File: antarctica

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# <pre>
# @(#)antarctica	8.5
# This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
# 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.

# From Paul Eggert (1999-11-15):
# To keep things manageable, we list only locations occupied year-round; see
# <a href="http://www.comnap.aq/comnap/comnap.nsf/P/Stations/">
# COMNAP - Stations and Bases
# </a>
# and
# <a href="http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/bob/periant.htm">
# Summary of the Peri-Antarctic Islands (1998-07-23)
# </a>
# for information.
# Unless otherwise specified, we have no time zone information.
#
# Except for the French entries,
# I made up all time zone abbreviations mentioned here; corrections welcome!
# FORMAT is `zzz' and GMTOFF is 0 for locations while uninhabited.

# These rules are stolen from the `europe' file.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	RussAQ	1981	1984	-	Apr	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	RussAQ	1981	1983	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	RussAQ	1984	1991	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	RussAQ	1985	1991	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	RussAQ	1992	only	-	Mar	lastSat	 23:00	1:00	S
Rule	RussAQ	1992	only	-	Sep	lastSat	 23:00	0	-
Rule	RussAQ	1993	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	RussAQ	1993	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	RussAQ	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-

# These rules are stolen from the `southamerica' file.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	ArgAQ	1964	1966	-	Mar	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	ArgAQ	1964	1966	-	Oct	15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	ArgAQ	1967	only	-	Apr	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	ArgAQ	1967	1968	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	ArgAQ	1968	1969	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
Rule	ArgAQ	1974	only	-	Jan	23	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	ArgAQ	1974	only	-	May	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	ChileAQ	1972	1986	-	Mar	Sun>=9	3:00u	0	-
Rule	ChileAQ	1974	1987	-	Oct	Sun>=9	4:00u	1:00	S
Rule	ChileAQ	1987	only	-	Apr	12	3:00u	0	-
Rule	ChileAQ	1988	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=9	3:00u	0	-
Rule	ChileAQ	1988	only	-	Oct	Sun>=1	4:00u	1:00	S
Rule	ChileAQ	1989	only	-	Oct	Sun>=9	4:00u	1:00	S
Rule	ChileAQ	1990	only	-	Mar	18	3:00u	0	-
Rule	ChileAQ	1990	only	-	Sep	16	4:00u	1:00	S
Rule	ChileAQ	1991	1996	-	Mar	Sun>=9	3:00u	0	-
Rule	ChileAQ	1991	1997	-	Oct	Sun>=9	4:00u	1:00	S
Rule	ChileAQ	1997	only	-	Mar	30	3:00u	0	-
Rule	ChileAQ	1998	only	-	Mar	Sun>=9	3:00u	0	-
Rule	ChileAQ	1998	only	-	Sep	27	4:00u	1:00	S
Rule	ChileAQ	1999	only	-	Apr	 4	3:00u	0	-
Rule	ChileAQ	1999	max	-	Oct	Sun>=9	4:00u	1:00	S
Rule	ChileAQ	2000	max	-	Mar	Sun>=9	3:00u	0	-


# Argentina - year-round bases
# Belgrano II, Confin Coast, -770227-0343737, since 1972-02-05
# Esperanza, San Martin Land, -6323-05659, since 1952-12-17
# Jubany, Potter Peninsula, King George Island, -6414-0602320, since 1982-01
# Marambio, Seymour I, -6414-05637, since 1969-10-29
# Orcadas, Laurie I, -6016-04444, since 1904-02-22
# San Martin, Debenham I, -6807-06708, since 1951-03-21
#	(except 1960-03 / 1976-03-21)

# Australia - territories
# Heard Island, McDonald Islands (uninhabited)
#	previously sealers and scientific personnel wintered
#	<a href="http://web.archive.org/web/20021204222245/http://www.dstc.qut.edu.au/DST/marg/daylight.html">
#	Margaret Turner reports
#	</a> (1999-09-30) that they're UTC+5, with no DST;
#	presumably this is when they have visitors.
#
# year-round bases
# Casey, Bailey Peninsula, -6617+11032, since 1969
# Davis, Vestfold Hills, -6835+07759, since 1957-01-13
#	(except 1964-11 - 1969-02)
# Mawson, Holme Bay, -6736+06253, since 1954-02-13
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Antarctica/Casey	0	-	zzz	1969
			8:00	-	WST	# Western (Aus) Standard Time
Zone Antarctica/Davis	0	-	zzz	1957 Jan 13
			7:00	-	DAVT	1964 Nov # Davis Time
			0	-	zzz	1969 Feb
			7:00	-	DAVT
Zone Antarctica/Mawson	0	-	zzz	1954 Feb 13
			6:00	-	MAWT	# Mawson Time
# References:
# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/casey/casey_aws.html">
# Casey Weather (1998-02-26)
# </a>
# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/davis/video.html">
# Davis Station, Antarctica (1998-02-26)
# </a>
# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/mawson/video.html">
# Mawson Station, Antarctica (1998-02-25)
# </a>

# Brazil - year-round base
# Comandante Ferraz, King George Island, -6205+05824, since 1983/4

# Chile - year-round bases and towns
# Escudero, South Shetland Is, -621157-0585735, since 1994
# Presidente Eduadro Frei, King George Island, -6214-05848, since 1969-03-07
# General Bernardo O'Higgins, Antarctic Peninsula, -6319-05704, since 1948-02
# Capitan Arturo Prat, -6230-05941
# Villa Las Estrellas (a town), around the Frei base, since 1984-04-09
# These locations have always used Santiago time; use TZ='America/Santiago'.

# China - year-round bases
# Great Wall, King George Island, -6213-05858, since 1985-02-20
# Zhongshan, Larsemann Hills, Prydz Bay, -6922+07623, since 1989-02-26

# France - year-round bases
#
# From Antoine Leca (1997-01-20):
# Time data are from Nicole Pailleau at the IFRTP
# (French Institute for Polar Research and Technology).
# She confirms that French Southern Territories and Terre Adelie bases
# don't observe daylight saving time, even if Terre Adelie supplies came
# from Tasmania.
#
# French Southern Territories with year-round inhabitants
#
# Martin-de-Vivies Base, Amsterdam Island, -374105+0773155, since 1950
# Alfred-Faure Base, Crozet Islands, -462551+0515152, since 1964
# Port-aux-Francais, Kerguelen Islands, -492110+0701303, since 1951;
#	whaling & sealing station operated 1908/1914, 1920/1929, and 1951/1956
#
# St Paul Island - near Amsterdam, uninhabited
#	fishing stations operated variously 1819/1931
#
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Indian/Kerguelen	0	-	zzz	1950	# Port-aux-Francais
			5:00	-	TFT	# ISO code TF Time
#
# year-round base in the main continent
# Dumont-d'Urville, Ile des Petrels, -6640+14001, since 1956-11
#
# Another base at Port-Martin, 50km east, began operation in 1947.
# It was destroyed by fire on 1952-01-14.
#
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Antarctica/DumontDUrville 0 -	zzz	1947
			10:00	-	PMT	1952 Jan 14 # Port-Martin Time
			0	-	zzz	1956 Nov
			10:00	-	DDUT	# Dumont-d'Urville Time
# Reference:
# <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dumont_d'Urville_Station">
# Dumont d'Urville Station (2005-12-05)
# </a>

# Germany - year-round base
# Georg von Neumayer, -7039-00815

# India - year-round base
# Dakshin Gangotri, -7005+01200

# Japan - year-round bases
# Dome Fuji, -7719+03942
# Syowa, -690022+0393524
#
# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1999-02-06):
# In all Japanese stations, +0300 is used as the standard time.
#
# Syowa station, which is the first antarctic station of Japan,
# was established on 1957-01-29.  Since Syowa station is still the main
# station of Japan, it's appropriate for the principal location.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Antarctica/Syowa	0	-	zzz	1957 Jan 29
			3:00	-	SYOT	# Syowa Time
# See:
# <a href="http://www.nipr.ac.jp/english/ara01.html">
# NIPR Antarctic Research Activities (1999-08-17)
# </a>

# S Korea - year-round base
# King Sejong, King George Island, -6213-05847, since 1988

# New Zealand - claims
# Balleny Islands (never inhabited)
# Scott Island (never inhabited)
#
# year-round base
# Scott, Ross Island, since 1957-01, is like Antarctica/McMurdo.
#
# These rules for New Zealand are stolen from the `australasia' file.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	NZAQ	1974	only	-	Nov	 3	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	NZAQ	1975	1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	NZAQ	1989	only	-	Oct	 8	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	NZAQ	1990	2006	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	NZAQ	1975	only	-	Feb	23	2:00s	0	S
Rule	NZAQ	1976	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	NZAQ	1990	2007	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
Rule	NZAQ	2007	max	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	NZAQ	2008	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S

# Norway - territories
# Bouvet (never inhabited)
#
# claims
# Peter I Island (never inhabited)

# Poland - year-round base
# Arctowski, King George Island, -620945-0582745, since 1977

# Russia - year-round bases
# Bellingshausen, King George Island, -621159-0585337, since 1968-02-22
# Mirny, Davis coast, -6633+09301, since 1956-02
# Molodezhnaya, Alasheyev Bay, -6740+04551,
#	year-round from 1962-02 to 1999-07-01
# Novolazarevskaya, Queen Maud Land, -7046+01150,
#	year-round from 1960/61 to 1992

# Vostok, since 1957-12-16, temporarily closed 1994-02/1994-11
# <a href="http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/antarctica/QA/computers/Directions,Time,ZIP">
# From Craig Mundell (1994-12-15)</a>:
# Vostok, which is one of the Russian stations, is set on the same
# time as Moscow, Russia.
#
# From Lee Hotz (2001-03-08):
# I queried the folks at Columbia who spent the summer at Vostok and this is
# what they had to say about time there:
# ``in the US Camp (East Camp) we have been on New Zealand (McMurdo)
# time, which is 12 hours ahead of GMT. The Russian Station Vostok was
# 6 hours behind that (although only 2 miles away, i.e. 6 hours ahead
# of GMT). This is a time zone I think two hours east of Moscow. The
# natural time zone is in between the two: 8 hours ahead of GMT.''
#
# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-04):
# This seems to be hopelessly confusing, so I asked Lee Hotz about it
# in person.  He said that some Antartic locations set their local
# time so that noon is the warmest part of the day, and that this
# changes during the year and does not necessarily correspond to mean
# solar noon.  So the Vostok time might have been whatever the clocks
# happened to be during their visit.  So we still don't really know what time
# it is at Vostok.  But we'll guess UTC+6.
#
Zone Antarctica/Vostok	0	-	zzz	1957 Dec 16
			6:00	-	VOST	# Vostok time

# S Africa - year-round bases
# Marion Island, -4653+03752
# Sanae, -7141-00250

# UK
#
# British Antarctic Territories (BAT) claims
# South Orkney Islands
#	scientific station from 1903
#	whaling station at Signy I 1920/1926
# South Shetland Islands
#
# year-round bases
# Bird Island, South Georgia, -5400-03803, since 1983
# Deception Island, -6259-06034, whaling station 1912/1931,
#	scientific station 1943/1967,
#	previously sealers and a scientific expedition wintered by accident,
#	and a garrison was deployed briefly
# Halley, Coates Land, -7535-02604, since 1956-01-06
#	Halley is on a moving ice shelf and is periodically relocated
#	so that it is never more than 10km from its nominal location.
# Rothera, Adelaide Island, -6734-6808, since 1976-12-01
#
# From Paul Eggert (2002-10-22)
# <http://webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/g.html> says Rothera is -03 all year.
#
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Antarctica/Rothera	0	-	zzz	1976 Dec  1
			-3:00	-	ROTT	# Rothera time

# Uruguay - year round base
# Artigas, King George Island, -621104-0585107

# USA - year-round bases
#
# Palmer, Anvers Island, since 1965 (moved 2 miles in 1968)
#
# From Ethan Dicks (1996-10-06):
# It keeps the same time as Punta Arenas, Chile, because, just like us
# and the South Pole, that's the other end of their supply line....
# I verified with someone who was there that since 1980,
# Palmer has followed Chile.  Prior to that, before the Falklands War,
# Palmer used to be supplied from Argentina.
#
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Antarctica/Palmer	0	-	zzz	1965
			-4:00	ArgAQ	AR%sT	1969 Oct 5
			-3:00	ArgAQ	AR%sT	1982 May
			-4:00	ChileAQ	CL%sT
#
#
# McMurdo, Ross Island, since 1955-12
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Antarctica/McMurdo	0	-	zzz	1956
			12:00	NZAQ	NZ%sT
#
# Amundsen-Scott, South Pole, continuously occupied since 1956-11-20
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
# Normally it wouldn't have a separate entry, since it's like the
# larger Antarctica/McMurdo since 1970, but it's too famous to omit.
#
# From Chris Carrier (1996-06-27):
# Siple, the first commander of the South Pole station,
# stated that he would have liked to have kept GMT at the station,
# but that he found it more convenient to keep GMT+12
# as supplies for the station were coming from McMurdo Sound,
# which was on GMT+12 because New Zealand was on GMT+12 all year
# at that time (1957).  (Source: Siple's book 90 degrees SOUTH.)
#
# From Susan Smith
# http://www.cybertours.com/whs/pole10.html
# (1995-11-13 16:24:56 +1300, no longer available):
# We use the same time as McMurdo does.
# And they use the same time as Christchurch, NZ does....
# One last quirk about South Pole time.
# All the electric clocks are usually wrong.
# Something about the generators running at 60.1hertz or something
# makes all of the clocks run fast.  So every couple of days,
# we have to go around and set them back 5 minutes or so.
# Maybe if we let them run fast all of the time, we'd get to leave here sooner!!
#
Link	Antarctica/McMurdo	Antarctica/South_Pole