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gcc-8 8.2.0-20
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			GCC 8 Release Series
		Changes, New Features, and Fixes

This page is a "brief" summary of some of the huge number of improvements in
GCC 8. You may also want to check out our Porting_to_GCC_8 page and the full
GCC_documentation.

Caveats

    * Support for the obsolete SDB/coff debug info format has been removed. The
      option -gcoff no longer does anything.
    * The Cilk+ extensions to the C and C++ languages have been removed.
    * The MPX extensions to the C and C++ languages have been deprecated and
      will be removed in a future release.
    * The extension allowing arithmetic on std::atomic<void*> and types like
      std::atomic<R(*)()> has been deprecated.
    * The non-standard C++0x std::copy_exception function was removed. std::
      make_exception_ptr should be used instead.
    * Support for the powerpc*-*-*spe* target ports which have been recently
      unmaintained and untested in GCC has been declared obsolete in GCC 8 as
      announced here. Unless there is activity to revive them, the next release
      of GCC will have their sources permanently removed.

General Improvements

    * Inter-procedural optimization improvements:
          o Reworked run-time estimation metrics leading to more realistic
            guesses driving inliner and cloning heuristics.
          o The ipa-pure-const pass is extended to propagate the malloc
            attribute, and the corresponding warning option -Wsuggest-
            attribute=malloc emits a diagnostic for functions which can be
            annotated with the malloc attribute.
    * Profile driven optimization improvements:
          o New infrastructure for representing profiles (both statically
            guessed and profile feedback) which allows propagation of
            additional information about the reliability of the profile.
          o A number of improvements in the profile updating code solving
            problems found by new verification code.
          o Static detection of code which is not executed in a valid run of
            the program. This includes paths which trigger undefined behavior
            as well as calls to functions declared with the cold attribute.
            Newly the noreturn attribute does not imply all effects of cold to
            differentiate between exit (which is noreturn) and abort (which is
            in addition not executed in valid runs).
          o -freorder-blocks-and-partition, a pass splitting function bodies
            into hot and cold regions, is now enabled by default at -O2 and
            higher for x86 and x86-64.
    * Link-time optimization improvements:
          o We have significantly improved debug information on ELF targets
            using DWARF by properly preserving language-specific information.
            This allows for example the libstdc++ pretty-printers to work with
            LTO optimized executables.
    * A new option -fcf-protection=[full|branch|return|none] is introduced to
      perform code instrumentation to increase program security by checking
      that target addresses of control-flow transfer instructions (such as
      indirect function call, function return, indirect jump) are valid.
      Currently the instrumentation is supported on x86 GNU/Linux targets only.
      See the user guide for further information about the option syntax and
      section "New Targets and Target Specific Improvements" for IA-32/x86-64
      for more details.
    * The -gcolumn-info option is now enabled by default. It includes column
      information in addition to just filenames and line numbers in DWARF
      debugging information.
    * The polyhedral-based loop nest optimization pass -floop-nest-optimize has
      been overhauled. It's still considered experimental and may not result in
      any runtime improvements.
    * Two new classical loop nest optimization passes have been added. -floop-
      unroll-and-jam performs outer loop unrolling and fusing of the inner loop
      copies. -floop-interchange exchanges loops in a loop nest to improve data
      locality. Both passes are enabled by default at -O3 and above.
    * The classic loop nest optimization pass -ftree-loop-distribution has been
      improved and enabled by default at -O3 and above. It supports loop nest
      distribution in some restricted scenarios; it also supports cancellable
      innermost loop distribution with loop versioning under run-time alias
      checks.
    * The new option -fstack-clash-protection causes the compiler to insert
      probes whenever stack space is allocated statically or dynamically to
      reliably detect stack overflows and thus mitigate the attack vector that
      relies on jumping over a stack guard page as provided by the operating
      system.
    * A new pragma GCC unroll has been implemented in the C family of
      languages, as well as Fortran and Ada, so as to make it possible for the
      user to have a finer-grained control over the loop unrolling
      optimization.
    * GCC has been enhanced to detect more instances of meaningless or mutually
      exclusive attribute specifications and handle such conflicts more
      consistently. Mutually exclusive attribute specifications are ignored
      with a warning regardless of whether they appear on the same declaration
      or on distinct declarations of the same entity. For example, because the
      noreturn attribute on the second declaration below is mutually exclusive
      with the malloc attribute on the first, it is ignored and a warning is
      issued.
            void* __attribute__ ((malloc)) f (unsigned);
            void* __attribute__ ((noreturn)) f (unsigned);

            warning: ignoring attribute 'noreturn' because it conflicts with
      attribute 'malloc' [-Wattributes]
    * The gcov tool can distinguish functions that begin on a same line in a
      source file. This can be a different template instantiation or a class
      constructor:
           File 'ins.C'
           Lines executed:100.00% of 8
           Creating 'ins.C.gcov'

                   -:    0:Source:ins.C
                   -:    0:Graph:ins.gcno
                   -:    0:Data:ins.gcda
                   -:    0:Runs:1
                   -:    0:Programs:1
                   -:    1:template<class T>
                   -:    2:class Foo
                   -:    3:{
                   -:    4: public:
                   2:    5:   Foo(): b (1000) {}
           ------------------
           Foo<char>::Foo():
                   1:    5:   Foo(): b (1000) {}
           ------------------
           Foo<int>::Foo():
                   1:    5:   Foo(): b (1000) {}
           ------------------
                   2:    6:   void inc () { b++; }
           ------------------
           Foo<char>::inc():
                   1:    6:   void inc () { b++; }
           ------------------
           Foo<int>::inc():
                   1:    6:   void inc () { b++; }
           ------------------
                   -:    7:
                   -:    8:  private:
                   -:    9:   int b;
                   -:   10:};
                   -:   11:
                   1:   12:int main(int argc, char **argv)
                   -:   13:{
                   1:   14:  Foo<int> a;
                   1:   15:  Foo<char> b;
                   -:   16:
                   1:   17:  a.inc ();
                   1:   18:  b.inc ();
                   1:   19:}
    * The gcov tool has more accurate numbers for execution of lines in a
      source file.
    * The gcov tool can use TERM colors to provide more readable output.
    * AddressSanitizer gained a new pair of sanitization options, -
      fsanitize=pointer-compare and -fsanitize=pointer-subtract, which warn
      about subtraction (or comparison) of pointers that point to a different
      memory object:
           int
           main ()
           {
             /* Heap allocated memory.  */
             char *heap1 = (char *)__builtin_malloc (42);
             char *heap2 = (char *)__builtin_malloc (42);
             if (heap1 > heap2)
                 return 1;

             return 0;
           }

           ==17465==ERROR: AddressSanitizer: invalid-pointer-pair:
           0x604000000010 0x604000000050
               #0 0x40070f in main /tmp/pointer-compare.c:7
               #1 0x7ffff6a72a86 in __libc_start_main (/lib64/
           libc.so.6+0x21a86)
               #2 0x400629 in _start (/tmp/a.out+0x400629)

           0x604000000010 is located 0 bytes inside of 42-byte region
           [0x604000000010,0x60400000003a)
           allocated by thread T0 here:
               #0 0x7ffff6efb390 in __interceptor_malloc ../../../../
           libsanitizer/asan/asan_malloc_linux.cc:86
               #1 0x4006ea in main /tmp/pointer-compare.c:5
               #2 0x7ffff6a72a86 in __libc_start_main (/lib64/
           libc.so.6+0x21a86)

           0x604000000050 is located 0 bytes inside of 42-byte region
           [0x604000000050,0x60400000007a)
           allocated by thread T0 here:
               #0 0x7ffff6efb390 in __interceptor_malloc ../../../../
           libsanitizer/asan/asan_malloc_linux.cc:86
               #1 0x4006f8 in main /tmp/pointer-compare.c:6
               #2 0x7ffff6a72a86 in __libc_start_main (/lib64/
           libc.so.6+0x21a86)

           SUMMARY: AddressSanitizer: invalid-pointer-pair /tmp/pointer-
           compare.c:7 in main
    * The store merging pass has been enhanced to handle bit-fields and not
      just constant stores, but also data copying from adjacent memory
      locations into other adjacent memory locations, including bitwise logical
      operations on the data. The pass can also handle byte swapping into
      memory locations.
    * The undefined behavior sanitizer gained two new options included in -
      fsanitize=undefined: -fsanitize=builtin which diagnoses at run time
      invalid arguments to __builtin_clz or __builtin_ctz prefixed builtins,
      and -fsanitize=pointer-overflow which performs cheap run time tests for
      pointer wrapping.

New Languages and Language specific improvements

Ada

    * For its internal exception handling used on the host for error recovery
      in the front-end, the compiler now relies on the native exception
      handling mechanism of the host platform, which should be more efficient
      than the former mechanism.

BRIG (HSAIL)

In this release cycle, the focus for the BRIGFE was on stabilization and
performance improvements. Also a couple of completely new features were added.
    * Improved support for function and module scope group segment variables.
      PRM specs define function and module scope group segment variables as an
      experimental feature. However, PRM test suite uses them. Now group
      segment is handled by separate book keeping of module scope and function
      (kernel) offsets. Each function has a "frame" in the group segment offset
      to which is given as an argument, similar to traditional call stack frame
      handling.
    * Reduce the number of type conversions due to the untyped HSAIL registers.
      Instead of always representing the HSAIL's untyped registers as unsigned
      int, the gccbrig now pre-analyzes the BRIG code and builds the register
      variables as a type used the most when storing or reading data to/from
      each register. This reduces the number of total casts which cannot be
      always optimized away.
    * Support for BRIG_KIND_NONE directives.
    * Made -O3 the default optimization level for BRIGFE.
    * Fixed illegal addresses generated from address expressions which refer
      only to offset 0.
    * Fixed a bug with reg+offset addressing on 32b segments. In 'large' mode,
      the offset is treated as 32bits unless it's in global, read-only or
      kernarg address space.
    * Fixed a crash caused sometimes by calls with more than 4 arguments.
    * Fixed a mis-execution issue with kernels that have both unexpanded ID
      functions and calls to subfunctions.
    * Treat HSAIL barrier builtins as setjmp/longjump style functions to avoid
      illegal optimizations.
    * Ensure per WI copies of private variables are aligned correctly.
    * libhsail-rt: Assume the host runtime allocates the work group memory.

C family

    * New command-line options have been added for the C and C++ compilers:
          o -Wmultistatement-macros warns about unsafe macros expanding to
            multiple statements used as a body of a statement such as if, else,
            while, switch, or for.
          o -Wstringop-truncation warns for calls to bounded string
            manipulation functions such as strncat, strncpy, and stpncpy that
            might either truncate the copied string or leave the destination
            unchanged. For example, the following call to strncat is diagnosed
            because it appends just three of the four characters from the
            source string.
            	    void append (char *buf, size_t bufsize)
            	    {
            	        strncat (buf, ".txt", 3);
            	    }
            	    warning: 'strncat' output truncated copying 3 bytes from a
            string of length 4 [-Wstringop-truncation]
            Similarly, in the following example, the call to strncpy specifies
            the size of the destination buffer as the bound. If the length of
            the source string is equal to or greater than this size the result
            of the copy will not be NUL-terminated. Therefore, the call is also
            diagnosed. To avoid the warning, specify sizeof buf - 1 as the
            bound and set the last element of the buffer to NUL.
            	    void copy (const char *s)
            	    {
            	        char buf[80];
            	        strncpy (buf, s, sizeof buf);
            	    }
            	    warning: 'strncpy' specified bound 80 equals destination size
            [-Wstringop-truncation]
            The -Wstringop-truncation option is included in -Wall.
            Note that due to GCC bug 82944, defining strncat, strncpy, or
            stpncpy as a macro in a system header as some implementations do,
            suppresses the warning.
          o -Wif-not-aligned controls warnings issued in response to invalid
            uses of objects declared with attribute warn_if_not_aligned.
            The -Wif-not-aligned option is included in -Wall.
          o -Wmissing-attributes warns when a declaration of a function is
            missing one or more attributes that a related function is declared
            with and whose absence may adversely affect the correctness or
            efficiency of generated code. For example, in C++, the warning is
            issued when an explicit specialization of a primary template
            declared with attribute alloc_align, alloc_size, assume_aligned,
            format, format_arg, malloc, or nonnull is declared without it.
            Attributes deprecated, error, and warning suppress the warning.
            The -Wmissing-attributes option is included in -Wall.
          o -Wpacked-not-aligned warns when a struct or union declared with
            attribute packed defines a member with an explicitly specified
            alignment greater than 1. Such a member will wind up under-aligned.
            For example, a warning will be issued for the definition of struct
            A in the following:
            	    struct __attribute__ ((aligned (8)))
            	    S8 { char a[8]; };

            	    struct __attribute__ ((packed)) A
            	    {
            	        struct S8 s8;
            	    };
            	    warning: alignment 1 of 'struct S' is less than 8 [-Wpacked-
            not-aligned]
            The -Wpacked-not-aligned option is included in -Wall.
          o -Wcast-function-type warns when a function pointer is cast to an
            incompatible function pointer. This warning is enabled by -Wextra.
          o -Wsizeof-pointer-div warns for suspicious divisions of the size of
            a pointer by the size of the elements it points to, which looks
            like the usual way to compute the array size but won't work out
            correctly with pointers. This warning is enabled by -Wall.
          o -Wcast-align=strict warns whenever a pointer is cast such that the
            required alignment of the target is increased. For example, warn if
            a char * is cast to an int * regardless of the target machine.
          o -fprofile-abs-path creates absolute path names in the .gcno files.
            This allows gcov to find the correct sources in projects where
            compilations occur with different working directories.
    * -fno-strict-overflow is now mapped to -fwrapv -fwrapv-pointer and signed
      integer overflow is now undefined by default at all optimization levels.
      Using -fsanitize=signed-integer-overflow is now the preferred way to
      audit code, -Wstrict-overflow is deprecated.
    * The -Warray-bounds option has been improved to detect more instances of
      out-of-bounds array indices and pointer offsets. For example, negative or
      excessive indices into flexible array members and string literals are
      detected.
    * The -Wrestrict option introduced in GCC 7 has been enhanced to detect
      many more instances of overlapping accesses to objects via restrict-
      qualified arguments to standard memory and string manipulation functions
      such as memcpy and strcpy. For example, the strcpy call in the function
      below attempts to truncate the string by replacing its initial characters
      with the last four. However, because the function writes the terminating
      NUL into a[4], the copies overlap and the call is diagnosed.
      	void f (void)
      	{
      	    char a[] = "abcd1234";
      	    strcpy (a, a + 4);
      	}
      The -Wrestrict option is included in -Wall.
    * Several optimizer enhancements have enabled improvements to the -Wformat-
      overflow and -Wformat-truncation options. The warnings detect more
      instances of buffer overflow and truncation than in GCC 7 and are better
      at avoiding certain kinds of false positives.
    * When reporting mismatching argument types at a function call, the C and
      C++ compilers now underline both the argument and the pertinent parameter
      in the declaration.
      $ gcc arg-type-mismatch.cc
      arg-type-mismatch.cc: In function &#x27;int caller(int, int,
      float)&#x27;:
      arg-type-mismatch.cc:5:24: error: invalid conversion from &#x27;int&#x27;
      to &#x27;const char*&#x27; [-fpermissive]
         return callee(first, second, third);
                              ^~~~~~
      arg-type-mismatch.cc:1:40: note:   initializing argument 2 of &#x27;int
      callee(int, const char*, float)&#x27;
       extern int callee(int one, const char *two, float three);
                                  ~~~~~~~~~~~~^~~
    * When reporting on unrecognized identifiers, the C and C++ compilers will
      now emit fix-it hints suggesting #include directives for various headers
      in the C and C++ standard libraries.
      $ gcc incomplete.c
      incomplete.c: In function &#x27;test&#x27;:
      incomplete.c:3:10: error: &#x27;NULL&#x27; undeclared (first use in this
      function)
         return NULL;
                ^~~~
      incomplete.c:3:10: note: &#x27;NULL&#x27; is defined in header
      &#x27;<stddef.h>&#x27;; did you forget to &#x27;#include
      <stddef.h>&#x27;?
      incomplete.c:1:1:
      +#include <stddef.h>
       const char *test(void)
      incomplete.c:3:10:
         return NULL;
                ^~~~
      incomplete.c:3:10: note: each undeclared identifier is reported only once
      for each function it appears in
      $ gcc incomplete.cc
      incomplete.cc:1:6: error: &#x27;string&#x27; in namespace &#x27;std&#x27;
      does not name a type
       std::string s("hello world");
            ^~~~~~
      incomplete.cc:1:1: note: &#x27;std::string&#x27; is defined in header
      &#x27;<string>&#x27;; did you forget to &#x27;#include <string>&#x27;?
      +#include <string>
       std::string s("hello world");
       ^~~
    * The C and C++ compilers now use more intuitive locations when reporting
      on missing semicolons, and offer fix-it hints:
      $ gcc t.c
      t.c: In function &#x27;test&#x27;:
      t.c:3:12: error: expected &#x27;;&#x27; before &#x27;}&#x27; token
         return 42
                  ^
                  ;
       }
       ~
    * When reporting on missing '}' and ')' tokens, the C and C++ compilers
      will now highlight the corresponding '{' and '(' token, issuing a 'note'
      if it's on a separate line:
      $ gcc unclosed.c
      unclosed.c: In function &#x27;log_when_out_of_range&#x27;:
      unclosed.c:12:50: error: expected &#x27;)&#x27; before &#x27;{&#x27;
      token
             && (temperature < MIN || temperature > MAX) {
                                                        ^~
                                                        )
      unclosed.c:11:6: note: to match this &#x27;(&#x27;
         if (logging_enabled && check_range ()
            ^
      or highlighting it directly if it's on the same line:
      $ gcc unclosed-2.c
      unclosed-2.c: In function &#x27;test&#x27;:
      unclosed-2.c:8:45: error: expected &#x27;)&#x27; before &#x27;{&#x27;
      token
         if (temperature < MIN || temperature > MAX {
            ~                                      ^~
                                                   )
      They will also emit fix-it hints.

C++

    * The value of the C++11 alignof operator has been corrected to match C
      _Alignof (minimum alignment) rather than GNU __alignof__ (preferred
      alignment); on ia32 targets this means that alignof(double) is now 4
      rather than 8. Code that wants the preferred alignment should use
      __alignof__ instead.
    * New command-line options have been added for the C++ compiler to control
      warnings:
          o -Wclass-memaccess warns when objects of non-trivial class types are
            manipulated in potentially unsafe ways by raw memory functions such
            as memcpy, or realloc. The warning helps detect calls that bypass
            user-defined constructors or copy-assignment operators, corrupt
            virtual table pointers, data members of const-qualified types or
            references, or member pointers. The warning also detects calls that
            would bypass access controls to data members. For example, a call
            such as:
            	memcpy (&std::cout, &std::cerr, sizeof std::cout);
            results in
            	warning: 'void* memcpy(void*, const void*, long unsigned int)'
            writing to an object of type 'std::ostream' {aka 'class std::
            basic_ostream<char>'} with no trivial copy-assignment [-Wclass-
            memaccess]
            The -Wclass-memaccess option is included in -Wall.
    * The C++ front end has experimental support for some of the upcoming C++2a
      draft features with the -std=c++2a or -std=gnu++2a flags, including
      designated initializers, default member initializers for bit-fields,
      __VA_OPT__ (except that #__VA_OPT__ is unsupported), lambda [=, this]
      captures, etc. For a full list of new features, see the_C++_status_page.
    * When reporting on attempts to access private fields of a class or struct,
      the C++ compiler will now offer fix-it hints showing how to use an
      accessor function to get at the field in question, if one exists.
      $ gcc accessor.cc
      accessor.cc: In function &#x27;void test(foo*)&#x27;:
      accessor.cc:12:12: error: &#x27;double foo::m_ratio&#x27; is private
      within this context
         if (ptr->m_ratio >= 0.5)
                  ^~~~~~~
      accessor.cc:7:10: note: declared private here
         double m_ratio;
                ^~~~~~~
      accessor.cc:12:12: note: field &#x27;double foo::m_ratio&#x27; can be
      accessed via &#x27;double foo::get_ratio() const&#x27;
         if (ptr->m_ratio >= 0.5)
                  ^~~~~~~
                  get_ratio()
    * The C++ compiler can now give you a hint if you use a macro before it was
      defined (e.g. if you mess up the order of your #include directives):
      $ gcc ordering.cc
      ordering.cc:2:24: error: expected &#x27;;&#x27; at end of member
      declaration
         virtual void clone() const OVERRIDE { }
                              ^~~~~
                                   ;
      ordering.cc:2:30: error: &#x27;OVERRIDE&#x27; does not name a type
         virtual void clone() const OVERRIDE { }
                                    ^~~~~~~~
      ordering.cc:2:30: note: the macro &#x27;OVERRIDE&#x27; had not yet been
      defined
      In file included from ordering.cc:5:
      c++11-compat.h:2: note: it was later defined here
       #define OVERRIDE override
    * The -Wold-style-cast diagnostic can now emit fix-it hints telling you
      when you can use a static_cast, const_cast, or reinterpret_cast.
      $ gcc -c old-style-cast-fixits.cc -Wold-style-cast
      old-style-cast-fixits.cc: In function &#x27;void test(void*)&#x27;:
      old-style-cast-fixits.cc:5:19: warning: use of old-style cast to
      &#x27;struct foo*&#x27; [-Wold-style-cast]
         foo *f = (foo *)ptr;
                         ^~~
                  ----------
                  static_cast<foo *> (ptr)
    * When reporting on problems within extern "C" linkage specifications, the
      C++ compiler will now display the location of the start of the extern
      "C".
      $ gcc -c extern-c.cc
      extern-c.cc:3:1: error: template with C linkage
       template <typename T> void test (void);
       ^~~~~~~~
      In file included from extern-c.cc:1:
      unclosed.h:1:1: note: &#x27;extern "C"&#x27; linkage started here
       extern "C" {
       ^~~~~~~~~~
      extern-c.cc:3:39: error: expected &#x27;}&#x27; at end of input
       template <typename T> void test (void);
                                             ^
      In file included from extern-c.cc:1:
      unclosed.h:1:12: note: to match this &#x27;{&#x27;
       extern "C" {
                  ^
    * When reporting on mismatching template types, the C++ compiler will now
      use color to highlight the mismatching parts of the template, and will
      elide the parameters that are common between two mismatching templates,
      printing [...] instead:
      $ gcc templates.cc
      templates.cc: In function &#x27;void test()&#x27;:
      templates.cc:9:8: error: could not convert &#x27;vector<double>()&#x27;
      from &#x27;vector<double>&#x27; to &#x27;vector<int>&#x27;
         fn_1(vector<double> ());
              ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      templates.cc:10:8: error: could not convert &#x27;map<int, double>
      ()&#x27; from &#x27;map<[...],double>&#x27; to &#x27;map<[...],int>&#x27;
         fn_2(map<int, double>());
              ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      Those [...] elided parameters can be seen using -fno-elide-type:
      $ gcc templates.cc -fno-elide-type
      templates.cc: In function &#x27;void test()&#x27;:
      templates.cc:9:8: error: could not convert &#x27;vector<double>()&#x27;
      from &#x27;vector<double>&#x27; to &#x27;vector<int>&#x27;
         fn_1(vector<double> ());
              ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      templates.cc:10:8: error: could not convert &#x27;map<int, double>
      ()&#x27; from &#x27;map<int,double>&#x27; to &#x27;map<int,int>&#x27;
         fn_2(map<int, double>());
              ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      The C++ compiler has also gained an option -fdiagnostics-show-template-
      tree which visualizes such mismatching templates in a hierarchical form:
      $ gcc templates-2.cc -fdiagnostics-show-template-tree
      templates-2.cc: In function &#x27;void test()&#x27;:
      templates-2.cc:9:8: error: could not convert &#x27;vector<double>()&#x27;
      from &#x27;vector<double>&#x27; to &#x27;vector<int>&#x27;
        vector<
          [double != int]>
         fn_1(vector<double> ());
              ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      templates-2.cc:10:8: error: could not convert &#x27;map<map<int,
      vector<double> >, vector<double> >()&#x27; from &#x27;map<map<
      [...],vector<double>>,vector<double>>&#x27; to &#x27;map<map<
      [...],vector<float>>,vector<float>>&#x27;
        map<
          map<
            [...],
            vector<
              [double != float]>>,
          vector<
            [double != float]>>
         fn_2(map<map<int, vector<double>>, vector<double>> ());
              ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      which again works with -fno-elide-type:
      $ gcc templates-2.cc -fdiagnostics-show-template-tree -fno-elide-type
      templates-2.cc: In function &#x27;void test()&#x27;:
      templates-2.cc:9:8: error: could not convert &#x27;vector<double>()&#x27;
      from &#x27;vector<double>&#x27; to &#x27;vector<int>&#x27;
        vector<
          [double != int]>
         fn_1(vector<double> ());
              ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      templates-2.cc:10:8: error: could not convert &#x27;map<map<int,
      vector<double> >, vector<double> >()&#x27; from
      &#x27;map<map<int,vector<double>>,vector<double>>&#x27; to
      &#x27;map<map<int,vector<float>>,vector<float>>&#x27;
        map<
          map<
            int,
            vector<
              [double != float]>>,
          vector<
            [double != float]>>
         fn_2(map<map<int, vector<double>>, vector<double>> ());
              ^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    * Flowing off the end of a non-void function is considered unreachable and
      may be subject to optimization on that basis. As a result of this change,
      -Wreturn-type warnings are enabled by default for C++.

Runtime Library (libstdc++)

    * Improved experimental support for C++17, including the following
      features:
          o Deduction guides to support class template argument deduction.
          o std::filesystem implementation.
          o std::char_traits<char> and std::char_traits<wchar_t> are usable in
            constant expressions.
          o std::to_chars and std::from_chars (for integers only, not for
            floating point types).
    * Experimental support for C++2a: std::to_address (thanks to Glen
      Fernandes) and std::endian.
    * On GNU/Linux, std::random_device::entropy() accesses the kernel's entropy
      count for the random device, if known (thanks to Xi Ruoyao).
    * Support for std::experimental::source_location.
    * AddressSanitizer integration for std::vector, detecting out-of-range
      accesses to the unused capacity of a vector.
    * Extensions __gnu_cxx::airy_ai and __gnu_cxx::airy_bi added to the
      Mathematical Special Functions.

Fortran

    * The main version of libfortran has been changed to 5.
    * Parameterized derived types, a major feature of Fortran 2003, have been
      implemented.
    * The maximum rank for arrays has been increased to 15, conforming to the
      Fortran 2008 standard.
    * Transformational intrinsics are now fully supported in initialization
      expressions.
    * New flag -fc-prototypes to write C prototypes for BIND(C) procedures and
      variables.
    * If -fmax-stack-var-size is honored if given together with -Ofast, -
      fstack-arrays is no longer set in that case.
    * New options -fdefault-real-16 and -fdefault-real-10 to control the
      default kind of REAL variables.
    * A warning is now issued if an array subscript inside a DO loop could lead
      to an out-of-bounds-access. The new option -Wdo-subscript, enabled by -
      Wextra, warns about this even if the compiler can not prove that the code
      will be executed.
    * The Fortran front end now attempts to interchange loops if it is deemed
      profitable. So far, this is restricted to FORALL and DO CONCURRENT
      statements with multiple indices. This behavior be controlled with the
      new flag -ffrontend-loop-interchange, which is enabled with optimization
      by default. The -Wfrontend-loop-interchange option warns about such
      occurrences.
    * When an actual argument contains too few elements for a dummy argument,
      an error is now issued. The -std=legacy option can be used to still
      compile such code.
    * The RECL= argument to OPEN and INQUIRE statements now allows 64-bit
      integers, making records larger than 2GiB possible.
    * The GFORTRAN_DEFAULT_RECL environment variable no longer has any effect.
      The record length for preconnected units is now larger than any practical
      limit, same as for sequential access units opened without an explicit
      RECL= specifier.
    * Character variables longer than HUGE(0) elements are now possible on 64-
      bit targets. Note that this changes the procedure call ABI for all
      procedures with character arguments on 64-bit targets, as the type of the
      hidden character length argument has changed. The hidden character length
      argument is now of type INTEGER(C_SIZE_T).

Go

    * GCC 8 provides a complete implementation of the Go 1.10.1 user packages.
    * The garbage collector is now fully concurrent. As before, values stored
      on the stack are scanned conservatively, but value stored in the heap are
      scanned precisely.
    * Escape analysis is fully implemented and enabled by default in the Go
      frontend. This significantly reduces the number of heap allocations by
      allocating values on the stack instead.

libgccjit

The libgccjit API gained four new entry points:
    * gcc_jit_type_get_vector and
    * gcc_jit_context_new_rvalue_from_vector for working with vectors,
    * gcc_jit_type_get_aligned
    * gcc_jit_function_get_address
The C code generated by gcc_jit_context_dump_reproducer_to_file is now easier-
to-read.

New Targets and Target Specific Improvements

AArch64

    * The Armv8.4-A architecture is now supported. It can be used by specifying
      the -march=armv8.4-a option.
    * The Dot Product instructions are now supported as an optional extension
      to the Armv8.2-A architecture and newer and are mandatory on Armv8.4-A.
      The extension can be used by specifying the +dotprod architecture
      extension. E.g. -march=armv8.2-a+dotprod.
    * The Armv8-A +crypto extension has now been split into two extensions for
      finer grained control:
          o +aes which contains the Armv8-A AES crytographic instructions.
          o +sha2 which contains the Armv8-A SHA2 and SHA1 cryptographic
            instructions.
      Using +crypto will now enable these two extensions.
    * New Armv8.4-A FP16 Floating Point Multiplication Variant instructions
      have been added. These instructions are mandatory in Armv8.4-A but
      available as an optional extension to Armv8.2-A and Armv8.3-A. The new
      extension can be used by specifying the +fp16fml architectural extension
      on Armv8.2-A and Armv8.3-A. On Armv8.4-A the instructions can be enabled
      by specifying +fp16.
    * New cryptographic instructions have been added as optional extensions to
      Armv8.2-A and newer. These instructions can be enabled with:
          o +sha3 New SHA3 and SHA2 instructions from Armv8.4-A. This implies
            +sha2.
          o +sm4 New SM3 and SM4 instructions from Armv8.4-A.
    * The Scalable Vector Extension (SVE) is now supported as an optional
      extension to the Armv8.2-A architecture and newer. This support includes
      automatic vectorization with SVE instructions, but it does not yet
      include the SVE Arm C Language Extensions (ACLE). It can be enabled by
      specifying the +sve architecture extension (for example, -march=armv8.2-
      a+sve). By default, the generated code works with all vector lengths, but
      it can be made specific to N-bit vectors using -msve-vector-bits=N.
    * Support has been added for the following processors (GCC identifiers in
      parentheses):
          o Arm Cortex-A75 (cortex-a75).
          o Arm Cortex-A55 (cortex-a55).
          o Arm Cortex-A55/Cortex-A75 DynamIQ big.LITTLE (cortex-a75.cortex-
            a55).
      The GCC identifiers can be used as arguments to the -mcpu or -mtune
      options, for example: -mcpu=cortex-a75 or -mtune=cortex-a75 or as
      arguments to the equivalent target attributes and pragmas.

ARC

    * Added support for:
          o Fast interrupts.
          o Naked functions.
          o aux variable attributes.
          o uncached type qualifier.
          o Secure functions via sjli instruction.
    * New exception handling implementation.
    * Revamped trampoline implementation.
    * Refactored small data feature implementation, controlled via -G command
      line option.
    * New support for reduced register set ARC architecture configurations,
      controlled via -mrf16 command line option.
    * Refurbished and improved support for zero overhead loops. Introduced -
      mlpc-width command line option to control the width of lp_count register.

ARM

    * The -mfpu option now takes a new option setting of -mfpu=auto. When set
      to this the floating-point and SIMD settings are derived from the
      settings of the -mcpu or -march options. The internal CPU configurations
      have been updated with information about the permitted floating-point
      configurations supported. See the user guide for further information
      about the extended option syntax for controlling architectural extensions
      via the -march option. -mfpu=auto is now the default setting unless the
      compiler has been configured with an explicit --with-fpu option.
    * The -march and -mcpu options now accept optional extensions to the
      architecture or CPU option, allowing the user to enable or disable any
      such extensions supported by that architecture or CPU such as (but not
      limited to) floating-point and AdvancedSIMD. For example: the option -
      mcpu=cortex-a53+nofp will generate code for the Cortex-A53 processor with
      no floating-point support. This, in combination with the new -mfpu=auto
      option, provides a straightforward way of specifying a valid build target
      through a single -mcpu or -march option. The -mtune option accepts the
      same arguments as -mcpu but only the CPU name has an effect on tuning.
      The architecture extensions do not have any effect. For details of what
      extensions a particular architecture or CPU option supports please refer
      to the documentation.
    * The -mstructure-size-boundary option has been deprecated and will be
      removed in a future release.
    * The default link behavior for Armv6 and Armv7-R targets has been changed
      to produce BE8 format when generating big-endian images. A new flag -
      mbe32 can be used to force the linker to produce legacy BE32 format
      images. There is no change of behavior for Armv6-M and other Armv7 or
      later targets: these already defaulted to BE8 format. This change brings
      GCC into alignment with other compilers for the ARM architecture.
    * The Armv8-R architecture is now supported. It can be used by specifying
      the -march=armv8-r option.
    * The Armv8.3-A architecture is now supported. It can be used by specifying
      the -march=armv8.3-a option.
    * The Armv8.4-A architecture is now supported. It can be used by specifying
      the -march=armv8.4-a option.
    * The Dot Product instructions are now supported as an optional extension
      to the Armv8.2-A architecture and newer and are mandatory on Armv8.4-A.
      The extension can be used by specifying the +dotprod architecture
      extension. E.g. -march=armv8.2-a+dotprod.
    * Support for setting extensions and architectures using the GCC target
      pragma and attribute has been added. It can be used by specifying #pragma
      GCC target ("arch=..."), #pragma GCC target ("+extension"), __attribute__
      ((target("arch=..."))) or __attribute__((target("+extension"))).
    * New Armv8.4-A FP16 Floating Point Multiplication Variant instructions
      have been added. These instructions are mandatory in Armv8.4-A but
      available as an optional extension to Armv8.2-A and Armv8.3-A. The new
      extension can be used by specifying the +fp16fml architectural extension
      on Armv8.2-A and Armv8.3-A. On Armv8.4-A the instructions can be enabled
      by specifying +fp16.
    * Support has been added for the following processors (GCC identifiers in
      parentheses):
          o Arm Cortex-A75 (cortex-a75).
          o Arm Cortex-A55 (cortex-a55).
          o Arm Cortex-A55/Cortex-A75 DynamIQ big.LITTLE (cortex-a75.cortex-
            a55).
          o Arm Cortex-R52 for Armv8-R (cortex-r52).
      The GCC identifiers can be used as arguments to the -mcpu or -mtune
      options, for example: -mcpu=cortex-a75 or -mtune=cortex-r52 or as
      arguments to the equivalent target attributes and pragmas.

AVR

    * The AVR port now supports the following XMEGA-like devices:
           ATtiny212, ATtiny214, ATtiny412, ATtiny414, ATtiny416,
           ATtiny417, ATtiny814, ATtiny816, ATtiny817, ATtiny1614,
           ATtiny1616, ATtiny1617, ATtiny3214, ATtiny3216, ATtiny3217
      The new devices are listed under -mmcu=avrxmega3.
          o These devices see flash memory in the RAM address space, so that
            features like PROGMEM and __flash are not needed any more (as
            opposed to other AVR families for which read-only data will be
            located in RAM except special, non-standard features are used to
            locate and access such data). This requires that the compiler is
            used with Binutils 2.29 or newer so that read-only_data_will_be
            located_in_flash_memory.
          o A new command-line option -mshort-calls is supported. This option
            is used internally for multilib selection of the avrxmega3
            variants. It is not an optimization option. Do not set it by hand.
    * The compiler now generates efficient_interrupt_service_routine_(ISR)
      prologues_and_epilogues. This is achieved by using the new AVR_pseudo
      instruction __gcc_isr which is supported and resolved by the GNU
      assembler.
          o As the __gcc_isr pseudo-instruction will be resolved by the
            assembler, inline assembly is transparent to the process. This
            means that when inline assembly uses an instruction like INC that
            clobbers the condition code, then the assembler will detect this
            and generate an appropriate ISR prologue / epilogue chunk to save /
            restore SREG as needed.
          o A new command-line option -mno-gas-isr-prologues disables the
            generation of the __gcc_isr pseudo instruction. Any non-naked ISR
            will save and restore SREG, tmp_reg and zero_reg, no matter whether
            the respective register is clobbered or used.
          o The feature is turned on per default for all optimization levels
            except for -O0 and -Og. It is explicitly enabled by means of option
            -mgas-isr-prologues.
          o Support has been added for a new AVR_function_attribute no_gccisr.
            It can be used to disable __gcc_isr pseudo instruction generation
            for individual ISRs.
          o This optimization is only available if GCC is configured with GNU
            Binutils 2.29 or newer; or at least with a version of Binutils that
            implements feature PR21683.
    * The compiler no more saves / restores registers in main; the effect is
      the same as if attribute OS_task was specified for main. This
      optimization can be switched off by the new command-line option -mno-
      main-is-OS_task.

IA-32/x86-64

    * The x86 port now supports the naked function attribute.
    * Better tuning for znver1 and Intel Core based CPUs.
    * Vectorization cost metrics has been reworked leading to significant
      improvements on some benchmarks.
    * GCC now supports the Intel CPU named Cannonlake through -
      march=cannonlake. The switch enables the AVX512VBMI, AVX512IFMA and SHA
      ISA extensions.
    * GCC now supports the Intel CPU named and Icelake through -march=icelake.
      The switch enables the AVX512VNNI, GFNI, VAES, AVX512VBMI2, VPCLMULQDQ,
      AVX512BITALG, RDPID and AVX512VPOPCNTDQ ISA extensions.
    * GCC now supports the Intel Control-flow Enforcement Technology (CET)
      extension through -mibt, -mshstk, -mcet options. One of these options has
      to accompany the -fcf-protection option to enable code instrumentation
      for control-flow protection.

NDS32

    * New command-line options -mext-perf, -mext-perf2, and -mext-string have
      been added for performance extension instructions.

Nios II

    * The Nios II back end has been improved to generate better-optimized code.
      Changes include switching to LRA, more accurate cost models, and more
      compact code for addressing static variables.
    * New command-line options -mgprel-sec= and -mr0rel-sec= have been added.
    * The stack-smashing protection options are now enabled on Nios II.

PA-RISC

    * The default call ABI on 32-bit linux has been changed from callee copies
      to caller copies. This affects objects larger than eight bytes passed by
      value. The goal is to improve compatibility with x86 and resolve issues
      with OpenMP.
    * Other PA-RISC targets are unchanged.

PowerPC / PowerPC64 / RS6000

    * The PowerPC SPE support is split off to a separate powerpcspe port. The
      separate port is deprecated and might be removed in a future release.
    * The Paired Single support (as used on some PPC750 CPUs, -mpaired,
      powerpc*-*-linux*paired*) is deprecated and will be removed in a future
      release.
    * The Xilinx floating point support (-mxilinx-fpu, powerpc-xilinx-eabi*) is
      deprecated and will be removed in a future release.
    * Support for using big-endian AltiVec intrinsics on a little-endian target
      (-maltivec=be) is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.

Tile

    * The TILE-Gx port is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.

Operating Systems

Windows

    * GCC on Microsoft Windows can now be configured via --enable-mingw-
      wildcard or --disable-mingw-wildcard to force a specific behavior for GCC
      itself with regards to supporting the wildcard character. Prior versions
      of GCC would follow the configuration of the MinGW runtime. This behavior
      can still be obtained by not using the above options or by using --
      enable-mingw-wildcard=platform.

Improvements for plugin authors

    * Plugins can now register a callback hook for when comments are
      encountered by the C and C++ compilers, e.g. allowing for plugins to
      handle documentation markup in code comments.
    * The gdbinit support script for debugging GCC now has a break-on-
      diagnostic command, providing an easy way to trigger a breakpoint
      whenever a diagnostic is emitted.
    * The API for creating fix-it hints now supports newlines, and for emitting
      mutually incompatible fix-it hints for one diagnostic.

Other significant improvements

     For questions related to the use of GCC, please consult these web
     pages and the GCC_manuals. If that fails, the gcc-help@gcc.gnu.org
     mailing list might help. Comments on these web pages and the
     development of GCC are welcome on our developer list at
     gcc@gcc.gnu.org. All of our_lists have public archives.

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of this entire article is permitted in any medium, provided this notice is
preserved.
These pages are maintained_by_the_GCC_team. Last modified 2018-04-27.