## File: Guidebook.mn

package info (click to toggle)
gnomehack 1.0.5-1.1
 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495496497498499500501502503504505506507508509510511512513514515516517518519520521522523524525526527528529530531532533534535536537538539540541542543544545546547548549550551552553554555556557558559560561562563564565566567568569570571572573574575576577578579580581582583584585586587588589590591592593594595596597598599600601602603604605606607608609610611612613614615616617618619620621622623624625626627628629630631632633634635636637638639640641642643644645646647648649650651652653654655656657658659660661662663664665666667668669670671672673674675676677678679680681682683684685686687688689690691692693694695696697698699700701702703704705706707708709710711712713714715716717718719720721722723724725726727728729730731732733734735736737738739740741742743744745746747748749750751752753754755756757758759760761762763764765766767768769770771772773774775776777778779780781782783784785786787788789790791792793794795796797798799800801802803804805806807808809810811812813814815816817818819820821822823824825826827828829830831832833834835836837838839840841842843844845846847848849850851852853854855856857858859860861862863864865866867868869870871872873874875876877878879880881882883884885886887888889890891892893894895896897898899900901902903904905906907908909910911912913914915916917918919920921922923924925926927928929930931932933934935936937938939940941942943944945946947948949950951952953954955956957958959960961962963964965966967968969970971972973974975976977978979980981982983984985986987988989990991992993994995996997998999100010011002100310041005100610071008100910101011101210131014101510161017101810191020102110221023102410251026102710281029103010311032103310341035103610371038103910401041104210431044104510461047104810491050105110521053105410551056105710581059106010611062106310641065106610671068106910701071107210731074107510761077107810791080108110821083108410851086108710881089109010911092109310941095109610971098109911001101110211031104110511061107110811091110111111121113111411151116111711181119112011211122112311241125112611271128112911301131113211331134113511361137113811391140114111421143114411451146114711481149115011511152115311541155115611571158115911601161116211631164116511661167116811691170117111721173117411751176117711781179118011811182118311841185118611871188118911901191119211931194119511961197119811991200120112021203120412051206120712081209121012111212121312141215121612171218121912201221122212231224122512261227122812291230123112321233123412351236123712381239124012411242124312441245124612471248124912501251125212531254125512561257125812591260126112621263126412651266126712681269127012711272127312741275127612771278127912801281128212831284128512861287128812891290129112921293129412951296129712981299130013011302130313041305130613071308130913101311131213131314131513161317131813191320132113221323132413251326132713281329133013311332133313341335133613371338133913401341134213431344134513461347134813491350135113521353135413551356135713581359136013611362136313641365136613671368136913701371137213731374137513761377137813791380138113821383138413851386138713881389139013911392139313941395139613971398139914001401140214031404140514061407140814091410141114121413141414151416141714181419142014211422142314241425142614271428142914301431143214331434143514361437143814391440144114421443144414451446144714481449145014511452145314541455145614571458145914601461146214631464146514661467146814691470147114721473147414751476147714781479148014811482148314841485148614871488148914901491149214931494149514961497149814991500150115021503150415051506150715081509151015111512151315141515151615171518151915201521152215231524152515261527152815291530153115321533153415351536153715381539154015411542154315441545154615471548154915501551155215531554155515561557155815591560156115621563156415651566156715681569157015711572157315741575157615771578157915801581158215831584158515861587158815891590159115921593159415951596159715981599160016011602160316041605160616071608160916101611161216131614161516161617161816191620162116221623162416251626162716281629163016311632163316341635163616371638163916401641164216431644164516461647164816491650165116521653 .ds h0 "NetHack Guidebook .ds h1 .ds h2 % .ds vr "NetHack 3.2 .ds f0 "\*(vr .ds f1 .ds f2 "May 24, 1996 .mt A Guide to the Mazes of Menace (Guidebook for NetHack 3.2) .au Eric S. Raymond (Extensively edited and expanded for 3.0 by Mike Threepoint) .hn 1 Introduction .pg Having exhausted your own meager financial resources, as well as those of your parents, you find that you must end your formal education. Your lack of experience and skills leaves you facing a pretty grim future. You could look for some sort of menial job and hope to perform well enough to be noticed and perhaps rise in responsibilities until you were earning enough money to be comfortable. Or you could set out into the world and make your livelihood by prospecting, stealing, crusading, or just plain killing, for your gold. Over the objections of your local guildmaster, you opt to follow the adventuring route. After all, when adventurers came back this way they usually seemed better off than when they passed through the first time. And who was to say that all of those who did not return had not just kept going? .pg Asking around, you hear about a bauble, called the Amulet of Yendor by some, which, if you can find it, will bring you great wealth. One legend you were told even mentioned that the one who finds the amulet will be granted immortality by the gods. The amulet is rumored to be somewhere beyond the Valley of Gehennom, deep within the Mazes of Menace. You decide that even if the rumors of the amulet's powers are untrue, and even if it won't cure the common plague, you should at least be able to sell the tales of your adventures to the local minstrels for a tidy sum. You spend one last night fortifying yourself at the local inn, becoming more and more depressed as you watch the odds of your success being posted on the inn's walls getting lower and lower. In the morning you awake, gather together your belongings, and set off on your adventure... .pg Your abilities and strengths for dealing with the hazards of adventure will vary with your background and training. .pg \fIArcheologists\fP understand dungeons pretty well; this enables them to move quickly and sneak up on the local nasties. They start equipped with the tools for a proper scientific expedition. .pg \fIBarbarians\fP are warriors out of the hinterland, hardened to battle. They begin their quests with naught but uncommon strength, a trusty hauberk, and a great two-handed sword. .pg \fICavemen\fP and \fICavewomen\fP start with exceptional strength but, unfortunately, with neolithic weapons. .pg \fIElves\fP are agile, quick, and sensitive; very little of what goes on will escape an Elf. The quality of Elven craftsmanship often gives them an advantage in arms and armor. .pg \fIHealers\fP are wise in medicine and apothecary. They know the herbs and simples that can restore vitality, ease pain, anesthetize, and neutralize poisons; and with their instruments, they can divine a being's state of health or sickness. Their medical practice earns them quite reasonable amounts of money, with which they enter the dungeon. .pg \fIKnights\fP are distinguished from the common skirmisher by their devotion to the ideals of chivalry and by the surpassing excellence of their armor. .pg \fIPriests\fP and \fIPriestesses\fP are clerics militant, crusaders advancing the cause of righteousness with arms, armor, and arts thaumaturgic. Their ability to commune with deities via prayer occasionally extricates them from peril, but can also put them in it. .pg \fIRogues\fP are agile and stealthy thieves, with knowledge of locks, traps, and poisons. Their advantage lies in surprise, which they employ to great advantage. .pg \fISamurai\fP are the elite warriors of feudal Nippon. They are lightly armored and quick, and wear the \fIdai-sho\fP, two swords of the deadliest keenness. .pg \fITourists\fP start out with lots of gold (suitable for shopping with), a credit card, lots of food, some maps, and an expensive camera. Most monsters don't like being photographed. .pg \fIValkyries\fP are hardy warrior women. Their upbringing in the harsh Northlands makes them strong, inures them to extremes of cold, and instills in them stealth and cunning. .pg \fIWizards\fP start out with a knowledge of magic, a selection of magical items, and a particular affinity for dweomercraft. Although seemingly weak and easy to overcome at first sight, an experienced Wizard is a deadly foe. .pg You set out for the dungeon and after several days of uneventful travel you see the ancient ruins that mark the entrance to the Mazes of Menace. It is late at night, so you make camp at the entrance and spend the night sleeping under the open skies. In the morning, you gather your gear, eat what may be your last meal outside, and enter the dungeon. .hn 1 What is going on here? .pg You have just begun a game of NetHack. Your goal is to grab as much treasure as you can, retrieve the Amulet of Yendor, and escape the Mazes of Menace alive. On the screen is kept a map of where you have been and what you have seen on the current dungeon level; as you explore more of the level, it appears on the screen in front of you. .pg When NetHack's ancestor \fIrogue\fP first appeared, its screen orientation was almost unique among computer fantasy games. Since then, screen orientation has become the norm rather than the exception; NetHack continues this fine tradition. Unlike text adventure games that accept commands in pseudo-English sentences and explain the results in words, NetHack commands are all one or two keystrokes and the results are displayed graphically on the screen. A minimum screen size of 24 lines by 80 columns is recommended; if the screen is larger, only a 21x80 section will be used for the map. .pg NetHack generates a new dungeon every time you play it; even the authors still find it an entertaining and exciting game despite having won several times. .hn 1 What do all those things on the screen mean? .pg NetHack offers a variety of display options. The options available to you will vary from port to port, depending on the capabilities of your hardware and software, and whether various compile-time options were enabled when your executable was created. The three possible display options are: a monochrome character interface, a color character interface, and a graphical interface using small pictures called tiles. The two character interfaces allow fonts with other characters to be substituted, but the default assignments use standard ASCII characters to represent everything. There is no difference between the various display options with respect to game play. Because we cannot reproduce the tiles or colors in the Guidebook, and because it is common to all ports, we will use the default ASCII characters from the monochrome character display when referring to things you might see on the screen during your game. .pg In order to understand what is going on in NetHack, first you must understand what NetHack is doing with the screen. The NetHack screen replaces the You see ...'' descriptions of text adventure games. Figure 1 is a sample of what a NetHack screen might look like. .TS S center tab(~); a. _ The bat bites! ------ |....| ---------- |.<..|####...@...$.| |....-# |...B....+ |....| |.d......| ------ -------|-- Player the Rambler St:12 Dx:7 Co:18 In:11 Wi:9 Ch:15 Neutral Dlvl:1$:0 HP:9(12) Pw:3(3) AC:10 Exp:1/19 T:257 Weak _ .TE .ce 1 Figure 1 .hn 2 The status lines (bottom) .pg The bottom two lines of the screen contain several cryptic pieces of information describing your current status. If either status line becomes longer than the width of the screen, you might not see all of it. Here are explanations of what the various status items mean (though your configuration may not have all the status items listed below): .lp Rank\ \ Your character's name and professional ranking (based on the experience level, see below). .lp Strength A measure of your character's strength; one of your six basic attributes. Your attributes can range from 3 to 18 inclusive (occasionally you may get super-strengths of the form 18/xx). The higher your strength, the stronger you are. Strength affects how successfully you perform physical tasks, how much damage you do in combat, and how much loot you can carry. .lp Dexterity Dexterity affects your chances to hit in combat, to avoid traps, and do other tasks requiring agility or manipulation of objects. .lp Constitution Constitution affects your ability to recover from injuries and other strains on your stamina. .lp Intelligence Intelligence affects your ability to cast spells and read spellbooks. .lp Wisdom Wisdom comes from your practical experience (especially when dealing with magic). It affects your magical energy. .lp Charisma Charisma affects how certain creatures react toward you. In particular, it can affect the prices shopkeepers offer you. .lp Alignment \fBLawful\fP, \fBNeutral\fP, or \fBChaotic\fP. Often, Lawful is good and Chaotic is evil. Your alignment influences how other monsters react toward you. Monsters of a like alignment are more likely to be non-aggressive, while those of an opposing alignment are more likely to be seriously offended at your presence. .lp "Dungeon Level How deep you are in the dungeon. You start at level one and the number increases as you go deeper into the dungeon. Some levels are special, and are identified by a name and not a number. The Amulet of Yendor is reputed to be somewhere beneath the twentieth level. .lp Gold\ \ The number of gold pieces you are openly carrying. Gold which you have concealed in containers is not counted. .lp "Hit Points Your current and maximum hit points. Hit points indicate how much damage you can take before you die. The more you get hit in a fight, the lower they get. You can regain hit points by resting, or by using certain magical items or spells. The number in parentheses is the maximum number your hit points can reach. .lp Power Spell points. This tells you how much mystic energy (\fImana\fP) you have available for spell casting. Again, resting will regenerate the amount available. .lp "Armor Class A measure of how effectively your armor stops blows from unfriendly creatures. The lower this number is, the more effective the armor; it is quite possible to have negative armor class. .lp Experience Your current experience level and experience points. As you adventure, you gain experience points. At certain experience point totals, you gain an experience level. The more experienced you are, the better you fight and withstand magical attacks. Many dungeons show only your experience level here. .lp Time\ \ The number of turns elapsed so far, displayed if you have the .op time option set. .lp "Hunger status Your current hunger status, ranging from \fBSatiated\fP down to \fBFainting\fP. If your hunger status is normal, it is not displayed. .pg Additional status flags may appear after the hunger status: \fBConf\fP when you're confused, \fBFoodPois\fP or \fBIll\fP when sick, \fBBlind\fP when you can't see, \fBStun\fP when stunned, and \fBHallu\fP when hallucinating. .hn 2 The message line (top) .pg The top line of the screen is reserved for messages that describe things that are impossible to represent visually. If you see a \fB--More--\fP'' on the top line, this means that NetHack has another message to display on the screen, but it wants to make certain that you've read the one that is there first. To read the next message, just press the space bar. .hn 2 The map (rest of the screen) .pg The rest of the screen is the map of the level as you have explored it so far. Each symbol on the screen represents something. You can set various graphics options to change some of the symbols the game uses; otherwise, the game will use default symbols. Here is a list of what the default symbols mean: .lp "- and | The walls of a room, or an open door. .lp . The floor of a room, ice, or a doorless doorway. .lp # A corridor, or possibly a kitchen sink (if your dungeon has sinks) or drawbridge. .lp < A way to the previous level. .lp > A way to the next level. .lp + A closed door, or a spell book containing a spell you can learn. .lp @ A human (you, usually). .lp $A pile of gold. .lp ^ A trap (once you detect it). .lp ) A weapon. .lp [ A suit or piece of armor. .lp % Something edible (not necessarily healthy). .lp ? A scroll. .lp / A wand. .lp = A ring. .lp ! A potion. .lp ( A useful item (pick-axe, key, lamp...). .lp """ An amulet (or a spider web). .lp * A gem or rock (possibly valuable, possibly worthless). .lp  A boulder or statue. .lp 0 An iron ball. .lp _ An altar, or an iron chain. .lp } A pool of water or moat or a pool of lava. .lp { A fountain. .lp "\e An opulent throne. .lp "a-zA-Z and other symbols Letters and certain other symbols represent the various inhabitants of the Mazes of Menace. Watch out, they can be nasty and vicious. Sometimes, however, they can be helpful. .pg You need not memorize all these symbols; you can ask the game what any symbol represents with the /' command (see the Commands section for more info). .hn 1 Commands .pg Commands are initiated by typing one or two characters. Some commands, like search'', do not require that any more information be collected by NetHack. Other commands might require additional information, for example a direction, or an object to be used. For those commands that require additional information, NetHack will present you with either a menu of choices or with a command line prompt requesting information. Which you are presented with will depend chiefly on how you have set the .op menustyle option. .pg For example, a common question, in the form What do you want to use?\ [a-zA-Z\ ?*]'', asks you to choose an object you are carrying. Here, a-zA-Z'' are the inventory letters of your possible choices. Typing ?' gives you an inventory list of these items, so you can see what each letter refers to. In this example, there is also a *' indicating that you may choose an object not on the list, if you wanted to use something unexpected. Typing a *' lists your entire inventory, so you can see the inventory letters of every object you're carrying. Finally, if you change your mind and decide you don't want to do this command after all, you can press the ESC key to abort the command. .pg You can put a number before most commands to repeat them that many times; for example, 10s'' will search ten times. If you have the .op number_pad option set, you must type n' to prefix a count, so the example above would be typed n10s'' instead. Commands for which counts make no sense ignore them. In addition, movement commands can be prefixed for greater control (see below). To cancel a count or a prefix, press the ESC key. .pg The list of commands is rather long, but it can be read at any time during the game through the ?' command, which accesses a menu of helpful texts. Here are the commands for your reference: .lp ? Help menu: display one of several help texts available. .lp / Tell what a symbol represents. You may choose to specify a location or type a symbol (or even a whole word) to define. If the .op help option is on, and NetHack has some special information about an object or monster that you looked at, you'll be asked if you want More info?''. If \fBhelp\fP is off, then you'll only get the special information if you explicitly ask for it by typing in the name of the monster or object. .lp & Tell what a command does. .lp < Go up to the previous level (if you are on the staircase or ladder). .lp > Go down to the next level (if you are on the staircase or ladder). .lp [yuhjklbn] Go one step in the direction indicated (see Figure 2). If there is a monster there, you will fight the monster instead. Only these one-step movement commands cause you to fight monsters; the others (below) are safe.'' .sd .TS S center; c c. y k u 7 8 9 \e | / \e | / h- . -l 4- . -6 / | \e / | \e b j n 1 2 3 (if \fBnumber_pad\fP is set) .TE .ed .ce 1 Figure 2 .lp [YUHJKLBN] Go in that direction until you hit a wall or run into something. .lp m[yuhjklbn] Prefix: move without picking up any objects. .lp M[yuhjklbn] Prefix: move far, no pickup. .lp "g[yuhjklbn] Prefix: move until something interesting is found. .lp "G[yuhjklbn] or [yuhjklbn] Prefix: same as g', but forking of corridors is not considered interesting. .lp . Rest, do nothing for one turn. .lp a Apply (use) a tool (pick-axe, key, lamp...). .lp A Remove one or more worn items, such as armor. Use T' (take off) to take off only one piece of armor or R' (remove) to take off only one accessory. .lp ^A Redo the previous command. .lp c Close a door. .lp C Call (name) an individual monster. .lp ^C Panic button. Quit the game. .lp d Drop something. Ex. d7a'' means drop seven items of object \fIa\fP. .lp D Drop several things. In answer to the question What kinds of things do you want to drop? [!%= au]'' you should type zero or more object symbols possibly followed by a' and/or u'. .sd .si Da - drop all objects, without asking for confirmation. Du - drop only unpaid objects (when in a shop). D%u - drop only unpaid food. .ei .ed .lp ^D Kick something (usually a door). .lp e Eat food. .lp E Engrave a message on the floor. Engraving the word Elbereth'' will cause most monsters to not attack you hand-to-hand (but if you attack, you will rub it out); this is often useful to give yourself a breather. (This feature may be compiled out of the game, so your version might not have it.) .sd .si E- - write in the dust with your fingers. .ei .ed .lp i List your inventory (everything you're carrying). .lp I List selected parts of your inventory. .sd .si I* - list all gems in inventory; Iu - list all unpaid items; Ix - list all used up items that are on your shopping bill; I$ - count your money. .ei .ed .lp o Open a door. .lp O Set options. You will be asked to enter an option line. If you enter a blank line, the current options are reported. Entering ?' will get you explanations of the various options. Otherwise, you should enter a list of options separated by commas. The available options are listed later in this Guidebook. Options are usually set before the game, not with the O' command; see the section on options below. .lp p Pay your shopping bill. .lp P Put on a ring or other accessory (amulet, blindfold). .lp ^P Repeat previous message (subsequent ^P's repeat earlier messages). .lp q Quaff (drink) a potion. .lp Q Quit the game. .lp r Read a scroll or spell book. .lp R Remove an accessory (ring, amulet, etc). .lp ^R Redraw the screen. .lp s Search for secret doors and traps around you. It usually takes several tries to find something. .lp S Save the game. The game will be restored automatically the next time you play. .lp t Throw an object or shoot a projectile. .lp T Take off armor. .lp ^T Teleport, if you have the ability. .lp v Display version number. .lp V Display the game history. .lp w Wield weapon. w- means wield nothing, use your bare hands. .lp W Wear armor. .lp x List the spells you know (same as +'). .lp X Enter explore (discovery) mode. .lp z Zap a wand. .lp Z Zap (cast) a spell. .lp ^Z Suspend the game .ux " versions with job control only)." ( .lp : Look at what is here. .lp ; Show what type of thing a visible symbol corresponds to. .lp , Pick up some things. .lp @ Toggle the .op autopickup option on and off. .lp ^ Ask for the type of a trap you found earlier. .lp ) Tell what weapon you are wielding. .lp [ Tell what armor you are wearing. .lp = Tell what rings you are wearing. .lp """ Tell what amulet you are wearing. .lp ( Tell what tools you are using. .lp $Count your gold pieces. .lp + List the spells you know (same as x'). .lp "\e Show what types of objects have been discovered. .lp ! Escape to a shell. .lp # Perform an extended command. As you can see, the authors of NetHack used up all the letters, so this is a way to introduce the less useful commands, or commands used under limited circumstances. You may obtain a list of them by entering ?'. What extended commands are available depends on what features the game was compiled with. .pg If your keyboard has a meta key (which, when pressed in combination with another key, modifies it by setting the meta' [8th, or high'] bit), you can invoke the extended commands by meta-ing the first letter of the command. In OS/2, PC, and ST NetHack, the Alt' key can be used in this fashion; on the Amiga set the .op altmeta option to get this behavior. .lp M-a Adjust inventory letters (most useful when the .op fixinv option is on''). .lp M-c Talk to someone. .lp M-d Dip an object into something. .lp M-e Advance or check weapons skills. .lp M-f Force a lock. .lp M-i Invoke an object's special powers. .lp M-j Jump to another location. .lp M-l Loot a box on the floor. .lp M-m Use a monster's special ability. .lp M-n Name an item or type of object. .lp M-o Offer a sacrifice to the gods. .lp M-p Pray to the gods for help. .lp M-r Rub a lamp. .lp M-s Sit down. .lp M-t Turn undead. .lp M-u Untrap something (trap, door, or chest). .lp M-v Print compile time options for this version of NetHack. .lp M-w Wipe off your face. .pg If the .op number_pad option is on, some additional letter commands are available: .lp j Jump to another location. Same as #jump'' or M-j''. .lp k Kick something (usually a door). Same as ^D'. .lp l Loot a box on the floor. Same as #loot'' or M-l''. .lp N Name an item or type of object. Same as #name'' or M-N''. .lp u Untrap a trap, door, or chest. Same as #untrap'' or M-u''. .hn 1 Rooms and corridors .pg Rooms and corridors in the dungeon are either lit or dark. Any lit areas within your line of sight will be displayed; dark areas are only displayed if they are within one space of you. Walls and corridors remain on the map as you explore them. .pg Secret corridors are hidden. You can find them with the s' (search) command. .hn 2 Doorways .pg Doorways connect rooms and corridors. Some doorways have no doors; you can walk right through. Others have doors in them, which may be open, closed, or locked. To open a closed door, use the o' (open) command; to close it again, use the c' (close) command. .pg You can get through a locked door by using a tool to pick the lock with the a' (apply) command, or by kicking it open with the ^D' (kick) command. .pg Open doors cannot be entered diagonally; you must approach them straight on, horizontally or vertically. Doorways without doors are not restricted in this fashion. .pg Doors can be useful for shutting out monsters. Most monsters cannot open doors, although a few don't need to (ex. ghosts can walk through doors). .pg Secret doors are hidden. You can find them with the s' (search) command. Once found they are in all ways equivalent to normal doors. .hn 2 Traps (^') .pg There are traps throughout the dungeon to snare the unwary delver. For example, you may suddenly fall into a pit and be stuck for a few turns trying to climb out. Traps don't appear on your map until you see one triggered by moving onto it, see something fall into it, or you discover it with the s' (search) command. Monsters can fall prey to traps, too, which can be used as a useful defensive strategy. .hn 1 Monsters .pg Monsters you cannot see are not displayed on the screen. Beware! You may suddenly come upon one in a dark place. Some magic items can help you locate them before they locate you (which some monsters can do very well). .hn 2 Fighting .pg If you see a monster and you wish to fight it, just attempt to walk into it. Many monsters you find will mind their own business unless you attack them. Some of them are very dangerous when angered. Remember: discretion is the better part of valor. .hn 2 Your pet .pg You start the game with a little dog (d') or cat (f'), which follows you about the dungeon and fights monsters with you. Like you, your pet needs food to survive. It usually feeds itself on fresh carrion and other meats. If you're worried about it or want to train it, you can feed it, too, by throwing it food. A properly trained pet can be very useful under certain circumstances. .pg Your pet also gains experience from killing monsters, and can grow over time, gaining hit points and doing more damage. Initially, your pet may even be better at killing things than you, which makes pets useful for low-level characters. .pg Your pet will follow you up and down staircases if it is next to you when you move. Otherwise your pet will be stranded and may become wild. .hn 2 Bones levels .pg You may encounter the shades and corpses of other adventurers (or even former incarnations of yourself!) and their personal effects. Ghosts are hard to kill, but easy to avoid, since they're slow and do little damage. You can plunder the deceased adventurer's possessions; however, they are likely to be cursed. Beware of whatever killed the former player; it is probably still lurking around, gloating over its last victory. .hn 1 Objects .pg When you find something in the dungeon, it is common to want to pick it up. In NetHack, this is accomplished automatically by walking over the object (unless you turn off the .op autopickup option (see below), or move with the m' prefix (see above)), or manually by using the ,' command. .pg If you're carrying too many things, NetHack will tell you so and you won't be able to pick up anything more. Otherwise, it will add the object(s) to your pack and tell you what you just picked up. .pg When you pick up an object, it is assigned an inventory letter. Many commands that operate on objects must ask you to find out which object you want to use. When NetHack asks you to choose a particular object you are carrying, you are usually presented with a list of inventory letters to choose from (see Commands, above). .pg Some objects, such as weapons, are easily differentiated. Others, like scrolls and potions, are given descriptions which vary according to type. During a game, any two objects with the same description are the same type. However, the descriptions will vary from game to game. .pg When you use one of these objects, if its effect is obvious, NetHack will remember what it is for you. If its effect isn't extremely obvious, you will be asked what you want to call this type of object so you will recognize it later. You can also use the #name'' command for the same purpose at any time, to name all objects of a particular type or just an individual object. .hn 2 Curses and Blessings .pg Any object that you find may be cursed, even if the object is otherwise helpful. The most common effect of a curse is being stuck with (and to) the item. Cursed weapons weld themselves to your hand when wielded, so you cannot unwield them. Any cursed item you wear is not removable by ordinary means. In addition, cursed arms and armor usually, but not always, bear negative enchantments that make them less effective in combat. Other cursed objects may act poorly or detrimentally in other ways. .pg Objects can also be blessed. Blessed items usually work better or more beneficially than normal uncursed items. For example, a blessed weapon will do more damage against demons. .pg There are magical means of bestowing or removing curses upon objects, so even if you are stuck with one, you can still have the curse lifted and the item removed. Priests and Priestesses have an innate sensitivity to this property in any object, so they can more easily avoid cursed objects than other character classes. .pg An item with unknown status will be reported in your inventory with no prefix. An item which you know the state of will be distinguished in your inventory by the presence of the word cursed'', uncursed'' or blessed'' in the description of the item. .hn 2 Weapons ()') .pg Given a chance, most monsters in the Mazes of Menace will gratuitously try to kill you. You need weapons for self-defense (killing them first). Without a weapon, you do only 1-2 hit points of damage (plus bonuses, if any). .pg There are wielded weapons, like maces and swords, and thrown weapons, like arrows and spears. To hit monsters with a weapon, you must wield it and attack them, or throw it at them. You can simply select to throw a spear. To shoot an arrow, you should first wield a bow, then throw the arrow. Crossbows shoot crossbow bolts. Slings hurl rocks and (other) stones (like gems). You can wield only one weapon at a time, but you can change weapons unless you're wielding a cursed one. To switch to bare hands, wield -', or use the A' command which allows you to unwield the current weapon in addition to taking off other worn items. .pg The #enhance'' command will be present if the weapon skills'' feature is enabled, and deals with your proficiency in various types of weapons. .pg Enchanted weapons have a plus'' (or to hit enhancement'' which can be either positive or negative) that adds or subtracts to/from your chance to hit and the damage you do to a monster. The only way to determine a weapon's enchantment is to have it magically identified somehow. .pg Most weapons are subject to some type of damage like rust. Such damage can be repaired. .pg Those of you in the audience who are AD&D players, be aware that each weapon which exists in AD&D does the same damage to monsters in NetHack. Some of the more obscure weapons (such as the \fIaklys\fP, \fIlucern hammer\fP, and \fIbec-de-corbin\fP) are defined in an appendix to \fIUnearthed Arcana\fP, an AD&D supplement. .pg The commands to use weapons are w' (wield), t' (throw), and the #enhance'' extended command. .hn 2 Armor ([') .pg Lots of unfriendly things lurk about; you need armor to protect yourself from their blows. Some types of armor offer better protection than others. Your armor class is a measure of this protection. Armor class (AC) is measured as in AD&D, with 10 being the equivalent of no armor, and lower numbers meaning better armor. Each suit of armor which exists in AD&D gives the same protection in NetHack. Here is an (incomplete) list of the armor classes provided by various suits of armor: .TS S center; a n. dragon scale mail 1 crystal plate mail 3 plate mail 3 bronze plate mail 4 splint mail 4 banded mail 4 elven mithril-coat 5 chain mail 5 scale mail 6 ring mail 7 studded leather armor 7 leather armor 8 no armor 10 .TE .pg You can also wear other pieces of armor (ex. helmets, boots, shields, cloaks) to lower your armor class even further, but you can only wear one item of each category (one suit of armor, one cloak, one helmet, one shield, and so on) at a time. .pg If a piece of armor is enchanted, its armor protection will be better (or worse) than normal, and its plus'' (or minus) will subtract from your armor class. For example, a +1 chain mail would give you better protection than normal chain mail, lowering your armor class one unit further to 4. When you put on a piece of armor, you immediately find out the armor class and any plusses'' it provides. Cursed pieces of armor usually have negative enchantments (minuses) in addition to being unremovable. .pg Many types of armor are subject to some kind of damage like rust. Such damage can be repaired. Some types or armor may inhibit spell casting. .pg The commands to use armor are W' (wear) and T' (take off). The A' command can also be used to take off armor as well as other worn items. .hn 2 Food (%') .pg Food is necessary to survive. If you go too long without eating you will faint, and eventually die of starvation. Some types of food will spoil, and become unhealthy to eat, if not protected. Food stored in ice boxes or tins (cans'') will usually stay fresh, but ice boxes are heavy, and tins take a while to open. .pg When you kill monsters, they usually leave corpses which are also food.'' Many, but not all, of these are edible; some also give you special powers when you eat them. A good rule of thumb is you are what you eat.'' .pg You can name one food item after something you like to eat with the .op fruit option, if your dungeon has it. .pg The command to eat food is e'. .hn 2 Scrolls (?') .pg Scrolls are labeled with various titles, probably chosen by ancient wizards for their amusement value (ex. READ ME,'' or HOLY BIBLE'' backwards). Scrolls disappear after you read them (except for blank ones, without magic spells on them). .pg One of the most useful of these is the \fIscroll of identify\fP, which can be used to determine what another object is, whether it is cursed or blessed, and how many uses it has left. Some objects of subtle enchantment are difficult to identify without these. .pg A mail daemon may run up and deliver mail to you as a \fIscroll of mail\fP (on versions compiled with this feature). To use this feature on versions where NetHack mail delivery is triggered by electronic mail appearing in your system mailbox, you must let NetHack know where to look for new mail by setting the MAIL'' environment variable to the file name of your mailbox. You may also want to set the MAILREADER'' environment variable to the file name of your favorite reader, so NetHack can shell to it when you read the scroll. On versions of NetHack where mail is randomly generated internal to the game, these environment variables are ignored. You can disable the mail daemon by turning off the .op mail option. .pg The command to read a scroll is r'. .hn 2 Potions (!') .pg Potions are distinguished by the color of the liquid inside the flask. They disappear after you quaff them. .pg Clear potions are potions of water. Sometimes these are blessed or cursed, resulting in holy or unholy water. Holy water is the bane of the undead, so potions of holy water are good things to throw (t') at them. It is also sometimes very useful to dip (#dip'') an object into a potion. .pg The command to drink a potion is q' (quaff). .hn 2 Wands (/') .pg Magic wands usually have multiple magical charges. Some wands are directional\(emyou must give a direction in which to zap them. You can also zap them at yourself (just give a .' or s' for the direction). Be warned, however, for this is often unwise. Other wands are nondirectional\(emthey don't require a direction. The number of charges in a wand is random and decreases by one whenever you use it. .pg When the number of charges left in a wand becomes zero, attempts to use the wand will usually result in nothing happening. Occasionally, however, it may be possible to squeeze the last few mana points from an otherwise spent wand. .pg In a truly desperate situation, when your back is up against the wall, you might decide to go for broke and break your wand. This is not for the faint of heart. Doing so will almost certainly cause a catastrophic release of magical energies. .pg The command to use a wand is z' (zap). To break one, use the a' (apply) command. .hn 2 Rings (=') .pg Rings are very useful items, since they are relatively permanent magic, unlike the usually fleeting effects of potions, scrolls, and wands. .pg Putting on a ring activates its magic. You can wear only two rings, one on each ring finger. .pg Most rings also cause you to grow hungry more rapidly, the rate varying with the type of ring. .pg The commands to use rings are P' (put on) and R' (remove). .hn 2 Spell books (+') .pg Spell books are tomes of mighty magic. When studied with the r' (read) command, they bestow the knowledge of a spell\(emunless the attempt backfires. Reading a cursed spell book or one with mystic runes beyond your ken can be harmful to your health! .pg A spell (even when learned) can also backfire when you cast it. If you attempt to cast a spell well above your experience level, or cast it at a time when your luck is particularly bad, you can end up wasting both the energy and the time required in casting. .pg Casting a spell calls forth magical energies and focuses them with your naked mind. Releasing the magical energy releases some of your memory of the spell with it. Each time you cast a spell, your familiarity with it will dwindle, until you eventually forget the details completely and must relearn it. .pg Casting a spell also requires flexible movement, and wearing various types of armor may interfere with that. .pg The command to read a spell book is the same as for scrolls, r' (read). The +' command lists your current spells and the number of spell points they require. The Z' (cast) command casts a spell. .hn 2 Tools ((') .pg Tools are miscellaneous objects with various purposes. Some tools, like wands, have a limited number of uses. For example, lamps burn out after a while. Other tools are containers, which objects can be placed into or taken out of. .pg The command to use tools is a' (apply). .hn 3 Chests and boxes .pg You may encounter chests or boxes in your travels. These can be opened with the #loot'' extended command when they are on the floor, or with the a' (apply) command when you are carrying one. However, chests are often locked, and are in any case unwieldy objects. You must set one down before unlocking it by kicking it, using a key or lock-picking tool with the a' (apply) command, or by using a weapon to force the lock with the #force'' extended command. .pg Some chests are trapped, causing nasty things to happen when you unlock or open them. You can check for and try to deactivate traps with the #untrap'' extended command. .hn 2 Amulets ("') .pg Amulets are very similar to rings, and often more powerful. Like rings, amulets have various magical properties, some beneficial, some harmful, which are activated by putting them on. .pg Only one amulet may be worn at a time, around your neck. .pg The commands to use amulets are the same as for rings, P' (put on) and R' (remove). .hn 2 Gems (*') .pg Some gems are valuable, and can be sold for a lot of gold. They are also a far more efficient way of carrying your riches. Valuable gems increase your score if you bring them with you when you exit. .pg Other small rocks are also categorized as gems, but they are much less valuable. All rocks, however, can be used as projectile weapons (if you have a sling). In the most desperate of cases, you can still throw them by hand. .hn 2 Large rocks (\') .pg Statues and boulders are not particularly useful, and are generally heavy. It is rumored that some statues are not what they seem. .pg Very large humanoids (giants and their ilk) have been known to use boulders as weapons. .hn 2 Gold ($') .pg Gold adds to your score, and you can buy things in shops with it. Your version of NetHack may display how much gold you have on the status line. If not, the $' command will count it. There are a number of monsters in the dungeon that may be influenced by the amount of gold you are carrying (shopkeepers aside). .hn 1 Options .pg Due to variations in personal tastes and conceptions of how NetHack should do things, there are options you can set to change how NetHack behaves. .hn 2 Setting the options .pg Options may be set in a number of ways. Within the game, the O' command allows you to view all options and change most of them. You can also set options automatically by placing them in the NETHACKOPTIONS environment variable or in a configuration file. Some versions of NetHack also have front-end programs that allow you to set options before starting the game. .hn 2 Using the NETHACKOPTIONS environment variable .pg The NETHACKOPTIONS variable is a comma-separated list of initial values for the various options. Some can only be turned on or off. You turn one of these on by adding the name of the option to the list, and turn it off by typing a !' or no'' before the name. Others take a character string as a value. You can set string options by typing the option name, a colon, and then the value of the string. The value is terminated by the next comma or the end of string. .pg For example, to set up an environment variable so that female'' is on, autopickup'' is off, the name is set to Blue Meanie'', and the fruit is set to papaya'', you would enter the command .sd % \fBsetenv NETHACKOPTIONS "female,\e!autopickup,name:Blue Meanie,fruit:papaya"\fP .ed in \fIcsh\fP (note the need to escape the ! since it's special to the shell), or .sd$ \fBNETHACKOPTIONS="female,!autopickup,name:Blue Meanie,fruit:papaya"\fP $\fBexport NETHACKOPTIONS\fP .ed in \fIsh\fP or \fIksh\fP. .hn 2 Using a configuration file .pg Any line in the configuration file starting with OPTIONS='' may be filled out with options in the same syntax as in NETHACKOPTIONS. Any line starting with DUNGEON='', EFFECTS='', MONSTERS='', OBJECTS='', or TRAPS='' is taken as defining the corresponding .op dungeon, .op effects, .op monsters, .op objects or .op traps option in a different syntax, a sequence of decimal numbers giving the character position in the current font to be used in displaying each entry. Such a sequence can be continued to multiple lines by putting a \e' at the end of each line to be continued. Any line starting with #' is treated as a comment. .pg The default name of the configuration file varies on different operating systems, but NETHACKOPTIONS can also be set to the full name of a file you want to use (possibly preceded by an @'). .hn 2 Customization options .pg Here are explanations of what the various options do. Character strings that are too long may be truncated. Some of the options listed may be inactive in your dungeon. .lp autopickup\ \ Pick up things you move onto by default (default on). .lp BIOS\ \ \ \ Use BIOS calls to update the screen display quickly and to read the keyboard (allowing the use of arrow keys to move) on machines with an IBM PC compatible BIOS ROM (default off, OS/2, PC, and ST NetHack only). .lp catname Name your starting cat (ex. catname:Morris''). Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp checkpoint Save game state after each level change, for possible recovery after program crash (default on). .lp color\ \ \ Use color for different monsters, objects, and dungeon features (default on for microcomputers). .lp confirm\ Have user confirm attacks on pets, shopkeepers, and other peaceable creatures (default on). .lp DECgraphics Use a predefined selection of characters from the DEC VT-xxx/DEC Rainbow/ANSI line-drawing character set to display the dungeon/effects/traps instead of having to define a full graphics set yourself (default off). This option also sets up proper handling of graphics characters for such terminals, so you should specify it when appropriate even if you override the selections with your own graphics strings. .lp disclose Offer to disclose various information when the game ends (default all). The possibilities are identifying your inventory ('i'), disclosing your attributes ('a'), summarizing monsters that have been vanquished ('v'), and listing monster species that have been genocided ('g'). Note that the vanquished monsters list includes all monsters killed by traps and each other as well as by you. .lp dogname Name your starting dog (ex. dogname:Fang''). Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp dungeon Set the graphics symbols for displaying the dungeon (default \&\ |--------||.-|++.##<><>_\e\e#{}.}..##\ #}''). The .op dungeon option should be followed by a string of 1-38 characters to be used instead of the default map-drawing characters. The dungeon map will use the characters you specify instead of the default symbols, and default symbols for any you do not specify. Remember that you may need to escape some of these characters if, for example, you use \fIcsh\fP. Note that this option string is escape-processed in conventional C fashion. This means that \e' is a prefix to take the following character literally, and not as a special prefix. The special escape form \em' switches on the meta bit in the following character, and the ^' prefix causes the following character to be treated as a control character. The order of the symbols is: solid rock, vertical wall, horizontal wall, upper left corner, upper right corner, lower left corner, lower right corner, cross wall, upward T wall, downward T wall, leftward T wall, rightward T wall, no door, vertical open door, horizontal open door, vertical closed door, horizontal closed door, floor of a room, dark corridor, lit corridor, stairs up, stairs down, ladder up, ladder down, altar, throne, kitchen sink, fountain, pool or moat, ice, lava, vertical lowered drawbridge, horizontal lowered drawbridge, vertical raised drawbridge, horizontal raised drawbridge, air, cloud, under water. You might want to use +' for the corners and T walls for a more aesthetic, boxier display. Note that in the next release, new symbols may be added, or the present ones rearranged. Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp effects Set the graphics symbols for displaying special effects (default \&|-\e\e/*!)(0#@*/-\e\e||\e\e-//-\e\e|\ |\e\e-/''). The .op effects option should be followed by a string of 1-29 characters to be used instead of the default special-effects characters. This string is subjected to the same processing as the .op dungeon option. The order of the symbols is: vertical beam, horizontal beam, left slant, right slant, digging beam, camera flash beam, left boomerang, right boomerang, four glyphs giving the sequence for magic resistance displays; the eight surrounding glyphs for swallowed display; nine glyphs for explosions. An explosion consists of three rows (top, middle, and bottom) of three characters. The explosion is centered in the center of this 3 by 3 array. Note that in the next release, new symbols may be added, or the present ones rearranged. Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp female Set your sex (default off). Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp fixinv An object's inventory letter sticks to it when it's dropped (default on). If this is off, dropping an object shifts all the remaining inventory letters. .lp fruit\ \ \ Name a fruit after something you enjoy eating (ex. fruit:mango'') (default slime mold''). Basically a nostalgic whimsy that NetHack uses from time to time. You should set this to something you find more appetizing than slime mold. Apples, oranges, pears, bananas, and melons already exist in NetHack, so don't use those. .lp help If more information is available for an object looked at with the /' command, ask if you want to see it (default on). Turning help off makes just looking at things faster, since you aren't interrupted with the More info?'' prompt, but it also means that you might miss some interesting and/or important information. .lp hilite_pet Visually distinguish pets from similar animals (default off). In text windowing, use text highlighting when color is turned off; with X tiles, display a heart symbol near pets. .lp IBMgraphics Use a predefined selection of IBM extended ASCII characters to display the dungeon/effects/traps instead of having to define a full graphics set yourself (default off). This option also sets up proper handling of graphics characters for such terminals, so you should specify it when appropriate even if you override the selections with your own graphics strings. .lp ignintr Ignore interrupt signals, including breaks (default off). .lp legacy Display an introductory message when starting the game (default on). .lp lit_corridor Show corridor squares seen by night vision or a light source held by your character as lit (default off). .lp mail\ \ \ \ Enable mail delivery during the game. .lp male\ \ \ \ Set your sex (default on, most hackers are male). Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp menustyle Controls the interface used when you need to choose various objects (in response to the Drop command, for instance). The value specified should be the first letter of one of the following: traditional, combination, partial, or full. Traditional was the only interface available for earlier versions; it consists of a prompt for object class characters, followed by an object-by-object prompt for all items matching the selected object class(es). Combination starts with a prompt for object class(es) of interest, but then displays a menu of matching objects rather than prompting one-by-one. Partial skips the object class filtering and immediately displays a menu of all objects. Full displays a menu of object classes rather than a character prompt, and then a menu of matching objects for selection. .lp menu_deselect_all Menu character accelerator to deselect all items in a menu. Implemented by the X11 and tty ports. Default '-'. .lp menu_deselect_page Menu character accelerator deselect all items on this page of a menu. Implemented only by the tty port. Default '\e'. .lp menu_first_page Menu character accelerator to jump to the first page in a menu. Implemented only by the tty port. Default '^'. .lp menu_invert_all Menu character accelerator to invert all items in a menu. Implemented by the X11 and tty ports. Default '@'. .lp menu_invert_page Menu character accelerator to invert all items on this page of a menu. Implemented only by the tty port. Default '~'. .lp menu_last_page Menu character accelerator to jump to the last page in a menu. Implemented only by the tty port. Default '|'. .lp menu_next_page Menu character accelerator to goto the next menu page. Implemented only by the tty port. Default '>'. .lp menu_previous_page Menu character accelerator to goto the previous menu page. Implemented only by the tty port. Default '<'. .lp menu_search Menu character accelerator to search for a menu item. Implemented only by the X11 port. Default ':'. .lp menu_select_all Menu character accelerator to select all items in a menu. Implemented by the X11 and tty ports. Default '.'. .lp menu_select_page Menu character accelerator to select all items on this page of a menu. Implemented only by the tty port. Default ','. .lp monsters Set the characters used to display monster classes (default abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ@\ \'&;:~]''). This string is subjected to the same processing as the .op dungeon option. The order of the symbols is ant or other insect, blob, cockatrice, dog or other canine, eye or sphere, feline, gremlin, humanoid, imp or minor demon, jelly, kobold, leprechaun, mimic, nymph, orc, piercer, quadruped, rodent, spider, trapper or lurker above, unicorn, vortex, worm, xan or other mythical/fantastic insect, light, zruty, angelic being, bat, centaur, dragon, elemental, fungus or mold, gnome, giant humanoid, invisible stalker, jabberwock, Keystone Kop, lich, mummy, naga, ogre, pudding or ooze, quantum mechanic, rust monster, snake, troll, umber hulk, vampire, wraith, xorn, yeti or ape or other large beast, zombie, human, ghost, golem, demon, sea monster, lizard, long worm tail, and mimic. Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp msghistory The number of top line messages to save (and recall with ^P) (default 20). Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp name\ \ \ \ Set your character's name (defaults to your user name). You can also set your character class by appending a dash and the first letter of the character class (that is, by suffixing one of .op "-A -B -C -E -H -K -P -R -S -T -V -W" ). If .op "-@" is used for the class, then a random one will be automatically chosen. Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp news\ \ \ \ Read the NetHack news file, if present (default on). Since the news is shown at the beginning of the game, there's no point in setting this with the O' command. .lp null\ \ \ \ Send padding nulls to the terminal (default off). .lp number_pad Use the number keys to move instead of [yuhjklbn] (default off). .lp objects Set the characters used to display object classes (default ])[="(%!?+/$*0_.''). This string is subjected to the same processing as the .op dungeon option. The order of the symbols is illegal-object (should never be seen), weapon, armor, ring, amulet, tool, food, potion, scroll, spell book, wand, gold, gem or rock, boulder or statue, iron ball, chain, and venom. Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp packorder Specify the order to list object types in (default \e")[%?+/=!(*0_''). The value of this option should be a string containing the symbols for the various object types. .lp perm_invent If true, always display your current inventory in a window. This only makes sense for windowing system interfaces that implement this feature. .lp pettype Specify the type of your initial pet, if you are playing a character class that uses both types of pets. Possible values are cat'' and dog''. Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp pickup_types Specify the object types to be picked up when .op autopickup is on. Default is all types. .lp preload_tiles For the protected mode MSDOS version, control whether tiles get pre-loaded into RAM at the start of the game. Doing so enhances performance of the tile graphics, but uses more memory. (default on). Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp rawio\ \ \ Force raw (non-cbreak) mode for faster output and more bulletproof input (MS-DOS sometimes treats ^P' as a printer toggle without it) (default off). Note: DEC Rainbows hang if this is turned on. Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp rest_on_space Make the space bar a synonym for the .' (rest) command (default off). .lp safe_pet Prevent you from (knowingly) attacking your pets (default on). .lp scores Control what parts of the score list you are shown at the end (ex. scores:5 top scores/4 around my score/own scores''). Only the first letter of each category (t', a', or o') is necessary. .lp showexp Show your accumulated experience points on bottom line (default off). .lp showscore Show your approximate accumulated score on bottom line (default off). .lp silent\ \ Suppress terminal beeps (default on). .lp sortpack Sort the pack contents by type when displaying inventory (default on). .lp standout Boldface monsters and \fB--More--\fP'' (default off). .lp time\ \ \ \ Show the elapsed game time in turns on bottom line (default off). .lp timed_delay When pausing momentarily for display effect, such as with explosions and moving objects, use a timer rather than sending extra characters to the screen. (Applies to tty'' interface only; X11'' interface always uses a timer based delay. The default is on if configured into the program.) .lp tombstone Draw a tombstone graphic upon your death (default on). .lp toptenwin Put the ending display in a NetHack window instead of on stdout (default off). Setting this option makes the score list visible when a windowing version of NetHack is started without a parent window, but it no longer leaves the score list around after game end on a terminal or emulating window. .lp traps Set the graphics symbols for displaying traps (default \&^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^#^^^^''). The .op traps option should be followed by a string of 1-22 characters to be used instead of the default traps characters. This string is subjected to the same processing as the .op dungeon option. The order of the symbols is: arrow trap, dart trap, falling rock trap, squeaky board, bear trap, land mine, rolling boulder trap, sleeping gas trap, rust trap, fire trap, pit, spiked pit, hole, trap door, teleportation trap, level teleporter, magic portal, web, statue trap, magic trap, anti-magic field, polymorph trap. Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp verbose Provide more commentary during the game (default on). .lp videocolors Set the color palette for PC systems using NO_TERMS (default 4-2-6-1-5-3-15-12-10-14-9-13-11). The order of colors is red, green, brown, blue, magenta, cyan, bright.white, bright.red, bright.green, yellow, bright.blue, bright.magenta, and bright.cyan. Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp videoshades Set the intensity level of the three gray scales available (default dark normal light, PC NetHack only). If the game display is difficult to read, try adjusting these scales; if this does not correct the problem, try !color. Cannot be set with the O' command. .lp windowtype Select which windowing system to use, such as tty'' or X11'' (default depends on version). Cannot be set with the O' command. .hn 1 Scoring .pg NetHack maintains a list of the top scores or scorers on your machine, depending on how it is set up. In the latter case, each account on the machine can post only one non-winning score on this list. If you score higher than someone else on this list, or better your previous score, you will be inserted in the proper place under your current name. How many scores are kept can also be set up when NetHack is compiled. .pg Your score is chiefly based upon how much experience you gained, how much loot you accumulated, how deep you explored, and how the game ended. If you quit the game, you escape with all of your gold intact. If, however, you get killed in the Mazes of Menace, the guild will only hear about 90% of your gold when your corpse is discovered (adventurers have been known to collect finder's fees). So, consider whether you want to take one last hit at that monster and possibly live, or quit and stop with whatever you have. If you quit, you keep all your gold, but if you swing and live, you might find more. .pg If you just want to see what the current top players/games list is, you can type \fBnethack -s all\fP on most versions. .hn 1 Explore mode .pg NetHack is an intricate and difficult game. Novices might falter in fear, aware of their ignorance of the means to survive. Well, fear not. Your dungeon may come equipped with an explore'' or discovery'' mode that enables you to keep old save files and cheat death, at the paltry cost of not getting on the high score list. .pg There are two ways of enabling explore mode. One is to start the game with the .op -X switch. The other is to issue the X' command while already playing the game. The other benefits of explore mode are left for the intrepid reader to discover. .hn Credits .pg The original \fIhack\fP game was modeled on the Berkeley .ux \fIrogue\fP game. Large portions of this paper were shamelessly cribbed from \fIA Guide to the Dungeons of Doom\fP, by Michael C. Toy and Kenneth C. R. C. Arnold. Small portions were adapted from \fIFurther Exploration of the Dungeons of Doom\fP, by Ken Arromdee. .pg NetHack is the product of literally dozens of people's work. Main events in the course of the game development are described below: .pg \fBJay Fenlason\fP wrote the original Hack, with help from \fBKenny Woodland\fP, \fBMike Thome\fP and \fBJon Payne\fP. .pg \fBAndries Brouwer\fP did a major re-write, transforming Hack into a very different game, and published (at least) three versions (1.0.1, 1.0.2, and 1.0.3) for .ux machines to the Usenet. .pg \fBDon G. Kneller\fP ported Hack 1.0.3 to Microsoft C and MS-DOS, producing PC HACK 1.01e, added support for DEC Rainbow graphics in version 1.03g, and went on to produce at least four more versions (3.0, 3.2, 3.51, and 3.6). .pg \fBR. Black\fP ported PC HACK 3.51 to Lattice C and the Atari 520/1040ST, producing ST Hack 1.03. .pg \fBMike Stephenson\fP merged these various versions back together, incorporating many of the added features, and produced NetHack 1.4. He then coordinated a cast of thousands in enhancing and debugging NetHack 1.4 and released NetHack versions 2.2 and 2.3. .pg Later, Mike coordinated a major rewrite of the game, heading a team which included \fBKen Arromdee\fP, \fBJean-Christophe Collet\fP, \fBSteve Creps\fP, \fBEric Hendrickson\fP, \fBIzchak Miller\fP, \fBJohn Rupley\fP, \fBMike Threepoint\fP, and \fBJanet Walz\fP, to produce NetHack 3.0c. .pg NetHack 3.0 was ported to the Atari by \fBEric R. Smith\fP, to OS/2 by \fBTimo Hakulinen\fP, and to VMS by \fBDavid Gentzel\fP. The three of them and \fBKevin Darcy\fP later joined the main development team to produce subsequent revisions of 3.0. .pg \fBOlaf Seibert\fP ported NetHack 2.3 and 3.0 to the Amiga. \fBNorm Meluch\fP, \fBStephen Spackman\fP and \fBPierre Martineau\fP designed overlay code for PC NetHack 3.0. \fBJohnny Lee\fP ported NetHack 3.0 to the Macintosh. Along with various other Dungeoneers, they continued to enhance the PC, Macintosh, and Amiga ports through the later revisions of 3.0. .pg Headed by \fBMike Stephenson\fP and coordinated by \fBIzchak Miller\fP and \fBJanet Walz\fP, the development team which now included \fBKen Arromdee\fP, \fBDavid Cohrs\fP, \fBJean-Christophe Collet\fP, \fBKevin Darcy\fP, \fBMatt Day\fP, \fBTimo Hakulinen\fP, \fBSteve Linhart\fP, \fBDean Luick\fP, \fBPat Rankin\fP, \fBEric Raymond\fP, and \fBEric Smith\fP undertook a radical revision of 3.0. They re-structured the game's design, and re-wrote major parts of the code. They added multiple dungeons, a new display, special individual character quests, a new endgame and many other new features, and produced NetHack 3.1. .pg \fBKen Lorber\fP, \fBGregg Wonderly\fP and \fBGreg Olson\fP, with help from \fBRichard Addison\fP, \fBMike Passaretti\fP, and \fBOlaf Seibert\fP, developed NetHack 3.1 for the Amiga. .pg \fBNorm Meluch\fP and \fBKevin Smolkowski\fP, with help from \fBCarl Schelin\fP, \fBStephen Spackman\fP, \fBSteve VanDevender\fP, and \fBPaul Winner\fP, ported NetHack 3.1 to the PC. .pg \fBJon Watte\fP and \fBHao-yang Wang\fP, with help from \fBRoss Brown\fP, \fBMike Engber\fP, \fBDavid Hairston\fP, \fBMichael Hamel\fP, \fBJonathan Handler\fP, \fBJohnny Lee\fP, \fBTim Lennan\fP, \fBRob Menke\fP, and \fBAndy Swanson\fP, developed NetHack 3.1 for the Macintosh, porting it for MPW. Building on their development, \fBBarton House\fP added a Think C port. .pg \fBTimo Hakulinen\fP ported NetHack 3.1 to OS/2. \fBEric Smith\fP ported NetHack 3.1 to the Atari. \fBPat Rankin\fP, with help from \fBJoshua Delahunty\fP, is responsible for the VMS version of NetHack 3.1. \fBMichael Allison\fP ported NetHack 3.1 to Windows NT. .pg \fBDean Luick\fP, with help from \fBDavid Cohrs\fP, developed NetHack 3.1 for X11. .pg The 3.2 development team, comprised of: \fBMichael Allison\fP; \fBKen Arromdee\fP; \fBDavid Cohrs\fP; \fBJessie Collet\fP; \fBSteve Creps\fP; \fBKevin Darcy\fP; \fBTimo Hakulinen\fP; \fBSteve Linhart\fP; \fBDean Luick\fP; \fBPat Rankin\fP; \fBEric Smith\fP; \fBMike Stephenson\fP; \fBJanet Walz\fP; and, \fBPaul Winner\fP, release version 3.2 in April of 1996. .pg Version 3.2 marks the tenth anniversary of the formation of the development team. In a testament to their dedication to the game, all thirteen members of the original development team remained on the team at the start of work on the current release. During the interval between the release of 3.1.3 and 3.2, one of the founding members of the development team, \fBDr. Izchak Miller\fP, was diagnosed with cancer and passed away. This release of the game is dedicated to him by the development and porting teams. .pg \fBPat Rankin\fP maintained 3.2 for VMS. .pg \fBMichael Allison\fP, \fBYitzhak Sapir\fP, and \fBPaul Winner\fP, with help from \fBSteve Linhart\fP, \fBKevin Smolkowski\fP, \fBMike Stephenson\fP, and \fBStephen White\fP ported 3.2 for MSDOS. \fBKeizo Yamamoto\fP and \fBKen Washikita\fP ported 3.2 for the NEC 98xx machines popular in Japan. .pg \fBKen Lorber\fP, \fBAndy Church\fP, and \fBGregg Wonderly\fP, with help from \fBRichard Addison\fP, ported 3.2 for the Amiga. .pg \fBDean Luick\fP ported 3.2 to the Macintosh. .pg \fBEric Smith\fP and \fBWarwick Allison\fP ported 3.2 for the Ataris. .pg \fBMichael Allison\fP ported 3.2 for the Microsoft Windows NT platform. .pg \fBTimo Hakulinen\fP remains responsible for the OS/2 port. .pg From time to time, some depraved individual out there in netland sends a particularly intriguing modification to help out with the game. The Gods of the Dungeon sometimes make note of the names of the worst of these miscreants in this, the list of Dungeoneers: .sd .TS S center; c c c. .\"TABLE_START Andy Church Helge Hafting Mike Gallop Andy Swanson Izchak Miller Mike Passaretti Ari Huttunen Janet Walz Mike Stephenson Barton House Jean-Christophe Collet Norm Meluch Benson I. Margulies Jochen Erwied Olaf Seibert Bill Dyer John Kallen Pat Rankin Boudewijn Wayers John Rupley Paul Winner Bruce Holloway John S. Bien Pierre Martineau Bruce Mewborne Johnny Lee Ralf Brown Carl Schelin Jon W{tte Richard Addison David Cohrs Jonathan Handler Richard P. Hughey David Gentzel Joshua Delahunty Rob Menke David Hairston Keizo Yamamoto Roland McGrath Dean Luick Ken Arromdee Ross Brown Del Lamb Ken Lorber Scott R. Turner Deron Meranda Ken Washikita Stephen Spackman Eric Backus Kevin Darcy Stephen White Eric Hendrickson Kevin Sitze Steve Creps Eric R. Smith Kevin Smolkowski Steve Linhart Eric S. Raymond Kevin Sweet Steve VanDevender Frederick Roeber Mark Gooderum Tim Lennan Gil Neiger Matthew Day Timo Hakulinen Greg Laskin Merlyn LeRoy Tom Almy Greg Olson Michael Allison Tom West Gregg Wonderly Michael Hamel Warwick Allison Hao-yang Wang Michael Sokolov Yitzhak Sapir .\"TABLE_END Do not delete this line. .TE .ed .\"Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. .\"Lattice is a trademark of Lattice, Inc. .\"Atari and 1040ST are trademarks of Atari, Inc. .\"AMIGA is a trademark of Commodore-Amiga, Inc. .sm "Brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks \ of their respective holders."