.\" (C) Copyright 2001 David A. Wheeler (firstname.lastname@example.org)
.\" This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
.\" it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
.\" the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
.\" (at your option) any later version.
.\" This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
.\" but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
.\" MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
.\" GNU General Public License for more details.
.\" You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
.\" along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
.\" Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
.\" Man page created 17 May 2001 by David A. Wheeler (email@example.com)
.TH FLAWFINDER 1 "30 May 2004" "Flawfinder" "Flawfinder"
flawfinder \- find potential security flaws ("hits") in source code
.RB [ \-\-help ]
.RB [ \-\-version ]
.\" Selecting Hits:
.RB [ \-\-allowlink ]
.RB [ \-\-inputs | \-I ]
[ \fB\-\-minlevel \fR\fIX\fR | \fB\-m\fR\ \fIX\fR ]
.RB [ \-\-falsepositive | \-F ]
.RB [ \-\-neverignore | \-n ]
.RB [ \-\-patch\ \fIfilename\fR | \-P\ \fIfilename\fR ]
.RB [ \-\-followdotdir ]
.\" Selecting Output Format:
.RB [ \-\-context | \-c ]
.RB [ \-\-columns | \-C ]
.RB [ \-\-dataonly | \-D ]
.RB [ \-\-html ]
.RB [ \-\-immediate | -i ]
.RB [ \-\-singleline | \-S ]
.RB [ \-\-omittime ]
.RB [ \-\-quiet | \-Q ]
.\" Managing hit list.
[ \fB\-\-loadhitlist\ \fR\fIF\fR ]
[ \fB\-\-savehitlist\ \fR\fIF\fR ]
[ \fB\-\-diffhitlist\ \fR\fIF\fR ]
.RB [ \-\- ]
.I [ source code file or source root directory ]+
Flawfinder searches through C/C++ source code looking for
potential security flaws.
To run flawfinder, simply give flawfinder a list of directories or files.
For each directory given, all files that have C/C++ filename extensions
in that directory (and its subdirectories, recursively) will be examined.
Thus, for most projects, simply give flawfinder the name of the source
code's topmost directory (use ``.'' for the current directory),
and flawfinder will examine all of the project's C/C++ source code.
If you only want to have \fIchanges\fR reviewed, save a unified diff
of those changes (created by "diff -u" or "svn diff") in a patch file
and use the \-\-patch (\-P) option.
Flawfinder will produce a list of ``hits'' (potential
security flaws), sorted by risk; the riskiest hits are shown first.
The risk level is shown inside square brackets and
varies from 0, very little risk, to 5, great risk.
This risk level depends not only on the function, but on the values of the
parameters of the function.
For example, constant strings are often less risky than fully variable
strings in many contexts, and in those contexts the hit will have a
lower risk level.
Flawfinder knows about gettext (a common library for internationalized
programs) and will treat constant strings
passed through gettext as though they were constant strings; this reduces
the number of false hits in internationalized programs.
Flawfinder will do the same sort of thing with _T() and _TEXT(),
common Microsoft macros for handling internationalized programs
.\" For more info, see: http://www.rpi.edu/~pudeyo/articles/unicode.html
Flawfinder correctly ignores most text inside comments and strings.
Normally flawfinder shows all hits with a risk level of at least 1,
but you can use the \-\-minlevel option
to show only hits with higher risk levels if you wish.
Not every hit is actually a security vulnerability,
and not every security vulnerability is necessarily found.
Nevertheless, flawfinder can be an aid in finding and removing
A common way to use flawfinder is to first
apply flawfinder to a set of source code and examine the
Then, use \-\-inputs to examine the input locations, and check to
make sure that only legal and safe input values are
accepted from untrusted users.
Once you've audited a program, you can mark source code lines that
are actually fine but cause spurious warnings so that flawfinder will
stop complaining about them.
To mark a line so that these warnings are suppressed,
put a specially-formatted comment either on the same
line (after the source code) or all by itself in the previous line.
The comment must have one of the two following formats:
// Flawfinder: ignore
/* Flawfinder: ignore */
Note that, for compatibility's sake, you can replace "Flawfinder:" with
"ITS4:" or "RATS:" in these specially-formatted comments.
Since it's possible that such lines are wrong, you can use the
``\-\-neverignore'' option, which causes flawfinder to never ignore any line
no matter what the comments say.
Thus, responses that would otherwise be ignored would be included
(or, more confusingly, \-\-neverignore ignores the ignores).
This comment syntax is actually a more general syntax for special directives
to flawfinder, but currently only ignoring lines is supported.
Flawfinder uses an internal database called the ``ruleset'';
the ruleset identifies functions that are common causes of security flaws.
The standard ruleset includes a large number of different potential
problems, including both general issues that can impact any
C/C++ program, as well as a number of specific Unix-like and Windows
functions that are especially problematic.
As noted above, every potential security flaw found in a given source code file
(matching an entry in the ruleset)
is called a ``hit,'' and the set of hits found during any particular
run of the program is called the ``hitlist.''
Hitlists can be saved (using \-\-savehitlist), reloaded back for redisplay
(using \-\-loadhitlist), and you can show only the hits that are different
from another run (using \-\-diffhitlist).
Any filename given on the command line will be examined (even if
it doesn't have a usual C/C++ filename extension); thus you can force
flawfinder to examine any specific files you desire.
While searching directories recursively, flawfinder only opens and
examines regular files that have C/C++ filename extensions.
Flawfinder presumes that, files are C/C++ files if they have the extensions
".c", ".h", ".ec", ".ecp", ".pgc", ".C", ".cpp",
".CPP", ".cxx", ".cc", ".CC", ".pcc", ".hpp", or ".H".
The filename ``\-'' means the standard input.
To prevent security problems,
special files (such as device special files and named pipes) are
always skipped, and by default symbolic links are skipped,
After the list of hits is a brief summary of the results
(use -D to remove this information).
It will show the number of hits, lines analyzed (as reported by wc \-l),
and the physical source lines of code (SLOC) analyzed.
A physical SLOC is a non-blank, non-comment line.
It will then show the number of hits at each level; note that there will
never be a hit at a level lower than minlevel (1 by default).
Thus, " 0  9" means that at level 0 there were 0 hits reported,
and at level 1 there were 9 hits reported.
It will next show the number of hits at a given level or larger
(so level 3+ has the sum of the number of hits at level 3, 4, and 5).
Thus, an entry of "[0+] 37" shows that at level 0 or higher there were
37 hits (the 0+ entry will always be the same as the "hits" number above).
Hits per KSLOC is next shown; this is each of the "level or higher"
values multiplied by 1000 and divided by the physical SLOC.
If symlinks were skipped, the count of those is reported.
If hits were suppressed (using the "ignore" directive
in source code comments as described above), the number suppressed is reported.
The minimum risk level to be included in the report
is displayed; by default this is 1 (use \-\-minlevel to change this).
The summary ends with important reminders:
Not every hit is necessarily a security vulnerability, and
there may be other security vulnerabilities not reported by the tool.
Flawfinder intentionally works similarly to another program, ITS4, which is not
fully open source software (as defined in the Open Source Definition)
nor free software (as defined by the Free Software Foundation).
The author of Flawfinder has never seen ITS4's source code.
.SH "BRIEF TUTORIAL"
Here's a brief example of how flawfinder might be used.
Imagine that you have the C/C++ source code for some program named xyzzy
(which you may or may not have written), and you're
searching for security vulnerabilities (so you can fix them before
customers encounter the vulnerabilities).
For this tutorial, I'll assume that you're using a Unix-like system,
such as Linux, OpenBSD, or MacOS X.
If the source code is in a subdirectory named xyzzy, you would probably
start by opening a text window and using flawfinder's default settings, to
analyze the program and report a prioritized list of potential
security vulnerabilities (the ``less'' just makes sure the results
stay on the screen):
flawfinder xyzzy | less
At this point, you will a large number of entries;
each entry begins with a filename, a colon, a line number, a
risk level in brackets (where 5 is the most risky), a category,
the name of the function, and
a description of why flawfinder thinks the line is a vulnerability.
Flawfinder normally sorts by risk level, showing the riskiest items
first; if you have limited time, it's probably best to start working on
the riskiest items and continue until you run out of time.
If you want to limit the display to risks with only
a certain risk level or higher, use
the \-\-minlevel option.
If you're getting an extraordinary number of false positives because
variable names look like dangerous function names, use the \-F option
to remove reports about them.
If you don't understand the error message, please see documents such as the
.I "Writing Secure Programs for Linux and Unix HOWTO"
which provides more information on writing secure programs.
Once you identify the problem and understand it, you can fix it.
Occasionally you may want to re-do the analysis, both because the
line numbers will change \fIand\fP to make sure that the new code
doesn't introduce yet a different vulnerability.
If you've determined that some line isn't really a problem, and
you're sure of it, you can insert just before or on the offending
line a comment like
/* Flawfinder: ignore */
to keep them from showing up in the output.
Once you've done that, you should go back and search for the
program's inputs, to make sure that the program strongly filters
any of its untrusted inputs.
Flawfinder can identify many program inputs by using the \-\-inputs
option, like this:
flawfinder \-\-inputs xyzzy
Flawfinder can integrate well with text editors and
integrated development environments; see the examples for
Flawfinder includes many other options, including ones to
create HTML versions of the output (useful for prettier displays).
The next section describes those options in more detail.
Flawfinder has a number of options, which can be grouped into options that
control its own documentation,
select which hits to display,
select the output format,
and perform hitlist management.
.\" Leave -h and -? undocumented... they also invoke help, but it's
.\" easier just to document the single help option.
Show usage (help) information.
Shows (just) the version number and exits.
.SS "Selecting Hits to Display"
.BI \-\-patch patchfile
.BI \-P patchfile
Only report hits that are changed by the given patch file.
The patch file must be in unified diff format (e.g., the output of
"diff -u old new" or "svn diff"), where the new files are the ones that are
being examined by flawfinder.
The line numbers given in the patch file are used to determine which
lines were changed, so if you have modified the files since the
patch file was created, regenerate the patch file first.
Beware that the file names of the new files
given in the patch file must match exactly,
including upper/lower case, path prefix, and directory
separator (\\ vs. /).
Only unified diff format is accepted (either GNU diff or svn diff output is
okay); if you have a different format, again regenerate it first.
Only hits that occur on resultant changed lines, or immediately
above and below them, are reported.
This option implies --neverignore.
Allow the use of symbolic links; normally symbolic links are skipped.
Don't use this option if you're analyzing code by others;
attackers could do many things to cause problems for an analysis
with this option enabled.
For example, an attacker
could insert symbolic links to files such as /etc/passwd
(leaking information about the file) or create a circular loop,
which would cause flawfinder to run ``forever''.
Another problem with enabling this option is that
if the same file is referenced multiple times using symbolic links,
it will be analyzed multiple times (and thus reported multiple times).
Note that flawfinder already includes some protection against symbolic links
to special file types such as device file types (e.g., /dev/zero or
Note that for flawfinder version 1.01 and before, this was the default.
Show only functions that obtain data from outside the program;
this also sets minlevel to 0.
.BI -m " X"
Set minimum risk level to X for inclusion in hitlist.
This can be from 0 (``no risk'') to 5 (``maximum risk'');
the default is 1.
Do not include hits that are likely to be false positives.
Currently, this means that function names are ignored if they're
not followed by "(", and that declarations of character arrays aren't
Thus, if you have use a variable named "access" everywhere, this will
eliminate references to this ordinary variable.
This isn't the default, because this also increases the likelihood
of missing important hits; in particular, function names in #define
clauses and calls through function pointers will be missed.
Never ignore security issues, even if they have an ``ignore'' directive
in a comment.
Enter directories whose names begin with ".".
Normally such directories are ignored, since they normally
include version control private data, configurations, and so on.
.SS "Selecting Output Format"
Show the column number (as well as the file name and line number)
of each hit; this is shown after the line number by adding a colon
and the column number in the line (the first character in a line is
column number 1).
This is useful for editors that can jump to specific columns, or
for integrating with other tools (such as those to further filter out
Show context, i.e., the line having the "hit"/potential flaw.
By default the line is shown immediately after the warning.
Don't display the header and footer.
Use this along with \-\-quiet to see just the data itself.
Format the output as HTML instead of as simple text.
Immediately display hits (don't just wait until the end).
Display as single line of text output for each hit.
Useful for interacting with compilation tools.
Omit timing information.
This is useful for regression tests of flawfinder itself, so that
the output doesn't vary depending on how long the analysis takes.
Don't display status information (i.e., which files are being examined)
while the analysis is going on.
.SS "Hitlist Management"
.\" This isn't sorted as usual, because logically saving comes
.\" before loading and differencing.
Save all resulting hits (the "hitlist") to F.
Load the hitlist from F instead of analyzing source programs.
Show only hits (loaded or analyzed) not in F.
F was presumably created previously using \-\-savehitlist.
If the \-\-loadhitlist option is not provided, this will show the hits in
the analyzed source code files that were not previously stored in F.
If used along with \-\-loadhitlist, this will show the hits in the
loaded hitlist not in F.
The difference algorithm is conservative;
hits are only considered the ``same'' if they have the same
filename, line number, column position, function name, and risk level.
Here are various examples of how to invoke flawfinder.
The first examples show various simple command-line options.
Flawfinder is designed to work well with text editors and
integrated development environments, so the next sections
show how to integrate flawfinder into vim and emacs.
.SS "Simple command-line options"
.B "flawfinder /usr/src/linux-2.4.12"
Examine all the C/C++ files in the directory
/usr/src/linux-2.4.12 and all its subdirectories (recursively),
reporting on all hits found.
.B "flawfinder \-\-minlevel=4 ."
Examine all the C/C++ files in the current directory
and its subdirectories (recursively);
only report vulnerabilities level 4 and up (the two highest risk levels).
.B "flawfinder \-\-inputs mydir"
Examine all the C/C++ files in mydir
and its subdirectories (recursively), and report functions
that take inputs (so that you can ensure that they filter the
.B "flawfinder \-\-neverignore mydir"
Examine all the C/C++ files in the directory mydir and its subdirectories,
including even the hits marked for ignoring in the code comments.
.B "flawfinder -QD mydir"
Examine mydir and report only the actual results
(removing the header and footer of the output).
This form is useful
if the output will be piped into other tools for further analysis.
The \-C (\-\-columns) and \-S (\-\-singleline)
options can also be useful if you're piping the data
into other tools.
.B "flawfinder \-\-quiet \-\-html \-\-context mydir > results.html"
Examine all the C/C++ files in the directory mydir and its subdirectories,
and produce an HTML formatted version of the results.
Source code management systems (such as SourceForge and Savannah)
might use a command like this.
.B "flawfinder \-\-quiet \-\-savehitlist saved.hits *.[ch]"
Examine all .c and .h files in the current directory.
Don't report on the status of processing, and save the resulting hitlist
(the set of all hits) in the file saved.hits.
.B "flawfinder \-\-diffhitlist saved.hits *.[ch]"
Examine all .c and .h files in the current directory, and show any
hits that weren't already in the file saved.hits.
This can be used to show only the ``new'' vulnerabilities in a
modified program, if saved.hits was created from the
older version of the program being analyzed.
.SS "Invoking from vim"
The text editor
vim includes a "quickfix" mechanism that works well with flawfinder,
so that you can easily view the warning messages and jump to
the relevant source code.
First, you need to invoke flawfinder to create a list of hits, and
there are two ways to do this.
The first way is to start flawfinder first, and then (using its output)
The second way is to start (or continue to run) vim, and then invoke
flawfinder (typically from inside vim).
For the first way, run flawfinder and store its output in some
FLAWFILE (say "flawfile"),
then invoke vim using its -q option, like this: "vim -q flawfile".
The second way (starting flawfinder after starting vim) can be done
a legion of ways.
One is to invoke flawfinder using a shell command,
":!flawfinder-command > FLAWFILE", then follow that with the command
Another way is to store the flawfinder command in your makefile
(as, say, a pseudocommand like "flaw"), and then run
In all these cases you need a command for flawfinder to run.
A plausible command, which places each hit in its own line (-S) and
removes headers and footers that would confuse it, is:
.B "flawfinder \-SQD ."
You can now use various editing commands to view the results.
The command ":cn" displays the next hit; ":cN" displays the
previous hit, and ":cr" rewinds back to the first hit.
":copen" will open a window to show the current list of hits, called
the "quickfix window"; ":cclose" will close the quickfix window.
If the buffer in the used window has changed, and the error is in
another file, jumping to the error will fail.
You have to make sure the window contains a buffer which can be abandoned
before trying to jump to a new file, say by saving the file;
this prevents accidental data loss.
.SS "Invoking from emacs"
The text editor / operating system
emacs includes "grep mode" and "compile mode" mechanisms
that work well with flawfinder, making it easy to
view warning messages, jump to the relevant source code, and fix
any problems you find.
First, you need to invoke flawfinder to create a list of warning messages.
You can use "grep mode" or "compile mode" to create this list.
Often "grep mode" is more convenient;
it leaves compile mode untouched so you can easily recompile
once you've changed something.
However, if you want to jump to the exact column position of a hit,
compile mode may be more convenient because emacs can use
the column output of flawfinder to directly jump to the right location
without any special configuration.
To use grep mode,
enter the command "M-x grep"
and then enter the needed flawfinder command.
To use compile mode, enter the command
"M-x compile" and enter the needed flawfinder command.
This is a meta-key command, so you'll need to use the meta key for your
keyboard (this is usually the ESC key).
As with all emacs commands, you'll need to press RETURN after
typing "grep" or "compile".
So on many systems, the grep mode is invoked by typing
ESC x g r e p RETURN.
You then need to enter a command, removing whatever was there before if
A plausible command is:
.B "flawfinder \-SQDC ."
This command makes every hit report a single line,
which is much easier for tools to handle.
The quiet and dataonly options remove the other status information not needed
for use inside emacs.
The trailing period means that the current directory and all descendents
are searched for C/C++ code, and analyzed for flaws.
Once you've invoked flawfinder, you can use emacs to jump around
in its results.
The command C-x \`
visits the source code location for the next warning message.
C-u C-x \` (control-u control-x backtick)
restarts from the beginning.
You can visit the source for any particular error message by moving
to that hit message in the *compilation* buffer or *grep* buffer
and typing the return key.
(Technical note: in the compilation buffer, this invokes
You can also click the Mouse-2 button on the error message
(when using the mouse you don't need to switch to the *compilation* buffer
If you want to use grep mode to jump to specific columns of a hit,
you'll need to specially configure emacs to do this.
To do this, modify the emacs variable "grep-regexp-alist".
This variable tells Emacs how to
parse output of a "grep" command, similar to the
variable "compilation-error-regexp-alist" which lists various formats
of compilation error messages.
You should always analyze a \fIcopy\fP of the source program being analyzed,
not a directory that can be modified by a developer while flawfinder
is performing the analysis.
This is \fIespecially\fP true if you don't necessily trust a
developer of the program being analyzed.
If an attacker has control over the files while you're analyzing them,
the attacker could move files around or change their contents to
prevent the exposure of a security problem (or create the impression
of a problem where there is none).
If you're worried about malicious programmers you should do this anyway,
because after analysis you'll need to verify that the code eventually run
is the code you analyzed.
Also, do not use the \-\-allowlink option in such cases;
attackers could create malicious symbolic links to files outside of their
source code area (such as /etc/passwd).
Source code management systems (like SourceForge and Savannah)
definitely fall into this category; if you're maintaining one of those
systems, first copy or extract the files into a separate directory
(that can't be controlled by attackers)
before running flawfinder or any other code analysis tool.
Note that flawfinder only opens regular files, directories, and
(if requested) symbolic links; it will never open other kinds of files,
even if a symbolic link is made to them.
This counters attackers who insert unusual file types into the
However, this only works if the filesystem being analyzed can't
be modified by an attacker during the analysis, as recommended above.
This protection also doesn't work on Cygwin platforms, unfortunately.
Cygwin systems (Unix emulation on top of Windows)
have an additional problem if flawfinder is used to analyze
programs the analyzer cannot trust
due to a design flaw in Windows (that it inherits from MS-DOS).
On Windows and MS-DOS, certain filenames (e.g., ``com1'') are
automatically treated by the operating system as the names of peripherals,
and this is true even when a full pathname is given.
Yes, Windows and MS-DOS really are designed this badly.
Flawfinder deals with this by checking what a filesystem object is,
and then only opening directories and regular files
(and symlinks if enabled).
Unfortunately, this doesn't work on Cygwin; on at least some versions
of Cygwin on some versions of Windows,
merely trying to determine if a file is a device type
can cause the program to hang.
A workaround is to delete or rename any filenames that are interpreted
as device names before performing the analysis.
These so-called ``reserved names'' are CON, PRN, AUX, CLOCK$, NUL,
COM1-COM9, and LPT1-LPT9, optionally followed by an extension
(e.g., ``com1.txt''), in any directory, and in any case
(Windows is case-insensitive).
.\" See 'Writing Secure Code' by Howard and LeBlanc, pg. 223
Flawfinder is currently limited to C/C++.
It's designed so that adding support for other languages should be easy.
Flawfinder can be fooled by user-defined functions or method names that
happen to be the same as those defined as ``hits'' in its database,
and will often trigger on definitions (as well as uses) of functions
with the same name.
This is because flawfinder is based on text pattern matching, which is
part of its fundamental design and not easily changed.
This isn't as much of a problem for C code, but it can be more of a problem
for some C++ code which heavily uses classes and namespaces.
On the positive side, flawfinder doesn't get confused by many
complicated preprocessor sequences that other tools sometimes choke on.
Also, having the same name as a common library routine name can
indicate that the developer is simply rewriting a common library routine,
say for portability's sake.
Thus, there are reasonable odds that
these rewritten routines will be vulnerable to the same kinds of misuse.
The \-\-falsepositive option can help somewhat.
If this is a serious problem, feel free to modify the program, or process
the flawfinder output through other tools to remove the false positives.
Preprocessor commands embedded in the middle of a parameter list
of a call can cause problems in parsing, in particular, if a string
is opened and then closed multiple times using an #ifdef .. #else
construct, flawfinder gets confused.
Such constructs are bad style, and will confuse many other tools too.
If you must analyze such files, rewrite those lines.
Thankfully, these are quite rare.
The routine to detect statically defined character arrays uses
simple text matching; some complicated expresions can cause it to
trigger or not trigger unexpectedly.
Flawfinder looks for specific patterns known to be common mistakes.
Flawfinder (or any tool like it) is not a good tool for finding intentionally
malicious code (e.g., Trojan horses); malicious programmers can easily
insert code that would not be detected by this kind of tool.
Flawfinder looks for specific patterns known to be common mistakes
in application code.
Thus, it is likely to be less effective
analyzing programs that aren't application-layer code
(e.g., kernel code or self-hosting code).
The techniques may still be useful; feel free to replace the database
if your situation is significantly different from normal.
Flawfinder's output format (filename:linenumber, followed optionally
by a :columnnumber) can be misunderstood if any source files have
very weird filenames.
Filenames embedding a newline/linefeed character will cause odd breaks,
and filenames including colon (:) are likely to be misunderstood.
This is especially important if flawfinder's output is being used
by other tools, such as filters or text editors.
If you're looking at new code, examine the files for such characters.
It's incredibly unwise to have such filenames anyway;
many tools can't handle such filenames at all.
Newline and linefeed are often used as internal data delimeters.
The colon is often used as special characters in filesystems:
MacOS uses it as a directory separator, Windows/MS-DOS uses it
to identify drive letters, Windows/MS-DOS inconsistently uses it
to identify special devices like CON:, and applications on many platforms
use the colon to identify URIs/URLs.
Filenames including spaces and/or tabs don't cause problems for flawfinder,
though note that other tools might have problems with them.
In general, flawfinder attempts to err on the side of caution; it tends
to report hits, so that they can be examined further, instead of silently
Thus, flawfinder prefers to have false positives (reports that
turn out to not be problems) rather than false negatives
(failure to report on a security vulnerability).
But this is a generality; flawfinder uses simplistic heuristics and
simply can't get everything "right".
Security vulnerabilities might not be identified as such by flawfinder,
and conversely, some hits aren't really security vulnerabilities.
This is true for all static security scanners, especially those like
flawfinder that use a simple pattern-based approach to identifying problems.
Still, it can serve as a useful aid for humans, helping to identify
useful places to examine further, and that's the point of this tool.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
See the flawfinder website at http://www.dwheeler.com/flawfinder.
You should also see the
.I "Secure Programming for Unix and Linux HOWTO"
David A. Wheeler (firstname.lastname@example.org).