File: chap-4.texi

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@node Types and Classes, Data and Control Flow, Evaluation and Compilation, Top
@chapter Types and Classes

@menu
* Introduction (Types and Classes)::  
* Types::			
* Classes::			
* Types and Classes Dictionary::  
@end menu

@node Introduction (Types and Classes), Types, Types and Classes, Types and Classes
@section Introduction

@c including concept-type-intro

A @i{type} is a (possibly infinite) set of @i{objects}.
An @i{object} can belong to more than one @i{type}.  
@i{Types} are never explicitly represented as @i{objects} by @r{Common Lisp}.
Instead, they are referred to indirectly by the use of @i{type specifiers},
which are @i{objects} that denote @i{types}.

New @i{types} can be defined using @b{deftype}, @b{defstruct}, 
@b{defclass}, and @b{define-condition}.

The @i{function} @b{typep}, a set membership test, is used to determine
whether a given @i{object} is of a given @i{type}.  The function
@b{subtypep}, a subset test, is used to determine whether a
given @i{type} is a @i{subtype} of another given @i{type}.  The
function @b{type-of} returns a particular @i{type} to
which a given @i{object} belongs, even though that @i{object}
must belong to one or more other @i{types} as well.
(For example, every @i{object} is of @i{type} @b{t}, 
 but @b{type-of} always returns a @i{type specifier}
 for a @i{type} more specific than @b{t}.)

@i{Objects}, not @i{variables}, have @i{types}.
Normally, any @i{variable} can have any @i{object} as its @i{value}.
It is possible to declare that a @i{variable} takes on only 
values of a given @i{type} by making an explicit @i{type declaration}.
@i{Types} are arranged in a directed acyclic graph, except
for the presence of equivalences. 

@i{Declarations} can be made about @i{types} using @b{declare}, 
@b{proclaim}, @b{declaim}, or @b{the}.
For more information about @i{declarations},
see @ref{Declarations}.

Among the fundamental @i{objects} of the object system are @i{classes}.
A @i{class} determines the structure and behavior of a set of
other @i{objects}, which are called its @i{instances}. 
Every @i{object} is a @i{direct instance} of a @i{class}.
The @i{class} of an @i{object} determines the set of
operations that can be performed on the @i{object}.
For more information, see @ref{Classes}.

It is possible to write @i{functions} that have behavior @i{specialized}
to the class of the @i{objects} which are their @i{arguments}.
For more information, see @ref{Generic Functions and Methods}.

The @i{class} of the @i{class} of an @i{object} 
is called its @i{metaclass}
@IGindex{metaclass}
.
For more information about @i{metaclasses},
see @ref{Meta-Objects}.

@c end of including concept-type-intro

@node Types, Classes, Introduction (Types and Classes), Types and Classes
@section Types

@c including concept-types

@menu
* Data Type Definition::	
* Type Relationships::		
* Type Specifiers::		
@end menu

@node Data Type Definition, Type Relationships, Types, Types
@subsection Data Type Definition

Information about @i{type} usage is located in 
the sections specified in @i{Figure~4--1}. 
@i{Figure~4--7} lists some @i{classes} 
that are particularly relevant to the object system.
@i{Figure~9--1} lists the defined @i{condition} @i{types}.

@group
@noindent
@w{  @b{Section}                                Data Type                         }
@w{  _________________________________________________________________________}
@w{  @ref{Classes}                        Object System types               }
@w{  @ref{Slots}                          Object System types               }
@w{  @ref{Objects}                        Object System types               }
@w{  @ref{Generic Functions and Methods}  Object System types               }
@w{  @ref{Condition System Concepts}      Condition System types            }
@w{  @ref{Types and Classes}              Miscellaneous types               }
@w{  @ref{Syntax}                         All types---read and print syntax  }
@w{  @ref{The Lisp Printer}               All types---print syntax           }
@w{  @ref{Compilation}                    All types---compilation issues     }

@noindent
@w{           Figure 4--1: Cross-References to Data Type Information          }

@end group

@node Type Relationships, Type Specifiers, Data Type Definition, Types
@subsection Type Relationships

@table @asis

@item @t{*}  
The @i{types} @b{cons}, @b{symbol}, @b{array}, @b{number},
@b{character}, @b{hash-table}, 

@b{function},

@b{readtable}, @b{package}, @b{pathname}, @b{stream}, 
@b{random-state}, @b{condition}, @b{restart},
and any single other @i{type} created by @b{defstruct},

@b{define-condition},

or @b{defclass} are @i{pairwise} @i{disjoint}, 
except for type relations explicitly established by specifying 
@i{superclasses} in @b{defclass} 

or @b{define-condition}

or the @t{:include} option of @b{destruct}.

@item @t{*}  
Any two @i{types} created by @b{defstruct} are 
@i{disjoint} unless
one is a @i{supertype} of the other by virtue of
the @b{defstruct} @t{:include} option.

[Editorial Note by KMP: The comments in the source say gray suggested some change
from ``common superclass'' to ``common subclass'' in the following, but the
result looks suspicious to me.]

@item @t{*}  
Any two @i{distinct} @i{classes} created by @b{defclass} 
or @b{define-condition}
are @i{disjoint} unless they have a common @i{subclass} or
one @i{class} is a @i{subclass} of the other.

@item @t{*}  
An implementation may be extended to add other @i{subtype}
relationships between the specified @i{types}, as long as they do
not violate the type relationships and disjointness requirements
specified here.  An implementation may define additional @i{types}
that are @i{subtypes} or @i{supertypes} of any
specified @i{types}, as long as each additional @i{type} is
a @i{subtype} of @i{type} @b{t} and a @i{supertype} of @i{type} @b{nil} and the disjointness requirements
are not violated.

At the discretion of the implementation, either @b{standard-object}
or @b{structure-object} might appear in any class precedence list
for a @i{system class} that does not already specify either 
@b{standard-object} or @b{structure-object}.  If it does,
it must precede the @i{class} @b{t} and follow all other @i{standardized} @i{classes}.

@end table

@node Type Specifiers,  , Type Relationships, Types
@subsection Type Specifiers

@i{Type specifiers} can be @i{symbols}, @i{classes}, or @i{lists}.
@i{Figure~4--2} lists @i{symbols} that are
  @i{standardized} @i{atomic type specifiers}, and
@i{Figure~4--3} lists
 @i{standardized} @i{compound type specifier} @i{names}.
For syntax information, see the dictionary entry for the corresponding @i{type specifier}.
It is possible to define new @i{type specifiers} using
 @b{defclass},
 @b{define-condition},
 @b{defstruct}, 
or
 @b{deftype}.

@group
@noindent
@w{ arithmetic-error                 function           simple-condition          }
@w{ array                            generic-function   simple-error              }
@w{ atom                             hash-table         simple-string             }
@w{ base-char                        integer            simple-type-error         }
@w{ base-string                      keyword            simple-vector             }
@w{ bignum                           list               simple-warning            }
@w{ bit                              logical-pathname   single-float              }
@w{ bit-vector                       long-float         standard-char             }
@w{ broadcast-stream                 method             standard-class            }
@w{ built-in-class                   method-combination standard-generic-function }
@w{ cell-error                       nil                standard-method           }
@w{ character                        null               standard-object           }
@w{ class                            number             storage-condition         }
@w{ compiled-function                package            stream                    }
@w{ complex                          package-error      stream-error              }
@w{ concatenated-stream              parse-error        string                    }
@w{ condition                        pathname           string-stream             }
@w{ cons                             print-not-readable structure-class           }
@w{ control-error                    program-error      structure-object          }
@w{ division-by-zero                 random-state       style-warning             }
@w{ double-float                     ratio              symbol                    }
@w{ echo-stream                      rational           synonym-stream            }
@w{ end-of-file                      reader-error       t                         }
@w{ error                            readtable          two-way-stream            }
@w{ extended-char                    real               type-error                }
@w{ file-error                       restart            unbound-slot              }
@w{ file-stream                      sequence           unbound-variable          }
@w{ fixnum                           serious-condition  undefined-function        }
@w{ float                            short-float        unsigned-byte             }
@w{ floating-point-inexact           signed-byte        vector                    }
@w{ floating-point-invalid-operation simple-array       warning                   }
@w{ floating-point-overflow          simple-base-string                           }
@w{ floating-point-underflow         simple-bit-vector                            }

@noindent
@w{                 Figure 4--2: Standardized Atomic Type Specifiers               }

@end group

\indent               
If a @i{type specifier} is a @i{list}, the @i{car} of the @i{list} 
is a @i{symbol}, and the rest of the @i{list} is subsidiary
@i{type} information.  Such a @i{type specifier} is called 
a @i{compound type specifier}
@IGindex{compound type specifier}
.
Except as explicitly stated otherwise,
the subsidiary items can be unspecified.
The unspecified subsidiary items are indicated
by writing @t{*}.  For example, to completely specify
a @i{vector}, the @i{type} of the elements
and the length of the @i{vector} must be present.

@example
 (vector double-float 100)
@end example

The following leaves the length unspecified:

@example
 (vector double-float *)
@end example

The following leaves the element type unspecified:

@example
 (vector * 100)                                      
@end example

Suppose that two @i{type specifiers} are the same except that the first
has a @t{*} where the second has a more explicit specification.
Then the second denotes a @i{subtype} 
of the @i{type} denoted by the first.

If a @i{list} has one or more unspecified items at the end, 
those items can be dropped.
If dropping all occurrences of @t{*} results in a @i{singleton} @i{list},
then the parentheses can be dropped as well (the list can be replaced
by the @i{symbol} in its @i{car}).  
For example,                       
@t{(vector double-float *)}                    
can be abbreviated to @t{(vector double-float)},               
and @t{(vector * *)} can be abbreviated to @t{(vector)} 
and then to 
@t{vector}.

@group
@noindent
@w{  and           long-float    simple-base-string  }
@w{  array         member        simple-bit-vector   }
@w{  base-string   mod           simple-string       }
@w{  bit-vector    not           simple-vector       }
@w{  complex       or            single-float        }
@w{  cons          rational      string              }
@w{  double-float  real          unsigned-byte       }
@w{  eql           satisfies     values              }
@w{  float         short-float   vector              }
@w{  function      signed-byte                       }
@w{  integer       simple-array                      }

@noindent
@w{  Figure 4--3: Standardized Compound Type Specifier Names}

@end group

Figure 4--4 show the @i{defined names} that can be used as 
@i{compound type specifier} @i{names}
but that cannot be used as @i{atomic type specifiers}.

@group
@noindent
@w{  and     mod  satisfies  }
@w{  eql     not  values     }
@w{  member  or              }

@noindent
@w{  Figure 4--4: Standardized Compound-Only Type Specifier Names}

@end group

New @i{type specifiers} can come into existence in two ways.
@table @asis

@item @t{*}  
Defining a structure by using @b{defstruct} without using
 the @t{:type} specifier or defining a @i{class} by using 
 @b{defclass} 
 or @b{define-condition}
 automatically causes the name of the structure 
 or class to be a new @i{type specifier} @i{symbol}.
@item @t{*}  
@b{deftype} can be used to define @i{derived type specifiers}
@IGindex{derived type specifier}
,
 which act as `abbreviations' for other @i{type specifiers}.
@end table

A @i{class} @i{object} can be used as a @i{type specifier}. 
When used this way, it denotes the set of all members of that @i{class}.

Figure 4--5 shows some @i{defined names} relating to 
@i{types} and @i{declarations}.

@group
@noindent
@w{  coerce            defstruct  subtypep  }
@w{  declaim           deftype    the       }
@w{  declare           ftype      type      }
@w{  defclass          locally    type-of   }
@w{  define-condition  proclaim   typep     }

@noindent
@w{  Figure 4--5: Defined names relating to types and declarations.}

@end group

Figure 4--6 shows all @i{defined names} that are @i{type specifier} @i{names},
whether for @i{atomic type specifiers} or @i{compound type specifiers};
this list is the union of the lists in @i{Figure~4--2} 
and @i{Figure~4--3}.

@group
@noindent
@w{ and                              function           simple-array              }
@w{ arithmetic-error                 generic-function   simple-base-string        }
@w{ array                            hash-table         simple-bit-vector         }
@w{ atom                             integer            simple-condition          }
@w{ base-char                        keyword            simple-error              }
@w{ base-string                      list               simple-string             }
@w{ bignum                           logical-pathname   simple-type-error         }
@w{ bit                              long-float         simple-vector             }
@w{ bit-vector                       member             simple-warning            }
@w{ broadcast-stream                 method             single-float              }
@w{ built-in-class                   method-combination standard-char             }
@w{ cell-error                       mod                standard-class            }
@w{ character                        nil                standard-generic-function }
@w{ class                            not                standard-method           }
@w{ compiled-function                null               standard-object           }
@w{ complex                          number             storage-condition         }
@w{ concatenated-stream              or                 stream                    }
@w{ condition                        package            stream-error              }
@w{ cons                             package-error      string                    }
@w{ control-error                    parse-error        string-stream             }
@w{ division-by-zero                 pathname           structure-class           }
@w{ double-float                     print-not-readable structure-object          }
@w{ echo-stream                      program-error      style-warning             }
@w{ end-of-file                      random-state       symbol                    }
@w{ eql                              ratio              synonym-stream            }
@w{ error                            rational           t                         }
@w{ extended-char                    reader-error       two-way-stream            }
@w{ file-error                       readtable          type-error                }
@w{ file-stream                      real               unbound-slot              }
@w{ fixnum                           restart            unbound-variable          }
@w{ float                            satisfies          undefined-function        }
@w{ floating-point-inexact           sequence           unsigned-byte             }
@w{ floating-point-invalid-operation serious-condition  values                    }
@w{ floating-point-overflow          short-float        vector                    }
@w{ floating-point-underflow         signed-byte        warning                   }

@noindent
@w{                  Figure 4--6: Standardized Type Specifier Names                }

@end group

@c end of including concept-types

@node Classes, Types and Classes Dictionary, Types, Types and Classes
@section Classes

@c including concept-classes

While the object system is general enough to describe all @i{standardized} @i{classes}
(including, for example, @b{number}, @b{hash-table}, and
@b{symbol}), Figure 4--7 contains a list of @i{classes} that are
especially relevant to understanding the object system.

@group
@noindent
@w{  built-in-class    method-combination         standard-object   }
@w{  class             standard-class             structure-class   }
@w{  generic-function  standard-generic-function  structure-object  }
@w{  method            standard-method                              }

@noindent
@w{                Figure 4--7: Object System Classes               }

@end group

@menu
* Introduction to Classes::	
* Defining Classes::		
* Creating Instances of Classes::  
* Inheritance::			
* Determining the Class Precedence List::  
* Redefining Classes::		
* Integrating Types and Classes::  
@end menu

@node Introduction to Classes, Defining Classes, Classes, Classes
@subsection Introduction to Classes

A @i{class}
@IGindex{class}
 is an @i{object} that determines the structure and behavior 
of a set of other @i{objects}, which are called its @i{instances}
@IGindex{instance}
.   

A @i{class} can inherit structure and behavior from other @i{classes}.
A @i{class} whose definition refers to other @i{classes} for the purpose 
of inheriting from them is said to be a @i{subclass} of each of
those @i{classes}. The @i{classes} that are designated for purposes of
inheritance are said to be @i{superclasses} of the inheriting @i{class}.

A @i{class} can have a @i{name}. The @i{function} @b{class-name} 
takes a @i{class} @i{object} and returns its @i{name}. 
The @i{name} of an anonymous @i{class} is @b{nil}.  A @i{symbol} 
can @i{name} a @i{class}. The @i{function} @b{find-class} takes a
@i{symbol} and returns the @i{class} that the @i{symbol} names.
A @i{class} has a @i{proper name} if the @i{name} is a @i{symbol}
and if the @i{name} of the @i{class} names that @i{class}.
That is, a @i{class}~C has the @i{proper name}~S if S=
@t{(class-name C)} and C= @t{(find-class S)}.
Notice that it is possible for 
@t{(find-class S_1)} = @t{(find-class S_2)}
and S_1!= S_2.
If C= @t{(find-class S)}, we say that C is the @i{class} @i{named} S.

A @i{class} C_1 is 
a @i{direct superclass}
@IGindex{direct superclass}
 of a @i{class} C_2
if C_2 explicitly designates C_1 
as a @i{superclass} in its definition.
In this case C_2 is a @i{direct subclass}
@IGindex{direct subclass}
 of C_1.
A @i{class} C_n is a @i{superclass}
@IGindex{superclass}
 of 
a @i{class} C_1 if there exists a series of
@i{classes} C_2,...,C_@{n-1@} such that 
C_@{i+1@} is a @i{direct superclass} of C_i for 1 <= i<n.
In this case, C_1 is a @i{subclass}
@IGindex{subclass}
 of C_n.
A @i{class} is considered neither a @i{superclass} nor a @i{subclass} of itself.
That is, if C_1 is a @i{superclass} of C_2, 
then C_1 != C_2.
The set of @i{classes} consisting of some given @i{class} C 
along with all of its @i{superclasses} is called ``C and its superclasses.''

Each @i{class} has a @i{class precedence list}
@IGindex{class precedence list}
,
which is a total ordering on the set of the given @i{class} and its @i{superclasses}.
The total ordering is expressed as a list ordered from most specific to least specific.
The @i{class precedence list} is used in several ways.  In general, more
specific @i{classes} can @i{shadow}
@IGindex{shadow}
_1 features that would
otherwise be inherited from less specific @i{classes}.
The @i{method} selection and combination process uses 
the @i{class precedence list} to order @i{methods} 
from most specific to least specific. 

When a @i{class} is defined, the order in which its direct @i{superclasses}
are mentioned in the defining form is important.  Each @i{class} has a
@i{local precedence order}
@IGindex{local precedence order}
, which is a @i{list} consisting of the
@i{class} followed by its @i{direct superclasses} in the order mentioned
in the defining @i{form}.

A @i{class precedence list} is always consistent with the
@i{local precedence order} of each @i{class} in the list.  
The @i{classes} in each @i{local precedence order} appear
within the @i{class precedence list} in the same order.  
If the @i{local precedence orders} are inconsistent with each other, 
no @i{class precedence list} can be constructed, and an error is signaled.
The @i{class precedence list} and its computation is discussed
in @ref{Determining the Class Precedence List}.

@i{classes} are organized into a directed acyclic graph.
There are two distinguished @i{classes}, named @b{t} and @b{standard-object}.
The @i{class} named @b{t} has no @i{superclasses}. 
It is a @i{superclass} of every @i{class} except itself.  
The @i{class} named @b{standard-object} is an @i{instance} of 
the @i{class} @b{standard-class} and is a @i{superclass} of
every @i{class} that is an @i{instance} of the @i{class} @b{standard-class} except itself.

[Reviewer Note by Barmar: This or something like it needs to be said in the introduction.]
There is a mapping from the object system @i{class} space into
the @i{type} space.  Many of the standard @i{types} specified 
in this document have a corresponding @i{class} that has the same 
@i{name} as the @i{type}. Some @i{types} do not have a
corresponding @i{class}. The integration of the @i{type} and @i{class}
systems is discussed in @ref{Integrating Types and Classes}.

@i{Classes} are represented by @i{objects} that are themselves
@i{instances} of @i{classes}. 
The @i{class} of the @i{class} of an @i{object} is termed
the @i{metaclass}
@IGindex{metaclass}
 of that @i{object}. When no misinterpretation is
possible, the term @i{metaclass} is used to refer to a @i{class}
that has @i{instances} that are themselves @i{classes}. The @i{metaclass}
determines the form of inheritance used by the @i{classes} that are its
@i{instances} and the representation of the @i{instances} of those @i{classes}.
The object system provides a default @i{metaclass}, @b{standard-class}, that is
appropriate for most programs.

Except where otherwise specified, all @i{classes} mentioned in this
standard are @i{instances} of the @i{class} @b{standard-class},
all @i{generic functions} are @i{instances} 
of the @i{class} @b{standard-generic-function},
and all @i{methods} are @i{instances} of the @i{class} @b{standard-method}.

@menu
* Standard Metaclasses::	
@end menu

@node Standard Metaclasses,  , Introduction to Classes, Introduction to Classes
@subsubsection Standard Metaclasses

The object system provides a number of predefined @i{metaclasses}. 
These include the @i{classes} @b{standard-class}, 
@b{built-in-class}, and @b{structure-class}:

@table @asis

@item @t{*}  
The @i{class} @b{standard-class} is the default @i{class} of 
@i{classes} defined by @b{defclass}.

@item @t{*}  
The @i{class} @b{built-in-class} is the @i{class} whose
@i{instances} are @i{classes} that have special implementations with
restricted capabilities.  Any @i{class} that corresponds to a standard
@i{type} might be an @i{instance} of @b{built-in-class}.
The predefined @i{type} specifiers that are required to have
corresponding @i{classes} are listed in @i{Figure~4--8}.  
It is @i{implementation-dependent} whether each of these @i{classes} 
is implemented as a @i{built-in class}.

@item @t{*}  
All @i{classes} defined by means of @b{defstruct} are
@i{instances} of the @i{class} @b{structure-class}.
@end table

@node Defining Classes, Creating Instances of Classes, Introduction to Classes, Classes
@subsection Defining Classes

The macro @b{defclass} is used to define a new named @i{class}.  

The definition of a @i{class} includes:

@table @asis

@item @t{*}  
The @i{name} of the new @i{class}. 
  For newly-defined @i{classes} this @i{name} is a @i{proper name}.

@item @t{*}  
The list of the direct @i{superclasses} of the new @i{class}. 

@item @t{*}  
A set of @i{slot specifiers}
@IGindex{slot specifier}
.
  Each @i{slot specifier} includes the @i{name} of the @i{slot} 
  and zero or more @i{slot} options.  A @i{slot} option pertains 
  only to a single @i{slot}.  If a @i{class} definition contains
  two @i{slot specifiers} with the same @i{name}, an error is signaled.

@item @t{*}  
A set of @i{class} options.  
  Each @i{class} option pertains to the @i{class} as a whole.  

@end table

The @i{slot} options and @i{class} options of 
the @b{defclass} form provide mechanisms for the following:

@table @asis

@item @t{*}  
Supplying a default initial value @i{form} 
for a given @i{slot}.  

@item @t{*}  
Requesting that @i{methods} for @i{generic functions}
be automatically generated for reading or writing @i{slots}. 

@item @t{*}  
Controlling whether a given @i{slot} is shared by 
all @i{instances}
of the @i{class} or whether each 
@i{instance} of the @i{class} has its own @i{slot}.

@item @t{*}  
Supplying a set of initialization arguments and initialization
argument defaults to be used in @i{instance} creation.

@item @t{*}  
Indicating that the @i{metaclass} is to be other 
than the default.  The @t{:metaclass} option is reserved for future use; 
an implementation can be extended to make use of the @t{:metaclass}
option.

@item @t{*}  
Indicating the expected @i{type} for the value stored
in the @i{slot}.

@item @t{*}  
Indicating the @i{documentation string} for the @i{slot}.

@end table

@node Creating Instances of Classes, Inheritance, Defining Classes, Classes
@subsection Creating Instances of Classes

The generic function @b{make-instance} creates and returns a new
@i{instance} of a @i{class}.  
The object system provides several mechanisms for
specifying how a new @i{instance} is to be initialized.  For example, it
is possible to specify the initial values for @i{slots} in newly created
@i{instances} 
either by giving arguments to @b{make-instance} or by
providing default initial values.  Further initialization activities
can be performed by @i{methods} written for @i{generic functions} 
that are
part of the initialization protocol.  The complete initialization
protocol is described in @ref{Object Creation and Initialization}.

@node Inheritance, Determining the Class Precedence List, Creating Instances of Classes, Classes
@subsection Inheritance

A @i{class} can inherit @i{methods}, @i{slots}, 
and some @b{defclass} options from its @i{superclasses}.  
Other sections describe the inheritance of @i{methods}, 
the inheritance of @i{slots} and @i{slot} options, 
and the inheritance of @i{class} options.

@menu
* Examples of Inheritance::	
* Inheritance of Class Options::  
@end menu

@node Examples of Inheritance, Inheritance of Class Options, Inheritance, Inheritance
@subsubsection Examples of Inheritance

@example
 (defclass C1 () 
     ((S1 :initform 5.4 :type number) 
      (S2 :allocation :class)))

 (defclass C2 (C1) 
     ((S1 :initform 5 :type integer)
      (S2 :allocation :instance)
      (S3 :accessor C2-S3)))
@end example

@i{Instances} of the class @t{C1} have a @i{local slot} named @t{S1},
whose default initial value is 5.4 and
whose @i{value} should always be a @i{number}.
The class @t{C1} also has a @i{shared slot} named @t{S2}.

There is a @i{local slot} named @t{S1} in @i{instances} of @t{C2}.
The default initial value of @t{S1} is 5.
The value of @t{S1} should always be of type @t{(and integer number)}.
There are also @i{local slots} named @t{S2} and @t{S3} in @i{instances} of @t{C2}.
The class @t{C2} has a @i{method} for @t{C2-S3} for reading the value of slot @t{S3};
there is also a @i{method} for @t{(setf C2-S3)} that writes the value of @t{S3}.

@node Inheritance of Class Options,  , Examples of Inheritance, Inheritance
@subsubsection Inheritance of Class Options

The @t{:default-initargs} class option is inherited.  The set of
defaulted initialization arguments for a @i{class} is the union of the
sets of initialization arguments supplied in
the @t{:default-initargs} class options of the @i{class} and its @i{superclasses}.
When more than one default initial value @i{form} is supplied for a given
initialization argument, the default initial value @i{form} that is used
is the one supplied by the @i{class} that is most specific according to
the @i{class precedence list}.

If a given @t{:default-initargs} class option specifies an
initialization argument of the same @i{name} more than once, an
error of @i{type} @b{program-error} is signaled.

@node Determining the Class Precedence List, Redefining Classes, Inheritance, Classes
@subsection Determining the Class Precedence List

The @b{defclass} form for a @i{class} provides a total ordering
on that @i{class} and its direct @i{superclasses}.  This ordering is
called the @i{local precedence order}
@IGindex{local precedence order}
.  It is an ordered list of the
@i{class} and its direct @i{superclasses}. The
@i{class precedence list}
@IGindex{class precedence list}
 for a class C is a total ordering on
C and its @i{superclasses} that is consistent with the
@i{local precedence orders} for each of C and its @i{superclasses}.

A @i{class} precedes its direct @i{superclasses}, 
and a direct @i{superclass} precedes all other 
direct @i{superclasses} specified to its right 
in the @i{superclasses} list of the @b{defclass} form.  
For every class C, define 
@center R_C=@{(C,C_1),(C_1,C_2),...,(C_@{n-1@},C_n)@}
where C_1,...,C_n are
the direct @i{superclasses} of C in the order in which
they are mentioned in the @b{defclass} form. These ordered pairs
generate the total ordering on the class C and its direct
@i{superclasses}.

Let S_C be the set of C and its @i{superclasses}. Let R be

@center R=\bigcup_@{c\in {S_C}@}R_c
.

[Reviewer Note by Barmar: ``Consistent'' needs to be defined, or maybe we should say
``logically consistent''?]

The set R might or might not generate a partial ordering, depending on
whether the R_c, c\in S_C, are 
consistent; it is assumed
that they are consistent and that R generates a partial ordering.
When the R_c are not consistent, it is said that R is inconsistent.

To compute the @i{class precedence list} for~C,
topologically sort the elements of S_C with respect to the
partial ordering generated by R.  When the topological
sort must select a @i{class} from a set of two or more 
@i{classes}, none of
which are preceded by other @i{classes} with respect to~R,
the @i{class} selected is chosen deterministically, as described below.

If R is inconsistent, an error is signaled.

@menu
* Topological Sorting::		
* Examples of Class Precedence List Determination::  
@end menu

@node Topological Sorting, Examples of Class Precedence List Determination, Determining the Class Precedence List, Determining the Class Precedence List
@subsubsection Topological Sorting

Topological sorting proceeds by finding a class C in~S_C such
that no other @i{class} precedes that element according to the elements
in~R.  The class C is placed first in the result.
Remove C from S_C, and remove all pairs of the form (C,D),
D\in S_C, from R. Repeat the process, adding
@i{classes} with no predecessors to the end of the result.  Stop when no
element can be found that has no predecessor.

If S_C is not empty and the process has stopped, the set R is
inconsistent. If every @i{class} in the finite set of 
@i{classes} is preceded
by another, then R contains a loop. That is, there is a chain of
classes C_1,...,C_n such that C_i precedes
C_@{i+1@}, 1<= i<n, and C_n precedes C_1.

Sometimes there are several @i{classes} from S_C with no
predecessors.  In this case select the one that has a direct
@i{subclass} rightmost in the @i{class precedence list} computed so far.
(If there is no such candidate @i{class}, R does not generate 
a partial ordering---the R_c, c\in S_C, are inconsistent.)

In more precise terms, let @{N_1,...,N_m@}, m>= 2, be
the @i{classes} from S_C with no predecessors.  Let (C_1... C_n), n>= 1, be the @i{class precedence list}
constructed so far.  C_1 is the most specific @i{class}, and C_n is the least specific.  Let 1<= j<= n be the largest number
such that there exists an i where 1<= i<= m and N_i
is a direct @i{superclass} of C_j; N_i is placed next.

The effect of this rule for selecting from a set of @i{classes} with no
predecessors is that the @i{classes} in a simple @i{superclass} chain are
adjacent in the @i{class precedence list} and that @i{classes} in each
relatively separated subgraph are adjacent in the @i{class precedence list}.
For example, let T_1 and T_2 be subgraphs whose only
element in common is the class J.
Suppose that no superclass of J appears in either T_1 or T_2,
and that J is in the superclass chain of every class in both T_1 and T_2.
    Let C_1 be the bottom of T_1; 
and let C_2 be the bottom of T_2.
Suppose C is a @i{class} whose direct @i{superclasses}
are C_1 and C_2 in that order, then the @i{class precedence list}
for C starts with C and is followed by
all @i{classes} in T_1 except J. 
All the @i{classes} of T_2 are next.
The @i{class} J and its @i{superclasses} appear last.

@node Examples of Class Precedence List Determination,  , Topological Sorting, Determining the Class Precedence List
@subsubsection Examples of Class Precedence List Determination

This example determines a @i{class precedence list} for the
class @t{pie}.  The following @i{classes} are defined:

@example
 (defclass pie (apple cinnamon) ())

 (defclass apple (fruit) ())

 (defclass cinnamon (spice) ())

 (defclass fruit (food) ())

 (defclass spice (food) ())

 (defclass food () ())
@end example

The set S_@{pie@}~= @{{pie, apple, cinnamon, fruit, spice, food,
standard-object, t}@}. The set R~= @{{(pie, apple),
(apple, cinnamon), (apple, fruit), (cinnamon, spice), \break
(fruit, food), (spice, food), (food, standard-object), (standard-object,
t)}@}.

The class @t{pie} is not preceded by anything, so it comes first;
the result so far is @t{(pie)}.  Remove @t{pie} from S and pairs
mentioning @t{pie} from R to get S~= @{{apple, cinnamon,
fruit, spice, food, standard-object, t}@} and R~=~@{{(apple, cinnamon), (apple, fruit), (cinnamon, spice),\break (fruit,
food), (spice, food), (food, standard-object),
(standard-object, t)}@}.

The class @t{apple} is not preceded by anything, so it is next; the
result is @t{(pie apple)}. Removing @t{apple} and the relevant
pairs results in S~= @{{cinnamon, fruit, spice, food,
standard-object, t}@} and R~= @{{(cinnamon, spice),
(fruit, food), (spice, food), (food, standard-object),\break
(standard-object, t)}@}.

The classes @t{cinnamon} and @t{fruit} are not preceded by
anything, so the one with a direct @i{subclass} rightmost in the 
@i{class precedence list} computed so far goes next.  The class @t{apple} is a
direct @i{subclass} of @t{fruit}, and the class @t{pie} is a direct
@i{subclass} of @t{cinnamon}.  Because @t{apple} appears to the right
of @t{pie} in the @i{class precedence list}, 
@t{fruit} goes next, and the
result so far is @t{(pie apple fruit)}.  S~= @{{cinnamon,
spice, food, standard-object, t}@}; R~= @{{(cinnamon,
spice), (spice, food),\break (food, standard-object),
(standard-object, t)}@}.

The class @t{cinnamon} is next, giving the result so far as @t{(pie apple fruit cinnamon)}.  At this point S~= @{{spice,
food, standard-object, t}@}; R~= @{{(spice, food), (food,
standard-object), (standard-object, t)}@}.

The classes @t{spice}, @t{food}, @b{standard-object}, and 
@b{t} are added in that order, and the @i{class precedence list} 
is @t{(pie apple fruit cinnamon spice food standard-object t)}.

It is possible to write a set of @i{class} definitions that cannot be 
ordered.   For example: 

@example
 (defclass new-class (fruit apple) ())

 (defclass apple (fruit) ())
@end example

The class @t{fruit} must precede @t{apple} 
because the local ordering of @i{superclasses} must be preserved.
The class @t{apple} must precede @t{fruit} 
because a @i{class} always precedes its own @i{superclasses}.
When this situation occurs, an error is signaled, as happens here
when the system tries to compute the @i{class precedence list} 
of @t{new-class}.

The following might appear to be a conflicting set of definitions:

@example
 (defclass pie (apple cinnamon) ())

 (defclass pastry (cinnamon apple) ())

 (defclass apple () ())

 (defclass cinnamon () ())
@end example

The @i{class precedence list} for @t{pie} is 
@t{(pie apple cinnamon standard-object t)}.

The @i{class precedence list} for @t{pastry} is  
@t{(pastry cinnamon apple standard-object t)}.

It is not a problem for @t{apple} to precede @t{cinnamon} in the
ordering of the @i{superclasses} of @t{pie} but not in the ordering for
@t{pastry}.  However, it is not possible to build a new @i{class} that
has both @t{pie} and @t{pastry} as @i{superclasses}.

@node Redefining Classes, Integrating Types and Classes, Determining the Class Precedence List, Classes
@subsection Redefining Classes

A @i{class} that is a @i{direct instance} of @b{standard-class} can
be redefined if the new @i{class} is also
a @i{direct instance} of @b{standard-class}.
Redefining a @i{class} modifies the existing
@i{class} @i{object} to reflect the new @i{class} definition; it does not
create a new @i{class} @i{object} for the @i{class}.  
Any @i{method} @i{object} created by a @t{:reader}, @t{:writer}, 
or @t{:accessor} option specified by the old @b{defclass} form is
removed from the corresponding @i{generic function}.
@i{Methods} specified by the new @b{defclass} form are added.

When the class C is redefined, changes are propagated to its @i{instances}
and to @i{instances} of any of its @i{subclasses}.  Updating such an
@i{instance} occurs at an @i{implementation-dependent} time, but no later than
the next time a @i{slot} 
of that @i{instance} is read or written.  Updating an
@i{instance} 
does not change its identity as defined by the @i{function} @b{eq}.
The updating process may change the @i{slots} of that
particular @i{instance}, 
but it does not create a new @i{instance}.  Whether
updating an @i{instance} consumes storage is @i{implementation-dependent}.

Note that redefining a @i{class} may cause @i{slots} to be added or 
deleted.  If a @i{class} is redefined in a way that changes the set of
@i{local slots} @i{accessible} in @i{instances}, the @i{instances} 
are updated.  It is @i{implementation-dependent} whether @i{instances} 
are updated if a @i{class} is redefined in a way that does not change 
the set of @i{local slots} @i{accessible} in @i{instances}.

The value of a @i{slot} 
that is specified as shared both in the old @i{class}
and in the new @i{class} is retained.  
If such a @i{shared slot} was unbound
in the old @i{class}, it is unbound in the new @i{class}.  
@i{Slots} that
were local in the old @i{class} and that are shared in the new 
@i{class} are
initialized.  Newly added @i{shared slots} are initialized.

Each newly added @i{shared slot} is set to the result of evaluating the
@i{captured initialization form} for the @i{slot} that was specified 
in the @b{defclass} @i{form} for the new @i{class}.  
If there was no @i{initialization form}, the @i{slot} is unbound.

If a @i{class} is redefined in such a way that the set of
@i{local slots} @i{accessible} in an @i{instance} of the @i{class} 
is changed, a two-step process of updating the @i{instances} of the
@i{class} takes place.  The process may be explicitly started by 
invoking the generic function @b{make-instances-obsolete}.  This
two-step process can happen in other circumstances in some implementations.
For example, in some implementations this two-step process is
triggered if the order of @i{slots} in storage is changed.

The first step modifies the structure of the @i{instance} by adding new
@i{local slots} and discarding @i{local slots} that are not
defined in the new version of the @i{class}.  The second step
initializes the newly-added @i{local slots} and performs any other
user-defined actions. These two steps are further specified
in the next two sections.

@menu
* Modifying the Structure of Instances::  
* Initializing Newly Added Local Slots (Redefining Classes)::  
* Customizing Class Redefinition::  
@end menu

@node Modifying the Structure of Instances, Initializing Newly Added Local Slots (Redefining Classes), Redefining Classes, Redefining Classes
@subsubsection Modifying the Structure of Instances

[Reviewer Note by Barmar: What about shared slots that are deleted?]

The first step modifies the structure of @i{instances} of the redefined
@i{class} to conform to its new @i{class} definition.  
@i{Local slots} specified
by the new @i{class} definition that are not specified as either local or
shared by the old @i{class} are added, and @i{slots} 
not specified as either
local or shared by the new @i{class} definition that are specified as
local by the old @i{class} are discarded. 
The @i{names} of these added and discarded
@i{slots} are passed as arguments 
to @b{update-instance-for-redefined-class}
as described in the next section.

The values of @i{local slots} specified by both the new and old
@i{classes} are retained. If such a @i{local slot} was unbound,
it remains unbound.

The value of a @i{slot} that is specified as shared in the old 
@i{class} and as local in the new @i{class} is retained.  If such 
a @i{shared slot} was unbound, the @i{local slot} is unbound.

@node Initializing Newly Added Local Slots (Redefining Classes), Customizing Class Redefinition, Modifying the Structure of Instances, Redefining Classes
@subsubsection Initializing Newly Added Local Slots

The second step initializes the newly added @i{local slots} and performs
any other user-defined actions.  This step is implemented by the generic
function @b{update-instance-for-redefined-class}, which is called after
completion of the first step of modifying the structure of the
@i{instance}.

The generic function @b{update-instance-for-redefined-class} takes
four required arguments: the @i{instance} being updated after it has
undergone the first step, a list of the names of @i{local slots} that were
added, a list of the names of @i{local slots} that were discarded, and a
property list containing the @i{slot} names and values of 
@i{slots} that were
discarded and had values.  Included among the discarded @i{slots} are
@i{slots} that were local in the old @i{class} and that are shared in the new
@i{class}.

The generic function @b{update-instance-for-redefined-class} also
takes any number of initialization arguments.  When it is called by
the system to update an @i{instance} whose @i{class} 
has been redefined, no
initialization arguments are provided.

There is a system-supplied primary @i{method} for 
@b{update-instance-for-redefined-class} whose @i{parameter specializer}
for its @i{instance} argument is the @i{class} @b{standard-object}.  
First this @i{method} checks the validity of initialization arguments and signals an
error if an initialization argument is supplied that is not declared
as valid.  (For more information, see @ref{Declaring the Validity of Initialization Arguments}.)
Then it calls the generic function
@b{shared-initialize} with the following arguments: the 
@i{instance},
the list of @i{names} of 
the newly added @i{slots}, and the initialization
arguments it received.

@node Customizing Class Redefinition,  , Initializing Newly Added Local Slots (Redefining Classes), Redefining Classes
@subsubsection Customizing Class Redefinition

[Reviewer Note by Barmar: This description is hard to follow.]

@i{Methods} for @b{update-instance-for-redefined-class} may be 
defined to specify actions to be taken when an @i{instance} is updated.
If only @i{after methods} for @b{update-instance-for-redefined-class} are
defined, they will be run after the system-supplied primary @i{method} for
initialization and therefore will not interfere with the default
behavior of @b{update-instance-for-redefined-class}.  Because no
initialization arguments are passed to @b{update-instance-for-redefined-class}
when it is called by the system, the 
@i{initialization forms} for @i{slots} 
that are filled by @i{before methods} for @b{update-instance-for-redefined-class} 
will not be evaluated by @b{shared-initialize}.

@i{Methods} for @b{shared-initialize} may be defined to customize
@i{class} redefinition.  For more information, see @ref{Shared-Initialize}.

@node Integrating Types and Classes,  , Redefining Classes, Classes
@subsection Integrating Types and Classes

The object system maps the space of @i{classes} into the space of @i{types}.
Every @i{class} that has a proper name has a corresponding @i{type} 
with the same @i{name}.  

The proper name of every @i{class} is a valid @i{type specifier}.  In
addition, every @i{class} @i{object} is a valid @i{type specifier}.  
Thus the expression @t{(typep @i{object} @i{class})} evaluates to 
@i{true} if the @i{class} of @i{object} is @i{class} itself or 
a @i{subclass} of @i{class}.  The evaluation of the expression
@t{(subtypep class1 class2)} returns the values 
@i{true} and @i{true} if @t{class1} is a subclass of @t{class2} or if they are the
same @i{class}; otherwise it returns the values 
@i{false} and @i{true}.
If  I is an @i{instance} of some @i{class} C named S 
and C is an @i{instance} of @b{standard-class}, 
the evaluation of the expression @t{(type-of I\/)} returns S 
if S is the @i{proper name} of C; 
otherwise, it returns C.

Because the names of @i{classes} 
and @i{class} @i{objects} are @i{type specifiers}, they may
be used in the special form @b{the} and in type declarations.

Many but not all of the predefined @i{type specifiers} have a
corresponding @i{class} with 
the same proper name as the @i{type}.  These type
specifiers are listed in @i{Figure~4--8}.
For example, the @i{type} @b{array} has 
a corresponding @i{class} named @b{array}.  
No @i{type specifier} that is a
list, such as @t{(vector double-float 100)}, has a corresponding @i{class}.
The @i{operator} @b{deftype} does not create any @i{classes}.

Each @i{class} that corresponds to a predefined @i{type specifier} can
be implemented in one of three ways, at the discretion of each implementation.
It can be a @i{standard class},
a @i{structure class},

or a @i{system class}.

A @i{built-in class} is one whose @i{generalized instances} have restricted capabilities 
or special representations.  Attempting to use @b{defclass} to define 
@i{subclasses} of a @b{built-in-class} signals an error.
Calling @b{make-instance} to create a @i{generalized instance} of a 
@i{built-in class} signals an error.  Calling @b{slot-value} on a
@i{generalized instance} of a @i{built-in class} signals an error.
Redefining a @i{built-in class} or using @b{change-class} to change
the @i{class} of an @i{object} to or from a @i{built-in class} signals an error.
However, @i{built-in classes} can be used as @i{parameter specializers} 
in @i{methods}.

It is possible to determine whether a @i{class} is a @i{built-in class}
by checking the @i{metaclass}.
A @i{standard class}  is an @i{instance} of the @i{class} @b{standard-class},
a @i{built-in class}  is an @i{instance} of the @i{class} @b{built-in-class}, and
a @i{structure class} is an @i{instance} of the @i{class} @b{structure-class}.

Each @i{structure} @i{type} created by @b{defstruct} without 
using the @t{:type} option has a corresponding @i{class}.  
This @i{class} is a @i{generalized instance} of the @i{class} @b{structure-class}.  
The @t{:include} option of @b{defstruct} creates a direct
@i{subclass} of the @i{class} 
that corresponds to the included @i{structure} 
@i{type}.

It is @i{implementation-dependent} whether @i{slots} are involved in the
operation of @i{functions} defined in this specification
on @i{instances} of @i{classes} defined in this specification,
except when @i{slots} are explicitly defined by this specification.

If in a particular @i{implementation} a @i{class} defined in this specification
has @i{slots} that are not defined by this specfication, the names of these @i{slots}
must not be @i{external symbols} of @i{packages} defined in this specification nor
otherwise @i{accessible} in the @t{CL-USER} @i{package}.

The purpose of specifying that many of the standard @i{type specifiers} have a
corresponding @i{class} is to enable users to write @i{methods} that
discriminate on these @i{types}.  @i{Method} selection requires that a 
@i{class precedence list} can be determined for each @i{class}. 

The hierarchical relationships among the @i{type specifiers} are mirrored by
relationships among the @i{classes} corresponding to those @i{types}.  

@i{Figure~4--8} lists the set of @i{classes} 
that correspond to predefined @i{type specifiers}.

@group
@noindent
@w{ arithmetic-error                 generic-function   simple-error              }
@w{ array                            hash-table         simple-type-error         }
@w{ bit-vector                       integer            simple-warning            }
@w{ broadcast-stream                 list               standard-class            }
@w{ built-in-class                   logical-pathname   standard-generic-function }
@w{ cell-error                       method             standard-method           }
@w{ character                        method-combination standard-object           }
@w{ class                            null               storage-condition         }
@w{ complex                          number             stream                    }
@w{ concatenated-stream              package            stream-error              }
@w{ condition                        package-error      string                    }
@w{ cons                             parse-error        string-stream             }
@w{ control-error                    pathname           structure-class           }
@w{ division-by-zero                 print-not-readable structure-object          }
@w{ echo-stream                      program-error      style-warning             }
@w{ end-of-file                      random-state       symbol                    }
@w{ error                            ratio              synonym-stream            }
@w{ file-error                       rational           t                         }
@w{ file-stream                      reader-error       two-way-stream            }
@w{ float                            readtable          type-error                }
@w{ floating-point-inexact           real               unbound-slot              }
@w{ floating-point-invalid-operation restart            unbound-variable          }
@w{ floating-point-overflow          sequence           undefined-function        }
@w{ floating-point-underflow         serious-condition  vector                    }
@w{ function                         simple-condition   warning                   }

@noindent
@w{       Figure 4--8: Classes that correspond to pre-defined type specifiers      }

@end group

The @i{class precedence list} information specified in the entries for
each of these @i{classes} are those that are required by the object system.

Individual implementations may be extended to define other type
specifiers to have a corresponding @i{class}.  Individual implementations
may be extended to add other @i{subclass} relationships and to add other
@i{elements} to the @i{class precedence lists} as long as
they do not violate the type relationships and disjointness
requirements specified by this standard.
A standard @i{class} defined with no direct @i{superclasses} is guaranteed to
be disjoint from all of the @i{classes} in the table, except for the
class named @b{t}.

@c end of including concept-classes

@node Types and Classes Dictionary,  , Classes, Types and Classes
@section Types and Classes Dictionary

@c including dict-types

@menu
* nil (Type)::			
* boolean::			
* function (System Class)::	
* compiled-function::		
* generic-function::		
* standard-generic-function::	
* class::			
* built-in-class::		
* structure-class::		
* standard-class::		
* method::			
* standard-method::		
* structure-object::		
* standard-object::		
* method-combination::		
* t (System Class)::		
* satisfies::			
* member::			
* not (Type Specifier)::	
* and (Type Specifier)::	
* or (Type Specifier)::		
* values (Type Specifier)::	
* eql (Type Specifier)::	
* coerce::			
* deftype::			
* subtypep::			
* type-of::			
* typep::			
* type-error::			
* type-error-datum::		
* simple-type-error::		
@end menu

@node nil (Type), boolean, Types and Classes Dictionary, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection nil                                                                  [Type]

@subsubheading  Supertypes::
all @i{types}

@subsubheading  Description::

The @i{type} @b{nil} contains no @i{objects} and so is also
called the @i{empty type}.
The @i{type} @b{nil} is a @i{subtype} of every @i{type}.
No @i{object} is of @i{type} @b{nil}.

@subsubheading  Notes::

The @i{type} containing the @i{object} @b{nil} is the @i{type} @b{null},
not the @i{type} @b{nil}.

@node boolean, function (System Class), nil (Type), Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection boolean                                                              [Type]

@subsubheading  Supertypes::

@b{boolean},
@b{symbol},
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

The @i{type} @b{boolean} contains the @i{symbols} @b{t} and @b{nil},
which represent true and false, respectively.

@subsubheading  See Also::

@b{t} (@i{constant variable}),
@b{nil} (@i{constant variable}),
@ref{if}
,
@ref{not}
,
@ref{complement}

@subsubheading  Notes::

Conditional operations, such as @b{if},
permit the use of @i{generalized booleans},
not just @i{booleans};
any @i{non-nil} value,
not just @b{t},
counts as true for a @i{generalized boolean}.
However, as a matter of convention, 
the @i{symbol} @b{t} is considered the canonical value to use
even for a @i{generalized boolean} when no better choice presents itself.

@node function (System Class), compiled-function, boolean, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection function                                                     [System Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::
@b{function},
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

A @i{function} is an @i{object} that represents code 
to be executed when an appropriate number of arguments is supplied.
A @i{function} is produced by 
 the @b{function} @i{special form},
 the @i{function} @b{coerce},

or
 the @i{function} @b{compile}.
A @i{function} can be directly invoked by using it as the first argument to
@b{funcall}, @b{apply}, or @b{multiple-value-call}.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Kind::

Specializing.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Syntax::

(@code{function}@{@i{@t{[}arg-typespec @r{[}value-typespec@r{]}@t{]}}@})

@w{@i{arg-typespec} ::=@r{(}@{@i{typespec}@}{*} }
@w{                  @t{[}{&optional} @{@i{typespec}@}{*}@t{]} }
@w{                  @t{[}{&rest} @i{typespec}@t{]} }
@w{                  @t{[}{&key} @{{(}keyword typespec@r{)}@}{*}@t{]}@r{)}}

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Arguments::

@i{typespec}---a @i{type specifier}.

@i{value-typespec}---a @i{type specifier}.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Description::

[Editorial Note by KMP: Isn't there some context info about ftype declarations to be merged here?]

[Editorial Note by KMP: This could still use some cleaning up.]

[Editorial Note by Sandra: Still need clarification about what happens if the
number of arguments doesn't match the FUNCTION type declaration.]

The list form of the @b{function} @i{type-specifier}
can be used only for declaration and not for discrimination.
Every element of this @i{type} is
a @i{function} that accepts arguments of the
types   
specified by the  @i{argj-types} and returns values that are
members of the @i{types} specified by @i{value-type}. The
@b{&optional}, @b{&rest}, @b{&key}, 

and @b{&allow-other-keys} 

markers can appear in the list of argument types. 

The @i{type specifier} provided
with @b{&rest} is the @i{type} 
of each actual argument, not the @i{type} of the
corresponding variable.

The @b{&key} parameters 
should be supplied as lists of the form @t{(@i{keyword} @i{type})}.  
The @i{keyword} must be a valid keyword-name symbol
as must be supplied in the actual arguments of a
call.

This is usually a @i{symbol} in the @t{KEYWORD} @i{package} but can be any @i{symbol}.

When @b{&key} is given in a
@b{function} @i{type specifier} @i{lambda list},
the @i{keyword parameters} given
are exhaustive unless @b{&allow-other-keys} is also present. 
@b{&allow-other-keys} is an indication 
that other keyword arguments might actually be
supplied and, if supplied, can be used. 
For example,
the @i{type} of the @i{function} @b{make-list} could be declared as follows:

@example
 (function ((integer 0) &key (:initial-element t)) list)
@end example

The @i{value-type} can be a @b{values} 
@i{type specifier} in order to indicate the
@i{types} of @i{multiple values}.

Consider a declaration of the following form:

@example
 (ftype (function (arg0-type arg1-type ...) val-type) f))
@end example

Any @i{form}
@t{(f arg0 arg1 ...)}
within the scope of
that declaration is equivalent to the following:

@example
 (the val-type (f (the arg0-type arg0) (the arg1-type arg1) ...))
@end example

That is, the consequences are undefined if any of the arguments are
not of the specified @i{types} or the result is not of the
specified @i{type}. In particular, if any argument is not of the
correct @i{type}, the result is not guaranteed to be of the
specified @i{type}.

Thus, an @b{ftype} declaration for a @i{function}
describes @i{calls} to the @i{function}, not the actual definition
of the @i{function}.

Consider a declaration of the following form:

@example
 (type (function (arg0-type arg1-type ...) val-type) fn-valued-variable)
@end example

This declaration has the interpretation that, within the scope of the
declaration, the consequences are unspecified if the value of @t{fn-valued-variable} is called with arguments not of the specified
@i{types}; the value resulting from a valid call will be of type
@t{val-type}.

As with variable type declarations, nested declarations
imply intersections of @i{types}, as follows:
@table @asis

@item @t{*}  
Consider the following two
declarations of @b{ftype}:

@example
 (ftype (function (arg0-type1 arg1-type1 ...) val-type1) f))
@end example

and

@example
 (ftype (function (arg0-type2 arg1-type2 ...) val-type2) f))
@end example

If both these declarations are in effect,
then within the shared scope of the declarations, calls to @t{f} can be
treated as if @t{f} were declared as follows:

@example
 (ftype (function ((and arg0-type1 arg0-type2) (and arg1-type1 arg1-type2 ...) ...)
                  (and val-type1 val-type2)) 
        f))
@end example

It is permitted to ignore one or all of the @b{ftype} declarations in force.

@item @t{*}  
If two (or more) type declarations are in effect for a variable, and
they are both @t{function} declarations, the declarations combine similarly.
@end table

@node compiled-function, generic-function, function (System Class), Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection compiled-function                                                    [Type]

@subsubheading  Supertypes::

@b{compiled-function},
@b{function},
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

Any @i{function} may be considered by an @i{implementation} to be a 
a @i{compiled function} if it contains no references to @i{macros} that
must be expanded at run time, and it contains no unresolved references 
to @i{load time values}.  See @ref{Compilation Semantics}.

@i{Functions} whose definitions appear lexically within a
@i{file} that has been @i{compiled} with @b{compile-file} and then
@i{loaded} with @b{load} are of @i{type} @b{compiled-function}.

@i{Functions} produced by the @b{compile} function
are of @i{type} @b{compiled-function}.

Other @i{functions} might also be of @i{type} @b{compiled-function}.

@node generic-function, standard-generic-function, compiled-function, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection generic-function                                             [System Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::

@b{generic-function},
@b{function},
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

A @i{generic function}
@IGindex{generic function}
 is a @i{function} whose behavior
depends on the @i{classes} or identities of the @i{arguments}
supplied to it.  A generic function object contains a set of
@i{methods}, a @i{lambda list}, a @i{method combination} @i{type}, 
and other information.  The @i{methods}
define the class-specific behavior and operations of the @i{generic function};
a @i{method} is said to @i{specialize} a @i{generic function}.
When invoked, a @i{generic function} executes a subset of its
@i{methods} based on the @i{classes} or identities of its @i{arguments}.

A @i{generic function} can be used in the same ways that an
ordinary @i{function} can be used; specifically, a @i{generic function} can
be used as an argument to @b{funcall} and @b{apply},
and can be given a global or a local name.

@node standard-generic-function, class, generic-function, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection standard-generic-function                                    [System Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::
@b{standard-generic-function},
@b{generic-function},
@b{function},
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

The @i{class} @b{standard-generic-function} is the default @i{class} of
@i{generic functions} @i{established} by
@b{defmethod},
@b{ensure-generic-function},
@b{defgeneric},

and
@b{defclass} @i{forms}.

@node class, built-in-class, standard-generic-function, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection class                                                        [System Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::
@b{class},

@b{standard-object},

@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

The @i{type} @b{class} represents @i{objects} that determine the structure 
and behavior of their @i{instances}. Associated with an @i{object}
of @i{type} @b{class} is information describing its place in the 
directed acyclic graph of @i{classes}, its @i{slots}, and its options.

@node built-in-class, structure-class, class, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection built-in-class                                               [System Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::
@b{built-in-class},
@b{class},

@b{standard-object},

@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

A @i{built-in class} is a @i{class} whose @i{instances} have 
restricted capabilities or special representations.
Attempting to use
@b{defclass} to define @i{subclasses} of a @i{built-in class}
signals an error of @i{type} @b{error}.
Calling @b{make-instance} to create an @i{instance} 
of a @i{built-in class} signals an error of @i{type} @b{error}.
Calling @b{slot-value} on an @i{instance} of a @i{built-in class}
signals an error of @i{type} @b{error}.  Redefining a @i{built-in class}
or using @b{change-class} to change the @i{class} of an @i{instance}
to or from a @i{built-in class} signals an error of @i{type} @b{error}.
However, @i{built-in classes} can be used as @i{parameter specializers}
in @i{methods}.

@node structure-class, standard-class, built-in-class, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection structure-class                                              [System Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::

@b{structure-class},
@b{class},

@b{standard-object},

@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

All @i{classes} defined by means of @b{defstruct} 
are @i{instances} of the @i{class} @b{structure-class}.

@node standard-class, method, structure-class, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection standard-class                                               [System Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::
@b{standard-class},
@b{class},

@b{standard-object},

@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

The @i{class} @b{standard-class} is the default @i{class} of @i{classes}
defined by @b{defclass}.

@node method, standard-method, standard-class, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection method                                                       [System Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::
@b{method},
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

A @i{method} is an @i{object} that represents a modular part of the behavior
of a @i{generic function}.

A @i{method} contains @i{code} to implement the @i{method}'s
behavior, a sequence of @i{parameter specializers} that specify when the
given @i{method} is applicable, and a sequence of @i{qualifiers}
that is used by the method combination facility to distinguish among
@i{methods}.  Each required parameter of each 
@i{method} has an associated @i{parameter specializer}, and the 
@i{method} will be invoked only on arguments that satisfy its 
@i{parameter specializers}.

The method combination facility controls the selection of 
@i{methods}, the order in which they are run, and the values that are
returned by the generic function.  The object system offers a default method
combination type and provides a facility for declaring new types of
method combination.

@subsubheading  See Also::

@ref{Generic Functions and Methods}

@node standard-method, structure-object, method, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection standard-method                                              [System Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::
@b{standard-method},
@b{method},

@b{standard-object},

@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

The @i{class} @b{standard-method} is the default @i{class} of 
@i{methods} defined by the 
 @b{defmethod} and
 @b{defgeneric} @i{forms}.

@node structure-object, standard-object, standard-method, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection structure-object                                                    [Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::

@b{structure-object},
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

The @i{class} @b{structure-object} is an @i{instance} of @b{structure-class}
and is a @i{superclass} of every @i{class} 
that is an @i{instance} of @b{structure-class}
except itself, and is a @i{superclass} of every @i{class} 
that is defined by @b{defstruct}.

@subsubheading  See Also::

@ref{defstruct}
,
@ref{Sharpsign S},
@ref{Printing Structures}

@node standard-object, method-combination, structure-object, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection standard-object                                                     [Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::
@b{standard-object},
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

The @i{class} @b{standard-object} is an @i{instance} of @b{standard-class}
and is a @i{superclass} of every @i{class} that is an @i{instance} of
@b{standard-class} except itself.

@node method-combination, t (System Class), standard-object, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection method-combination                                           [System Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::
@b{method-combination},
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

Every @i{method combination} @i{object} is an 
@i{indirect instance} of the @i{class} @b{method-combination}.
A @i{method combination} @i{object} represents the information about
the @i{method combination} being used by a @i{generic function}.
A @i{method combination} @i{object} contains information about
both the type of @i{method combination} and the arguments being used
with that @i{type}.

@node t (System Class), satisfies, method-combination, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection t                                                            [System Class]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::
The set of all @i{objects}.  
The @i{type} @b{t} is a @i{supertype} of every @i{type}, 
including itself. Every @i{object} is of @i{type} @b{t}.

@node satisfies, member, t (System Class), Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection satisfies                                                  [Type Specifier]

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Kind::

Predicating.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Syntax::

(@code{satisfies}@{@i{predicate-name}@})

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Arguments::

@i{predicate-name}---a @i{symbol}.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Description::

This denotes the set of all @i{objects} that satisfy the
@i{predicate} @i{predicate-name}, which must be a @i{symbol}
whose global @i{function} definition is a one-argument
predicate.  A name is required for @i{predicate-name}; 
@i{lambda expressions} are not allowed.
For example, the @i{type specifier} @t{(and integer (satisfies evenp))}
denotes the set of all even integers.
The form @t{(typep @i{x} '(satisfies @i{p}))} is equivalent to
@t{(if (@i{p} @i{x}) t nil)}.

The argument is required.
The @i{symbol} @b{*} can be the argument, but it
denotes itself (the @i{symbol} @b{*}),
and does not represent an unspecified value.

The symbol @b{satisfies} is not valid as a @i{type specifier}.

@node member, not (Type Specifier), satisfies, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection member                                                     [Type Specifier]

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Kind::

Combining.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Syntax::

(@code{member}@{@i{@{@i{object}@}{*}}@})

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Arguments::

@i{object}---an @i{object}.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Description::

This denotes the set containing the named @i{objects}. An
@i{object} is of this @i{type} if and only if it is @b{eql}
to one of the specified @i{objects}.

The @i{type specifiers} @t{(member)} and @b{nil} are equivalent.
@b{*} can be among the @i{objects},
but if so it denotes itself (the symbol @b{*}) 
and does not represent an unspecified value.
The symbol @b{member} is not valid as a @i{type specifier};
and, specifically, it is not an abbreviation for either @t{(member)} or @t{(member *)}.

@subsubheading  See Also::

the @i{type} @b{eql}

@node not (Type Specifier), and (Type Specifier), member, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection not                                                        [Type Specifier]

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Kind::

Combining.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Syntax::

(@code{not}@{@i{typespec}@})

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Arguments::

@i{typespec}---a @i{type specifier}.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Description::

This denotes the set of all @i{objects} that are not of the @i{type} @i{typespec}.

The argument is required, and cannot be @b{*}.

The symbol @b{not} is not valid as a @i{type specifier}.

@node and (Type Specifier), or (Type Specifier), not (Type Specifier), Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection and                                                        [Type Specifier]

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Kind::

Combining.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Syntax::

(@code{and}@{@i{@{@i{typespec}@}{*}}@})

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Arguments::

@i{typespec}---a @i{type specifier}.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Description::

This denotes the set of all @i{objects} of the @i{type} 
determined by the intersection of the @i{typespecs}.

@b{*} is not permitted as an argument.

The @i{type specifiers} @t{(and)} and @b{t} are equivalent.
The symbol @b{and} is not valid as a @i{type specifier},
and, specifically, it is not an abbreviation for @t{(and)}.

@node or (Type Specifier), values (Type Specifier), and (Type Specifier), Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection or                                                         [Type Specifier]

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Kind::

Combining.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Syntax::

(@code{or}@{@i{@{@i{typespec}@}{*}}@})

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Arguments::

@i{typespec}---a @i{type specifier}.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Description::

This denotes the set of all @i{objects} of the
@i{type} determined by the union of the @i{typespecs}.
For example, the @i{type} @b{list} by definition is the same as @t{(or null cons)}.
Also, the value returned by @b{position} is an @i{object} of @i{type} @t{(or null (integer 0 *))};
@i{i.e.}, either @b{nil} or a non-negative @i{integer}.

@b{*} is not permitted as an argument.

The @i{type specifiers} @t{(or)} and @b{nil} are equivalent.
The symbol @b{or} is not valid as a @i{type specifier};
and, specifically, it is not an abbreviation for @t{(or)}.

@node values (Type Specifier), eql (Type Specifier), or (Type Specifier), Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection values                                                     [Type Specifier]

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Kind::

Specializing.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Syntax::

(@code{values}@{@i{!@i{value-typespec}}@})

[Reviewer Note by Barmar: Missing @b{&key}]

@w{@i{value-typespec} ::=@{@i{typespec}@}{*} @t{[}{&optional} {@{@i{typespec}@}{*}}@t{]} @t{[}{&rest} typespec@t{]} @t{[}@b{&allow-other-keys}@t{]}}

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Arguments::

@i{typespec}---a @i{type specifier}.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Description::

This @i{type specifier} can be used only as the @i{value-type} in a
@b{function} @i{type specifier} or a @b{the}
@i{special form}.  It is used to specify individual @i{types} 
when @i{multiple values} are involved.
The @b{&optional} and @b{&rest} markers can appear in the @i{value-type} list;
they indicate the parameter list of a @i{function} that, 
when given to @b{multiple-value-call} along with the values,
would correctly receive those values.

The symbol @b{*} may not be among the @i{value-types}.

The symbol @b{values} is not valid as a @i{type specifier};
and, specifically, it is not an abbreviation for @t{(values)}.

@node eql (Type Specifier), coerce, values (Type Specifier), Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection eql                                                        [Type Specifier]

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Kind::

Combining.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Syntax::

(@code{eql}@{@i{object}@})

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Arguments::

@i{object}---an @i{object}.

@subsubheading  Compound Type Specifier Description::

Represents the @i{type} whose only @i{element} is @i{object}.

The argument @i{object} is required.  The @i{object} can be @b{*},
but if so it denotes itself (the symbol @b{*}) 
and does not represent an unspecified value.
The @i{symbol} @b{eql} is not valid as an @i{atomic type specifier}.

@node coerce, deftype, eql (Type Specifier), Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection coerce                                                           [Function]

@code{coerce}  @i{object result-type} @result{}  @i{result}

@subsubheading  Arguments and Values::

@i{object}---an @i{object}.

@i{result-type}---a @i{type specifier}.

@i{result}---an @i{object}, of @i{type} @i{result-type}
  except in situations described in @ref{Rule of Canonical Representation for Complex Rationals}.

@subsubheading  Description::

@i{Coerces} the @i{object} to @i{type} @i{result-type}.

If @i{object} is already of @i{type} @i{result-type},
the @i{object} itself is returned, regardless of whether it
would have been possible in general to coerce an @i{object} of 
some other @i{type} to @i{result-type}.

Otherwise, the @i{object} is @i{coerced} to @i{type} @i{result-type}
according to the following rules:

@table @asis

@item @b{sequence}  

If the @i{result-type} is a @i{recognizable subtype} of @b{list},
and the @i{object} is a @i{sequence},
then the @i{result} is a @i{list} 
that has the @i{same} @i{elements} as @i{object}.

If the @i{result-type} is a @i{recognizable subtype} of @b{vector},
and the @i{object} is a @i{sequence},
then the @i{result} is a @i{vector} 
that has the @i{same} @i{elements} as @i{object}.
If @i{result-type} is a specialized @i{type}, 
the @i{result} has an @i{actual array element type} that is the result of
@i{upgrading} the element type part of that @i{specialized} @i{type}.
If no element type is specified, the element type defaults to @b{t}.
If the @i{implementation} cannot determine the element type, an error is signaled.

@item @b{character}  
If the @i{result-type} is @b{character}
and the @i{object} is a @i{character designator},
the @i{result} is the @i{character} it denotes.

@item @b{complex}  
If the @i{result-type} is @b{complex} 
and the @i{object} is a @i{number},
then the @i{result} is obtained by constructing a @i{complex}
whose real part is the @i{object} and
whose imaginary part is the result of @i{coercing} an @i{integer} zero
to the @i{type} of the @i{object} (using @b{coerce}).
(If the real part is a @i{rational}, however, 
then the result must be represented as a @i{rational} rather
than a @i{complex}; see @ref{Rule of Canonical Representation for Complex Rationals}.
So, for example, @t{(coerce 3 'complex)} is permissible,
but will return @t{3}, which is not a @i{complex}.)

@item @b{float}  
If the @i{result-type} is any of @b{float},
 @b{short-float}, 
 @b{single-float}, 
 @b{double-float}, 
 @b{long-float},
and the @i{object} is a 

@i{real},

then the @i{result} is a @i{float} of @i{type} @i{result-type}
which is equal in sign and magnitude to the @i{object} to whatever degree of
representational precision is permitted by that @i{float} representation.
(If the @i{result-type} is @b{float}
and @i{object} is not already a @i{float}, 
then the @i{result} is a @i{single float}.)

@item @b{function}  
If the @i{result-type} is @b{function},
and @i{object} is any 

@i{function name}

that is @i{fbound} 
but that is globally defined neither as a @i{macro name} nor as a @i{special operator},
then the @i{result} is the @i{functional value} of @i{object}.

If the @i{result-type} is @b{function},
and @i{object} is a @i{lambda expression},
then the @i{result} is a @i{closure} of @i{object}
in the @i{null lexical environment}.

@item @b{t}  
Any @i{object} can be @i{coerced} to an @i{object} of @i{type} @b{t}.
In this case, the @i{object} is simply returned.

@end table

@subsubheading  Examples::

@example
 (coerce '(a b c) 'vector) @result{}  #(A B C)
 (coerce 'a 'character) @result{}  #\A
 (coerce 4.56 'complex) @result{}  #C(4.56 0.0)
 (coerce 4.5s0 'complex) @result{}  #C(4.5s0 0.0s0)
 (coerce 7/2 'complex) @result{}  7/2
 (coerce 0 'short-float) @result{}  0.0s0
 (coerce 3.5L0 'float) @result{}  3.5L0
 (coerce 7/2 'float) @result{}  3.5
 (coerce (cons 1 2) t) @result{}  (1 . 2)
@end example

All the following @i{forms} should signal an error:

@example
 (coerce '(a b c) '(vector * 4))
 (coerce #(a b c) '(vector * 4))
 (coerce '(a b c) '(vector * 2))
 (coerce #(a b c) '(vector * 2))
 (coerce "foo" '(string 2))
 (coerce #(#\a #\b #\c) '(string 2))
 (coerce '(0 1) '(simple-bit-vector 3))
@end example

@subsubheading  Exceptional Situations::

If a coercion is not possible, an error of @i{type} @b{type-error} is signaled.

@t{(coerce x 'nil)} always signals an error of @i{type} @b{type-error}.

An error
of @i{type} @b{error} is signaled
if the @i{result-type} is @b{function} but
@i{object} is a @i{symbol} that is not @i{fbound} or
if the @i{symbol} names a @i{macro} or a @i{special operator}.

An error of @i{type} @b{type-error} should be signaled if @i{result-type}
specifies the number of elements and @i{object} is of a different length.

@subsubheading  See Also::

@ref{rational}
, 
@ref{floor; ffloor; ceiling; fceiling; truncate; ftruncate; round; fround}
, 
@ref{char-code}
, 
@ref{char-int}

@subsubheading  Notes::

Coercions from @i{floats} to @i{rationals} 
and from @i{ratios} to @i{integers} 
are not provided because of rounding problems.  

@example
 (coerce x 't) @equiv{} (identity x) @equiv{} x
@end example

@node deftype, subtypep, coerce, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection deftype                                                             [Macro]

@code{deftype}  @i{name lambda-list {[[@{@i{declaration}@}{*} | @i{documentation}]]} @{@i{form}@}{*}} @result{}  @i{name}

@subsubheading  Arguments and Values::

@i{name}---a @i{symbol}.

@i{lambda-list}---a @i{deftype lambda list}.

@i{declaration}---a @b{declare} @i{expression}; not evaluated.

@i{documentation}---a @i{string}; not evaluated.

@i{form}---a @i{form}.

@subsubheading  Description::

@b{deftype} defines a @i{derived type specifier} named @i{name}.

The meaning of the new @i{type specifier} is given in terms of
a function which expands the @i{type specifier} into another
@i{type specifier}, which itself will be expanded if it contains
references to another @i{derived type specifier}.

The newly defined @i{type specifier} may be referenced as a list of
the form @t{(@i{name} @i{arg_1} @i{arg_2} ...)\/}.
The number of arguments must be appropriate to the @i{lambda-list}.
If the new @i{type specifier} takes no arguments, 
or if all of its arguments are optional, 
the @i{type specifier} may be used as an @i{atomic type specifier}.

The @i{argument} @i{expressions} to the @i{type specifier},
@i{arg_1} ... @i{arg_n}, are not @i{evaluated}.
Instead, these @i{literal objects} become the @i{objects} to which
corresponding @i{parameters} become @i{bound}.

The body of the @b{deftype} @i{form} 

(but not the @i{lambda-list})

is

implicitly enclosed in a @i{block} named @i{name},

and is evaluated as an @i{implicit progn}, 
returning a new @i{type specifier}.

The @i{lexical environment} of the body is the one which was current
at the time the @b{deftype} form was evaluated, augmented by the 
@i{variables} in the @i{lambda-list}.

Recursive expansion of the @i{type specifier} returned as the expansion
must terminate, including the expansion of @i{type specifiers} which
are nested within the expansion.

The consequences are undefined if the result of fully expanding a
@i{type specifier} contains any circular structure, except within
the @i{objects} referred to by @b{member} and @b{eql}
@i{type specifiers}.

@i{Documentation} is attached to @i{name} as a @i{documentation string}
of kind @b{type}.

If a @b{deftype} @i{form} appears as a @i{top level form},
the @i{compiler} must ensure that the @i{name} is recognized
in subsequent @i{type} declarations.  
The @i{programmer} must ensure that the body of a @b{deftype} form 
can be @i{evaluated} at compile time if the @i{name} is
referenced in subsequent @i{type} declarations.  
If the expansion of a @i{type specifier} is not defined fully at compile time
(perhaps because it expands into an unknown @i{type specifier} or a
@b{satisfies} of a named @i{function} that isn't defined in the
compile-time environment), an @i{implementation} may ignore any references to
this @i{type} in declarations and/or signal a warning.

@subsubheading  Examples::
@example
 (defun equidimensional (a)
   (or (< (array-rank a) 2)
       (apply #'= (array-dimensions a)))) @result{}  EQUIDIMENSIONAL
 (deftype square-matrix (&optional type size)
   `(and (array ,type (,size ,size))
         (satisfies equidimensional))) @result{}  SQUARE-MATRIX
@end example

@subsubheading  See Also::

@b{declare},
@ref{defmacro}
,
@ref{documentation; (setf documentation)}
,
@ref{Type Specifiers},
@ref{Syntactic Interaction of Documentation Strings and Declarations}

@node subtypep, type-of, deftype, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection subtypep                                                         [Function]

@code{subtypep}  @i{type-1 type-2 {&optional} environment} @result{}  @i{subtype-p, valid-p}

@subsubheading  Arguments and Values:: 

@i{type-1}---a @i{type specifier}.

@i{type-2}---a @i{type specifier}.

@i{environment}---an @i{environment} @i{object}.
  The default is @b{nil}, denoting the @i{null lexical environment}
	   and the current @i{global environment}.

@i{subtype-p}---a @i{generalized boolean}.

@i{valid-p}---a @i{generalized boolean}.

@subsubheading  Description::

If @i{type-1} is a @i{recognizable subtype} of @i{type-2}, 
the first @i{value} is @i{true}.
Otherwise, the first @i{value} is @i{false},
indicating that either
 @i{type-1} is not a @i{subtype} of @i{type-2}, or else
 @i{type-1} is a @i{subtype} of @i{type-2} 
  but is not a @i{recognizable subtype}.

A second @i{value} is also returned indicating the `certainty' of 
the first @i{value}.  If this value is @i{true}, then the first
value is an accurate indication of the @i{subtype} relationship.
(The second @i{value} is always @i{true} when the first @i{value}
 is @i{true}.)

Figure 4--9 summarizes the possible combinations of @i{values}
that might result.

@group
@noindent
@w{  Value 1  Value 2  Meaning                                               }
@w{  @i{true}     @i{true}     @i{type-1} is definitely a @i{subtype} of @i{type-2}.             }
@w{  @i{false}    @i{true}     @i{type-1} is definitely not a @i{subtype} of @i{type-2}.         }
@w{  @i{false}    @i{false}    @b{subtypep} could not determine the relationship,        }
@w{                    so @i{type-1} might or might not be a @i{subtype} of @i{type-2}.  }

@noindent
@w{               Figure 4--9: Result possibilities for subtypep             }

@end group

@b{subtypep} is permitted to return the 
@i{values} @i{false} and @i{false} only when at least
one argument involves one of these @i{type specifiers}:
  @b{and},
  @b{eql},
  the list form of @b{function},
  @b{member},
  @b{not},
  @b{or},
  @b{satisfies},
or
  @b{values}.
(A @i{type specifier} `involves' such a @i{symbol} if, 
 after being @i{type expanded},
 it contains that @i{symbol} in a position that would call for
 its meaning as a @i{type specifier} to be used.)
One consequence of this is that if neither @i{type-1} nor @i{type-2}
involves any of these @i{type specifiers}, then @b{subtypep} is obliged
to determine the relationship accurately.  In particular, @b{subtypep} 
returns the @i{values} @i{true} and @i{true}
if the arguments are @b{equal} and do not involve
any of these @i{type specifiers}.

@b{subtypep} never returns a second value of @b{nil} when both
@i{type-1} and @i{type-2} involve only
 the names in @i{Figure~4--2}, or
 names of @i{types} defined by @b{defstruct},
@b{define-condition},
 or @b{defclass}, or
 @i{derived types} that expand into only those names.
While @i{type specifiers} listed in @i{Figure~4--2} and 
names of @b{defclass} and @b{defstruct} can in some cases be
implemented as @i{derived types}, @b{subtypep} regards them as primitive.

The relationships between @i{types} reflected by @b{subtypep}
are those specific to the particular implementation.  For example, if
an implementation supports only a single type of floating-point numbers,
in that implementation @t{(subtypep 'float 'long-float)} 
returns the @i{values} @i{true} and @i{true} 
(since the two @i{types} are identical).

For all @i{T1} and @i{T2} other than @t{*}, 
@t{(array @i{T1})} and @t{(array @i{T2})} 
are two different @i{type specifiers} that always refer to the same sets of
things if and only if they refer to @i{arrays}
of exactly the same specialized representation, @i{i.e.}, if @t{(upgraded-array-element-type '@i{T1})}  and
   @t{(upgraded-array-element-type '@i{T2})} 
return two different @i{type specifiers} that always refer to the same sets of
@i{objects}.
This is another way of saying that 
@t{`(array @i{type-specifier})}
and
@t{`(array ,(upgraded-array-element-type '@i{type-specifier}))} 
refer to the same
set of specialized @i{array} representations.
For all @i{T1} and @i{T2} other than @t{*}, 
the intersection of
    @t{(array @i{T1})}
and @t{(array @i{T2})} is the empty set
if and only if they refer to @i{arrays} of different,
distinct specialized representations.  

Therefore,

@example
 (subtypep '(array T1) '(array T2)) @result{}  @i{true}
@end example

if and only if

@example
 (upgraded-array-element-type 'T1)  and
 (upgraded-array-element-type 'T2)  
@end example

return two different @i{type specifiers} that always refer to the same sets of
@i{objects}.

For all type-specifiers @i{T1} and @i{T2} other than @t{*}, 

@example
 (subtypep '(complex T1) '(complex T2)) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
@end example

if:
@table @asis

@item 1.  
@t{T1} is a @i{subtype} of @t{T2}, or
@item 2.  
@t{(upgraded-complex-part-type '@i{T1})} and
	      @t{(upgraded-complex-part-type '@i{T2})} 
   return two different @i{type specifiers} that always refer to the 
   same sets of @i{objects}; in this case,
    @t{(complex @i{T1})} and 
    @t{(complex @i{T2})} both refer to the 
   same specialized representation.
@end table

The @i{values} are @i{false} and @i{true} otherwise.

The form

@example
 (subtypep '(complex single-float) '(complex float))
@end example

 must return @i{true} in all implementations, but

@example
 (subtypep '(array single-float) '(array float))
@end example

returns @i{true} only in implementations that do not have a specialized @i{array}
representation for @i{single floats} distinct from that for other @i{floats}.

@subsubheading  Examples::

@example
 (subtypep 'compiled-function 'function) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
 (subtypep 'null 'list) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
 (subtypep 'null 'symbol) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
 (subtypep 'integer 'string) @result{}  @i{false}, @i{true}
 (subtypep '(satisfies dummy) nil) @result{}  @i{false}, @i{implementation-dependent}
 (subtypep '(integer 1 3) '(integer 1 4)) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
 (subtypep '(integer (0) (0)) 'nil) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
 (subtypep 'nil '(integer (0) (0))) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
 (subtypep '(integer (0) (0)) '(member)) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true} ;or @i{false}, @i{false}
 (subtypep '(member) 'nil) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true} ;or @i{false}, @i{false}
 (subtypep 'nil '(member)) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true} ;or @i{false}, @i{false}
@end example

 Let @t{<aet-x>} and @t{<aet-y>} be two distinct @i{type specifiers} that 
do not always refer to the same sets of
@i{objects}
in a given implementation, but for which
@b{make-array}, will return an 
@i{object} of the same @i{array} @i{type}.

Thus, in each case, 

@example
  (subtypep (array-element-type (make-array 0 :element-type '<aet-x>))
            (array-element-type (make-array 0 :element-type '<aet-y>)))
@result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}

  (subtypep (array-element-type (make-array 0 :element-type '<aet-y>))
            (array-element-type (make-array 0 :element-type '<aet-x>)))
@result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
@end example

If  @t{(array <aet-x>)} 
and @t{(array <aet-y>)} are different names for
exactly the same set of @i{objects}, 
these names should always refer to the same sets of
@i{objects}.
 That implies that the following set of tests are also true:

@example
 (subtypep '(array <aet-x>) '(array <aet-y>)) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
 (subtypep '(array <aet-y>) '(array <aet-x>)) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
@end example

@subsubheading  See Also::

@ref{Types}

@subsubheading  Notes::

The small differences between the @b{subtypep} specification for
the @b{array} and @b{complex} types are necessary because there 
is no creation function for @i{complexes} which allows 
the specification of the resultant part type independently of
the actual types of the parts.  Thus in the case of the @i{type} @b{complex},
the actual type of the parts is referred to, although a @i{number} 
can be a member of more than one @i{type}.
For example, @t{17} is of @i{type} @t{(mod 18)} 
as well as @i{type} @t{(mod 256)} and @i{type} @b{integer};
and @t{2.3f5} is of @i{type} @b{single-float} 
as well as @i{type} @b{float}.

@node type-of, typep, subtypep, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection type-of                                                          [Function]

@code{type-of}  @i{object} @result{}  @i{typespec}

@subsubheading  Arguments and Values::

@i{object}---an @i{object}.

@i{typespec}---a @i{type specifier}.

@subsubheading  Description::

Returns a @i{type specifier}, @i{typespec}, for a @i{type} 
that has the @i{object} as an @i{element}.
The @i{typespec} satisfies the following:

@table @asis

@item 1.  
For any @i{object} that is an @i{element} of some @i{built-in type}:

@table @asis

@item a.  
the @i{type} returned is a @i{recognizable subtype} of that @i{built-in type}.

@item b.  
the @i{type} returned does not involve 
     @t{and},
     @t{eql},
     @t{member},
     @t{not},
     @t{or}, 
     @t{satisfies},
  or @t{values}.
@end table

@item 2.  
For all @i{objects}, @t{(typep @i{object} (type-of @i{object}))} 
returns @i{true}.
Implicit in this is that @i{type specifiers} which are
not valid for use with @b{typep}, such as the @i{list} form of the
@b{function} @i{type specifier}, are never returned by @b{type-of}.

@item 3.  
The @i{type} returned by @b{type-of} is always a @i{recognizable subtype}
of the @i{class} returned by @b{class-of}.  That is,

@example
 (subtypep (type-of @i{object}) (class-of @i{object})) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
@end example

@item 4.  
For @i{objects} of metaclass @b{structure-class} or @b{standard-class},

and for @i{conditions},

@b{type-of} returns the @i{proper name} of the @i{class} returned 
by @b{class-of} if it has a @i{proper name},
and otherwise returns the @i{class} itself.
In particular, for @i{objects} created by the constructor function
of a structure defined with @b{defstruct} without a @t{:type} option,
@b{type-of} returns the structure name; and for @i{objects} created 
by @b{make-condition}, the @i{typespec} is the @i{name} of the
@i{condition} @i{type}.

@item 5.  
For each of the @i{types}
     @b{short-float}, 
     @b{single-float},
     @b{double-float},
  or @b{long-float}
of which the @i{object} is an @i{element},
the @i{typespec} is a @i{recognizable subtype} of that @i{type}.

@end table

@subsubheading  Examples::

@example
@end example

@example
 (type-of 'a) @result{}  SYMBOL          
 (type-of '(1 . 2))
@result{}  CONS
@i{OR}@result{} (CONS FIXNUM FIXNUM)
 (type-of #c(0 1))
@result{}  COMPLEX
@i{OR}@result{} (COMPLEX INTEGER)
 (defstruct temp-struct x y z) @result{}  TEMP-STRUCT
 (type-of (make-temp-struct)) @result{}  TEMP-STRUCT
 (type-of "abc")
@result{}  STRING
@i{OR}@result{} (STRING 3)
 (subtypep (type-of "abc") 'string) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
 (type-of (expt 2 40))
@result{}  BIGNUM
@i{OR}@result{} INTEGER
@i{OR}@result{} (INTEGER 1099511627776 1099511627776)
@i{OR}@result{} SYSTEM::TWO-WORD-BIGNUM
@i{OR}@result{} FIXNUM
 (subtypep (type-of 112312) 'integer) @result{}  @i{true}, @i{true}
 (defvar *foo* (make-array 5 :element-type t)) @result{}  *FOO*
 (class-name (class-of *foo*)) @result{}  VECTOR
 (type-of *foo*)
@result{}  VECTOR
@i{OR}@result{} (VECTOR T 5)
@end example

@subsubheading  See Also::

@ref{array-element-type}
,
@ref{class-of}
,
@ref{defstruct}
,
@ref{typecase; ctypecase; etypecase}
,
@ref{typep}
,
@ref{Types}

@subsubheading  Notes::

Implementors are encouraged to arrange for @b{type-of} to return

a portable value.

@node typep, type-error, type-of, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection typep                                                            [Function]

@code{typep}  @i{object type-specifier {&optional} environment} @result{}  @i{generalized-boolean}

@subsubheading  Arguments and Values::

@i{object}---an @i{object}.

@i{type-specifier}---any @i{type specifier} except 

@b{values}, or a @i{type specifier} list
whose first element is either @b{function} or @b{values}.

@i{environment}---an @i{environment} @i{object}.
  The default is @b{nil}, denoting the @i{null lexical environment}
	   and the and current @i{global environment}.

@i{generalized-boolean}---a @i{generalized boolean}.

@subsubheading  Description::

Returns @i{true} if @i{object} is of the @i{type} specified by @i{type-specifier};
otherwise, returns @i{false}.

A @i{type-specifier} of the form @t{(satisfies fn)} 
is handled by applying the function @t{fn} to @i{object}.

@t{(typep @i{object} '(array @i{type-specifier}))}, 
where @i{type-specifier} is not @t{*},   
returns @i{true} if and only if @i{object} is an @i{array} 
that could be the result 
of supplying @i{type-specifier} 
as the @t{:element-type} argument to @b{make-array}.
@t{(array *)} refers to all @i{arrays} 
regardless of element type, while @t{(array @i{type-specifier})}
refers only to those @i{arrays} 
that can result from giving @i{type-specifier} as the
@t{:element-type} argument to @b{make-array}.  
A similar interpretation applies to @t{(simple-array @i{type-specifier})} 
and @t{(vector @i{type-specifier})}.
See @ref{Array Upgrading}.

@t{(typep @i{object} '(complex @i{type-specifier}))}
returns @i{true} for all @i{complex} numbers that can result from 
giving @i{numbers} of type @i{type-specifier}
to the @i{function} @b{complex}, plus all other @i{complex} numbers 
of the same specialized representation.      
Both the real and the imaginary parts of any such 
@i{complex} number must satisfy:

@example
 (typep realpart 'type-specifier)
 (typep imagpart 'type-specifier)
@end example

See the @i{function} @b{upgraded-complex-part-type}.

@subsubheading  Examples::

@example
 (typep 12 'integer) @result{}  @i{true}
 (typep (1+ most-positive-fixnum) 'fixnum) @result{}  @i{false}
 (typep nil t) @result{}  @i{true}
 (typep nil nil) @result{}  @i{false}
 (typep 1 '(mod 2)) @result{}  @i{true}
 (typep #c(1 1) '(complex (eql 1))) @result{}  @i{true}
;; To understand this next example, you might need to refer to
;; @ref{Rule of Canonical Representation for Complex Rationals}.
 (typep #c(0 0) '(complex (eql 0))) @result{}  @i{false}
@end example

Let @t{A{{}_x}} and @t{A{{}_y}} be two @i{type specifiers} that 
denote different @i{types}, but for which

@example
 (upgraded-array-element-type 'A{{}_x})
@end example

and

@example
 (upgraded-array-element-type 'A{{}_y})
@end example

denote the same @i{type}.  Notice that

@example
 (typep (make-array 0 :element-type 'A{{}_x}) '(array A{{}_x})) @result{}  @i{true}
 (typep (make-array 0 :element-type 'A{{}_y}) '(array A{{}_y})) @result{}  @i{true}
 (typep (make-array 0 :element-type 'A{{}_x}) '(array A{{}_y})) @result{}  @i{true}
 (typep (make-array 0 :element-type 'A{{}_y}) '(array A{{}_x})) @result{}  @i{true}
@end example

@subsubheading  Exceptional Situations::

An error of @i{type} @b{error} is signaled if @i{type-specifier} is @t{values}, 
or a @i{type specifier} list whose first element is either
@b{function} or @b{values}.

The consequences are undefined if
the @i{type-specifier} is not a @i{type specifier}.

@subsubheading  See Also::

@ref{type-of}
,
@ref{upgraded-array-element-type}
,
@ref{upgraded-complex-part-type}
,
@ref{Type Specifiers}

@subsubheading  Notes::

@i{Implementations} are encouraged to recognize and optimize the case of 
@t{(typep @i{x} (the class @i{y}))},
since it does not involve any need for expansion 
of @b{deftype} information at runtime.

@example

@end example

@node type-error, type-error-datum, typep, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection type-error                                                 [Condition Type]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::
@b{type-error},
@b{error},
@b{serious-condition},
@b{condition},
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

The @i{type} @b{type-error} represents a situation in which an @i{object} is not
of the expected type.  The ``offending datum'' and ``expected type'' are initialized 
by the initialization arguments named @t{:datum} and @t{:expected-type} to @b{make-condition},
and are @i{accessed} by the functions 
@b{type-error-datum} and @b{type-error-expected-type}.

@subsubheading  See Also::

@ref{type-error-datum; type-error-expected-type}
, @b{type-error-expected-type}

@node type-error-datum, simple-type-error, type-error, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection type-error-datum, type-error-expected-type                       [Function]

@code{type-error-datum}  @i{condition} @result{}  @i{datum}

@code{type-error-expected-type}  @i{condition} @result{}  @i{expected-type}

@subsubheading  Arguments and Values:: 

@i{condition}---a @i{condition} of @i{type} @b{type-error}.

@i{datum}---an @i{object}.

@i{expected-type}---a @i{type specifier}.

@subsubheading  Description::

@b{type-error-datum} returns the offending datum in the @i{situation}
represented by the @i{condition}.

@b{type-error-expected-type} returns the expected type of the
offending datum in the @i{situation} represented by the @i{condition}.

@subsubheading  Examples::

@example
 (defun fix-digits (condition)
   (check-type condition type-error)
   (let* ((digits '(zero one two three four
                   five six seven eight nine))
         (val (position (type-error-datum condition) digits)))
     (if (and val (subtypep 'fixnum (type-error-expected-type condition)))
         (store-value 7))))

 (defun foo (x)
   (handler-bind ((type-error #'fix-digits))
     (check-type x number)
     (+ x 3)))

 (foo 'seven)
@result{}  10
@end example

@subsubheading  See Also::

@b{type-error},
@ref{Conditions}

@node simple-type-error,  , type-error-datum, Types and Classes Dictionary
@subsection simple-type-error                                          [Condition Type]

@subsubheading  Class Precedence List::

@b{simple-type-error},
@b{simple-condition},
@b{type-error},
@b{error},
@b{serious-condition},
@b{condition},
@b{t}

@subsubheading  Description::

@i{Conditions} of @i{type} @b{simple-type-error} 
are like @i{conditions} of @i{type} @b{type-error}, 
except that they provide an alternate mechanism for specifying
how the @i{condition} is to be @i{reported};
see the @i{type} @b{simple-condition}.

@subsubheading  See Also::

@b{simple-condition},

@ref{simple-condition-format-control; simple-condition-format-arguments}
,

@b{simple-condition-format-arguments}, 
@ref{type-error-datum; type-error-expected-type}
,
@b{type-error-expected-type}

@c end of including dict-types

@c %**end of chapter