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1 gs
 gs - GPL Ghostscript interpreter/previewer
! $Id: gs-vms.hlp 10732 2010-02-10 18:17:48Z giles $
! Ghostscript version 8.71, 10 February 2010
  Usage:
   $ gs [options] [file ...]

 Ghostscript is an implementation of Adobe Systems' PostScript (tm)
 and Portable Document Format (PDF) languages. Gs reads files in sequence
 and executes them as Ghostscript programs. After doing this, it reads
 further input from the standard input stream (normally the keyboard).
 Each line is interpreted separately. To exit from the interpreter,
 enter the `quit' command. The interpreter also exits gracefully if it
 encounters end-of-file. Typing the interrupt character (e.g. Control-C)
 is also safe.

2 Description
 The interpreter recognizes several switches described below, which
 may appear anywhere in the command line and apply to all files
 thereafter.

 You can get a help message by invoking Ghostscript with the -h
 or -? option. This message also lists the available devices.

 Ghostscript may be built with multiple output devices. Ghostscript
 normally opens the first one and directs output to it. To use
 device xyz as the initial output device, include the switch
     "-sDEVICE=xyz"
 in the command line.  Note that this switch must precede the first
 .ps file, and only its first invocation has any effect. For example,
 for printer output in a normal configuration that includes an Epson
 printer driver, you might use the command
      gs "-sDEVICE=epson" myfile.ps
 instead of just
      gs myfile.ps
 Alternatively, you can type
      (epson) selectdevice
      (myfile.ps) run
 All output then goes to the printer instead of the display until
 further notice. You can switch devices at any time by using the
 selectdevice procedure, e.g.,
      (vga) selectdevice
 or
      (epson) selectdevice
 As yet a third alternative, you can define a logical name GS_DEVICE
 as the desired default device name.  The order of precedence for these
 alternatives, highest to lowest, is:
      selectdevice
      (command line)
      GS_DEVICE
      (first device in build list)

 To select the density on a printer, use
      gs "-sDEVICE=<device>" -r<xres>x<yres>
 For example, on a 9-pin Epson-compatible printer, you can get the
 lowest-density (fastest) mode with
      gs "-sDEVICE=epson" -r60x72
 and the highest-density mode with
      gs "-sDEVICE=epson" -r240x72.

 If you select a printer as the output device, Ghostscript also
 allows you to control where the device sends its output.  Normally,
 output goes directly to a scratch file on Unix and VMS systems. To
 send the output to a series of files foo1.xyz, foo2.xyz, ..., use
 the switch
      "-sOutputFile=foo%d.xyz"
 The %d is a printf format specification; you can use other formats
 like %02d.  Each file will receive one page of output. Alternatively,
 to send the output to a single file foo.xyz, with all the pages con-
 catenated, use the switch
      "-sOutputFile=foo.xyz"

 To find out what devices are available, type
      devicenames ==
 after starting up Ghostscript. Alternatively, you can use the -h or -?
 switch in the command line; the help message also lists the available
 devices.

 To select a different paper size, use the command line switch
      "-sPAPERSIZE=a_known_paper_size"
 e.g.,
      "-sPAPERSIZE=a4"
 or
      "-sPAPERSIZE=legal"

  As of this printing, the known paper sizes, defined in gs_statd.ps, are:

  PAPERSIZE    X"         Y"         X cm      Y cm
  ____________________________________________________
  11x17        11"        17"        27.94     43.18
  a0           33.0556"   46.7778"   83.9611   118.816
  a10          1.02778"   1.45833"   2.61056   3.70417
  a1           23.3889"   33.0556"   59.4078   83.9611
  a2           16.5278"   23.3889"   41.9806   59.4078
  a3           11.6944"   16.5278"   29.7039   41.9806
  a4           8.26389"   11.6944"   20.9903   29.7039
  a5           5.84722"   8.26389"   14.8519   20.9903
  a6           4.125"     5.84722"   10.4775   14.8519
  a7           2.91667"   4.125"     7.40833   10.4775
  a8           2.05556"   2.91667"   5.22111   7.40833
  a9           1.45833"   2.05556"   3.70417   5.22111
  archA        9"         12"        22.86     30.48
  archB        12"        18"        30.48     45.72
  archC        18"        24"        45.72     60.96
  archD        24"        36"        60.96     91.44
  archE        36"        48"        91.44     121.92
  b0           39.3889"   55.6667"   100.048   141.393
  b1           27.8333"   39.3889"   70.6967   100.048
  b2           19.6944"   27.8333"   50.0239   70.6967
  b3           13.9167"   19.6944"   35.3483   50.0239
  b4           9.84722"   13.9167"   25.0119   35.3483
  b5           6.95833"   9.84722"   17.6742   25.0119
  flsa         8.5"       13"        21.59     33.02
  flse         8.5"       13"        21.59     33.02
  halfletter   5.5"       8.5"       13.97     21.59
  ledger       17"        11"        43.18     27.94
  legal        8.5"       14"        21.59     35.56
  letter       8.5"       11"        21.59     27.94
  note         7.5"       10"        19.05     25.4

  Note that the B paper sizes are ISO sizes: for information about using
  JIS B sizes, see `Use.htm'.

2 Initialization_files
 When looking for the initialization files (gs_*.ps), the files related
 to fonts, or the file for the `run' operator, Ghostscript first tries
 opening the file with the name as given (i.e., using the current
 working directory if none is specified).  If this fails, and the file
 name doesn't specify an explicit directory or drive, Ghostscript will
 try directories in the following order:

 1. The directory/ies specified by the -I switch(es) in the command
    line (see below), if any;
 2. The directory/ies specified by the GS_LIB logical, if any;
 3. The directory/ies specified by the GS_LIB_DEFAULT macro in the
    Ghostscript makefile.

 Each of these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter) may be either
 a single directory, or a list of directories separated by a `:'.

2 X_resources
 Ghostscript looks for the following resources under the program name
 `Ghostscript':

 borderWidth
  The border width in pixels (default = 1).

 borderColor
  The name of the border color (default = black).

 geometry 
  The window size and placement, WxH+X+Y (default is NULL).

 xResolution 
  The number of x pixels per inch (default is computed from
  WidthOfScreen and WidthMMOfScreen).

 yResolution
  The number of y pixels per inch (default is computed from
  HeightOfScreen and HeightMMOfScreen).

 useBackingPixmap
  Determines whether backing store is to be used for saving display
  window (default = true).

 See the file `Use.htm' for a more complete list of resources.

 To set these resources, put them in a file (such as
 SYS$Login:ghostscript.dat) in the following form:

      Ghostscript*geometry:    612x792-0+0
      Ghostscript*xResolution: 72
      Ghostscript*yResolution: 72

2 Options
 Note that VMS will convert all command line arguments to lower case
 if they are not within quotes. Therefore, if a certain command does
 not work, try again but with quotes around it.

  --  filename arg1 ...
 Takes the next argument as a file name as usual, but takes all
 remaining arguments (even if they have the syntactic form of switches)
 and defines the name ARGUMENTS in userdict (not systemdict) as an
 array of those strings, before running the file.  When Ghostscript
 finishes executing the file, it exits.

  -Dname=token
  -dname=token
 Define a name in systemdict with the given definition.  The token must
 be exactly one token (as defined by the `token' operator) and must not
 contain any whitespace.

  -Dname
  -dname 
 Define a name in systemdict with value=null.

  -Sname=string
  -sname=string
 Define a name in systemdict with a given string as value.  This is
 different from -d.  For example, -dname=35 is equivalent to the
 program fragment
      /name 35 def 
 whereas -sname=35 is equivalent to
      /name (35) def

  -q
 Quiet startup - suppress normal startup messages, and also do the
 equivalent of -dQUIET.

  -gnumber1Xnumber2
 Equivalent to -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1 and -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2. This is
 for the benefit of devices (such as X11 windows) that require (or allow)
 width and height to be specified.

  -rnumber
  -rnumber1Xnumber2
 Equivalent to -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1 and -dDEVICEYRESOLUTION=number2
 This is for the benefit of devices (such as printers) that support
 multiple X and Y resolutions. (If only one number is given, it is used
 for both X and Y resolutions.)

  -Idirectories
 Adds the designated list of directories at the head of the search path
 for library files.

 Note that gs_init.ps makes systemdict read-only, so the values of names
 defined with -D/d/S/s cannot be changed (although, of course, they can
 be superseded by definitions in userdict or other dictionaries.)

2 Special_names

  -dDISKFONTS
 Causes individual character outlines to be loaded from the disk the
 first time they are encountered.  (Normally Ghostscript loads all the
 character outlines when it loads a font.)  This may allow loading more
 fonts into RAM, at the expense of slower rendering.

  -dNOCACHE
 Disables character caching.  Only useful for debugging.

  -dNOBIND
 Disables the `bind' operator.  Only useful for debugging.

  -dNODISPLAY
 Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device. This may be
 useful when debugging.

  -dNOPAUSE
 Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each page. This may be
 desirable for applications where another program is `driving'
 Ghostscript.

  -dNOPLATFONTS
 Disables the use of fonts supplied by the underlying platform (e.g.
 X Windows).  This may be needed if the platform fonts look undesirably
 different from the scalable fonts.

  -dSAFER
 Disables the deletefile and renamefile operators, and the ability to
 open files in any mode other than read-only.  This may be desirable
 for spoolers or other sensitive environments.

  -dWRITESYSTEMDICT
 Leaves systemdict writable.  This is necessary when running special
 utility programs such as font2c and pcharstr, which must bypass normal
 PostScript access protection.

  -sDEVICE=device
 Selects an alternate initial output device, as described above.

  -sOutputFile=filename
 Selects an alternate output file for the initial output device, as
 described above.

2 Files
!!! Change
 GS_Root:[Ghostscript.gs4_0]
 Startup-files, utilities, and basic font definitions.

 GS_Root:[Ghostscript.Fonts4_0]
 Additional font definitions.

 GS_Root:[Ghostscript.gs4_0.Examples]
 Demo Ghostscript files.

 GS_Root:[Ghostscript.gs4_0.Doc]
 Assorted document files.
!!! Change
2 See_also
 The various Ghostscript document files (above).

2 Bugs
 See the network news group comp.lang.postscript.