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/*
 *  Main authors:
 *     Christian Schulte <schulte@gecode.org>
 *     Guido Tack <tack@gecode.org>
 *
 *  Copyright:
 *     Christian Schulte, 2005
 *     Guido Tack, 2005
 *
 *  This file is part of Gecode, the generic constraint
 *  development environment:
 *     http://www.gecode.org
 *
 *  Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
 *  a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
 *  "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
 *  without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
 *  distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
 *  permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
 *  the following conditions:
 *
 *  The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
 *  included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
 *
 *  THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
 *  EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
 *  MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
 *  NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
 *  LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
 *  OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
 *  WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
 *
 */

/*
 * No code, just contains the group definitions of the
 * Doxygen-generated documentation
 */

#define GECODE_DOXYGEN_WORKAROUNDS 1

/**
 * \defgroup Task Functionality by programming task
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskModel Programming models
 * \ingroup Task
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskModelScript Setting up scripts
 *
 * Scripts (or models) are programmed by inheriting from the class
 * Gecode::Space. For many examples see \ref Example.
 *
 * \ingroup TaskModel
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskModelInt Using integer variables and constraints
 * \ingroup TaskModel
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskModelIntVars Integer variables
 * \ingroup TaskModelInt
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskModelSearch Search engines
 *
 * Defines search engines. All search engines (but Gecode::LDS, where
 * it is not needed) support recomputation. The behaviour of recomputation
 * is controlled by a passing a search option object (see the class 
 * Gecode::Search::Options).
 *
 * Requires \code #include <gecode/search.hh> \endcode
 * \ingroup TaskModel
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskGist Gist: the Gecode Interactive Search Tool
 * \ingroup TaskModel
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskModelSet Using integer set variables and constraints
 * \ingroup TaskModel
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskModelSetVars Set variables
 * \ingroup TaskModelSet
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskModelFloat Using float variables and constraints
 * \ingroup TaskModel
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskModelFloatVars Float variables
 * \ingroup TaskModelSet
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskModelMiniModel Direct modeling support
 * \ingroup TaskModel
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskDriver Script commandline driver
 * \ingroup TaskModel
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskGroup Propagator and brancher groups
 * \ingroup TaskModel
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskTrace Tracing constraint propagation
 * \ingroup TaskModel
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskSearch Programming search engines
 * \ingroup Task
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskActor Programming actors
 * \ingroup Task
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskActorInt Programming integer actors
 * \ingroup TaskActor
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskActorSet Programming set actors
 * \ingroup TaskActor
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskActorFloat Programming float actors
 * \ingroup TaskActor
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskVar Programming variables
 * \ingroup Task
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskVarView Programming views for variables
 * \ingroup TaskVar
 */

/**
 * \defgroup TaskTest Testing
 * \ingroup Task
 */

/**
 * \defgroup Func Common functionality
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncMem Memory management
 * \ingroup Func
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncThrow Gecode exceptions
 * \ingroup Func
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncSupport Support algorithms and datastructures
 *
 * These are some common datastructures used in the implementation of
 * %Gecode. Maybe they can be also useful to others.
 *
 * In order to use them, one needs to include the appropriate header-file
 * as described in the class and function documentation.
 * \ingroup Func
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncIter Range and value iterators
 *
 * Both range and value iterators have a rather simple interface
 * for controlling iteration (which deviates from what you might be
 * used to from other iterators).
 *
 * The application operator (if \c i is an iterator, it is invoked by \c i() )
 * tests whether an iterator has not yet reached
 * its end (in this case, \c true is returned). The prefix
 * increment operator (if \c i is an iterator, this is invoked as \c ++i)
 * moves the iterator to the next element (either next value or next range).
 *
 * Value iterators provide access to the value by the member function
 * \c val(). Range iterators provide access to the smallest, largest, and
 * width of the current range by \c min(), \c max(), and \c width()
 * respectively.
 *
 * Requires \code #include <gecode/iter.hh> \endcode
 * \ingroup Func
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncIterRanges Range iterators
 *
 * A range iterator provides incremental access to a sequence of increasing
 * ranges.
 *
 * Requires \code #include <gecode/iter.hh> \endcode
 * \ingroup FuncIter
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncIterRangesVirt Range iterators with virtual member functions
 *
 * A range iterator provides incremental access to a sequence of increasing
 * ranges. Iterators with virtual member functions have to be used when
 * they are combined dynamically, and the actual types hence cannot be
 * specified as template arguments.
 *
 * Requires \code #include <gecode/iter.hh> \endcode
 * \ingroup FuncIterRanges
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncIterValues Value iterators
 *
 * A value iterator provides incremental access to a sequence of increasing
 * values.
 *
 * Requires \code #include <gecode/iter.hh> \endcode
 * \ingroup FuncIter
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncIterValuesVirt Value iterators with virtual member functions
 *
 * A value iterator provides incremental access to a sequence of increasing
 * values. Iterators with virtual member functions have to be used when
 * they are combined dynamically, and the actual types hence cannot be
 * specified as template arguments.
 *
 * Requires \code #include <gecode/iter.hh> \endcode
 * \ingroup FuncIterValues
 */

/**
 * \defgroup Other Other available functionality
 *
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncKernelProp Generic propagators
 *
 * This module contains a description of all predefined generic
 * propagators.
 * \ingroup Other
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncIntProp Integer propagators
 *
 * This module contains a description of all predefined integer
 * propagators. They can be reused, for example, for rewriting
 * newly defined integer propagators into already available
 * propagators.
 * \ingroup Other
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncSetProp Set propagators
 *
 * This module contains a description of all predefined finite set
 * propagators. They can be reused, for example, for rewriting
 * newly defined finite set propagators into already available
 * propagators.
 * \ingroup Other
 */

/**
 * \defgroup FuncFloatProp Float propagators
 *
 * This module contains a description of all predefined float
 * propagators. They can be reused, for example, for rewriting
 * newly defined float propagators into already available
 * propagators.
 * \ingroup Other
 */

/**
 * \defgroup Example Example scripts (models)
 *
 * All scripts are compiled into simple standalone programs. All
 * programs understand the several generic and problem-specific
 * commandline options. An overview of the options is available
 * by invoking the standalone programs with the <code>-help</code>
 * commandline option.
 *
 */

/*
 * Collect some definitions for which no reasonable place exists
 *
 */

/**
 * \namespace Gecode::Support
 * \brief %Support algorithms and datastructures
 */

/**
 * \namespace Gecode::Kernel
 * \brief %Kernel functionality
 */

/**
 * \namespace Gecode::Search
 * \brief %Search engines
 */

/**
 * \mainpage %Gecode Reference Documentation
 *
 * This document provides reference information about
 * <A HREF="http://www.gecode.org">%Gecode</A>.
 * The documentation is structured into three major groups:
 * getting started, common programming tasks, and
 * available functionality.
 *
 * This document corresponds to %Gecode version @VERSION@, please consult
 * the changelog for \ref SectionChangeList "recent changes".
 *
 * \section SecStart Getting started
 *
 * For your fist steps with %Gecode, including detailed instructions on
 * installing the library and compiling against it, please refer to the
 * document <A HREF="http://www.gecode.org/doc-latest/MPG.pdf">Modeling and
 * Programming with Gecode</A>.
 *
 * You may also want to have a look at our \ref PageNotation as well as
 * our \ref Example.
 *
 * \section SecByTask Programming tasks
 *
 * Documentation is available for the following tasks:
 *  - \ref TaskModel
 *  - \ref TaskSearch
 *  - \ref TaskActor "Programming propagators and branchers"
 *  - \ref TaskVar
 *  - \ref TaskTest
 *
 * \section SecByFunc Available functionality
 *
 * The most important functionality is:
 *  - \ref FuncMem
 *  - \ref FuncThrow
 *
 * The complete functionality can be found \ref Func "here".
 *
 * The part \ref Other documents existing propagators, variable
 * implementations, and so on which serves as documentation of examples.
 *
 * \section SecIndex List and index content
 *
 * Additionally, the documentation also features the following parts:
 *  - \ref PageLic
 *  - \ref PageChange
 *
 * The following lists and indices are available
 *  - \ref PageCodeStat
 *  - <a class="el" href="modules.html">List of all modules</a>
 *  - <a class="el" href="annotated.html">List of all classes including brief documentation</a>
 *  - <a class="el" href="namespaces.html">List of all namespaces including brief documentation</a>
 *  - <a class="el" href="files.html">List of all files</a>
 *  - <a class="el" href="hierarchy.html">Class hierarchy</a>
 *  - <a class="el" href="classes.html">Alphabetical class index</a>
 *  - <a class="el" href="namespacemembers.html">Namespace members</a>
 *  - <a class="el" href="functions.html">Class members</a>
 *  - <a class="el" href="globals.html">File members</a>
 */

/**
 * \page PageNotation Notational conventions
 *
 * Throughout this reference documentation we use some notational conventions
 * designed to keep the documentation concise yet understandable. Please
 * read the following carefully.
 *
 * \section NotationArray Array notation
 *
 * We allow ourselves to refer to the \f$i\f$-th element of an array \f$x\f$
 * by \f$x_i\f$. The size of an array \f$x\f$ (either provided by a member
 * function \c %size() or clear from context) is denoted \f$|x|\f$.
 *
 * \section NotationHome The home space
 *
 * Many functions and member functions take an argument \a home of
 * type \c Space&. The home space serves as manager to many
 * operations used by variables, views, propagators, spaces, and so
 * on. It provides
 * services such as failure management, propagation control,
 * memory management, and so on. To keep the documentation concise
 * the home space is not documented for functions
 * and member functions.
 *
 * \section NotationShare Sharing in update and copy
 *
 * In member functions that either copy or update an object during
 * cloning, an argument \a share of type \c bool is available. This
 * Boolean value controls whether during cloning the data structure at
 * hand will be shared among the newly created cloned space and the original
 * or whether two independent copies are created. Some functions (such
 * as \c copy for spaces (Gecode::Space) or \c copy for propagators
 * (Gecode::Propagator) also feature this argument. Here it is used
 * to pass on the Boolean value to other datastructures used inside spaces
 * or propagators.
 *
 * The actual value the \a share argument has is defined by the search
 * engine: when a search engine uses the \a clone member function of
 * a space it decides whether sharing is to be used in the cloning of
 * the space or not. If the search engine is single-threaded, it will
 * use full sharing (\a share will be true). Only if the search engine
 * uses concurrency or parallelism with more than a single thread,
 * it will pass false as value. This means that by not sharing data structures
 * among spaces which are to be used in different threads, all parts of
 * %Gecode but the actual search engine do not need to provide concurrency
 * control.
 *
 * As examples for data structures which are sensitive to sharing, consider
 * Gecode::SharedArray, Gecode::IntSet, and Gecode::DFA.
 */

/**
 * \page PageHowToChange_2 How to Change from %Gecode 1.3.1 to %Gecode 2.0.x
 *

As %Gecode 2.0.0 is a major revision of %Gecode, your programs that are written
for %Gecode 1.3.1 are likely to require some modifications before they work
again. All modifications are straightforward, though.

This short summary shows how to adapt your models and linker invocation, for
changes to propagator implementations, etc, please consult the changelog.

\section SecChange2IntBool IntVar and BoolVar

Boolean variables (BoolVar) are not any longer integer variables
(IntVar). The same holds for variable arrays (BoolVarArray,
IntVarArray). So, you can not mix Boolean and integer variables
in the same array (use two different arrays) and you can not cast
between them. If you want to link the value of a BoolVar to the
value of an IntVar you have to use a \ref TaskModelIntChannel
"channel constraint".  Posting constraints remains unchanged, as
all constraints offer two overloaded versions (one for IntVar,
one for BoolVar).

\section SecChange2Regular Regular constraint

The regular constraint has been renamed to extensional (after
all, it is an extensionally specified constraint). The old name
is still available in the MiniModel module.

If you want to use regular expressions, you have to add
   \code #include <gecode/int/minimodel.hh> \endcode
to your file as they moved to the MiniModel module.

\section SecChange2Bool Boolean constraints

In order to make the interface to Boolean constraints more
regular and similar to set constraints, Boolean constraints are
available as rel constraints. That is, instead of
   \code bool_and(home, x, y, z); \endcode
you have to write
   \code rel(home, x, BOT_AND, y, z); \endcode
Likewise, for arrays you have to write
   \code rel(home, BOT_AND, x, y); \endcode
instead of
   \code bool_and(home, x, y); \endcode
More information is available \ref TaskModelIntRelBool "here".

\section SecChange2Branching Branching

Values and types for selecting how to branch have been made uniform.
Replace BVAL_* by INT_VAL_*, BVAR_* by INT_VAR_*, and so on.

\section SecChange2GCC Global cardinality constraint

The interface for the global cardinality constraint has been
simplified.  The constraint is now called count. Please check the
documentation for \ref TaskModelIntCount "details".

\section SecChange2Sorted Sortedness constraint

The sortedness constraint has been renamed to sorted.

\section SecChange2Linking Linking

Some generic functionality has been put into its own library (\code
libgecodesupport \endcode on Unix systems, \code GecodeSupport.dll \endcode on
Windows). You have to link against this library now.

*/

/**
 * \page PageHowToChange_3 How to Change from %Gecode 2.2.2 to %Gecode 3.0.0
 *

As %Gecode 3.0.0 is a major revision, your programs that
are written for %Gecode 2.2.2 are likely to require some
modifications before they work again. All modifications are
straightforward, though.

This short summary shows how to adapt your models, for changes to
propagator implementations, etc, please consult the changelog.

\section SecChange3Param Passing parameters

Now everything is passed as reference (Space, Propagator,
ModEventDelta, Advisor, Branching, and BranchingDesc).

The reason for this massive change is to be more C++ compliant
and make the interfaces more consistent (at some places things were passed as
references and at other places as pointers, for no obvious and
explainable reason). Routines that create objects rather than
pass them (such as copy, clone, or description) still return a
pointer to an object (so that it can actually be deleted!).

You will have to rewrite your models and other programs using
%Gecode. For models this is easy enough:
 - Replace "(Space* home" by "(Space& home".
 - Replace "home->" by "home.".
 - Replace "(this" by "(*this".
 .
That should do the trick for 99% of the models.

For the other changes, just lookout for the changes in types and
that "this" becomes "*this" now.


\section SecChange3Set Set constrains

Element and convexity constraints on set variables have a more
uniform interface, and the match constrained has been renamed to
channel.

The values for variable and value selection for branching have
been made consistent and extended.
The following values have been renamed:
 - SET_VAR_MIN_CARD -> SET_VAR_SIZE_MIN
 - SET_VAR_MAX_CARD -> SET_VAR_SIZE_MAX
 - SET_VAR_MIN_UNKNOWN_ELEM -> SET_VAR_MIN_MIN
 - SET_VAR_MAX_UNKNOWN_ELEM -> SET_VAR_MAX_MAX
 - SET_VAL_MIN -> SET_VAL_MIN_INC
 - SET_VAL_MAX -> SET_VAL_MAX_INC
 .
Tie-breaking and random selection is now supported.

\section SecChange3Files Naming scheme for files

All files with extension .cc have been renamed to .cpp, and .icc
has become .hpp. This avoids conflicts as .icc is typically used
for other file types. All include directives are now specified
using <...> notation instead of "...", so that %Gecode headers do
not clutter the include namespace of a client program.

\section SecChange3 Constrain method for best solution search

The constrain method used for best solution search must be
virtual and takes an argument of type const Space& rather than
Space* as argument.

*/

/**
 * \page PageHowToChange_4 How to Change from %Gecode 3.7.3 to %Gecode 4.0.0
 *

As %Gecode 4.0.0 is a major revision, your programs that
are written for %Gecode 3.7.3 are likely to require some
modifications before they work again.

\section SecChange4NewBranch Changed branching parameters

The pre-defined variable-value branchings have been extended
considerably and hence some changes are required.

In order to change, you have to add () to all variants of
INT_VAR, INT_VAL, INT_ASSIGN, SET_VAR, SET_VAL, and
SET_ASSIGN. For example, INT_VAR_MIN_MIN becomes the function
call INT_VAR_MIN_MIN() and INT_VAL_MIN becomes the function
call INT_VAL_MIN(). Some of these functions expect additional
arguments and can take also optional arguments (this replaces the
VarBranchOptions and ValBranchOptions). Please read MPG for
details.

\section SecChange4SizeBranch Branchings treat SIZE differently

Variable selection for branching used the quotient of size
divided by degree, accumulated failure count, or activity.
Now the inverse is used. That is, for example, it is not any longer
INT_VAR_SIZE_DEGREE_MIN() but INT_VAR_DEGREE_SIZE_MAX() (that is,
largest degree divided by size).

That looks like an annoying change but is in fact essential: the
strategies using accumulated failure count and activity now could
have run into division by zero issues. And just changing the
implementation is not good enough because the values of these
measures can now be exposed during tie-breaking.


/**
 * \page PageHowToChange_5 How to Change from %Gecode 4.4.0 to %Gecode 5.0.0
 *

As %Gecode 5.0.0 is a major revision, your programs that
are written for %Gecode 4.4.0 are likely to require some
modifications, yet very few, before they work again.

\section SecChange5Handle Removed Brancher Handles

Brancher handles have been removed as they can be expressed
easily by brancher groups, please consult MPG for details.

\section SecChange5IPL New Integer Propagation Levels

The concept of integer consistency level "IntConLevel" has been
replaced by integer propagation level "IntPropLevel". In most cases
it should be sufficient to:
 - search and replace ICL_ by IPL_.
 - search and replace IntConLevel by IntPropLevel.
 - use the commandline option -ipl rather than -icl.

Integer propagation levels are more expressive than integer
consistency levels. They can also express other propagation
preferences such as speed, memory, basic, or advanced. Please
consult MPG for details.

*/

/**
 * \page PageHowToChange_6 How to Change from %Gecode 5.1.0 to %Gecode 6.0.0
 *

As %Gecode 6.0.0 is a major revision, you will have to change
programs that are written for %Gecode 5.1.0. The big change is
that the Boolean argument "share" during cloning is not any
longer needed. That means you have to remove the argument from
both the definition of and the calls to the following functions,
where this applies to pretty much all objects used by Gecode such
as spaces, scripts (that means your models), propagators,
branchers, variables, views, and so on:
 - in constructors used during cloning, and
 - in copy functions used during cloning, and
 - in update functions used during cloning.

*/