status_json(ts, rs, opt_lists[i]);
				json_array_add_value_object(array, tmp);
			}
			if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_NORMAL)
				show_thread_status_normal(ts, rs, &output[__FIO_OUTPUT_NORMAL]);
		}
	}
	if (!is_backend && (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_JSON)) {
		/* disk util stats, if any */
		show_disk_util(1, root, &output[__FIO_OUTPUT_JSON]);

		show_idle_prof_stats(FIO_OUTPUT_JSON, root, &output[__FIO_OUTPUT_JSON]);

		json_print_object(root, &output[__FIO_OUTPUT_JSON]);
		log_buf(&output[__FIO_OUTPUT_JSON], "\n");
		json_free_object(root);
	}

	for (i = 0; i < groupid + 1; i++) {
		rs = &runstats[i];

		rs->groupid = i;
		if (is_backend)
			fio_server_send_gs(rs);
		else if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_NORMAL)
			show_group_stats(rs, &output[__FIO_OUTPUT_NORMAL]);
	}

	if (is_backend)
		fio_server_send_du();
	else if (output_format & FIO_OUTPUT_NORMAL) {
		show_disk_util(0, NULL, &output[__FIO_OUTPUT_NORMAL]);
		show_idle_prof_stats(FIO_OUTPUT_NORMAL, NULL, &output[__FIO_OUTPUT_NORMAL]);
	}

	for (i = 0; i < FIO_OUTPUT_NR; i++) {
		struct buf_output *out = &output[i];

		log_info_buf(out->buf, out->buflen);
		buf_output_free(out);
	}

	fio_idle_prof_cleanup();

	log_info_flush();
	free(runstats);
	free(threadstats);
	free(opt_lists);
}

void __show_running_run_stats(void)
{
	struct thread_data *td;
	unsigned long long *rt;
	struct timespec ts;
	int i;

	fio_sem_down(stat_sem);

	rt = malloc(thread_number * sizeof(unsigned long long));
	fio_gettime(&ts, NULL);

	for_each_td(td, i) {
		td->update_rusage = 1;
		td->ts.io_bytes[DDIR_READ] = td->io_bytes[DDIR_READ];
		td->ts.io_bytes[DDIR_WRITE] = td->io_bytes[DDIR_WRITE];
		td->ts.io_bytes[DDIR_TRIM] = td->io_bytes[DDIR_TRIM];
		td->ts.total_run_time = mtime_since(&td->epoch, &ts);

		rt[i] = mtime_since(&td->start, &ts);
		if (td_read(td) && td->ts.io_bytes[DDIR_READ])
			td->ts.runtime[DDIR_READ] += rt[i];
		if (td_write(td) && td->ts.io_bytes[DDIR_WRITE])
			td->ts.runtime[DDIR_WRITE] += rt[i];
		if (td_trim(td) && td->ts.io_bytes[DDIR_TRIM])
			td->ts.runtime[DDIR_TRIM] += rt[i];
	}

	for_each_td(td, i) {
		if (td->runstate >= TD_EXITED)
			continue;
		if (td->rusage_sem) {
			td->update_rusage = 1;
			fio_sem_down(td->rusage_sem);
		}
		td->update_rusage = 0;
	}

	__show_run_stats();

	for_each_td(td, i) {
		if (td_read(td) && td->ts.io_bytes[DDIR_READ])
			td->ts.runtime[DDIR_READ] -= rt[i];
		if (td_write(td) && td->ts.io_bytes[DDIR_WRITE])
			td->ts.runtime[DDIR_WRITE] -= rt[i];
		if (td_trim(td) && td->ts.io_bytes[DDIR_TRIM])
			td->ts.runtime[DDIR_TRIM] -= rt[i];
	}

	free(rt);
	fio_sem_up(stat_sem);
}

static bool status_interval_init;
static struct timespec status_time;
static bool status_file_disabled;

#define FIO_STATUS_FILE		"fio-dump-status"

static int check_status_file(void)
{
	struct stat sb;
	const char *temp_dir;
	char fio_status_file_path[PATH_MAX];

	if (status_file_disabled)
		return 0;

	temp_dir = getenv("TMPDIR");
	if (temp_dir == NULL) {
		temp_dir = getenv("TEMP");
		if (temp_dir && strlen(temp_dir) >= PATH_MAX)
			temp_dir = NULL;
	}
	if (temp_dir == NULL)
		temp_dir = "/tmp";

	snprintf(fio_status_file_path, sizeof(fio_status_file_path), "%s/%s", temp_dir, FIO_STATUS_FILE);

	if (stat(fio_status_file_path, &sb))
		return 0;

	if (unlink(fio_status_file_path) < 0) {
		log_err("fio: failed to unlink %s: %s\n", fio_status_file_path,
							strerror(errno));
		log_err("fio: disabling status file updates\n");
		status_file_disabled = true;
	}

	return 1;
}

void check_for_running_stats(void)
{
	if (status_interval) {
		if (!status_interval_init) {
			fio_gettime(&status_time, NULL);
			status_interval_init = true;
		} else if (mtime_since_now(&status_time) >= status_interval) {
			show_running_run_stats();
			fio_gettime(&status_time, NULL);
			return;
		}
	}
	if (check_status_file()) {
		show_running_run_stats();
		return;
	}
}

static inline void add_stat_sample(struct io_stat *is, unsigned long long data)
{
	double val = data;
	double delta;

	if (data > is->max_val)
		is->max_val = data;
	if (data < is->min_val)
		is->min_val = data;

	delta = val - is->mean.u.f;
	if (delta) {
		is->mean.u.f += delta / (is->samples + 1.0);
		is->S.u.f += delta * (val - is->mean.u.f);
	}

	is->samples++;
}

/*
 * Return a struct io_logs, which is added to the tail of the log
 * list for 'iolog'.
 */
static struct io_logs *get_new_log(struct io_log *iolog)
{
	size_t new_size, new_samples;
	struct io_logs *cur_log;

	/*
	 * Cap the size at MAX_LOG_ENTRIES, so we don't keep doubling
	 * forever
	 */
	if (!iolog->cur_log_max)
		new_samples = DEF_LOG_ENTRIES;
	else {
		new_samples = iolog->cur_log_max * 2;
		if (new_samples > MAX_LOG_ENTRIES)
			new_samples = MAX_LOG_ENTRIES;
	}

	new_size = new_samples * log_entry_sz(iolog);

	cur_log = smalloc(sizeof(*cur_log));
	if (cur_log) {
		INIT_FLIST_HEAD(&cur_log->list);
		cur_log->log = malloc(new_size);
		if (cur_log->log) {
			cur_log->nr_samples = 0;
			cur_log->max_samples = new_samples;
			flist_add_tail(&cur_log->list, &iolog->io_logs);
			iolog->cur_log_max = new_samples;
			return cur_log;
		}
		sfree(cur_log);
	}

	return NULL;
}

/*
 * Add and return a new log chunk, or return current log if big enough
 */
static struct io_logs *regrow_log(struct io_log *iolog)
{
	struct io_logs *cur_log;
	int i;

	if (!iolog || iolog->disabled)
		goto disable;

	cur_log = iolog_cur_log(iolog);
	if (!cur_log) {
		cur_log = get_new_log(iolog);
		if (!cur_log)
			return NULL;
	}

	if (cur_log->nr_samples < cur_log->max_samples)
		return cur_log;

	/*
	 * No room for a new sample. If we're compressing on the fly, flush
	 * out the current chunk
	 */
	if (iolog->log_gz) {
		if (iolog_cur_flush(iolog, cur_log)) {
			log_err("fio: failed flushing iolog! Will stop logging.\n");
			return NULL;
		}
	}

	/*
	 * Get a new log array, and add to our list
	 */
	cur_log = get_new_log(iolog);
	if (!cur_log) {
		log_err("fio: failed extending iolog! Will stop logging.\n");
		return NULL;
	}

	if (!iolog->pending || !iolog->pending->nr_samples)
		return cur_log;

	/*
	 * Flush pending items to new log
	 */
	for (i = 0; i < iolog->pending->nr_samples; i++) {
		struct io_sample *src, *dst;

		src = get_sample(iolog, iolog->pending, i);
		dst = get_sample(iolog, cur_log, i);
		memcpy(dst, src, log_entry_sz(iolog));
	}
	cur_log->nr_samples = iolog->pending->nr_samples;

	iolog->pending->nr_samples = 0;
	return cur_log;
disable:
	if (iolog)
		iolog->disabled = true;
	return NULL;
}

void regrow_logs(struct thread_data *td)
{
	regrow_log(td->slat_log);
	regrow_log(td->clat_log);
	regrow_log(td->clat_hist_log);
	regrow_log(td->lat_log);
	regrow_log(td->bw_log);
	regrow_log(td->iops_log);
	td->flags &= ~TD_F_REGROW_LOGS;
}

static struct io_logs *get_cur_log(struct io_log *iolog)
{
	struct io_logs *cur_log;

	cur_log = iolog_cur_log(iolog);
	if (!cur_log) {
		cur_log = get_new_log(iolog);
		if (!cur_log)
			return NULL;
	}

	if (cur_log->nr_samples < cur_log->max_samples)
		return cur_log;

	/*
	 * Out of space. If we're in IO offload mode, or we're not doing
	 * per unit logging (hence logging happens outside of the IO thread
	 * as well), add a new log chunk inline. If we're doing inline
	 * submissions, flag 'td' as needing a log regrow and we'll take
	 * care of it on the submission side.
	 */
	if ((iolog->td && iolog->td->o.io_submit_mode == IO_MODE_OFFLOAD) ||
	    !per_unit_log(iolog))
		return regrow_log(iolog);

	if (iolog->td)
		iolog->td->flags |= TD_F_REGROW_LOGS;
	if (iolog->pending)
		assert(iolog->pending->nr_samples < iolog->pending->max_samples);
	return iolog->pending;
}

static void __add_log_sample(struct io_log *iolog, union io_sample_data data,
			     enum fio_ddir ddir, unsigned long long bs,
			     unsigned long t, uint64_t offset)
{
	struct io_logs *cur_log;

	if (iolog->disabled)
		return;
	if (flist_empty(&iolog->io_logs))
		iolog->avg_last[ddir] = t;

	cur_log = get_cur_log(iolog);
	if (cur_log) {
		struct io_sample *s;

		s = get_sample(iolog, cur_log, cur_log->nr_samples);

		s->data = data;
		s->time = t + (iolog->td ? iolog->td->unix_epoch : 0);
		io_sample_set_ddir(iolog, s, ddir);
		s->bs = bs;

		if (iolog->log_offset) {
			struct io_sample_offset *so = (void *) s;

			so->offset = offset;
		}

		cur_log->nr_samples++;
		return;
	}

	iolog->disabled = true;
}

static inline void reset_io_stat(struct io_stat *ios)
{
	ios->max_val = ios->min_val = ios->samples = 0;
	ios->mean.u.f = ios->S.u.f = 0;
}

void reset_io_stats(struct thread_data *td)
{
	struct thread_stat *ts = &td->ts;
	int i, j;

	for (i = 0; i < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; i++) {
		reset_io_stat(&ts->clat_stat[i]);
		reset_io_stat(&ts->slat_stat[i]);
		reset_io_stat(&ts->lat_stat[i]);
		reset_io_stat(&ts->bw_stat[i]);
		reset_io_stat(&ts->iops_stat[i]);

		ts->io_bytes[i] = 0;
		ts->runtime[i] = 0;
		ts->total_io_u[i] = 0;
		ts->short_io_u[i] = 0;
		ts->drop_io_u[i] = 0;

		for (j = 0; j < FIO_IO_U_PLAT_NR; j++) {
			ts->io_u_plat[i][j] = 0;
			if (!i)
				ts->io_u_sync_plat[j] = 0;
		}
	}

	ts->total_io_u[DDIR_SYNC] = 0;

	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_MAP_NR; i++) {
		ts->io_u_map[i] = 0;
		ts->io_u_submit[i] = 0;
		ts->io_u_complete[i] = 0;
	}

	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_LAT_N_NR; i++)
		ts->io_u_lat_n[i] = 0;
	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_LAT_U_NR; i++)
		ts->io_u_lat_u[i] = 0;
	for (i = 0; i < FIO_IO_U_LAT_M_NR; i++)
		ts->io_u_lat_m[i] = 0;

	ts->total_submit = 0;
	ts->total_complete = 0;
	ts->nr_zone_resets = 0;
}

static void __add_stat_to_log(struct io_log *iolog, enum fio_ddir ddir,
			      unsigned long elapsed, bool log_max)
{
	/*
	 * Note an entry in the log. Use the mean from the logged samples,
	 * making sure to properly round up. Only write a log entry if we
	 * had actual samples done.
	 */
	if (iolog->avg_window[ddir].samples) {
		union io_sample_data data;

		if (log_max)
			data.val = iolog->avg_window[ddir].max_val;
		else
			data.val = iolog->avg_window[ddir].mean.u.f + 0.50;

		__add_log_sample(iolog, data, ddir, 0, elapsed, 0);
	}

	reset_io_stat(&iolog->avg_window[ddir]);
}

static void _add_stat_to_log(struct io_log *iolog, unsigned long elapsed,
			     bool log_max)
{
	int ddir;

	for (ddir = 0; ddir < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; ddir++)
		__add_stat_to_log(iolog, ddir, elapsed, log_max);
}

static unsigned long add_log_sample(struct thread_data *td,
				    struct io_log *iolog,
				    union io_sample_data data,
				    enum fio_ddir ddir, unsigned long long bs,
				    uint64_t offset)
{
	unsigned long elapsed, this_window;

	if (!ddir_rw(ddir))
		return 0;

	elapsed = mtime_since_now(&td->epoch);

	/*
	 * If no time averaging, just add the log sample.
	 */
	if (!iolog->avg_msec) {
		__add_log_sample(iolog, data, ddir, bs, elapsed, offset);
		return 0;
	}

	/*
	 * Add the sample. If the time period has passed, then
	 * add that entry to the log and clear.
	 */
	add_stat_sample(&iolog->avg_window[ddir], data.val);

	/*
	 * If period hasn't passed, adding the above sample is all we
	 * need to do.
	 */
	this_window = elapsed - iolog->avg_last[ddir];
	if (elapsed < iolog->avg_last[ddir])
		return iolog->avg_last[ddir] - elapsed;
	else if (this_window < iolog->avg_msec) {
		unsigned long diff = iolog->avg_msec - this_window;

		if (inline_log(iolog) || diff > LOG_MSEC_SLACK)
			return diff;
	}

	__add_stat_to_log(iolog, ddir, elapsed, td->o.log_max != 0);

	iolog->avg_last[ddir] = elapsed - (this_window - iolog->avg_msec);
	return iolog->avg_msec;
}

void finalize_logs(struct thread_data *td, bool unit_logs)
{
	unsigned long elapsed;

	elapsed = mtime_since_now(&td->epoch);

	if (td->clat_log && unit_logs)
		_add_stat_to_log(td->clat_log, elapsed, td->o.log_max != 0);
	if (td->slat_log && unit_logs)
		_add_stat_to_log(td->slat_log, elapsed, td->o.log_max != 0);
	if (td->lat_log && unit_logs)
		_add_stat_to_log(td->lat_log, elapsed, td->o.log_max != 0);
	if (td->bw_log && (unit_logs == per_unit_log(td->bw_log)))
		_add_stat_to_log(td->bw_log, elapsed, td->o.log_max != 0);
	if (td->iops_log && (unit_logs == per_unit_log(td->iops_log)))
		_add_stat_to_log(td->iops_log, elapsed, td->o.log_max != 0);
}

void add_agg_sample(union io_sample_data data, enum fio_ddir ddir, unsigned long long bs)
{
	struct io_log *iolog;

	if (!ddir_rw(ddir))
		return;

	iolog = agg_io_log[ddir];
	__add_log_sample(iolog, data, ddir, bs, mtime_since_genesis(), 0);
}

void add_sync_clat_sample(struct thread_stat *ts, unsigned long long nsec)
{
	unsigned int idx = plat_val_to_idx(nsec);
	assert(idx < FIO_IO_U_PLAT_NR);

	ts->io_u_sync_plat[idx]++;
	add_stat_sample(&ts->sync_stat, nsec);
}

static void add_clat_percentile_sample(struct thread_stat *ts,
				unsigned long long nsec, enum fio_ddir ddir)
{
	unsigned int idx = plat_val_to_idx(nsec);
	assert(idx < FIO_IO_U_PLAT_NR);

	ts->io_u_plat[ddir][idx]++;
}

void add_clat_sample(struct thread_data *td, enum fio_ddir ddir,
		     unsigned long long nsec, unsigned long long bs,
		     uint64_t offset)
{
	const bool needs_lock = td_async_processing(td);
	unsigned long elapsed, this_window;
	struct thread_stat *ts = &td->ts;
	struct io_log *iolog = td->clat_hist_log;

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_lock(td);

	add_stat_sample(&ts->clat_stat[ddir], nsec);

	if (td->clat_log)
		add_log_sample(td, td->clat_log, sample_val(nsec), ddir, bs,
			       offset);

	if (ts->clat_percentiles)
		add_clat_percentile_sample(ts, nsec, ddir);

	if (iolog && iolog->hist_msec) {
		struct io_hist *hw = &iolog->hist_window[ddir];

		hw->samples++;
		elapsed = mtime_since_now(&td->epoch);
		if (!hw->hist_last)
			hw->hist_last = elapsed;
		this_window = elapsed - hw->hist_last;
		
		if (this_window >= iolog->hist_msec) {
			uint64_t *io_u_plat;
			struct io_u_plat_entry *dst;

			/*
			 * Make a byte-for-byte copy of the latency histogram
			 * stored in td->ts.io_u_plat[ddir], recording it in a
			 * log sample. Note that the matching call to free() is
			 * located in iolog.c after printing this sample to the
			 * log file.
			 */
			io_u_plat = (uint64_t *) td->ts.io_u_plat[ddir];
			dst = malloc(sizeof(struct io_u_plat_entry));
			memcpy(&(dst->io_u_plat), io_u_plat,
				FIO_IO_U_PLAT_NR * sizeof(unsigned int));
			flist_add(&dst->list, &hw->list);
			__add_log_sample(iolog, sample_plat(dst), ddir, bs,
						elapsed, offset);

			/*
			 * Update the last time we recorded as being now, minus
			 * any drift in time we encountered before actually
			 * making the record.
			 */
			hw->hist_last = elapsed - (this_window - iolog->hist_msec);
			hw->samples = 0;
		}
	}

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_unlock(td);
}

void add_slat_sample(struct thread_data *td, enum fio_ddir ddir,
		     unsigned long usec, unsigned long long bs, uint64_t offset)
{
	const bool needs_lock = td_async_processing(td);
	struct thread_stat *ts = &td->ts;

	if (!ddir_rw(ddir))
		return;

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_lock(td);

	add_stat_sample(&ts->slat_stat[ddir], usec);

	if (td->slat_log)
		add_log_sample(td, td->slat_log, sample_val(usec), ddir, bs, offset);

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_unlock(td);
}

void add_lat_sample(struct thread_data *td, enum fio_ddir ddir,
		    unsigned long long nsec, unsigned long long bs,
		    uint64_t offset)
{
	const bool needs_lock = td_async_processing(td);
	struct thread_stat *ts = &td->ts;

	if (!ddir_rw(ddir))
		return;

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_lock(td);

	add_stat_sample(&ts->lat_stat[ddir], nsec);

	if (td->lat_log)
		add_log_sample(td, td->lat_log, sample_val(nsec), ddir, bs,
			       offset);

	if (ts->lat_percentiles)
		add_clat_percentile_sample(ts, nsec, ddir);

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_unlock(td);
}

void add_bw_sample(struct thread_data *td, struct io_u *io_u,
		   unsigned int bytes, unsigned long long spent)
{
	const bool needs_lock = td_async_processing(td);
	struct thread_stat *ts = &td->ts;
	unsigned long rate;

	if (spent)
		rate = (unsigned long) (bytes * 1000000ULL / spent);
	else
		rate = 0;

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_lock(td);

	add_stat_sample(&ts->bw_stat[io_u->ddir], rate);

	if (td->bw_log)
		add_log_sample(td, td->bw_log, sample_val(rate), io_u->ddir,
			       bytes, io_u->offset);

	td->stat_io_bytes[io_u->ddir] = td->this_io_bytes[io_u->ddir];

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_unlock(td);
}

static int __add_samples(struct thread_data *td, struct timespec *parent_tv,
			 struct timespec *t, unsigned int avg_time,
			 uint64_t *this_io_bytes, uint64_t *stat_io_bytes,
			 struct io_stat *stat, struct io_log *log,
			 bool is_kb)
{
	const bool needs_lock = td_async_processing(td);
	unsigned long spent, rate;
	enum fio_ddir ddir;
	unsigned long next, next_log;

	next_log = avg_time;

	spent = mtime_since(parent_tv, t);
	if (spent < avg_time && avg_time - spent >= LOG_MSEC_SLACK)
		return avg_time - spent;

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_lock(td);

	/*
	 * Compute both read and write rates for the interval.
	 */
	for (ddir = 0; ddir < DDIR_RWDIR_CNT; ddir++) {
		uint64_t delta;

		delta = this_io_bytes[ddir] - stat_io_bytes[ddir];
		if (!delta)
			continue; /* No entries for interval */

		if (spent) {
			if (is_kb)
				rate = delta * 1000 / spent / 1024; /* KiB/s */
			else
				rate = (delta * 1000) / spent;
		} else
			rate = 0;

		add_stat_sample(&stat[ddir], rate);

		if (log) {
			unsigned long long bs = 0;

			if (td->o.min_bs[ddir] == td->o.max_bs[ddir])
				bs = td->o.min_bs[ddir];

			next = add_log_sample(td, log, sample_val(rate), ddir, bs, 0);
			next_log = min(next_log, next);
		}

		stat_io_bytes[ddir] = this_io_bytes[ddir];
	}

	timespec_add_msec(parent_tv, avg_time);

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_unlock(td);

	if (spent <= avg_time)
		next = avg_time;
	else
		next = avg_time - (1 + spent - avg_time);

	return min(next, next_log);
}

static int add_bw_samples(struct thread_data *td, struct timespec *t)
{
	return __add_samples(td, &td->bw_sample_time, t, td->o.bw_avg_time,
				td->this_io_bytes, td->stat_io_bytes,
				td->ts.bw_stat, td->bw_log, true);
}

void add_iops_sample(struct thread_data *td, struct io_u *io_u,
		     unsigned int bytes)
{
	const bool needs_lock = td_async_processing(td);
	struct thread_stat *ts = &td->ts;

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_lock(td);

	add_stat_sample(&ts->iops_stat[io_u->ddir], 1);

	if (td->iops_log)
		add_log_sample(td, td->iops_log, sample_val(1), io_u->ddir,
			       bytes, io_u->offset);

	td->stat_io_blocks[io_u->ddir] = td->this_io_blocks[io_u->ddir];

	if (needs_lock)
		__td_io_u_unlock(td);
}

static int add_iops_samples(struct thread_data *td, struct timespec *t)
{
	return __add_samples(td, &td->iops_sample_time, t, td->o.iops_avg_time,
				td->this_io_blocks, td->stat_io_blocks,
				td->ts.iops_stat, td->iops_log, false);
}

/*
 * Returns msecs to next event
 */
int calc_log_samples(void)
{
	struct thread_data *td;
	unsigned int next = ~0U, tmp;
	struct timespec now;
	int i;

	fio_gettime(&now, NULL);

	for_each_td(td, i) {
		if (!td->o.stats)
			continue;
		if (in_ramp_time(td) ||
		    !(td->runstate == TD_RUNNING || td->runstate == TD_VERIFYING)) {
			next = min(td->o.iops_avg_time, td->o.bw_avg_time);
			continue;
		}
		if (!td->bw_log ||
			(td->bw_log && !per_unit_log(td->bw_log))) {
			tmp = add_bw_samples(td, &now);
			if (tmp < next)
				next = tmp;
		}
		if (!td->iops_log ||
			(td->iops_log && !per_unit_log(td->iops_log))) {
			tmp = add_iops_samples(td, &now);
			if (tmp < next)
				next = tmp;
		}
	}

	return next == ~0U ? 0 : next;
}

void stat_init(void)
{
	stat_sem = fio_sem_init(FIO_SEM_UNLOCKED);
}

void stat_exit(void)
{
	/*
	 * When we have the mutex, we know out-of-band access to it
	 * have ended.
	 */
	fio_sem_down(stat_sem);
	fio_sem_remove(stat_sem);
}

/*
 * Called from signal handler. Wake up status thread.
 */
void show_running_run_stats(void)
{
	helper_do_stat();
}

uint32_t *io_u_block_info(struct thread_data *td, struct io_u *io_u)
{
	/* Ignore io_u's which span multiple blocks--they will just get
	 * inaccurate counts. */
	int idx = (io_u->offset - io_u->file->file_offset)
			/ td->o.bs[DDIR_TRIM];
	uint32_t *info = &td->ts.block_infos[idx];
	assert(idx < td->ts.nr_block_infos);
	return info;
}