File: gmTools.py

package info (click to toggle)
gnumed-server 21.11-1
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: stretch
  • size: 45,408 kB
  • ctags: 3,891
  • sloc: sql: 1,210,640; python: 13,526; sh: 1,476; makefile: 19
file content (1888 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 59,753 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

from __future__ import print_function

__doc__ = """GNUmed general tools."""

#===========================================================================
__author__ = "K. Hilbert <Karsten.Hilbert@gmx.net>"
__license__ = "GPL v2 or later (details at http://www.gnu.org)"

# std libs
import sys
import os
import os.path
import csv
import tempfile
import logging
import hashlib
import platform
import subprocess
import decimal
import getpass
import io
import functools
import json
import shutil
import zipfile
import datetime as pydt
import re as regex
import xml.sax.saxutils as xml_tools
# old:
import pickle, zlib


# GNUmed libs
if __name__ == '__main__':
	sys.path.insert(0, '../../')


from Gnumed.pycommon import gmBorg


_log = logging.getLogger('gm.tools')

# CAPitalization modes:
(	CAPS_NONE,					# don't touch it
	CAPS_FIRST,					# CAP first char, leave rest as is
	CAPS_ALLCAPS,				# CAP all chars
	CAPS_WORDS,					# CAP first char of every word
	CAPS_NAMES,					# CAP in a way suitable for names (tries to be smart)
	CAPS_FIRST_ONLY				# CAP first char, lowercase the rest
) = range(6)


u_currency_pound = u'\u00A3'				# Pound sign
u_currency_sign = u'\u00A4'					# generic currency sign
u_currency_yen = u'\u00A5'					# Yen sign
u_right_double_angle_quote = u'\u00AB'		# <<
u_registered_trademark = u'\u00AE'
u_plus_minus = u'\u00B1'
u_left_double_angle_quote = u'\u00BB'		# >>
u_one_quarter = u'\u00BC'
u_one_half = u'\u00BD'
u_three_quarters = u'\u00BE'
u_multiply = u'\u00D7'						# x
u_greek_ALPHA = u'\u0391'
u_greek_alpha = u'\u03b1'
u_greek_OMEGA = u'\u03A9'
u_greek_omega = u'\u03c9'
u_triangular_bullet = u'\u2023'					# triangular bullet  (>)
u_ellipsis = u'\u2026'							# ...
u_euro = u'\u20AC'								# EURO sign
u_numero = u'\u2116'							# No. / # sign
u_down_left_arrow = u'\u21B5'					# <-'
u_left_arrow = u'\u2190'						# <--
u_up_arrow = u'\u2191'
u_arrow2right = u'\u2192'						# -->
u_down_arrow = u'\u2193'
u_left_arrow_with_tail = u'\u21a2'				# <--<
u_arrow2right_from_bar = u'\u21a6'				# |->
u_arrow2right_until_vertical_bar = u'\u21e5'	# -->|
u_sum = u'\u2211'								# sigma
u_almost_equal_to = u'\u2248'					# approximately / nearly / roughly
u_corresponds_to = u'\u2258'
u_infinity = u'\u221E'
u_arrow2right_until_vertical_bar2 = u'\u2b72'	# -->|
u_diameter = u'\u2300'
u_checkmark_crossed_out = u'\u237B'
u_box_vert_left = u'\u23b8'
u_box_vert_right = u'\u23b9'
u_box_horiz_single = u'\u2500'				# -
u_box_vert_light = u'\u2502'
u_box_vert_light_4dashes = u'\u2506'
u_box_horiz_4dashes = u'\u2508'
u_box_T_right = u'\u251c'
u_box_T_down = u'\u252c'
u_box_T_up = u'\u2534'
u_box_plus = u'\u253c'
u_box_top_double = u'\u2550'
u_box_top_left_double_single = u'\u2552'
u_box_top_right_double_single = u'\u2555'
u_box_top_left_arc = u'\u256d'
u_box_bottom_right_arc = u'\u256f'
u_box_bottom_left_arc = u'\u2570'
u_box_horiz_light_heavy = u'\u257c'
u_box_horiz_heavy_light = u'\u257e'
u_skull_and_crossbones = u'\u2620'
u_frowning_face = u'\u2639'
u_smiling_face = u'\u263a'
u_black_heart = u'\u2665'
u_female = u'\u2640'
u_male = u'\u2642'
u_male_female = u'\u26a5'
u_checkmark_thin = u'\u2713'
u_checkmark_thick = u'\u2714'
u_arrow2right_thick = u'\u2794'
u_writing_hand = u'\u270d'
u_pencil_1 = u'\u270e'
u_pencil_2 = u'\u270f'
u_pencil_3 = u'\u2710'
u_latin_cross = u'\u271d'
u_arrow2right_until_black_diamond = u'\u291e'	# ->*
u_kanji_yen = u'\u5186'							# Yen kanji
u_replacement_character = u'\ufffd'
u_link_symbol = u'\u1f517'

_kB = 1024
_MB = 1024 * _kB
_GB = 1024 * _MB
_TB = 1024 * _GB
_PB = 1024 * _TB

#===========================================================================
def handle_uncaught_exception_console(t, v, tb):

	print(".========================================================")
	print("| Unhandled exception caught !")
	print("| Type :", t)
	print("| Value:", v)
	print("`========================================================")
	_log.critical('unhandled exception caught', exc_info = (t,v,tb))
	sys.__excepthook__(t,v,tb)

#===========================================================================
# path level operations
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def mkdir(directory=None, mode=None):
	try:
		if mode is None:
			os.makedirs(directory)
		else:
			old_umask = os.umask(0)
			os.makedirs(directory, mode)
			os.umask(old_umask)
	except OSError as e:
		if (e.errno == 17) and not os.path.isdir(directory):
			raise
	return True

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def rmdir(directory):
	#-------------------------------
	def _on_rm_error(func, path, exc):
		_log.error(u'error while shutil.rmtree(%s)', path, exc_info=exc)
		return True
	#-------------------------------
	error_count = 0
	try:
		shutil.rmtree(directory, False, _on_rm_error)
	except StandardError:
		_log.exception('cannot shutil.rmtree(%s)', directory)
		error_count += 1
	return error_count

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def mk_sandbox_dir(prefix=None, base_dir=None):
	if prefix is None:
		if base_dir is None:
			prefix = u'sandbox-'
		else:
			prefix = u'gm_sandbox-'
	return tempfile.mkdtemp (
		prefix = prefix,
		suffix = u'',
		dir = base_dir
	)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def parent_dir(directory):
	return os.path.abspath(os.path.join(directory, '..'))

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def dirname_stem(directory):
	# /home/user/dir/ -> dir
	# /home/user/dir  -> dir
	return os.path.basename(os.path.normpath(directory))		# normpath removes trailing slashes if any

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def dir_is_empty(directory=None):
	return len(os.listdir(directory)) == 0

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
class gmPaths(gmBorg.cBorg):
	"""This class provides the following paths:

	.home_dir				user home
	.local_base_dir			script installation dir
	.working_dir			current dir
	.user_config_dir
	.system_config_dir
	.system_app_data_dir	(not writable)
	.tmp_dir
	"""
	def __init__(self, app_name=None, wx=None):
		"""Setup pathes.

		<app_name> will default to (name of the script - .py)
		"""
		try:
			self.already_inited
			return
		except AttributeError:
			pass

		self.init_paths(app_name=app_name, wx=wx)
		self.already_inited = True
	#--------------------------------------
	# public API
	#--------------------------------------
	def init_paths(self, app_name=None, wx=None):

		if wx is None:
			_log.debug('wxPython not available')
		_log.debug('detecting paths directly')

		if app_name is None:
			app_name, ext = os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(sys.argv[0]))
			_log.info('app name detected as [%s]', app_name)
		else:
			_log.info('app name passed in as [%s]', app_name)

		# the user home, doesn't work in Wine so work around that
		self.__home_dir = None

		# where the main script (the "binary") is installed
		if getattr(sys, 'frozen', False):
			_log.info('frozen app, installed into temporary path')
			# this would find the path of *THIS* file
			#self.local_base_dir = os.path.dirname(__file__)
			# while this is documented on the web, the ${_MEIPASS2} does not exist
			#self.local_base_dir = os.environ.get('_MEIPASS2')
			# this is what Martin Zibricky <mzibr.public@gmail.com> told us to use
			# when asking about this on pyinstaller@googlegroups.com
			#self.local_base_dir = sys._MEIPASS
			# however, we are --onedir, so we should look at sys.executable
			# as per the pyinstaller manual
			self.local_base_dir = os.path.dirname(sys.executable)
		else:
			self.local_base_dir = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(sys.argv[0]))

		# the current working dir at the OS
		self.working_dir = os.path.abspath(os.curdir)

		# user-specific config dir, usually below the home dir
		mkdir(os.path.join(self.home_dir, '.%s' % app_name))
		self.user_config_dir = os.path.join(self.home_dir, '.%s' % app_name)

		# system-wide config dir, usually below /etc/ under UN*X
		try:
			self.system_config_dir = os.path.join('/etc', app_name)
		except ValueError:
			#self.system_config_dir = self.local_base_dir
			self.system_config_dir = self.user_config_dir

		# system-wide application data dir
		try:
			self.system_app_data_dir = os.path.join(sys.prefix, 'share', app_name)
		except ValueError:
			self.system_app_data_dir = self.local_base_dir

		# temporary directory
		try:
			self.__tmp_dir_already_set
			_log.debug(u'temp dir already set')
		except AttributeError:
			_log.info(u'initial (user level) temp dir: %s', tempfile.gettempdir())
			# $TMP/gnumed-$USER/
			tmp_base = os.path.join(tempfile.gettempdir(), app_name + r'-' + getpass.getuser())
			mkdir(tmp_base, 0o700)
			tempfile.tempdir = tmp_base
			_log.info(u'intermediate (app level) temp dir: %s', tempfile.gettempdir())
			# $TMP/gnumed-$USER/g$UNIQUE/
			self.tmp_dir = tempfile.mkdtemp(prefix = r'g')
			_log.info(u'final (app instance level) temp dir: %s', tempfile.gettempdir())

		self.__log_paths()
		if wx is None:
			return True

		# retry with wxPython
		_log.debug('re-detecting paths with wxPython')

		std_paths = wx.StandardPaths.Get()
		_log.info('wxPython app name is [%s]', wx.GetApp().GetAppName())

		# user-specific config dir, usually below the home dir
		mkdir(os.path.join(std_paths.GetUserConfigDir(), '.%s' % app_name))
		self.user_config_dir = os.path.join(std_paths.GetUserConfigDir(), '.%s' % app_name)

		# system-wide config dir, usually below /etc/ under UN*X
		try:
			tmp = std_paths.GetConfigDir()
			if not tmp.endswith(app_name):
				tmp = os.path.join(tmp, app_name)
			self.system_config_dir = tmp
		except ValueError:
			# leave it at what it was from direct detection
			pass

		# system-wide application data dir
		# Robin attests that the following doesn't always
		# give sane values on Windows, so IFDEF it
		if 'wxMSW' in wx.PlatformInfo:
			_log.warning('this platform (wxMSW) sometimes returns a broken value for the system-wide application data dir')
		else:
			try:
				self.system_app_data_dir = std_paths.GetDataDir()
			except ValueError:
				pass

		self.__log_paths()
		return True
	#--------------------------------------
	def __log_paths(self):
		_log.debug('sys.argv[0]: %s', sys.argv[0])
		_log.debug('sys.executable: %s', sys.executable)
		_log.debug('sys._MEIPASS: %s', getattr(sys, '_MEIPASS', '<not found>'))
		_log.debug('os.environ["_MEIPASS2"]: %s', os.environ.get('_MEIPASS2', '<not found>'))
		_log.debug('__file__ : %s', __file__)
		_log.debug('local application base dir: %s', self.local_base_dir)
		_log.debug('current working dir: %s', self.working_dir)
		_log.debug('user home dir: %s', self.home_dir)
		_log.debug('user-specific config dir: %s', self.user_config_dir)
		_log.debug('system-wide config dir: %s', self.system_config_dir)
		_log.debug('system-wide application data dir: %s', self.system_app_data_dir)
		_log.debug('temporary dir: %s', self.tmp_dir)
	#--------------------------------------
	# properties
	#--------------------------------------
	def _set_user_config_dir(self, path):
		if not (os.access(path, os.R_OK) and os.access(path, os.X_OK)):
			msg = '[%s:user_config_dir]: invalid path [%s]' % (self.__class__.__name__, path)
			_log.error(msg)
			raise ValueError(msg)
		self.__user_config_dir = path

	def _get_user_config_dir(self):
		return self.__user_config_dir

	user_config_dir = property(_get_user_config_dir, _set_user_config_dir)
	#--------------------------------------
	def _set_system_config_dir(self, path):
		if not (os.access(path, os.R_OK) and os.access(path, os.X_OK)):
			msg = '[%s:system_config_dir]: invalid path [%s]' % (self.__class__.__name__, path)
			_log.error(msg)
			raise ValueError(msg)
		self.__system_config_dir = path

	def _get_system_config_dir(self):
		return self.__system_config_dir

	system_config_dir = property(_get_system_config_dir, _set_system_config_dir)
	#--------------------------------------
	def _set_system_app_data_dir(self, path):
		if not (os.access(path, os.R_OK) and os.access(path, os.X_OK)):
			msg = '[%s:system_app_data_dir]: invalid path [%s]' % (self.__class__.__name__, path)
			_log.error(msg)
			raise ValueError(msg)
		self.__system_app_data_dir = path

	def _get_system_app_data_dir(self):
		return self.__system_app_data_dir

	system_app_data_dir = property(_get_system_app_data_dir, _set_system_app_data_dir)
	#--------------------------------------
	def _set_home_dir(self, path):
		raise ValueError('invalid to set home dir')

	def _get_home_dir(self):
		if self.__home_dir is not None:
			return self.__home_dir

		tmp = os.path.expanduser('~')
		if tmp == '~':
			_log.error('this platform does not expand ~ properly')
			try:
				tmp = os.environ['USERPROFILE']
			except KeyError:
				_log.error('cannot access $USERPROFILE in environment')

		if not (
			os.access(tmp, os.R_OK)
				and
			os.access(tmp, os.X_OK)
				and
			os.access(tmp, os.W_OK)
		):
			msg = '[%s:home_dir]: invalid path [%s]' % (self.__class__.__name__, tmp)
			_log.error(msg)
			raise ValueError(msg)

		self.__home_dir = tmp
		return self.__home_dir

	home_dir = property(_get_home_dir, _set_home_dir)
	#--------------------------------------
	def _set_tmp_dir(self, path):
		if not (os.access(path, os.R_OK) and os.access(path, os.X_OK)):
			msg = '[%s:tmp_dir]: invalid path [%s]' % (self.__class__.__name__, path)
			_log.error(msg)
			raise ValueError(msg)
		_log.debug('previous temp dir: %s', tempfile.gettempdir())
		self.__tmp_dir = path
		tempfile.tempdir = self.__tmp_dir
		_log.debug('new temp dir: %s', tempfile.gettempdir())
		self.__tmp_dir_already_set = True

	def _get_tmp_dir(self):
		return self.__tmp_dir

	tmp_dir = property(_get_tmp_dir, _set_tmp_dir)

#===========================================================================
# file related tools
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def recode_file(source_file=None, target_file=None, source_encoding=u'utf8', target_encoding=None, base_dir=None, error_mode='replace'):
	if target_encoding is None:
		return source_file
	if target_encoding == source_encoding:
		return source_file
	if target_file is None:
		target_file = get_unique_filename (
			prefix = u'%s-%s_%s-' % (fname_stem(source_file), source_encoding, target_encoding),
			suffix = fname_extension(source_file, u'.txt'),
			tmp_dir = base_dir
		)

	_log.debug('[%s] -> [%s] (%s -> %s)', source_encoding, target_encoding, source_file, target_file)

	in_file = io.open(source_file, mode = 'rt', encoding = source_encoding)
	out_file = io.open(target_file, mode = 'wt', encoding = target_encoding, errors = error_mode)
	for line in in_file:
		out_file.write(line)
	out_file.close()
	in_file.close()

	return target_file

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def unzip_archive(archive_name, target_dir=None, remove_archive=False):
	_log.debug('unzipping [%s] -> [%s]', archive_name, target_dir)
	success = False
	try:
		with zipfile.ZipFile(archive_name) as archive:
			archive.extractall(target_dir)
		success = True
	except StandardError:
		_log.exception('cannot unzip')
		return False
	if remove_archive:
		remove_file(archive_name)
	return success

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def remove_file(filename, log_error=True):
	# attempt file remove and ignore (but log) errors
	try:
		os.remove(filename)
	except StandardError:
		if log_error:
			_log.exception('cannot os.remove(%s)', filename)
		return False

	return True

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def gpg_decrypt_file(filename=None, passphrase=None):

	if platform.system() == 'Windows':
		exec_name = 'gpg.exe'
	else:
		exec_name = 'gpg'

	tmp, fname = os.path.split(filename)
	basename, tmp = os.path.splitext(fname)
	filename_decrypted = get_unique_filename(prefix = '%s-decrypted-' % basename)

	args = [exec_name, '--verbose', '--batch', '--yes', '--passphrase-fd', '0', '--output', filename_decrypted, '--decrypt', filename]
	_log.debug('GnuPG args: %s' % str(args))

	try:
		gpg = subprocess.Popen (
			args = args,
			stdin = subprocess.PIPE,
			stdout = subprocess.PIPE,
			stderr = subprocess.PIPE,
			close_fds = False
		)
	except (OSError, ValueError, subprocess.CalledProcessError):
		_log.exception('there was a problem executing gpg')
		gmDispatcher.send(signal = u'statustext', msg = _('Error running GnuPG. Cannot decrypt data.'), beep = True)
		return

	out, error = gpg.communicate(passphrase)
	_log.debug('gpg returned [%s]', gpg.returncode)
	if gpg.returncode != 0:
		_log.debug('GnuPG STDOUT:\n%s', out)
		_log.debug('GnuPG STDERR:\n%s', error)
		return None

	return filename_decrypted

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def file2md5(filename=None, return_hex=True):
	blocksize = 2**10 * 128			# 128k, since md5 uses 128 byte blocks
	_log.debug('md5(%s): <%s> byte blocks', filename, blocksize)

	f = io.open(filename, mode = 'rb')

	md5 = hashlib.md5()
	while True:
		data = f.read(blocksize)
		if not data:
			break
		md5.update(data)
	f.close()

	_log.debug('md5(%s): %s', filename, md5.hexdigest())

	if return_hex:
		return md5.hexdigest()
	return md5.digest()

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def file2chunked_md5(filename=None, chunk_size=500*_MB):
	_log.debug('chunked_md5(%s, chunk_size=%s bytes)', filename, chunk_size)
	md5_concat = u''
	f = open(filename, 'rb')
	while True:
		md5 = hashlib.md5()
		data = f.read(chunk_size)
		if not data:
			break
		md5.update(data)
		md5_concat += md5.hexdigest()
	f.close()
	md5 = hashlib.md5()
	md5.update(md5_concat)
	hex_digest = md5.hexdigest()
	_log.debug('md5("%s"): %s', md5_concat, hex_digest)
	return hex_digest

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def unicode2charset_encoder(unicode_csv_data, encoding='utf-8'):
	for line in unicode_csv_data:
		yield line.encode(encoding)

#def utf_8_encoder(unicode_csv_data):
#	for line in unicode_csv_data:
#		yield line.encode('utf-8')

default_csv_reader_rest_key = u'list_of_values_of_unknown_fields'

def unicode_csv_reader(unicode_csv_data, dialect=csv.excel, encoding='utf-8', **kwargs):

	# csv.py doesn't do Unicode; encode temporarily as UTF-8:
	try:
		is_dict_reader = kwargs['dict']
		del kwargs['dict']
		if is_dict_reader is not True:
			raise KeyError
		kwargs['restkey'] = default_csv_reader_rest_key
		csv_reader = csv.DictReader(unicode2charset_encoder(unicode_csv_data), dialect=dialect, **kwargs)
	except KeyError:
		is_dict_reader = False
		csv_reader = csv.reader(unicode2charset_encoder(unicode_csv_data), dialect=dialect, **kwargs)

	for row in csv_reader:
		# decode ENCODING back to Unicode, cell by cell:
		if is_dict_reader:
			for key in row.keys():
				if key == default_csv_reader_rest_key:
					old_data = row[key]
					new_data = []
					for val in old_data:
						new_data.append(unicode(val, encoding))
					row[key] = new_data
					if default_csv_reader_rest_key not in csv_reader.fieldnames:
						csv_reader.fieldnames.append(default_csv_reader_rest_key)
				else:
					row[key] = unicode(row[key], encoding)
			yield row
		else:
			yield [ unicode(cell, encoding) for cell in row ]
			#yield [unicode(cell, 'utf-8') for cell in row]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def fname_stem(filename):
	# /home/user/dir/filename.ext -> filename
	return os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(filename))[0]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def fname_stem_with_path(filename):
	# /home/user/dir/filename.ext -> /home/user/dir/filename
	return os.path.splitext(filename)[0]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def fname_extension(filename=None, fallback=None):
	# /home/user/dir/filename.ext -> .ext
	# '' or '.' -> fallback if any else ''
	ext = os.path.splitext(filename)[1]
	if ext.strip() not in [u'.', u'']:
		return ext
	if fallback is None:
		return u''
	return fallback

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def fname_dir(filename):
	# /home/user/dir/filename.ext -> /home/user/dir
	return os.path.split(filename)[0]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def fname_from_path(filename):
	# /home/user/dir/filename.ext -> filename.ext
	return os.path.split(filename)[1]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def get_unique_filename(prefix=None, suffix=None, tmp_dir=None, include_timestamp=False):
	"""This introduces a race condition between the file.close() and
	actually using the filename.

	The file will NOT exist after calling this function.
	"""
	if tmp_dir is not None:
		if (
			not os.access(tmp_dir, os.F_OK)
				or
			not os.access(tmp_dir, os.X_OK | os.W_OK)
		):
			_log.warning('cannot find temporary dir [%s], using system default', tmp_dir)
			tmp_dir = None

	if include_timestamp:
		ts = pydt.datetime.now().strftime('%m%d-%H%M%S-')
	else:
		ts = u''

	kwargs = {
		'dir': tmp_dir,
		#  make sure file gets deleted as soon as
		# .close()d so we can safely open it again
		'delete': True
	}

	if prefix is None:
		kwargs['prefix'] = 'gmd-%s' % ts
	else:
		kwargs['prefix'] = prefix + ts

	if suffix in [None, u'']:
		kwargs['suffix'] = '.tmp'
	else:
		if not suffix.startswith('.'):
			suffix = '.' + suffix
		kwargs['suffix'] = suffix

	f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(**kwargs)
	filename = f.name
	f.close()

	return filename

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def __make_symlink_on_windows(physical_name, link_name):
	import ctypes
	csl = ctypes.windll.kernel32.CreateSymbolicLinkW
	csl.argtypes = (ctypes.c_wchar_p, ctypes.c_wchar_p, ctypes.c_uint32)
	csl.restype = ctypes.c_ubyte
	if os.path.isdir(physical_name):
		flags = 1
	else:
		flags = 0
	ret_code = csl(link_name, physical_name.replace('/', '\\'), flags)
	_log.debug('ctypes.windll.kernel32.CreateSymbolicLinkW() exit code: %s', ret_code)
	if ret_code == 0:
		raise ctypes.WinError()
	return ret_code

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def mklink(physical_name, link_name, overwrite=False):

	_log.debug('creating symlink (overwrite = %s):', overwrite)
	_log.debug('link [%s] =>', link_name)
	_log.debug('=> physical [%s]', physical_name)

	if os.path.exists(link_name):
		_log.debug('link exists')
		if overwrite:
			return True
		return False

	try:
		os.symlink(physical_name, link_name)
	except AttributeError:
		_log.debug('Windows does not have os.symlink(), resorting to ctypes')
		__make_symlink_on_windows(physical_name, link_name)

	return True

#===========================================================================
def import_module_from_directory(module_path=None, module_name=None, always_remove_path=False):
	"""Import a module from any location."""

	_log.debug('CWD: %s', os.getcwd())

	remove_path = always_remove_path or False
	if module_path not in sys.path:
		_log.info('appending to sys.path: [%s]' % module_path)
		sys.path.append(module_path)
		remove_path = True

	_log.debug('will remove import path: %s', remove_path)

	if module_name.endswith('.py'):
		module_name = module_name[:-3]

	try:
		module = __import__(module_name)
	except Exception:
		_log.exception('cannot __import__() module [%s] from [%s]' % (module_name, module_path))
		while module_path in sys.path:
			sys.path.remove(module_path)
		raise

	_log.info('imported module [%s] as [%s]' % (module_name, module))
	if remove_path:
		while module_path in sys.path:
			sys.path.remove(module_path)

	return module

#===========================================================================
# text related tools
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def size2str(size=0, template=u'%s'):
	if size == 1:
		return template % _('1 Byte')
	if size < 10 * _kB:
		return template % _('%s Bytes') % size
	if size < _MB:
		return template % u'%.1f kB' % (float(size) / _kB)
	if size < _GB:
		return template % u'%.1f MB' % (float(size) / _MB)
	if size < _TB:
		return template % u'%.1f GB' % (float(size) / _GB)
	if size < _PB:
		return template % u'%.1f TB' % (float(size) / _TB)
	return template % u'%.1f PB' % (float(size) / _PB)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def bool2subst(boolean=None, true_return=True, false_return=False, none_return=None):
	if boolean is None:
		return none_return
	if boolean:
		return true_return
	if not boolean:
		return false_return
	raise ValueError('bool2subst(): <boolean> arg must be either of True, False, None')

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def bool2str(boolean=None, true_str='True', false_str='False'):
	return bool2subst (
		boolean = bool(boolean),
		true_return = true_str,
		false_return = false_str
	)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def none_if(value=None, none_equivalent=None, strip_string=False):
	"""Modelled after the SQL NULLIF function."""
	if value is None:
		return None
	if strip_string:
		stripped = value.strip()
	else:
		stripped = value
	if stripped == none_equivalent:
		return None
	return value

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def coalesce(initial=None, instead=None, template_initial=None, template_instead=None, none_equivalents=None, function_initial=None):
	"""Modelled after the SQL coalesce function.

	To be used to simplify constructs like:

		if initial is None (or in none_equivalents):
			real_value = (template_instead % instead) or instead
		else:
			real_value = (template_initial % initial) or initial
		print real_value

	@param initial: the value to be tested for <None>
	@type initial: any Python type, must have a __str__ method if template_initial is not None
	@param instead: the value to be returned if <initial> is None
	@type instead: any Python type, must have a __str__ method if template_instead is not None
	@param template_initial: if <initial> is returned replace the value into this template, must contain one <%s> 
	@type template_initial: string or None
	@param template_instead: if <instead> is returned replace the value into this template, must contain one <%s> 
	@type template_instead: string or None

	example:
		function_initial = ('strftime', '%Y-%m-%d')

	Ideas:
		- list of insteads: initial, [instead, template], [instead, template], [instead, template], template_initial, ...
	"""
	if none_equivalents is None:
		none_equivalents = [None]

	if initial in none_equivalents:

		if template_instead is None:
			return instead

		return template_instead % instead

	if function_initial is not None:
		funcname, args = function_initial
		func = getattr(initial, funcname)
		initial = func(args)

	if template_initial is None:
		return initial

	try:
		return template_initial % initial
	except TypeError:
		return template_initial

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def __cap_name(match_obj=None):
	val = match_obj.group(0).lower()
	if val in ['von', 'van', 'de', 'la', 'l', 'der', 'den']:			# FIXME: this needs to expand, configurable ?
		return val
	buf = list(val)
	buf[0] = buf[0].upper()
	for part in ['mac', 'mc', 'de', 'la']:
		if len(val) > len(part) and val[:len(part)] == part:
			buf[len(part)] = buf[len(part)].upper()
	return ''.join(buf)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def capitalize(text=None, mode=CAPS_NAMES):
	"""Capitalize the first character but leave the rest alone.

	Note that we must be careful about the locale, this may
	have issues ! However, for UTF strings it should just work.
	"""
	if (mode is None) or (mode == CAPS_NONE):
		return text

	if len(text) == 0:
		return text

	if mode == CAPS_FIRST:
		if len(text) == 1:
			return text[0].upper()
		return text[0].upper() + text[1:]

	if mode == CAPS_ALLCAPS:
		return text.upper()

	if mode == CAPS_FIRST_ONLY:
#		if len(text) == 1:
#			return text[0].upper()
		return text[0].upper() + text[1:].lower()

	if mode == CAPS_WORDS:
		#return regex.sub(ur'(\w)(\w+)', lambda x: x.group(1).upper() + x.group(2).lower(), text)
		return regex.sub(r'(\w)(\w+)', lambda x: x.group(1).upper() + x.group(2).lower(), text)

	if mode == CAPS_NAMES:
		#return regex.sub(r'\w+', __cap_name, text)
		return capitalize(text=text, mode=CAPS_FIRST)		# until fixed

	print("ERROR: invalid capitalization mode: [%s], leaving input as is" % mode)
	return text

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def input2decimal(initial=None):

	if isinstance(initial, decimal.Decimal):
		return True, initial

	val = initial

	# float ? -> to string first
	if type(val) == type(float(1.4)):
		val = str(val)

	# string ? -> "," to "."
	if isinstance(val, basestring):
		val = val.replace(',', '.', 1)
		val = val.strip()

	try:
		d = decimal.Decimal(val)
		return True, d
	except (TypeError, decimal.InvalidOperation):
		return False, val

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def input2int(initial=None, minval=None, maxval=None):

	val = initial

	# string ? -> "," to "."
	if isinstance(val, basestring):
		val = val.replace(',', '.', 1)
		val = val.strip()

	try:
		int_val = int(val)
	except (TypeError, ValueError):
		_log.exception('int(%s) failed', val)
		return False, initial

	if minval is not None:
		if int_val < minval:
			_log.debug('%s < min (%s)', val, minval)
			return False, initial
	if maxval is not None:
		if int_val > maxval:
			_log.debug('%s > max (%s)', val, maxval)
			return False, initial

	return True, int_val

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def strip_prefix(text, prefix, remove_repeats=False, remove_whitespace=False):
	if remove_repeats:
		if remove_whitespace:
			while text.lstrip().startswith(prefix):
				text = text.lstrip().replace(prefix, u'', 1).lstrip()
			return text
		while text.startswith(prefix):
			text = text.replace(prefix, u'', 1)
		return text
	if remove_whitespace:
		return text.lstrip().replace(prefix, u'', 1).lstrip()
	return text.replace(prefix, u'', 1)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def strip_suffix(text, suffix, remove_repeats=False, remove_whitespace=False):
	suffix_len = len(suffix)
	if remove_repeats:
		if remove_whitespace:
			while text.rstrip().endswith(suffix):
				text = text.rstrip()[:-suffix_len].rstrip()
			return text
		while text.endswith(suffix):
			text = text[:-suffix_len]
		return text
	if remove_whitespace:
		return text.rstrip()[:-suffix_len].rstrip()
	return text[:-suffix_len]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def strip_leading_empty_lines(lines=None, text=None, eol=u'\n', return_list=True):
	if lines is None:
		lines = text.split(eol)

	while True:
		if lines[0].strip(eol).strip() != u'':
			break
		lines = lines[1:]

	if return_list:
		return lines

	return eol.join(lines)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def strip_trailing_empty_lines(lines=None, text=None, eol=u'\n', return_list=True):
	if lines is None:
		lines = text.split(eol)

	while True:
		if lines[-1].strip(eol).strip() != u'':
			break
		lines = lines[:-1]

	if return_list:
		return lines

	return eol.join(lines)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def strip_empty_lines(lines=None, text=None, eol=u'\n', return_list=True):
	return strip_trailing_empty_lines (
		lines = strip_leading_empty_lines(lines = lines, text = text, eol = eol, return_list = True),
		text = None,
		eol = eol,
		return_list = return_list
	)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def list2text(lines, initial_indent=u'', subsequent_indent=u'', eol=u'\n', strip_leading_empty_lines=True, strip_trailing_empty_lines=True, strip_trailing_whitespace=True):

	if len(lines) == 0:
		return u''

	if strip_leading_empty_lines:
		lines = strip_leading_empty_lines(lines = lines, eol = eol, return_list = True)

	if strip_trailing_empty_lines:
		lines = strip_trailing_empty_lines(lines = lines, eol = eol, return_list = True)

	if strip_trailing_whitespace:
		lines = [ l.rstrip() for l in lines ]

	indented_lines = [initial_indent + lines[0]]
	indented_lines.extend([ subsequent_indent + l for l in lines[1:] ])

	return eol.join(indented_lines)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def wrap(text=None, width=None, initial_indent=u'', subsequent_indent=u'', eol=u'\n'):
	"""A word-wrap function that preserves existing line breaks
	and most spaces in the text. Expects that existing line
	breaks are posix newlines (\n).
	"""
	if width is None:
		return text
	wrapped = initial_indent + functools.reduce (
		lambda line, word, width=width: '%s%s%s' % (
			line,
			' \n'[(len(line) - line.rfind('\n') - 1 + len(word.split('\n',1)[0]) >= width)],
			word
		),
		text.split(' ')
	)

	if subsequent_indent != u'':
		wrapped = (u'\n%s' % subsequent_indent).join(wrapped.split('\n'))

	if eol != u'\n':
		wrapped = wrapped.replace('\n', eol)

	return wrapped

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def unwrap(text=None, max_length=None, strip_whitespace=True, remove_empty_lines=True, line_separator = u' // '):

	text = text.replace(u'\r', u'')
	lines = text.split(u'\n')
	text = u''
	for line in lines:

		if strip_whitespace:
			line = line.strip().strip(u'\t').strip()

		if remove_empty_lines:
			if line == u'':
				continue

		text += (u'%s%s' % (line, line_separator))

	text = text.rstrip(line_separator)

	if max_length is not None:
		text = text[:max_length]

	text = text.rstrip(line_separator)

	return text

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def shorten_text(text=None, max_length=None):

	if len(text) <= max_length:
		return text

	return text[:max_length-1] + u_ellipsis

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def xml_escape_string(text=None):
	"""check for special XML characters and transform them"""
	return xml_tools.escape(text)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def tex_escape_string(text=None, replace_known_unicode=True, replace_eol=False, keep_visual_eol=False):
	"""Check for special TeX characters and transform them.

		replace_eol:
			replaces "\n" with "\\newline"
		keep_visual_eol:
			replaces "\n" with "\\newline \n" such that
			both LaTeX will know to place a line break
			at this point as well as the visual formatting
			is preserved in the LaTeX source (think multi-
			row table cells)
	"""
	text = text.replace(u'\\', u'\\textbackslash')			# requires \usepackage{textcomp} in LaTeX source
	text = text.replace(u'^', u'\\textasciicircum')			# requires \usepackage{textcomp} in LaTeX source
	text = text.replace(u'~', u'\\textasciitilde')			# requires \usepackage{textcomp} in LaTeX source

	text = text.replace(u'{', u'\\{')
	text = text.replace(u'}', u'\\}')
	text = text.replace(u'%', u'\\%')
	text = text.replace(u'&', u'\\&')
	text = text.replace(u'#', u'\\#')
	text = text.replace(u'$', u'\\$')
	text = text.replace(u'_', u'\\_')
	if replace_eol:
		if keep_visual_eol:
			text = text.replace(u'\n', u'\\newline \n')
		else:
			text = text.replace(u'\n', u'\\newline ')

	if replace_known_unicode:
		# this should NOT be replaced for Xe(La)Tex
		text = text.replace(u_euro, u'\\EUR')

	return text

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def xetex_escape_string(text=None):
	# a web search did not reveal anything else for Xe(La)Tex
	# as opposed to LaTeX, except true unicode chars
	return tex_escape_string(text = text, replace_known_unicode = False)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
__html_escape_table = {
	u"&": u"&amp;",
	u'"': u"&quot;",
	u"'": u"&apos;",
	u">": u"&gt;",
	u"<": u"&lt;",
}

def html_escape_string(text=None, replace_eol=False, keep_visual_eol=False):
	text = u''.join(__html_escape_table.get(char, char) for char in text)
	if replace_eol:
		if keep_visual_eol:
			text = text.replace(u'\n', u'<br>\n')
		else:
			text = text.replace(u'\n', u'<br>')
	return text

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def dict2json(obj):
	return json.dumps(obj, default = json_serialize)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def json_serialize(obj):
	if isinstance(obj, pydt.datetime):
		return obj.isoformat()
	raise TypeError('cannot json_serialize(%s)' % type(obj))

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def compare_dict_likes(d1, d2, title1=None, title2=None):
	_log.info('comparing dict-likes: %s[%s] vs %s[%s]', coalesce(title1, u'', u'"%s" '), type(d1), coalesce(title2, u'', u'"%s" '), type(d2))
	try:
		d1 = dict(d1)
	except TypeError:
		pass
	try:
		d2 = dict(d2)
	except TypeError:
		pass
	keys_d1 = frozenset(d1.keys())
	keys_d2 = frozenset(d2.keys())
	different = False
	if len(keys_d1) != len(keys_d2):
		_log.info('different number of keys: %s vs %s', len(keys_d1), len(keys_d2))
		different = True
	for key in keys_d1:
		if key in keys_d2:
			if type(d1[key]) != type(d2[key]):
				_log.info(u'%25.25s: type(dict1) = %s = >>>%s<<<' % (key, type(d1[key]), d1[key]))
				_log.info(u'%25.25s  type(dict2) = %s = >>>%s<<<' % (u'', type(d2[key]), d2[key]))
				different = True
				continue
			if d1[key] == d2[key]:
				_log.info(u'%25.25s:  both = >>>%s<<<' % (key, d1[key]))
			else:
				_log.info(u'%25.25s: dict1 = >>>%s<<<' % (key, d1[key]))
				_log.info(u'%25.25s  dict2 = >>>%s<<<' % (u'', d2[key]))
				different = True
		else:
			_log.info(u'%25.25s: %50.50s | <MISSING>' % (key, u'>>>%s<<<' % d1[key]))
			different = True
	for key in keys_d2:
		if key in keys_d1:
			continue
		_log.info(u'%25.25s: %50.50s | %.50s' % (key, u'<MISSING>', u'>>>%s<<<' % d2[key]))
		different = True
	if different:
		_log.info('dict-likes appear to be different from each other')
		return False
	_log.info('dict-likes appear equal to each other')
	return True

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def format_dict_likes_comparison(d1, d2, title_left=None, title_right=None, left_margin=0, key_delim=u' || ', data_delim=u' | ', missing_string=u'=/=', difference_indicator=u'! ', ignore_diff_in_keys=None):

	_log.info('comparing dict-likes: %s[%s] vs %s[%s]', coalesce(title_left, u'', u'"%s" '), type(d1), coalesce(title_right, u'', u'"%s" '), type(d2))
	append_type = False
	if None not in [title_left, title_right]:
		append_type = True
		type_left = type(d1)
		type_right = type(d2)
	if title_left is None:
		title_left = u'%s' % type_left
	if title_right is None:
		title_right = u'%s' % type_right

	try: d1 = dict(d1)
	except TypeError: pass
	try: d2 = dict(d2)
	except TypeError: pass
	keys_d1 = d1.keys()
	keys_d2 = d2.keys()
	data = {}
	for key in keys_d1:
		data[key] = [d1[key], u' ']
		if key in d2:
			data[key][1] = d2[key]
	for key in keys_d2:
		if key in keys_d1:
			continue
		data[key] = [u' ', d2[key]]
	max1 = max([ len(u'%s' % k) for k in keys_d1 ])
	max2 = max([ len(u'%s' % k) for k in keys_d2 ])
	max_len = max(max1, max2, len(_('<type>')))
	max_key_len_str = u'%' + u'%s.%s' % (max_len, max_len) + u's'
	max1 = max([ len(u'%s' % d1[k]) for k in keys_d1 ])
	max2 = max([ len(u'%s' % d2[k]) for k in keys_d2 ])
	max_data_len = min(max(max1, max2), 100)
	max_data_len_str = u'%' + u'%s.%s' % (max_data_len, max_data_len) + u's'
	diff_indicator_len_str = u'%' + u'%s.%s' % (len(difference_indicator), len(difference_indicator)) + u's'
	line_template = (u' ' * left_margin) + diff_indicator_len_str + max_key_len_str + key_delim + max_data_len_str + data_delim + u'%s'

	lines = []
	# debugging:
	#lines.append(u'                                        (40 regular spaces)')
	#lines.append((u' ' * 40) + u"(u' ' * 40)")
	#lines.append((u'%40.40s' % u'') + u"(u'%40.40s' % u'')")
	#lines.append((u'%40.40s' % u' ') + u"(u'%40.40s' % u' ')")
	#lines.append((u'%40.40s' % u'.') + u"(u'%40.40s' % u'.')")
	#lines.append(line_template)
	lines.append(line_template % (u'', u'', title_left, title_right))
	if append_type:
		lines.append(line_template % (u'', _('<type>'), type_left, type_right))

	if ignore_diff_in_keys is None:
		ignore_diff_in_keys = []

	for key in keys_d1:
		append_type = False
		txt_left_col = u'%s' % d1[key]
		try:
			txt_right_col = u'%s' % d2[key]
			if type(d1[key]) != type(d2[key]):
				append_type = True
		except KeyError:
			txt_right_col = missing_string
		lines.append(line_template % (
			bool2subst (
				((txt_left_col == txt_right_col) or (key in ignore_diff_in_keys)),
				u'',
				difference_indicator
			),
			key,
			shorten_text(txt_left_col, max_data_len),
			shorten_text(txt_right_col, max_data_len)
		))
		if append_type:
			lines.append(line_template % (
				u'',
				_('<type>'),
				shorten_text(u'%s' % type(d1[key]), max_data_len),
				shorten_text(u'%s' % type(d2[key]), max_data_len)
			))

	for key in keys_d2:
		if key in keys_d1:
			continue
		lines.append(line_template % (
			bool2subst((key in ignore_diff_in_keys), u'', difference_indicator),
			key,
			shorten_text(missing_string, max_data_len),
			shorten_text(u'%s' % d2[key], max_data_len)
		))

	return lines

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def format_dict_like(d, relevant_keys=None, template=None, missing_key_template=u'<[%(key)s] MISSING>', left_margin=0, tabular=False, value_delimiters=(u'>>>', u'<<<'), eol=u'\n'):
	if template is not None:
		# all keys in template better exist in d
		try:
			return template % d
		except KeyError:
			# or else
			_log.exception('template contains %%()s key(s) which do not exist in dict')
		# try to extend dict <d> to contain all required keys,
		# for that to work <relevant_keys> better list all
		# keys used in <template>
		if relevant_keys is not None:
			for key in relevant_keys:
				try:
					d[key]
				except KeyError:
					d[key] = missing_key_template % {u'key': key}
			return template % d

	if relevant_keys is None:
		relevant_keys = d.keys()
	lines = []
	if value_delimiters is None:
		delim_left = u''
		delim_right = u''
	else:
		delim_left, delim_right = value_delimiters
	if tabular:
		max_len = max([ len(i) for i in relevant_keys ])
		max_len_str = u'%s.%s' % (max_len, max_len)
		line_template = (u' ' * left_margin) + u'%' + max_len_str + ('s: %s%%s%s' % (delim_left, delim_right))
	else:
		line_template = (u' ' * left_margin) + u'%%s: %s%%s%s' % (delim_left, delim_right)
	for key in relevant_keys:
		try:
			lines.append(line_template % (key, d[key]))
		except KeyError:
			pass
	if eol is None:
		return lines
	return eol.join(lines)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def normalize_dict_like(d, required_keys, missing_key_template=u'<[%(key)s] MISSING>'):
	for key in required_keys:
		try:
			d[key]
		except KeyError:
			if missing_key_template is None:
				d[key] = None
			else:
				d[key] = missing_key_template % {'key': key}
	return d

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def prompted_input(prompt=None, default=None):
	"""Obtains entry from standard input.

	prompt: Prompt text to display in standard output
	default: Default value (for user to press enter only)
	CTRL-C: aborts and returns None
	"""
	if prompt is None:
		msg = u'(CTRL-C aborts)'
	else:
		msg = u'%s (CTRL-C aborts)' % prompt

	if default is None:
		msg = msg + u': '
	else:
		msg = u'%s [%s]: ' % (msg, default)

	try:
		usr_input = raw_input(msg)
	except KeyboardInterrupt:
		return None

	if usr_input == '':
		return default

	return usr_input

#===========================================================================
# image handling tools
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# builtin (ugly but tried and true) fallback icon
__icon_serpent = \
"""x\xdae\x8f\xb1\x0e\x83 \x10\x86w\x9f\xe2\x92\x1blb\xf2\x07\x96\xeaH:0\xd6\
\xc1\x85\xd5\x98N5\xa5\xef?\xf5N\xd0\x8a\xdcA\xc2\xf7qw\x84\xdb\xfa\xb5\xcd\
\xd4\xda;\xc9\x1a\xc8\xb6\xcd<\xb5\xa0\x85\x1e\xeb\xbc\xbc7b!\xf6\xdeHl\x1c\
\x94\x073\xec<*\xf7\xbe\xf7\x99\x9d\xb21~\xe7.\xf5\x1f\x1c\xd3\xbdVlL\xc2\
\xcf\xf8ye\xd0\x00\x90\x0etH \x84\x80B\xaa\x8a\x88\x85\xc4(U\x9d$\xfeR;\xc5J\
\xa6\x01\xbbt9\xceR\xc8\x81e_$\x98\xb9\x9c\xa9\x8d,y\xa9t\xc8\xcf\x152\xe0x\
\xe9$\xf5\x07\x95\x0cD\x95t:\xb1\x92\xae\x9cI\xa8~\x84\x1f\xe0\xa3ec"""

def get_icon(wx=None):

	paths = gmPaths(app_name = u'gnumed', wx = wx)

	candidates = [
		os.path.join(paths.system_app_data_dir, 'bitmaps', 'gm_icon-serpent_and_gnu.png'),
		os.path.join(paths.local_base_dir, 'bitmaps', 'gm_icon-serpent_and_gnu.png'),
		os.path.join(paths.system_app_data_dir, 'bitmaps', 'serpent.png'),
		os.path.join(paths.local_base_dir, 'bitmaps', 'serpent.png')
	]

	found_as = None
	for candidate in candidates:
		try:
			open(candidate, 'r').close()
			found_as = candidate
			break
		except IOError:
			_log.debug('icon not found in [%s]', candidate)

	if found_as is None:
		_log.warning('no icon file found, falling back to builtin (ugly) icon')
		icon_bmp_data = wx.BitmapFromXPMData(pickle.loads(zlib.decompress(__icon_serpent)))
		icon.CopyFromBitmap(icon_bmp_data)
	else:
		_log.debug('icon found in [%s]', found_as)
		icon = wx.EmptyIcon()
		try:
			icon.LoadFile(found_as, wx.BITMAP_TYPE_ANY)		#_PNG
		except AttributeError:
			_log.exception(u"this platform doesn't support wx.Icon().LoadFile()")

	return icon
#===========================================================================
# main
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
if __name__ == '__main__':

	if len(sys.argv) < 2:
		sys.exit()

	if sys.argv[1] != 'test':
		sys.exit()

	# for testing:
	logging.basicConfig(level = logging.DEBUG)
	from Gnumed.pycommon import gmI18N
	gmI18N.activate_locale()
	gmI18N.install_domain()

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_input2decimal():

		tests = [
			[None, False],

			['', False],
			[' 0 ', True, 0],

			[0, True, 0],
			[0.0, True, 0],
			[.0, True, 0],
			['0', True, 0],
			['0.0', True, 0],
			['0,0', True, 0],
			['00.0', True, 0],
			['.0', True, 0],
			[',0', True, 0],

			[0.1, True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],
			[.01, True, decimal.Decimal('0.01')],
			['0.1', True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],
			['0,1', True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],
			['00.1', True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],
			['.1', True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],
			[',1', True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],

			[1, True, 1],
			[1.0, True, 1],
			['1', True, 1],
			['1.', True, 1],
			['1,', True, 1],
			['1.0', True, 1],
			['1,0', True, 1],
			['01.0', True, 1],
			['01,0', True, 1],
			[' 01, ', True, 1],

			[decimal.Decimal('1.1'), True, decimal.Decimal('1.1')]
		]
		for test in tests:
			conversion_worked, result = input2decimal(initial = test[0])

			expected2work = test[1]

			if conversion_worked:
				if expected2work:
					if result == test[2]:
						continue
					else:
						print("ERROR (conversion result wrong): >%s<, expected >%s<, got >%s<" % (test[0], test[2], result))
				else:
					print("ERROR (conversion worked but was expected to fail): >%s<, got >%s<" % (test[0], result))
			else:
				if not expected2work:
					continue
				else:
					print("ERROR (conversion failed but was expected to work): >%s<, expected >%s<" % (test[0], test[2]))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_input2int():
		print(input2int(0))
		print(input2int('0'))
		print(input2int(u'0', 0, 0))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_coalesce():

		import datetime as dt
		print(coalesce(initial = dt.datetime.now(), template_initial = u'-- %s --', function_initial = ('strftime', u'%Y-%m-%d')))

		print('testing coalesce()')
		print("------------------")
		tests = [
			[None, 'something other than <None>', None, None, 'something other than <None>'],
			['Captain', 'Mr.', '%s.'[:4], 'Mr.', 'Capt.'],
			['value to test', 'test 3 failed', 'template with "%s" included', None, 'template with "value to test" included'],
			['value to test', 'test 4 failed', 'template with value not included', None, 'template with value not included'],
			[None, 'initial value was None', 'template_initial: %s', None, 'initial value was None'],
			[None, 'initial value was None', 'template_initial: %%(abc)s', None, 'initial value was None']
		]
		passed = True
		for test in tests:
			result = coalesce (
				initial = test[0],
				instead = test[1],
				template_initial = test[2],
				template_instead = test[3]
			)
			if result != test[4]:
				print("ERROR")
				print("coalesce: (%s, %s, %s, %s)" % (test[0], test[1], test[2], test[3]))
				print("expected:", test[4])
				print("received:", result)
				passed = False

		if passed:
			print("passed")
		else:
			print("failed")
		return passed
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_capitalize():
		print('testing capitalize() ...')
		success = True
		pairs = [
			# [original, expected result, CAPS mode]
			[u'Boot', u'Boot', CAPS_FIRST_ONLY],
			[u'boot', u'Boot', CAPS_FIRST_ONLY],
			[u'booT', u'Boot', CAPS_FIRST_ONLY],
			[u'BoOt', u'Boot', CAPS_FIRST_ONLY],
			[u'boots-Schau', u'Boots-Schau', CAPS_WORDS],
			[u'boots-sChau', u'Boots-Schau', CAPS_WORDS],
			[u'boot camp', u'Boot Camp', CAPS_WORDS],
			[u'fahrner-Kampe', u'Fahrner-Kampe', CAPS_NAMES],
			[u'häkkönen', u'Häkkönen', CAPS_NAMES],
			[u'McBurney', u'McBurney', CAPS_NAMES],
			[u'mcBurney', u'McBurney', CAPS_NAMES],
			[u'blumberg', u'Blumberg', CAPS_NAMES],
			[u'roVsing', u'RoVsing', CAPS_NAMES],
			[u'Özdemir', u'Özdemir', CAPS_NAMES],
			[u'özdemir', u'Özdemir', CAPS_NAMES],
		]
		for pair in pairs:
			result = capitalize(pair[0], pair[2])
			if result != pair[1]:
				success = False
				print('ERROR (caps mode %s): "%s" -> "%s", expected "%s"' % (pair[2], pair[0], result, pair[1]))

		if success:
			print("... SUCCESS")

		return success
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_import_module():
		print("testing import_module_from_directory()")
		path = sys.argv[1]
		name = sys.argv[2]
		try:
			mod = import_module_from_directory(module_path = path, module_name = name)
		except:
			print("module import failed, see log")
			return False

		print("module import succeeded", mod)
		print(dir(mod))
		return True
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_mkdir():
		print("testing mkdir(%s)" % sys.argv[1])
		mkdir(sys.argv[1])
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_gmPaths():
		print("testing gmPaths()")
		print("-----------------")
		paths = gmPaths(wx=None, app_name='gnumed')
		print("user     config dir:", paths.user_config_dir)
		print("system   config dir:", paths.system_config_dir)
		print("local      base dir:", paths.local_base_dir)
		print("system app data dir:", paths.system_app_data_dir)
		print("working directory  :", paths.working_dir)
		print("temp directory     :", paths.tmp_dir)
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_none_if():
		print("testing none_if()")
		print("-----------------")
		tests = [
			[None, None, None],
			['a', 'a', None],
			['a', 'b', 'a'],
			['a', None, 'a'],
			[None, 'a', None],
			[1, 1, None],
			[1, 2, 1],
			[1, None, 1],
			[None, 1, None]
		]

		for test in tests:
			if none_if(value = test[0], none_equivalent = test[1]) != test[2]:
				print('ERROR: none_if(%s) returned [%s], expected [%s]' % (test[0], none_if(test[0], test[1]), test[2]))

		return True
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_bool2str():
		tests = [
			[True, 'Yes', 'Yes', 'Yes'],
			[False, 'OK', 'not OK', 'not OK']
		]
		for test in tests:
			if bool2str(test[0], test[1], test[2]) != test[3]:
				print('ERROR: bool2str(%s, %s, %s) returned [%s], expected [%s]' % (test[0], test[1], test[2], bool2str(test[0], test[1], test[2]), test[3]))

		return True
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_bool2subst():

		print(bool2subst(True, 'True', 'False', 'is None'))
		print(bool2subst(False, 'True', 'False', 'is None'))
		print(bool2subst(None, 'True', 'False', 'is None'))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_get_unique_filename():
		print(get_unique_filename())
		print(get_unique_filename(prefix='test-'))
		print(get_unique_filename(suffix='tst'))
		print(get_unique_filename(prefix='test-', suffix='tst'))
		print(get_unique_filename(tmp_dir='/home/ncq/Archiv/'))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_size2str():
		print("testing size2str()")
		print("------------------")
		tests = [0, 1, 1000, 10000, 100000, 1000000, 10000000, 100000000, 1000000000, 10000000000, 100000000000, 1000000000000, 10000000000000]
		for test in tests:
			print(size2str(test))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_unwrap():

		test = """
second line\n
	3rd starts with tab  \n
 4th with a space	\n

6th

"""
		print(unwrap(text = test, max_length = 25))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_wrap():
		test = 'line 1\nline 2\nline 3'

		print("wrap 5-6-7 initial 0, subsequent 0")
		print(wrap(test, 5))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 6))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 7))
		print("-------")
		raw_input()
		print("wrap 5 initial 1-1-3, subsequent 1-3-1")
		print(wrap(test, 5, u' ', u' '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 5, u' ', u'   '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 5, u'   ', u' '))
		print("-------")
		raw_input()
		print("wrap 6 initial 1-1-3, subsequent 1-3-1")
		print(wrap(test, 6, u' ', u' '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 6, u' ', u'   '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 6, u'   ', u' '))
		print("-------")
		raw_input()
		print("wrap 7 initial 1-1-3, subsequent 1-3-1")
		print(wrap(test, 7, u' ', u' '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 7, u' ', u'   '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 7, u'   ', u' '))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_md5():
		print('md5 %s: %s' % (sys.argv[2], file2md5(sys.argv[2])))
		print('chunked md5 %s: %s' % (sys.argv[2], file2chunked_md5(sys.argv[2])))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_unicode():
		print(u_link_symbol * 10)
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_xml_escape():
		print(xml_escape_string(u'<'))
		print(xml_escape_string(u'>'))
		print(xml_escape_string(u'&'))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_tex_escape():
		tests = [u'\\', u'^', u'~', u'{', u'}', u'%',  u'&', u'#', u'$', u'_', u_euro, u'abc\ndef\n\n1234']
		tests.append(u'  '.join(tests))
		for test in tests:
			print(u'%s:' % test, tex_escape_string(test))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_gpg_decrypt():
		fname = gpg_decrypt_file(filename = sys.argv[2], passphrase = sys.argv[3])
		if fname is not None:
			print("successfully decrypted:", fname)
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_strip_trailing_empty_lines():
		tests = [
			u'one line, no embedded line breaks  ',
			u'one line\nwith embedded\nline\nbreaks\n   '
		]
		for test in tests:
			print('as list:')
			print(strip_trailing_empty_lines(text = test, eol=u'\n', return_list = True))
			print('as string:')
			print(u'>>>%s<<<' % strip_trailing_empty_lines(text = test, eol=u'\n', return_list = False))
		tests = [
			['list', 'without', 'empty', 'trailing', 'lines'],
			['list', 'with', 'empty', 'trailing', 'lines', '', '  ', '']
		]
		for test in tests:
			print('as list:')
			print(strip_trailing_empty_lines(lines = test, eol = u'\n', return_list = True))
			print('as string:')
			print(strip_trailing_empty_lines(lines = test, eol = u'\n', return_list = False))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_fname_stem():
		tests = [
			r'abc.exe',
			r'\abc.exe',
			r'c:\abc.exe',
			r'c:\d\abc.exe',
			r'/home/ncq/tmp.txt',
			r'~/tmp.txt',
			r'./tmp.txt',
			r'./.././tmp.txt',
			r'tmp.txt'
		]
		for t in tests:
			print("[%s] -> [%s]" % (t, fname_stem(t)))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_dir_is_empty():
		print(sys.argv[2], 'empty:', dir_is_empty(sys.argv[2]))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_compare_dicts():
		d1 = {}
		d2 = {}
		d1[1] = 1
		d1[2] = 2
		d1[3] = 3
		# 4
		d1[5] = 5

		d2[1] = 1
		d2[2] = None
		# 3
		d2[4] = 4

		compare_dict_likes(d1, d2)

		d1 = {1: 1, 2: 2}
		d2 = {1: 1, 2: 2}

		compare_dict_likes(d1, d2, 'same1', 'same2')
		print(format_dict_like(d1))
		print(format_dict_like(d2))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_format_compare_dicts():
		d1 = {}
		d2 = {}
		d1[1] = 1
		d1[2] = 2
		d1[3] = 3
		# 4
		d1[5] = 5

		d2[1] = 1
		d2[2] = None
		# 3
		d2[4] = 4

		print(u'\n'.join(format_dict_likes_comparison(d1, d2, u'd1', u'd2')))

		d1 = {1: 1, 2: 2}
		d2 = {1: 1, 2: 2}

		print(u'\n'.join(format_dict_likes_comparison(d1, d2, u'd1', u'd2')))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_rm_dir():
		rmdir('cx:\windows\system3__2xxxxxxxxxxxxx')
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_strip_prefix():
		tests = [
			(u'', u'', u''),
			(u'a', u'a', u''),
			(u'\.br\MICROCYTES+1\.br\SPHEROCYTES       present\.br\POLYCHROMASIAmoderate\.br\\', u'\.br\\', u'MICROCYTES+1\.br\SPHEROCYTES       present\.br\POLYCHROMASIAmoderate\.br\\')
		]
		for test in tests:
			text, prefix, expect = test
			result = strip_prefix(text, prefix)
			if result == expect:
				continue
			print('test failed:', test)
			print('result:', result)
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_shorten_text():
		tst = [
			('123', 1),
			('123', 2),
			('123', 3),
			('123', 4),
			('', 1),
			('1', 1),
			('12', 1),
			('', 2),
			('1', 2),
			('12', 2),
			('123', 2)
		]
		for txt, lng in tst:
			print(u'max', lng, 'of', txt, '=', shorten_text(txt, lng))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	#test_coalesce()
	#test_capitalize()
	#test_import_module()
	#test_mkdir()
	#test_gmPaths()
	#test_none_if()
	#test_bool2str()
	#test_bool2subst()
	#test_get_unique_filename()
	#test_size2str()
	#test_wrap()
	#test_input2decimal()
	#test_input2int()
	#test_unwrap()
	#test_md5()
	#test_unicode()
	#test_xml_escape()
	#test_gpg_decrypt()
	#test_strip_trailing_empty_lines()
	#test_fname_stem()
	#test_tex_escape()
	#test_dir_is_empty()
	test_compare_dicts()
	#test_rm_dir()
	#test_strip_prefix()
	#test_shorten_text()
	#test_format_compare_dicts()

#===========================================================================