123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495496497498499500501502503504505506507508509510511512513514515516517518519520521522523524525526527 # Information for installing GMT 3.4 # # $Id: README,v 1.9 2001/04/05 00:53:17 pwessel Exp$ # # Copyright (c) 1991-2001, P. Wessel & W. H. F. Smith # # See COPYING file for copying and redistribution conditions. # # This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify # it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by # the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License. # # This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, # but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of # MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the # GNU General Public License for more details. # # Contact info: gmt.soest.hawaii.edu Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute (with no more than a reasonable redistribution fee) this software and its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies, that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of GMT not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission. The GMT package may be included in a bundled distribution of software for which a fee may be charged. The University of Hawaii (UH) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) make no representations about the suitability of this software for any purpose. It is provided "as is" without expressed or implied warranty. It is provided with no support and without obligation on the part of UH or NOAA, to assist in its use, correction, modification, or enhancement. 0. Introduction --------------- If you obtained GMT using the install_gmt script then you have already completed the installation unless something went wrong. You do not need to read these instructions unless you plan to install and make the programs manually. [the install_gmt script is mailed to you if you send email to listserv@soest.hawaii.edu with the single message information gmtgroup Or, see gmt.soest.hawaii.edu for how to get the script as well as filling out installation parameters via a web form] GMT has been installed successfully under Unix/Linux on workstations from Sun, Silicon Graphics, Cray, DEC, HP, Data General, IBM, Apple, NEXT, as well on any number of PC clones running Linux. It also installs under WIN32 and in Unix emulators such as Cygwin on PCs and Machten on Macs. We anticipate few problems if you are installing the package on other platforms. Should you need to make small modifications, e.g., not use certain include files, please let us know so that future releases will be even more portable. This is likely to mean that your platform is not POSIX compliant. For a non-UNIX solution, see Appendix L for options and installation details. Note there are several GMT tar archives available: 1. GMT_progs.tar.gz : Source code only, no documentation 2. GMT_share.tar.gz : Standard read-only support data 3. GMT_ps.tar.gz : PS version of cookbook and tutorial 4. GMT_pdf.tar.gz : PDF version of cookbook and tutorial 5. GMT_man.tar.gz : UNIX man pages for GMT 6. GMT_web.tar.gz : Web (HTML) version of docs and man pages 7. GMT_tut.tar.gz : Tutorial data sets 8. GMT_scripts.tar.gz : Example directory with scripts and test data 9. GMT_full.tar.gz : Full resolution coastline data 10. GMT_high.tar.gz : High resolution coastline data 11. GMT_suppl.tar.gz : GMT Supplemental programs that link with GMT and optionally 12. triangle.tar.gz : Jonathan Shewchuck's Delauney triangulation The latter is copyrighted by Shewchuck and is not covered by the GNU Public License. Installing it is optional; by default, GMT will use Dave Watson's routine which is much slower than Shewchucks routine. Note that triangle.tar.gz must be moved into the main GMT directory before you uncompress/extract the files (see GMT_full and GMT_high for a similar situation) You must get 1 and 2 for a minimal GMT installation. All archives are available in gzip (*.gz) and bzip2 (*.bz2) format. The latter format results in much smaller files for ftp. [bzip2 is available from http://sourceware.cygnus.com/bzip2/index.html] For Windows users there are also *.zip versions of the same files, plus GMT_exe.zip and GMT_suppl_exe.zip which contains precompiled executables and libraries. This discussion applies only to those installing under Unix/Linux. 1. Install netCDF library ------------------------- GMT uses several functions in the netCDF library. Copy the file netcdf.tar.Z from unidata.ucar.edu (128.117.140.3) using anonymous ftp. Then uncompress/tar and follow their instructions for installation. Make sure you have netcdf version 3 or higher. See the file VERSION in the netcdf/src directory. Note that on some systems, particularly Linux or others using the gcc compiler, you may run into two problems that normally are taken care of by our install script: a) Due to a bug(?) in lex, the ncgen/ncgen.c file tries to include values.h which does not exist. The workaround is to type "touch ncgen/values.h" from the src directory before running make. b) Unless you have an actual Fortran compiler installed you will need to define the environmental variable DEFINES and set it to "-Df2cFortran". Under a Bourne shell this becomes EXPORT DEFINES="-Df2cFortran" while under csh it becomes setenv DEFINES "-Df2cFortran". After install, place the line setenv NETCDFHOME /path_to_netcdf_directory in your .login file. This path is usually something like /usr/local/netcdf-3.5.0 depending on where you put it. The GMT makefiles will use $NETCDFHOME to find the library. 2. Install support data ----------------------- At run-time, GMT programs will expect to find its databases in the sub-directory share in the directory pointed to by the environmental variable GMTHOME. All users must have the statement setenv GMTHOME /full-gmtpath in their .login or .cshrc file. If not set, GMTHOME defaults to the install directory. Thus, in the above example the databases are expected to reside in /full-gmtpath/share. GMT uses a 5-resolution database for coastlines, rivers, and political borders. The crude, low, and intermediate resolution files are supplied with this archive. The high and full resolution data must be obtained separately over the net or by mail. The high and full resolution files are kept in the files GMT_high.tar.gz (or .bz2) GMT_full.tar.gz (or .bz2) Note that these two files are not necessary in order to use GMT, only if you want to make higher-resolution coastline plots. Note further that the three coastline archives GMT_share, GMT_high, and GMT_full contain share/*, not GMT/share/*, so you must place these archives in the GMT directory prior to extracting. This is done because these files change much less frequently than the source code and documentation archives. If GMT cannot find a coastline file in$GMTHOME/share, it will next look for the file coastline.conf in the same directory. This file can contain any number of records that each contain the full path name to an alternate directory where one or more coastline files are stored. You may ftp GMT from pub/gmt on any of the following sites. Try the site that is closest to you to minimize transmission times: Site FTP address -------------------------------------------------------------- SOEST, U. of Hawaii gmt.soest.hawaii.edu Lab for Satellite Altimetry, NOAA falcon.grdl.noaa.gov IAG-USP, U. of Sao Paulo, BRAZIL ftp.iag.usp.br Dep. Geology, U. in Oslo, Norway ftp.geologi.uio.no ISV, Hokkaido U, Sapporo, JAPAN ftp.eos.hokudai.ac.jp Charles Sturt U., Albury, Australia life.csu.edu.au Extract the files and put them in the directory pointed to by GMTHOME (see above). If your connection is such that you are unable to obtain these files you may order a CD-ROM from Geoware. See section 15 below for details. 3. Configure ------------ You must first create the two files src/makegmt.macros and src/gmt_math.h by running the configure script. If you have several C compilers on your system, or using one that is not called cc or gcc, you should first do a setenv CC (this is in csh, other shells have different syntax). If you want to specify your own CFLAGS setting, use setenv CFLAGS otherwise configure will provide the option known to work on your system. You should know what you are doing if you want to override the defaults. If your standard POSIX Bourne shell is NOT /bin/sh you may need to do setenv CONFIG_SHELL Finally, if you plan to install the Matlab extensions you need to setenv MATLAB unless it is /usr/local/matlab [the deafult]. For a summary of configure options, type configure --help. If you want to override the default directories for the GMT main directory (current dir) and executable directory (cwd/bin) you should pass these directories on the configure command line. --prefix=your-main-GMT-dir Set main GMT directory [cwd] --bindir=your-bindir Set bin directory [PREFIX/bin] --libdir=your-libdir Set lib directory [PREFIX/lib] --includedir=your-includedir Set include directory [PREFIX/include] --mandir=your-mandir Set man directory [PREFIX/man] --datadir=your-datadir Set GMT share directory for coastlines [PREFIX/share] --wrapbindir=wrap-bindir Set wrapper script bin directory [/usr/bin] --wrapmandir=wrap-mandir Set wrapper man page directory [/usr/man] The two wrap-*dir options is used to place the GMT wrapper script (and its man page) in a standard place. The script can then start other GMT binaries that may be installed elsewhere. This is used to avoid conflict with other executables of the same name (at the moment we know of one conflict - the pstext utility of the Seismic Unix package). The wrappers are only installed if you run "make install-wrapper" in the main GMT directory. There are a few GMT-specific options in configure. They are --enable-shared To make shared (dynamic) libraries --enable-triangle To use J. Shewchuck's fast triangulation --enable-US To use US (inch) instead of SI (cm) units --enable-www=www-dir Set www directory [PREFIX/www] --enable-eps Make Encapsulated PostScript by default [Freeform PS] --disable-flock Do NOT use file locking on .gmtcommands files By default, GMT will be made with static libraries. If you system supports shared (dynamic) libraries you can select the option --enable-shared which will try to assemble shared libraries. By default, GMT will use Dave Watson's Delauney triangulation routine. However, a much faster alternative is available from Jonathan Shewchuck, but his routine is not distributed under the GNU Public License. If you work for a for-profit organization you should read Shewchuck's copyright statement (in src/README.TRIANGLE) first. If you can use his routine you should append --enable-triangle. At run-time, GMT will initialize all default variables by reading either the share/.gmtdefaults_SI or the share/.gmtdefaults_US file. Both are installed, and the one that is read is given my the file share/gmt.conf. This file will have either SI or US as the first two columns on a line. SI is default, use --enable-US to switch. The default values differ slightly between SI and US, mostly because it is inconvenient to convert, say, 1" to 2.54 cm; we use 2.5 cm instead. Although strongly discouraged, if you want to make permanent changes to some of the defaults you can edit the .gmtdefaults_{SI,US} files directly. A much better approach is to create a .gmtdefaults file in your home directory and edit those settings since GMT will check for that file before loading system defaults (actually, it will first look in the current directory, then the home directory, and then finally in share. See the gmtdefaults man page for a description of all defaults. To prevent two GMT processes writing to the same .gmtcommands file simultaneously (thereby corrupting it), GMT implements the POSIX advisory file locking scheme and sets and releases locks on these files. Under GNU/Linux, this does not work when the files reside in directories mounted with NFS. Since it works with NFS under other UNIX systems we suspect this is a [temporary] limination of GNU NSF. If the file locking gives you trouble you may disable it by supplying the --disable-flock flag to configure (or manually add -DNO_LOCK to CC_OPT in the src/makegmt.macros file) GMT can produce either Freeform PostScript (suitable to be sent to various printers) or Encapsulated PostScript (suitable to be included in another document). True PS files will use the setpagedevice PostScript command to manipulate paper trays and manual feeds on selected printers. Some PostScript previewers (such as Sun's old pageview) do not understand these commands and will abort; this is also true of some PS to raster conversion utilities. Oh the other hand, EPS files are intended to be included in another document and are not allowed to use setpagedevice. To simplify printing, EPS files are allowed to contain a showpage operator which means EPS files will print if sent to a printer. The PAPER_MEDIA setting in .gmtdefaults can be set to one or the other format (see man gmtdefaults). By default GMT will produce PS files. If you do not need to take advantage of paper tray manipulations or expect to make mostly EPS files you may want to use --enable-eps to make EPS the default. Nte that this can be changed at any time via the PAPER_MEDIA parameter. In the main GMT directory, type ./configure [options] Append any of the options as you see fit. If configure cannot figure out all the required compiler and linker flags it will give you a message and you will be asked to edit src/makegmt.macros to set macros manually. Once this step is completed you may move on to the Makefile section. If for some reason the configure step fails on your system, you may have to manually create the two files from the two templates src/makegmt.macros.in and src/gmt_math.h.in. If you run into this problem, pls let us know so we may improve this processes further. [Note: For PCs running WIN?? or DOS you must copy the file gmt_math_win32.h to gmt_math.h instead; see Appendix L in the docs] 4. Makefile preparation -------------------------- If you are one a system without IEEE floating point support (some Crays we know of) you must add -DNO_IEEE to the CC_OPT flags as well. It is pretty easy to make netcdf a shared library after the fact. Simply cd to where libnetcdf.a is and do $(AR) x libnetcdf.a$(LD) $(LD_OPT) *.o -o libnetcdf.$(SL) \rm -f *.o (substitute the macros with actual values for your system as listed in the makegmt.macros file). See the linker options for the GMT libraries on how to store the run-time path to the shared netCDF library in the executables. 5. Compile/link ---------------- From the main GMT directory (all make calls herein refers to the main GMT directory), type make (or make all) which will compile/link all the programs. After a succesful compilation you may install the executables in the designated bin directory with the command make install Place the support data and coastline files in the correct directory by saying make install-data Optionally (and explain above under configure) you can install the GMT wrapper script and its man page by saying make install-wrapper After a successfull install you can have *.o files and the local executables removed by saying make clean PS. Should you need to start from scratch again, for instance to reinstall under another OS from the same directory, you should first say make spotless and then cd out of src, rm -f config.{cache,log,status}, and run configure again before returning to step 5. 6. Man pages ------------ GMT man pages are stored in man/manl. You can either install the entire set of man pages to the chosen directory with make install-man or set the environment variable MANPATH in your .login file to include the man directory that holds the desired gmt man pages. 7. WWW Documentation ____________________ In the directory www/gmt you will find html files for online browsing of GMT documentation (Cookbook) and manual pages. While these are available from the main GMT home page in Hawaii, users may find it convenient to install these pages locally for added speed. The subdirectories contain both HTML and PS versions of the cookbook, and HTML versions of the manual pages. All users need to do is to add a browser bookmark to the top-level file www/gmt/gmt_services.html. To install the web-pages in your chosen directory, type make install-www 8. GMT Tutorial _______________ The Documentation also contains the GMT_Tutorial.ps file which is a short course in how to use GMT. It can be followed individually or in a lab setting by a group of users. The tutorial directory contains a few support files for the lab exercises. The tutorial is also available in HTML form under the www/gmt/doc directory (See 7). 9. Set path ----------- Make sure users set their PATH to include the directory containing the gmt executables (BINDIR) if this is not a standard directory like /usr/local/bin. You should now be able to run gmt programs. 10. GMT supplemental Code ------------------------ GMT users elsewhere have developed programs that utilize the GMT libraries and produce PostScript code compatible with the rest of GMT or simply perform data manipulation. In addition, misc. code developed by us depend on GMT libraries. Such code is available in the file GMT_suppl.tar.gz (or .bz2). Note that these programs are not part of the official GMT package and were not all developed by us. Please DO NOT send us bug reports or other inquieries regarding these programs. The README files in the tar archive indicate where to direct such requests (if applicable). Currently, the supplemental archive include the directories: cps - Compaction of plot, scripts, and data sets into a Complete PostScript file. dbase - Data extractor for global gridded data sets such as those on CD-ROM from NGDC. gshhs - Data extractor for GSHHS shoreline polygons. imgsrc - Data extractor for Smith/Sandwell altimetry grids. meca - Plotting of focal mechanisms, velocity arrows, and error ellipses on maps. mex - Matlab mex files for grdfile i/o. mgg - Programs for handling and plotting of MGD-77 data. misc - psmegaplot and makepattern. segyprogs - Plotting SEGY seismic data sets. spotter - Plate tectonic & kinematics applications. x2sys - Track intersection (crossover) tools. x_system - Track intersection (crossover) tools (old version). xgrid - X11 editor for grdfiles. Place the GMT_suppl.tar.gz (or .bz2) file in the GMT main directory and gunzip/tar out the contents. You may have to modify makefiles or start scripts. Each subdirectory will contain *.man files (Unix man files) and *.html files (HTML-version of man pages). To compile and install programs, type make suppl make install-suppl 11. Example Scripts ------------------ A complete set of the example scripts used to create the 20 example plots, including all necessary data files can be found in the GMT_scripts.tar.gz (or .bz2) archive. Copy this to your gmt directory and install there if you would like these scripts. After install, you can run all 20 examples from the src directory using make run-examples. 12. Misc -------- Before running programs, there are a few things you should do/know: - Read carefully the documentation for the gmt system. This can be found as both PS, PDF, and HTML files in the www/gmt/doc directory. The successful operation of gmt-programs depends directly on your understanding of how gmt "works", its option lists, I/O, and composite plot mechanisms. Then, before running individual gmt programs, read the associated man page. - Do not confuse the GMT-system with the GMT-database that was initiated at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. These marine geophysical data files (Gravity, Magnetics, Topography) are NOT distributed with the GMT-system! [However, programs that deal with gmt-files can be found in the supplemental tar archive. 13. A reminder -------------- If you think it is appropriate, you may consider paying us back by including our latest EOS article (Wessel, P. and W. H. F. Smith, New, improved version of the Generic Mapping Tools released, EOS Trans. AGU, 79, 579, 1998, and our Geophysics article on the gridding algorithm in surface (Smith, W. H. F. and P. Wessel, Gridding with continuous curvature splines in tension, Geophysics, 55, 293-305, 1990) in the reference list of your future publications that will benefit from the availability of GMT. 14. Software support -------------------- You haven't bought anything so you cannot expect full service. However, if you find a bug in any of the programs, please report it to us (gmt@soest.hawaii.edu) rather than trying to fix it yourself so that we, and through us, other users may benefit from your find. Make sure you provide us with enough information so that we can recreate the problem. Please register via the GMT web page (gmt.soest.hawaii.edu). Two mailing lists of interrest to GMT users are available: gmtgroup@soest allows us to notify registrered users in the event of bugfixes and/or new releases. A separate mailing list (gmthelp@soest.hawaii.edu) exists for GMT users who have questions about GMT intallation and usage. If you want to subscribe to one or both of these mailinglists, send a message to listserver@soest.hawaii.edu that contains one or both of the commands subscribe gmthelp subscribe gmtgroup You may post messages to gmthelp while gmtgroup is more of a one-way street for us to inform users of bug fixes and upgrades. The online registration also lets you subscribe to the two mailinglists. 15. Ordering the GMT package ---------------------------- Should you or someone you know without net-access need to obtain GMT: Geoware makes and distributes CD-Rs with the GMT package and many useful data sets. Geoware charge USD 35 for this service which includes everything (CD-R, handling, postage). For more details and a full description of the data sets (all 1.7 Gb of data!) see www.geoware-online.com Good luck! Paul Wessel, SOEST/UH Walter H. F. Smith, NOAA/NODC