File: gmTools.py

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-


__doc__ = """GNUmed general tools."""

#===========================================================================
__author__ = "K. Hilbert <Karsten.Hilbert@gmx.net>"
__license__ = "GPL v2 or later (details at http://www.gnu.org)"

# std libs
import sys
import os
import os.path
import csv
import tempfile
import logging
import hashlib
import platform
import subprocess
import decimal
import getpass
import io
import functools
import json
import shutil
import zipfile
import datetime as pydt
import re as regex
import xml.sax.saxutils as xml_tools
# old:
import pickle, zlib
# docutils
du_core = None


# GNUmed libs
if __name__ == '__main__':
	sys.path.insert(0, '../../')
from Gnumed.pycommon import gmBorg


_log = logging.getLogger('gm.tools')

# CAPitalization modes:
(	CAPS_NONE,					# don't touch it
	CAPS_FIRST,					# CAP first char, leave rest as is
	CAPS_ALLCAPS,				# CAP all chars
	CAPS_WORDS,					# CAP first char of every word
	CAPS_NAMES,					# CAP in a way suitable for names (tries to be smart)
	CAPS_FIRST_ONLY				# CAP first char, lowercase the rest
) = range(6)


u_currency_pound = '\u00A3'				# Pound sign
u_currency_sign = '\u00A4'					# generic currency sign
u_currency_yen = '\u00A5'					# Yen sign
u_right_double_angle_quote = '\u00AB'		# <<
u_registered_trademark = '\u00AE'
u_plus_minus = '\u00B1'
u_superscript_one = '\u00B9'				# ^1
u_left_double_angle_quote = '\u00BB'		# >>
u_one_quarter = '\u00BC'
u_one_half = '\u00BD'
u_three_quarters = '\u00BE'
u_multiply = '\u00D7'						# x
u_greek_ALPHA = '\u0391'
u_greek_alpha = '\u03b1'
u_greek_OMEGA = '\u03A9'
u_greek_omega = '\u03c9'
u_dagger = '\u2020'
u_triangular_bullet = '\u2023'					# triangular bullet  (>)
u_ellipsis = '\u2026'							# ...
u_euro = '\u20AC'								# EURO sign
u_numero = '\u2116'								# No. / # sign
u_down_left_arrow = '\u21B5'					# <-'
u_left_arrow = '\u2190'							# <--
u_up_arrow = '\u2191'
u_arrow2right = '\u2192'						# -->
u_down_arrow = '\u2193'
u_left_arrow_with_tail = '\u21a2'				# <--<
u_arrow2right_from_bar = '\u21a6'				# |->
u_arrow2right_until_vertical_bar = '\u21e5'		# -->|
u_sum = '\u2211'								# sigma
u_almost_equal_to = '\u2248'					# approximately / nearly / roughly
u_corresponds_to = '\u2258'
u_infinity = '\u221E'
u_arrow2right_until_vertical_bar2 = '\u2b72'	# -->|

u_diameter = '\u2300'
u_checkmark_crossed_out = '\u237B'
u_box_horiz_high = '\u23ba'
u_box_vert_left = '\u23b8'
u_box_vert_right = '\u23b9'

u_space_as_open_box = '\u2423'

u_box_horiz_single = '\u2500'				# -
u_box_vert_light = '\u2502'
u_box_horiz_light_3dashes = '\u2504'		# ...
u_box_vert_light_4dashes = '\u2506'
u_box_horiz_4dashes = '\u2508'				# ....
u_box_T_right = '\u251c'					# |-
u_box_T_left = '\u2524'						# -|
u_box_T_down = '\u252c'
u_box_T_up = '\u2534'
u_box_plus = '\u253c'
u_box_top_double = '\u2550'
u_box_top_left_double_single = '\u2552'
u_box_top_right_double_single = '\u2555'
u_box_top_left_arc = '\u256d'
u_box_top_right_arc = '\u256e'
u_box_bottom_right_arc = '\u256f'
u_box_bottom_left_arc = '\u2570'
u_box_horiz_light_heavy = '\u257c'
u_box_horiz_heavy_light = '\u257e'

u_skull_and_crossbones = '\u2620'
u_caduceus = '\u2624'
u_frowning_face = '\u2639'
u_smiling_face = '\u263a'
u_black_heart = '\u2665'
u_female = '\u2640'
u_male = '\u2642'
u_male_female = '\u26a5'
u_chain = '\u26d3'

u_checkmark_thin = '\u2713'
u_checkmark_thick = '\u2714'
u_heavy_greek_cross = '\u271a'
u_arrow2right_thick = '\u2794'
u_writing_hand = '\u270d'
u_pencil_1 = '\u270e'
u_pencil_2 = '\u270f'
u_pencil_3 = '\u2710'
u_latin_cross = '\u271d'

u_arrow2right_until_black_diamond = '\u291e'	# ->*

u_kanji_yen = '\u5186'							# Yen kanji
u_replacement_character = '\ufffd'
u_link_symbol = '\u1f517'


_kB = 1024
_MB = 1024 * _kB
_GB = 1024 * _MB
_TB = 1024 * _GB
_PB = 1024 * _TB


_GM_TITLE_PREFIX = 'GMd'

#===========================================================================
def handle_uncaught_exception_console(t, v, tb):

	print(".========================================================")
	print("| Unhandled exception caught !")
	print("| Type :", t)
	print("| Value:", v)
	print("`========================================================")
	_log.critical('unhandled exception caught', exc_info = (t,v,tb))
	sys.__excepthook__(t,v,tb)

#===========================================================================
# path level operations
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def mkdir(directory=None, mode=None):
	"""Create directory.

	- creates parent dirs if necessary
	- does not fail if directory exists
	<mode>: numeric, say 0o0700  for "-rwx------"
	"""
	if os.path.isdir(directory):
		if mode is None:
			return True

		changed = False
		old_umask = os.umask(0)
		try:
			# does not WORK !
			#os.chmod(directory, mode, follow_symlinks = (os.chmod in os.supports_follow_symlinks))	# can't do better
			os.chmod(directory, mode)
			changed = True
		finally:
			os.umask(old_umask)
		return changed

	if mode is None:
		os.makedirs(directory)
		return True

	old_umask = os.umask(0)
	try:
		os.makedirs(directory, mode)
	finally:
		os.umask(old_umask)
	return True

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def rmdir(directory):
	#-------------------------------
	def _on_rm_error(func, path, exc):
		_log.error('error while shutil.rmtree(%s)', path, exc_info=exc)
		return True
	#-------------------------------
	error_count = 0
	try:
		shutil.rmtree(directory, False, _on_rm_error)
	except Exception:
		_log.exception('cannot shutil.rmtree(%s)', directory)
		error_count += 1
	return error_count

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def rm_dir_content(directory):
	_log.debug('cleaning out [%s]', directory)
	try:
		items = os.listdir(directory)
	except OSError:
		return False
	for item in items:
		# attempt file/link removal and ignore (but log) errors
		full_item = os.path.join(directory, item)
		try:
			os.remove(full_item)
		except OSError:		# as per the docs, this is a directory
			_log.debug('[%s] seems to be a subdirectory', full_item)
			errors = rmdir(full_item)
			if errors > 0:
				return False
		except Exception:
			_log.exception('cannot os.remove(%s) [a file or a link]', full_item)
			return False

	return True

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def mk_sandbox_dir(prefix=None, base_dir=None):
	if base_dir is None:
		base_dir = gmPaths().tmp_dir
	else:
		if not os.path.isdir(base_dir):
			mkdir(base_dir, mode = 0o0700)	# (invoking user only)
	if prefix is None:
		prefix = 'sndbx-'
	return tempfile.mkdtemp(prefix = prefix, suffix = '', dir = base_dir)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def parent_dir(directory):
	return os.path.abspath(os.path.join(directory, '..'))

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def dirname_stem(directory):
	# /home/user/dir/ -> dir
	# /home/user/dir  -> dir
	return os.path.basename(os.path.normpath(directory))		# normpath removes trailing slashes if any

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def dir_is_empty(directory=None):
	try:
		empty = (len(os.listdir(directory)) == 0)
	except OSError as exc:
		if exc.errno != 2:	# no such file
			raise
		empty = None
	return empty

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def copy_tree_content(directory, target_directory):
	"""Copy the *content* of <directory> *into* <target_directory>
	   which is created if need be.
	"""
	assert (directory is not None), 'source <directory> should not be None'
	_log.debug('copying content of [%s] into [%s]', directory, target_directory)
	try:
		items = os.listdir(directory)
	except OSError:
		return None

	for item in items:
		full_item = os.path.join(directory, item)
		if os.path.isdir(full_item):
			target_subdir = os.path.join(target_directory, item)
			try:
				shutil.copytree(full_item, target_subdir)
			except Exception:
				_log.exception('cannot copy subdir [%s]', full_item)
				return None
		else:
			try:
				shutil.copy2(full_item, target_directory)
			except Exception:
				_log.exception('cannot copy file [%s]', full_item)
				return None

	return target_directory

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
class gmPaths(gmBorg.cBorg):
	"""This class provides the following paths:

	.home_dir				user home
	.local_base_dir			script installation dir
	.working_dir			current dir
	.user_config_dir
	.system_config_dir
	.system_app_data_dir	(not writable)
	.tmp_dir				instance-local
	.user_tmp_dir			user-local (NOT per instance)
	.bytea_cache_dir		caches downloaded BYTEA data
	"""
	def __init__(self, app_name=None, wx=None):
		"""Setup pathes.

		<app_name> will default to (name of the script - .py)
		"""
		try:
			self.already_inited
			return
		except AttributeError:
			pass

		self.init_paths(app_name=app_name, wx=wx)
		self.already_inited = True

	#--------------------------------------
	# public API
	#--------------------------------------
	def init_paths(self, app_name=None, wx=None):

		if wx is None:
			_log.debug('wxPython not available')
		_log.debug('detecting paths directly')

		if app_name is None:
			app_name, ext = os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(sys.argv[0]))
			_log.info('app name detected as [%s]', app_name)
		else:
			_log.info('app name passed in as [%s]', app_name)

		# the user home, doesn't work in Wine so work around that
		self.__home_dir = None

		# where the main script (the "binary") is installed
		if getattr(sys, 'frozen', False):
			_log.info('frozen app, installed into temporary path')
			# this would find the path of *THIS* file
			#self.local_base_dir = os.path.dirname(__file__)
			# while this is documented on the web, the ${_MEIPASS2} does not exist
			#self.local_base_dir = os.environ.get('_MEIPASS2')
			# this is what Martin Zibricky <mzibr.public@gmail.com> told us to use
			# when asking about this on pyinstaller@googlegroups.com
			#self.local_base_dir = sys._MEIPASS
			# however, we are --onedir, so we should look at sys.executable
			# as per the pyinstaller manual
			self.local_base_dir = os.path.dirname(sys.executable)
		else:
			self.local_base_dir = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(sys.argv[0]))

		# the current working dir at the OS
		self.working_dir = os.path.abspath(os.curdir)

		# user-specific config dir, usually below the home dir
		mkdir(os.path.join(self.home_dir, '.%s' % app_name))
		self.user_config_dir = os.path.join(self.home_dir, '.%s' % app_name)

		# system-wide config dir, usually below /etc/ under UN*X
		try:
			self.system_config_dir = os.path.join('/etc', app_name)
		except ValueError:
			#self.system_config_dir = self.local_base_dir
			self.system_config_dir = self.user_config_dir

		# system-wide application data dir
		try:
			self.system_app_data_dir = os.path.join(sys.prefix, 'share', app_name)
		except ValueError:
			self.system_app_data_dir = self.local_base_dir

		# temporary directory
		try:
			self.__tmp_dir_already_set
			_log.debug('temp dir already set')
		except AttributeError:
			_log.info('temp file prefix: %s', tempfile.gettempprefix())
			_log.info('initial (user level) temp dir: %s', tempfile.gettempdir())
			bytes_free = shutil.disk_usage(tempfile.gettempdir()).free
			_log.info('free disk space for temp dir: %s (%s bytes)', size2str(size = bytes_free), bytes_free)
			# $TMP/gnumed-$USER/
			self.user_tmp_dir = os.path.join(tempfile.gettempdir(), '%s-%s' % (app_name, getpass.getuser()))
			mkdir(self.user_tmp_dir, 0o700)
			_log.info('intermediate (app+user level) temp dir: %s', self.user_tmp_dir)
			# $TMP/gnumed-$USER/g-$UNIQUE/
			tempfile.tempdir = self.user_tmp_dir # tell mkdtemp about intermediate dir
			self.tmp_dir = tempfile.mkdtemp(prefix = 'g-') # will set tempfile.tempdir as side effect
			_log.info('final (app instance level) temp dir: %s', tempfile.gettempdir())

		# BYTEA cache dir
		cache_dir = os.path.join(self.user_tmp_dir, '.bytea_cache')
		try:
			stat = os.stat(cache_dir)
			_log.warning('reusing BYTEA cache dir: %s', cache_dir)
			_log.debug(stat)
		except FileNotFoundError:
			mkdir(cache_dir, mode = 0o0700)
		self.bytea_cache_dir = cache_dir

		self.__log_paths()
		if wx is None:
			return True

		# retry with wxPython
		_log.debug('re-detecting paths with wxPython')

		std_paths = wx.StandardPaths.Get()
		_log.info('wxPython app name is [%s]', wx.GetApp().GetAppName())

		# user-specific config dir, usually below the home dir
		mkdir(os.path.join(std_paths.GetUserConfigDir(), '.%s' % app_name))
		self.user_config_dir = os.path.join(std_paths.GetUserConfigDir(), '.%s' % app_name)

		# system-wide config dir, usually below /etc/ under UN*X
		try:
			tmp = std_paths.GetConfigDir()
			if not tmp.endswith(app_name):
				tmp = os.path.join(tmp, app_name)
			self.system_config_dir = tmp
		except ValueError:
			# leave it at what it was from direct detection
			pass

		# system-wide application data dir
		# Robin attests that the following doesn't always
		# give sane values on Windows, so IFDEF it
		if 'wxMSW' in wx.PlatformInfo:
			_log.warning('this platform (wxMSW) sometimes returns a broken value for the system-wide application data dir')
		else:
			try:
				self.system_app_data_dir = std_paths.GetDataDir()
			except ValueError:
				pass

		self.__log_paths()
		return True

	#--------------------------------------
	def __log_paths(self):
		_log.debug('sys.argv[0]: %s', sys.argv[0])
		_log.debug('sys.executable: %s', sys.executable)
		_log.debug('sys._MEIPASS: %s', getattr(sys, '_MEIPASS', '<not found>'))
		_log.debug('os.environ["_MEIPASS2"]: %s', os.environ.get('_MEIPASS2', '<not found>'))
		_log.debug('__file__ : %s', __file__)
		_log.debug('local application base dir: %s', self.local_base_dir)
		_log.debug('current working dir: %s', self.working_dir)
		_log.debug('user home dir: %s', self.home_dir)
		_log.debug('user-specific config dir: %s', self.user_config_dir)
		_log.debug('system-wide config dir: %s', self.system_config_dir)
		_log.debug('system-wide application data dir: %s', self.system_app_data_dir)
		_log.debug('temporary dir (user): %s', self.user_tmp_dir)
		_log.debug('temporary dir (instance): %s', self.tmp_dir)
		_log.debug('temporary dir (tempfile.tempdir): %s', tempfile.tempdir)
		_log.debug('temporary dir (tempfile.gettempdir()): %s', tempfile.gettempdir())
		_log.debug('BYTEA cache dir: %s', self.bytea_cache_dir)

	#--------------------------------------
	# properties
	#--------------------------------------
	def _set_user_config_dir(self, path):
		if not (os.access(path, os.R_OK) and os.access(path, os.X_OK)):
			msg = '[%s:user_config_dir]: invalid path [%s]' % (self.__class__.__name__, path)
			_log.error(msg)
			raise ValueError(msg)
		self.__user_config_dir = path

	def _get_user_config_dir(self):
		return self.__user_config_dir

	user_config_dir = property(_get_user_config_dir, _set_user_config_dir)
	#--------------------------------------
	def _set_system_config_dir(self, path):
		if not (os.access(path, os.R_OK) and os.access(path, os.X_OK)):
			msg = '[%s:system_config_dir]: invalid path [%s]' % (self.__class__.__name__, path)
			_log.error(msg)
			raise ValueError(msg)
		self.__system_config_dir = path

	def _get_system_config_dir(self):
		return self.__system_config_dir

	system_config_dir = property(_get_system_config_dir, _set_system_config_dir)
	#--------------------------------------
	def _set_system_app_data_dir(self, path):
		if not (os.access(path, os.R_OK) and os.access(path, os.X_OK)):
			msg = '[%s:system_app_data_dir]: invalid path [%s]' % (self.__class__.__name__, path)
			_log.error(msg)
			raise ValueError(msg)
		self.__system_app_data_dir = path

	def _get_system_app_data_dir(self):
		return self.__system_app_data_dir

	system_app_data_dir = property(_get_system_app_data_dir, _set_system_app_data_dir)
	#--------------------------------------
	def _set_home_dir(self, path):
		raise ValueError('invalid to set home dir')

	def _get_home_dir(self):
		if self.__home_dir is not None:
			return self.__home_dir

		tmp = os.path.expanduser('~')
		if tmp == '~':
			_log.error('this platform does not expand ~ properly')
			try:
				tmp = os.environ['USERPROFILE']
			except KeyError:
				_log.error('cannot access $USERPROFILE in environment')

		if not (
			os.access(tmp, os.R_OK)
				and
			os.access(tmp, os.X_OK)
				and
			os.access(tmp, os.W_OK)
		):
			msg = '[%s:home_dir]: invalid path [%s]' % (self.__class__.__name__, tmp)
			_log.error(msg)
			raise ValueError(msg)

		self.__home_dir = tmp
		return self.__home_dir

	home_dir = property(_get_home_dir, _set_home_dir)

	#--------------------------------------
	def _set_tmp_dir(self, path):
		if not (os.access(path, os.R_OK) and os.access(path, os.X_OK)):
			msg = '[%s:tmp_dir]: invalid path [%s]' % (self.__class__.__name__, path)
			_log.error(msg)
			raise ValueError(msg)
		_log.debug('previous temp dir: %s', tempfile.gettempdir())
		self.__tmp_dir = path
		tempfile.tempdir = self.__tmp_dir
		_log.debug('new temp dir: %s', tempfile.gettempdir())
		self.__tmp_dir_already_set = True

	def _get_tmp_dir(self):
		return self.__tmp_dir

	tmp_dir = property(_get_tmp_dir, _set_tmp_dir)

#===========================================================================
# file related tools
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def recode_file(source_file=None, target_file=None, source_encoding='utf8', target_encoding=None, base_dir=None, error_mode='replace'):
	if target_encoding is None:
		return source_file

	if target_encoding == source_encoding:
		return source_file

	if target_file is None:
		target_file = get_unique_filename (
			prefix = '%s-%s_%s-' % (fname_stem(source_file), source_encoding, target_encoding),
			suffix = fname_extension(source_file, '.txt'),
			tmp_dir = base_dir
		)
	_log.debug('[%s] -> [%s] (%s -> %s)', source_encoding, target_encoding, source_file, target_file)
	in_file = io.open(source_file, mode = 'rt', encoding = source_encoding)
	out_file = io.open(target_file, mode = 'wt', encoding = target_encoding, errors = error_mode)
	for line in in_file:
		out_file.write(line)
	out_file.close()
	in_file.close()
	return target_file

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def unzip_archive(archive_name, target_dir=None, remove_archive=False):
	_log.debug('unzipping [%s] -> [%s]', archive_name, target_dir)
	success = False
	try:
		with zipfile.ZipFile(archive_name) as archive:
			archive.extractall(target_dir)
		success = True
	except Exception:
		_log.exception('cannot unzip')
		return False
	if remove_archive:
		remove_file(archive_name)
	return success

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def remove_file(filename, log_error=True, force=False):
	if not os.path.lexists(filename):
		return True

	# attempt file removal and ignore (but log) errors
	try:
		os.remove(filename)
		return True

	except Exception:
		if log_error:
			_log.exception('cannot os.remove(%s)', filename)

	if force:
		tmp_name = get_unique_filename(tmp_dir = fname_dir(filename))
		_log.debug('attempting os.replace(%s -> %s)', filename, tmp_name)
		try:
			os.replace(filename, tmp_name)
			return True

		except Exception:
			if log_error:
				_log.exception('cannot os.remove(%s)', filename)

	return False

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def file2md5(filename=None, return_hex=True):
	blocksize = 2**10 * 128			# 128k, since md5 uses 128 byte blocks
	_log.debug('md5(%s): <%s> byte blocks', filename, blocksize)
	f = io.open(filename, mode = 'rb')
	md5 = hashlib.md5()
	while True:
		data = f.read(blocksize)
		if not data:
			break
		md5.update(data)
	f.close()
	_log.debug('md5(%s): %s', filename, md5.hexdigest())
	if return_hex:
		return md5.hexdigest()

	return md5.digest()

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def file2chunked_md5(filename=None, chunk_size=500*_MB):
	_log.debug('chunked_md5(%s, chunk_size=%s bytes)', filename, chunk_size)
	md5_concat = ''
	f = open(filename, 'rb')
	while True:
		md5 = hashlib.md5()
		data = f.read(chunk_size)
		if not data:
			break
		md5.update(data)
		md5_concat += md5.hexdigest()
	f.close()
	md5 = hashlib.md5()
	md5.update(md5_concat)
	hex_digest = md5.hexdigest()
	_log.debug('md5("%s"): %s', md5_concat, hex_digest)
	return hex_digest

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
default_csv_reader_rest_key = 'list_of_values_of_unknown_fields'

def unicode_csv_reader(unicode_csv_data, dialect=csv.excel, encoding='utf-8', **kwargs):
	try:
		is_dict_reader = kwargs['dict']
		del kwargs['dict']
	except KeyError:
		is_dict_reader = False

	if is_dict_reader:
		kwargs['restkey'] = default_csv_reader_rest_key
		return csv.DictReader(unicode_csv_data, dialect=dialect, **kwargs)
	return csv.reader(unicode_csv_data, dialect=dialect, **kwargs)




def old_unicode2charset_encoder(unicode_csv_data, encoding='utf-8'):
	for line in unicode_csv_data:
		yield line.encode(encoding)

#def utf_8_encoder(unicode_csv_data):
#	for line in unicode_csv_data:
#		yield line.encode('utf-8')

def old_unicode_csv_reader(unicode_csv_data, dialect=csv.excel, encoding='utf-8', **kwargs):

	# csv.py doesn't do Unicode; encode temporarily as UTF-8:
	try:
		is_dict_reader = kwargs['dict']
		del kwargs['dict']
		if is_dict_reader is not True:
			raise KeyError
		kwargs['restkey'] = default_csv_reader_rest_key
		csv_reader = csv.DictReader(unicode2charset_encoder(unicode_csv_data), dialect=dialect, **kwargs)
	except KeyError:
		is_dict_reader = False
		csv_reader = csv.reader(unicode2charset_encoder(unicode_csv_data), dialect=dialect, **kwargs)

	for row in csv_reader:
		# decode ENCODING back to Unicode, cell by cell:
		if is_dict_reader:
			for key in row:
				if key == default_csv_reader_rest_key:
					old_data = row[key]
					new_data = []
					for val in old_data:
						new_data.append(str(val, encoding))
					row[key] = new_data
					if default_csv_reader_rest_key not in csv_reader.fieldnames:
						csv_reader.fieldnames.append(default_csv_reader_rest_key)
				else:
					row[key] = str(row[key], encoding)
			yield row
		else:
			yield [ str(cell, encoding) for cell in row ]
			#yield [str(cell, 'utf-8') for cell in row]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def fname_sanitize(filename):
	"""Normalizes unicode, removes non-alpha characters, converts spaces to underscores."""

	dir_part, name_part = os.path.split(filename)
	if name_part == '':
		return filename

	import unicodedata
	name_part = unicodedata.normalize('NFKD', name_part)
	# remove everything not in group []
	name_part = regex.sub (
		'[^.\w\s[\]()%§+-]',
		'',
		name_part,
		flags = regex.UNICODE
	).strip()
	# translate whitespace to underscore
	name_part = regex.sub (
		'\s+',
		'_',
		name_part,
		flags = regex.UNICODE
	)
	return os.path.join(dir_part, name_part)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def fname_stem(filename):
	"""/home/user/dir/filename.ext -> filename"""
	return os.path.splitext(os.path.basename(filename))[0]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def fname_stem_with_path(filename):
	"""/home/user/dir/filename.ext -> /home/user/dir/filename"""
	return os.path.splitext(filename)[0]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def fname_extension(filename=None, fallback=None):
	"""	/home/user/dir/filename.ext -> .ext
		'' or '.' -> fallback if any else ''
	"""
	ext = os.path.splitext(filename)[1]
	if ext.strip() not in ['.', '']:
		return ext
	if fallback is None:
		return ''
	return fallback

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def fname_dir(filename):
	# /home/user/dir/filename.ext -> /home/user/dir
	return os.path.split(filename)[0]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def fname_from_path(filename):
	# /home/user/dir/filename.ext -> filename.ext
	return os.path.split(filename)[1]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def get_unique_filename(prefix=None, suffix=None, tmp_dir=None, include_timestamp=False):
	"""This function has a race condition between
			its file.close()
	   and actually
			using the filename in callers.

	The file will NOT exist after calling this function.
	"""
	if tmp_dir is None:
		gmPaths()		# setup tmp dir if necessary
	else:
		if (
			not os.access(tmp_dir, os.F_OK)
				or
			not os.access(tmp_dir, os.X_OK | os.W_OK)
		):
			_log.warning('cannot os.access() temporary dir [%s], using system default', tmp_dir)
			tmp_dir = None

	if include_timestamp:
		ts = pydt.datetime.now().strftime('%m%d-%H%M%S-')
	else:
		ts = ''

	kwargs = {
		'dir': tmp_dir,
		#  make sure file gets deleted as soon as
		# .close()d so we can "safely" open it again
		'delete': True
	}

	if prefix is None:
		kwargs['prefix'] = 'gm-%s' % ts
	else:
		kwargs['prefix'] = prefix + ts

	if suffix in [None, '']:
		kwargs['suffix'] = '.tmp'
	else:
		if not suffix.startswith('.'):
			suffix = '.' + suffix
		kwargs['suffix'] = suffix

	f = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile(**kwargs)
	filename = f.name
	f.close()

	return filename

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def __make_symlink_on_windows(physical_name, link_name):
	import ctypes
	#windows_create_symlink = ctypes.windll.kernel32.CreateSymbolicLinkW
	kernel32 = ctype.WinDLL('kernel32', use_last_error = True)
	windows_create_symlink = kernel32.CreateSymbolicLinkW
	windows_create_symlink.argtypes = (ctypes.c_wchar_p, ctypes.c_wchar_p, ctypes.c_uint32)
	windows_create_symlink.restype = ctypes.c_ubyte
	if os.path.isdir(physical_name):
		flags = 1
	else:
		flags = 0
	ret_code = windows_create_symlink(link_name, physical_name.replace('/', '\\'), flags)
	_log.debug('ctypes.windll.kernel32.CreateSymbolicLinkW() [%s] exit code: %s', windows_create_symlink, ret_code)
	if ret_code == 0:
		raise ctypes.WinError()
	return ret_code

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def mklink(physical_name, link_name, overwrite=False):

	_log.debug('creating symlink (overwrite = %s):', overwrite)
	_log.debug('link [%s] =>', link_name)
	_log.debug('=> physical [%s]', physical_name)

	if os.path.exists(link_name):
		_log.debug('link exists')
		if overwrite:
			return True
		return False

	try:
		os.symlink(physical_name, link_name)
	except (AttributeError, NotImplementedError):
		_log.debug('this Python does not have os.symlink(), trying via ctypes')
		__make_symlink_on_windows(physical_name, link_name)
	except PermissionError:
		_log.exception('cannot create link')
		return False
	#except OSError:
	#	unpriviledged on Windows
	return True

#===========================================================================
def import_module_from_directory(module_path=None, module_name=None, always_remove_path=False):
	"""Import a module from any location."""

	_log.debug('CWD: %s', os.getcwd())

	remove_path = always_remove_path or False
	if module_path not in sys.path:
		_log.info('appending to sys.path: [%s]' % module_path)
		sys.path.append(module_path)
		remove_path = True

	_log.debug('will remove import path: %s', remove_path)

	if module_name.endswith('.py'):
		module_name = module_name[:-3]

	try:
		module = __import__(module_name)
	except Exception:
		_log.exception('cannot __import__() module [%s] from [%s]' % (module_name, module_path))
		while module_path in sys.path:
			sys.path.remove(module_path)
		raise

	_log.info('imported module [%s] as [%s]' % (module_name, module))
	if remove_path:
		while module_path in sys.path:
			sys.path.remove(module_path)

	return module

#===========================================================================
# text related tools
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def size2str(size=0, template='%s'):
	if size == 1:
		return template % _('1 Byte')
	if size < 10 * _kB:
		return template % _('%s Bytes') % size
	if size < _MB:
		return template % '%.1f kB' % (float(size) / _kB)
	if size < _GB:
		return template % '%.1f MB' % (float(size) / _MB)
	if size < _TB:
		return template % '%.1f GB' % (float(size) / _GB)
	if size < _PB:
		return template % '%.1f TB' % (float(size) / _TB)
	return template % '%.1f PB' % (float(size) / _PB)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def bool2subst(boolean=None, true_return=True, false_return=False, none_return=None):
	if boolean is None:
		return none_return
	if boolean:
		return true_return
	if not boolean:
		return false_return
	raise ValueError('bool2subst(): <boolean> arg must be either of True, False, None')

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def bool2str(boolean=None, true_str='True', false_str='False'):
	return bool2subst (
		boolean = bool(boolean),
		true_return = true_str,
		false_return = false_str
	)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def none_if(value=None, none_equivalent=None, strip_string=False):
	"""Modelled after the SQL NULLIF function."""
	if value is None:
		return None

	if strip_string:
		stripped = value.strip()
	else:
		stripped = value
	if stripped == none_equivalent:
		return None

	return value

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def coalesce(value2test=None, return_instead=None, template4value=None, template4instead=None, none_equivalents=None, function4value=None, value2return=None):
	"""Modelled after the SQL coalesce function.

	To be used to simplify constructs like:

		if value2test is None (or in none_equivalents):
			value = (template4instead % return_instead) or return_instead
		else:
			value = (template4value % value2test) or value2test
		print(value)

	@param value2test: the value to be tested for <None>

	@param return_instead: the value to be returned if <value2test> *is* None

	@param template4value: if <value2test> is returned, replace the value into this template, must contain one <%s>

	@param template4instead: if <return_instead> is returned, replace the value into this template, must contain one <%s>

	@param value2return: a *value* to return if <value2test> is NOT None, AND there's no <template4value>

	example:
		function4value = ('strftime', '%Y-%m-%d')

	Ideas:
		- list of return_insteads: initial, [return_instead, template], [return_instead, template], [return_instead, template], template4value, ...
	"""
	if none_equivalents is None:
		none_equivalents = [None]

	if value2test in none_equivalents:
		if template4instead is None:
			return return_instead
		return template4instead % return_instead

	# at this point, value2test was not equivalent to None

	# 1) explicit value to return supplied ?
	if value2return is not None:
		return value2return

	value2return = value2test
	# 2) function supplied to be applied to the value ?
	if function4value is not None:
		funcname, args = function4value
		func = getattr(value2test, funcname)
		value2return = func(args)

	# 3) template supplied to be applied to the value ?
	if template4value is None:
		return value2return

	try:
		return template4value % value2return
	except TypeError:
#	except (TypeError, ValueError):
		# this should go, actually, only needed because "old" calls
		# to coalesce will still abuse template4value as explicit value2return,
		# relying on the replacement to above to fail
		if hasattr(_log, 'log_stack_trace'):
			_log.log_stack_trace(message = 'deprecated use of <template4value> for <value2return>')
		else:
			_log.error('deprecated use of <template4value> for <value2return>')
			_log.error(locals())
		return template4value

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def __cap_name(match_obj=None):
	val = match_obj.group(0).lower()
	if val in ['von', 'van', 'de', 'la', 'l', 'der', 'den']:			# FIXME: this needs to expand, configurable ?
		return val
	buf = list(val)
	buf[0] = buf[0].upper()
	for part in ['mac', 'mc', 'de', 'la']:
		if len(val) > len(part) and val[:len(part)] == part:
			buf[len(part)] = buf[len(part)].upper()
	return ''.join(buf)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def capitalize(text=None, mode=CAPS_NAMES):
	"""Capitalize the first character but leave the rest alone.

	Note that we must be careful about the locale, this may
	have issues ! However, for UTF strings it should just work.
	"""
	if (mode is None) or (mode == CAPS_NONE):
		return text

	if len(text) == 0:
		return text

	if mode == CAPS_FIRST:
		if len(text) == 1:
			return text[0].upper()
		return text[0].upper() + text[1:]

	if mode == CAPS_ALLCAPS:
		return text.upper()

	if mode == CAPS_FIRST_ONLY:
#		if len(text) == 1:
#			return text[0].upper()
		return text[0].upper() + text[1:].lower()

	if mode == CAPS_WORDS:
		#return regex.sub(ur'(\w)(\w+)', lambda x: x.group(1).upper() + x.group(2).lower(), text)
		return regex.sub(r'(\w)(\w+)', lambda x: x.group(1).upper() + x.group(2).lower(), text)

	if mode == CAPS_NAMES:
		#return regex.sub(r'\w+', __cap_name, text)
		return capitalize(text=text, mode=CAPS_FIRST)		# until fixed

	print("ERROR: invalid capitalization mode: [%s], leaving input as is" % mode)
	return text

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def input2decimal(initial=None):

	if isinstance(initial, decimal.Decimal):
		return True, initial

	val = initial

	# float ? -> to string first
	if type(val) == type(float(1.4)):
		val = str(val)

	# string ? -> "," to "."
	if isinstance(val, str):
		val = val.replace(',', '.', 1)
		val = val.strip()

	try:
		d = decimal.Decimal(val)
		return True, d
	except (TypeError, decimal.InvalidOperation):
		return False, val

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def input2int(initial=None, minval=None, maxval=None):

	val = initial

	# string ? -> "," to "."
	if isinstance(val, str):
		val = val.replace(',', '.', 1)
		val = val.strip()

	try:
		int_val = int(val)
	except (TypeError, ValueError):
		_log.exception('int(%s) failed', val)
		return False, initial

	if minval is not None:
		if int_val < minval:
			_log.debug('%s < min (%s)', val, minval)
			return False, initial
	if maxval is not None:
		if int_val > maxval:
			_log.debug('%s > max (%s)', val, maxval)
			return False, initial

	return True, int_val

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def strip_prefix(text, prefix, remove_repeats=False, remove_whitespace=False):
	if remove_whitespace:
		text = text.lstrip()
	if not text.startswith(prefix):
		return text

	text = text.replace(prefix, '', 1)
	if not remove_repeats:
		if remove_whitespace:
			return text.lstrip()
		return text

	return strip_prefix(text, prefix, remove_repeats = True, remove_whitespace = remove_whitespace)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def decorate_window_title(title):
	if title.startswith(_GM_TITLE_PREFIX):
		return title
	return '%s: %s' % (
		_GM_TITLE_PREFIX,
		title.lstrip()
	)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def undecorate_window_title(title):
	return strip_prefix(title, _GM_TITLE_PREFIX + ':', remove_repeats = True, remove_whitespace = True)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def strip_suffix(text, suffix, remove_repeats=False, remove_whitespace=False):
	suffix_len = len(suffix)
	if remove_repeats:
		if remove_whitespace:
			while text.rstrip().endswith(suffix):
				text = text.rstrip()[:-suffix_len].rstrip()
			return text
		while text.endswith(suffix):
			text = text[:-suffix_len]
		return text
	if remove_whitespace:
		return text.rstrip()[:-suffix_len].rstrip()
	return text[:-suffix_len]

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def strip_leading_empty_lines(lines=None, text=None, eol='\n', return_list=True):
	if lines is None:
		lines = text.split(eol)

	while True:
		if lines[0].strip(eol).strip() != '':
			break
		lines = lines[1:]

	if return_list:
		return lines

	return eol.join(lines)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def strip_trailing_empty_lines(lines=None, text=None, eol='\n', return_list=True):
	if lines is None:
		lines = text.split(eol)

	while True:
		if lines[-1].strip(eol).strip() != '':
			break
		lines = lines[:-1]

	if return_list:
		return lines

	return eol.join(lines)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def strip_empty_lines(lines=None, text=None, eol='\n', return_list=True):
	return strip_trailing_empty_lines (
		lines = strip_leading_empty_lines(lines = lines, text = text, eol = eol, return_list = True),
		text = None,
		eol = eol,
		return_list = return_list
	)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def list2text(lines, initial_indent='', subsequent_indent='', eol='\n', strip_leading_empty_lines=True, strip_trailing_empty_lines=True, strip_trailing_whitespace=True, max_line_width=None):

	if len(lines) == 0:
		return ''

	if strip_leading_empty_lines:
		lines = strip_leading_empty_lines(lines = lines, eol = eol, return_list = True)

	if strip_trailing_empty_lines:
		lines = strip_trailing_empty_lines(lines = lines, eol = eol, return_list = True)

	if strip_trailing_whitespace:
		lines = [ l.rstrip() for l in lines ]

	if max_line_width is not None:
		wrapped_lines = []
		for l in lines:
			wrapped_lines.extend(wrap(l, max_line_width).split('\n'))
		lines = wrapped_lines

	indented_lines = [initial_indent + lines[0]]
	indented_lines.extend([ subsequent_indent + l for l in lines[1:] ])

	return eol.join(indented_lines)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def wrap(text=None, width=None, initial_indent='', subsequent_indent='', eol='\n'):
	"""A word-wrap function that preserves existing line breaks
	and most spaces in the text. Expects that existing line
	breaks are posix newlines (\n).
	"""
	if width is None:
		return text

	wrapped = initial_indent + functools.reduce (
		lambda line, word, width=width: '%s%s%s' % (
			line,
			' \n'[(len(line) - line.rfind('\n') - 1 + len(word.split('\n',1)[0]) >= width)],
			word
		),
		text.split(' ')
	)
	if subsequent_indent != '':
		wrapped = ('\n%s' % subsequent_indent).join(wrapped.split('\n'))
	if eol != '\n':
		wrapped = wrapped.replace('\n', eol)
	return wrapped

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def unwrap(text=None, max_length=None, strip_whitespace=True, remove_empty_lines=True, line_separator = ' // '):

	text = text.replace('\r', '')
	lines = text.split('\n')
	text = ''
	for line in lines:

		if strip_whitespace:
			line = line.strip().strip('\t').strip()

		if remove_empty_lines:
			if line == '':
				continue

		text += ('%s%s' % (line, line_separator))

	text = text.rstrip(line_separator)

	if max_length is not None:
		text = text[:max_length]

	text = text.rstrip(line_separator)

	return text

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def shorten_text(text=None, max_length=None):

	if len(text) <= max_length:
		return text

	return text[:max_length-1] + u_ellipsis

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def shorten_words_in_line(text=None, max_length=None, min_word_length=None, ignore_numbers=True, ellipsis=u_ellipsis):
	if text is None:
		return None
	if max_length is None:
		max_length = len(text)
	else:
		if len(text) <= max_length:
			return text
	old_words = regex.split('\s+', text, flags = regex.UNICODE)
	no_old_words = len(old_words)
	max_word_length = max(min_word_length, (max_length // no_old_words))
	words = []
	for word in old_words:
		if len(word) <= max_word_length:
			words.append(word)
			continue
		if ignore_numbers:
			tmp = word.replace('-', '').replace('+', '').replace('.', '').replace(',', '').replace('/', '').replace('&', '').replace('*', '')
			if tmp.isdigit():
				words.append(word)
				continue
		words.append(word[:max_word_length] + ellipsis)
	return ' '.join(words)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def xml_escape_string(text=None):
	"""check for special XML characters and transform them"""
	return xml_tools.escape(text)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def tex_escape_string(text=None, replace_known_unicode=True, replace_eol=False, keep_visual_eol=False):
	"""Check for special TeX characters and transform them.

		replace_eol:
			replaces "\n" with "\\newline"
		keep_visual_eol:
			replaces "\n" with "\\newline \n" such that
			both LaTeX will know to place a line break
			at this point as well as the visual formatting
			is preserved in the LaTeX source (think multi-
			row table cells)
	"""
	text = text.replace('\\', '\\textbackslash')			# requires \usepackage{textcomp} in LaTeX source
	text = text.replace('^', '\\textasciicircum')
	text = text.replace('~', '\\textasciitilde')

	text = text.replace('{', '\\{')
	text = text.replace('}', '\\}')
	text = text.replace('%', '\\%')
	text = text.replace('&', '\\&')
	text = text.replace('#', '\\#')
	text = text.replace('$', '\\$')
	text = text.replace('_', '\\_')
	if replace_eol:
		if keep_visual_eol:
			text = text.replace('\n', '\\newline \n')
		else:
			text = text.replace('\n', '\\newline ')

	if replace_known_unicode:
		# this should NOT be replaced for Xe(La)Tex
		text = text.replace(u_euro, '\\EUR')		# requires \usepackage{textcomp} in LaTeX source
		text = text.replace(u_sum, '$\\Sigma$')

	return text

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def rst2latex_snippet(rst_text):
	global du_core
	if du_core is None:
		try:
			from docutils import core as du_core
		except ImportError:
			_log.warning('cannot turn ReST into LaTeX: docutils not installed')
			return tex_escape_string(text = rst_text)

	parts = du_core.publish_parts (
		source = rst_text.replace('\\', '\\\\'),
		source_path = '<internal>',
		writer_name = 'latex',
		#destination_path = '/path/to/LaTeX-template/for/calculating/relative/links/template.tex',
		settings_overrides = {
			'input_encoding': 'unicode'		# un-encoded unicode
		},
		enable_exit_status = True			# how to use ?
	)
	return parts['body']

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def rst2html(rst_text, replace_eol=False, keep_visual_eol=False):
	global du_core
	if du_core is None:
		try:
			from docutils import core as du_core
		except ImportError:
			_log.warning('cannot turn ReST into HTML: docutils not installed')
			return html_escape_string(text = rst_text, replace_eol=False, keep_visual_eol=False)

	parts = du_core.publish_parts (
		source = rst_text.replace('\\', '\\\\'),
		source_path = '<internal>',
		writer_name = 'latex',
		#destination_path = '/path/to/LaTeX-template/for/calculating/relative/links/template.tex',
		settings_overrides = {
			'input_encoding': 'unicode'		# un-encoded unicode
		},
		enable_exit_status = True			# how to use ?
	)
	return parts['body']

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def xetex_escape_string(text=None):
	# a web search did not reveal anything else for Xe(La)Tex
	# as opposed to LaTeX, except true unicode chars
	return tex_escape_string(text = text, replace_known_unicode = False)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
__html_escape_table = {
	"&": "&amp;",
	'"': "&quot;",
	"'": "&apos;",
	">": "&gt;",
	"<": "&lt;",
}

def html_escape_string(text=None, replace_eol=False, keep_visual_eol=False):
	text = ''.join(__html_escape_table.get(char, char) for char in text)
	if replace_eol:
		if keep_visual_eol:
			text = text.replace('\n', '<br>\n')
		else:
			text = text.replace('\n', '<br>')
	return text

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def dict2json(obj):
	return json.dumps(obj, default = json_serialize)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def json_serialize(obj):
	if isinstance(obj, pydt.datetime):
		return obj.isoformat()
	raise TypeError('cannot json_serialize(%s)' % type(obj))

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def compare_dict_likes(d1, d2, title1=None, title2=None):
	_log.info('comparing dict-likes: %s[%s] vs %s[%s]', coalesce(title1, '', '"%s" '), type(d1), coalesce(title2, '', '"%s" '), type(d2))
	try:
		d1 = dict(d1)
	except TypeError:
		pass
	try:
		d2 = dict(d2)
	except TypeError:
		pass
	keys_d1 = list(d1)
	keys_d2 = list(d2)
	different = False
	if len(keys_d1) != len(keys_d2):
		_log.info('different number of keys: %s vs %s', len(keys_d1), len(keys_d2))
		different = True
	for key in keys_d1:
		if key in keys_d2:
			if type(d1[key]) != type(d2[key]):
				_log.info('%25.25s: type(dict1) = %s = >>>%s<<<' % (key, type(d1[key]), d1[key]))
				_log.info('%25.25s  type(dict2) = %s = >>>%s<<<' % ('', type(d2[key]), d2[key]))
				different = True
				continue
			if d1[key] == d2[key]:
				_log.info('%25.25s:  both = >>>%s<<<' % (key, d1[key]))
			else:
				_log.info('%25.25s: dict1 = >>>%s<<<' % (key, d1[key]))
				_log.info('%25.25s  dict2 = >>>%s<<<' % ('', d2[key]))
				different = True
		else:
			_log.info('%25.25s: %50.50s | <MISSING>' % (key, '>>>%s<<<' % d1[key]))
			different = True
	for key in keys_d2:
		if key in keys_d1:
			continue
		_log.info('%25.25s: %50.50s | %.50s' % (key, '<MISSING>', '>>>%s<<<' % d2[key]))
		different = True
	if different:
		_log.info('dict-likes appear to be different from each other')
		return False
	_log.info('dict-likes appear equal to each other')
	return True

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def format_dict_likes_comparison(d1, d2, title_left=None, title_right=None, left_margin=0, key_delim=' || ', data_delim=' | ', missing_string='=/=', difference_indicator='! ', ignore_diff_in_keys=None):

	_log.info('comparing dict-likes: %s[%s] vs %s[%s]', coalesce(title_left, '', '"%s" '), type(d1), coalesce(title_right, '', '"%s" '), type(d2))
	append_type = False
	if None not in [title_left, title_right]:
		append_type = True
		type_left = type(d1)
		type_right = type(d2)
	if title_left is None:
		title_left = '%s' % type_left
	if title_right is None:
		title_right = '%s' % type_right

	try: d1 = dict(d1)
	except TypeError: pass
	try: d2 = dict(d2)
	except TypeError: pass
	keys_d1 = list(d1)
	keys_d2 = list(d2)
	data = {}
	for key in keys_d1:
		data[key] = [d1[key], ' ']
		if key in d2:
			data[key][1] = d2[key]
	for key in keys_d2:
		if key in keys_d1:
			continue
		data[key] = [' ', d2[key]]
	max1 = max([ len('%s' % k) for k in keys_d1 ])
	max2 = max([ len('%s' % k) for k in keys_d2 ])
	max_len = max(max1, max2, len(_('<type>')))
	max_key_len_str = '%' + '%s.%s' % (max_len, max_len) + 's'
	max1 = max([ len('%s' % d1[k]) for k in keys_d1 ])
	max2 = max([ len('%s' % d2[k]) for k in keys_d2 ])
	max_data_len = min(max(max1, max2), 100)
	max_data_len_str = '%' + '%s.%s' % (max_data_len, max_data_len) + 's'
	diff_indicator_len_str = '%' + '%s.%s' % (len(difference_indicator), len(difference_indicator)) + 's'
	line_template = (' ' * left_margin) + diff_indicator_len_str + max_key_len_str + key_delim + max_data_len_str + data_delim + '%s'

	lines = []
	# debugging:
	#lines.append(u'                                        (40 regular spaces)')
	#lines.append((u' ' * 40) + u"(u' ' * 40)")
	#lines.append((u'%40.40s' % u'') + u"(u'%40.40s' % u'')")
	#lines.append((u'%40.40s' % u' ') + u"(u'%40.40s' % u' ')")
	#lines.append((u'%40.40s' % u'.') + u"(u'%40.40s' % u'.')")
	#lines.append(line_template)
	lines.append(line_template % ('', '', title_left, title_right))
	if append_type:
		lines.append(line_template % ('', _('<type>'), type_left, type_right))

	if ignore_diff_in_keys is None:
		ignore_diff_in_keys = []

	for key in keys_d1:
		append_type = False
		txt_left_col = '%s' % d1[key]
		try:
			txt_right_col = '%s' % d2[key]
			if type(d1[key]) != type(d2[key]):
				append_type = True
		except KeyError:
			txt_right_col = missing_string
		lines.append(line_template % (
			bool2subst (
				((txt_left_col == txt_right_col) or (key in ignore_diff_in_keys)),
				'',
				difference_indicator
			),
			key,
			shorten_text(txt_left_col, max_data_len),
			shorten_text(txt_right_col, max_data_len)
		))
		if append_type:
			lines.append(line_template % (
				'',
				_('<type>'),
				shorten_text('%s' % type(d1[key]), max_data_len),
				shorten_text('%s' % type(d2[key]), max_data_len)
			))

	for key in keys_d2:
		if key in keys_d1:
			continue
		lines.append(line_template % (
			bool2subst((key in ignore_diff_in_keys), '', difference_indicator),
			key,
			shorten_text(missing_string, max_data_len),
			shorten_text('%s' % d2[key], max_data_len)
		))

	return lines

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def format_dict_like(d, relevant_keys=None, template=None, missing_key_template='<[%(key)s] MISSING>', left_margin=0, tabular=False, value_delimiters=('>>>', '<<<'), eol='\n', values2ignore=None):
	if values2ignore is None:
		values2ignore = []
	if template is not None:
		# all keys in template better exist in d
		try:
			return template % d
		except KeyError:
			# or else
			_log.exception('template contains %%()s key(s) which do not exist in data dict')
		# try to extend dict <d> to contain all required keys,
		# for that to work <relevant_keys> better list all
		# keys used in <template>
		if relevant_keys is not None:
			for key in relevant_keys:
				try:
					d[key]
				except KeyError:
					d[key] = missing_key_template % {'key': key}
			return template % d

	if relevant_keys is None:
		relevant_keys = list(d)
	lines = []
	if value_delimiters is None:
		delim_left = ''
		delim_right = ''
	else:
		delim_left, delim_right = value_delimiters
	if tabular:
		max_len = max([ len('%s' % k) for k in relevant_keys ])
		max_len_str = '%s.%s' % (max_len, max_len)
		line_template = (' ' * left_margin) + '%' + max_len_str + ('s: %s%%s%s' % (delim_left, delim_right))
	else:
		line_template = (' ' * left_margin) + '%%s: %s%%s%s' % (delim_left, delim_right)
	for key in relevant_keys:
		try:
			val = d[key]
		except KeyError:
			continue
		if val not in values2ignore:
			lines.append(line_template % (key, val))
	if eol is None:
		return lines
	return eol.join(lines)

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def dicts2table(dict_list, left_margin=0, eol='\n', keys2ignore=None, column_labels=None, show_only_changes=False, equality_value='<=>', date_format=None):	#, relevant_keys=None, template=None
	"""Each dict in <dict_list> becomes a column.

	- each key of dict becomes a row label, unless in keys2ignore

	- each entry in the <column_labels> list becomes a column title
	"""
	keys2show = []
	col_max_width = {}
	max_width_of_row_label_col = 0
	col_label_key = '__________#header#__________'
	if keys2ignore is None:
		keys2ignore = []
	if column_labels is not None:
		keys2ignore.append(col_label_key)

	# extract keys from all dicts and calculate column sizes
	for dict_idx in range(len(dict_list)):
		# convert potentially dict-*like* into dict
		d = dict(dict_list[dict_idx])
		# add max-len column label row from <column_labels> list, if available
		if column_labels is not None:
			d[col_label_key] = max(column_labels[dict_idx].split('\n'), key = len)
		field_lengths = []
		# loop over all keys in this dict
		for key in d:
			# ignore this key
			if key in keys2ignore:
				continue
			# remember length of value when displayed
			if isinstance(d[key], pydt.datetime):
				if date_format is None:
					field_lengths.append(len('%s' % d[key]))
				else:
					field_lengths.append(len(d[key].strftime(date_format)))
			else:
				field_lengths.append(len('%s' % d[key]))
			if key in keys2show:
				continue
			keys2show.append(key)
			max_width_of_row_label_col = max(max_width_of_row_label_col, len('%s' % key))
		col_max_width[dict_idx] = max(field_lengths)

	# pivot data into dict of lists per line
	lines = { k: [] for k in keys2show }
	prev_vals = {}
	for dict_idx in range(len(dict_list)):
		max_width_this_col = max(col_max_width[dict_idx], len(equality_value)) if show_only_changes else col_max_width[dict_idx]
		max_len_str = '%s.%s' % (max_width_this_col, max_width_this_col)
		field_template = ' %' + max_len_str + 's'
		d = dict_list[dict_idx]
		for key in keys2show:
			try:
				val = d[key]
			except KeyError:
				lines[key].append(field_template % _('<missing>'))
				continue
			if isinstance(val, pydt.datetime):
				if date_format is not None:
					val = val.strftime(date_format)
			lines[key].append(field_template % val)
			if show_only_changes:
				if key not in prev_vals:
					prev_vals[key] = '%s' % lines[key][-1]
					continue
				if lines[key][-1] != prev_vals[key]:
					prev_vals[key] = '%s' % lines[key][-1]
					continue
				lines[key][-1] = field_template % equality_value

	# format data into table
	table_lines = []
	max_len_str = '%s.%s' % (max_width_of_row_label_col, max_width_of_row_label_col)
	row_label_template = '%' + max_len_str + 's'
	for key in lines:
		# row label (= key) into first column
		line = (' ' * left_margin) + row_label_template % key + '|'
		# append list values as subsequent columns
		line += '|'.join(lines[key])
		table_lines.append(line)

	# insert lines with column labels (column headers) if any
	if column_labels is not None:
		# first column contains row labels, so no column label needed
		table_header_line_w_col_labels = (' ' * left_margin) + row_label_template % ''
		# second table header line: horizontal separator
		table_header_line_w_separator = (' ' * left_margin) + u_box_horiz_single * (max_width_of_row_label_col)
		max_col_label_widths = [ max(col_max_width[dict_idx], len(equality_value)) for dict_idx in range(len(dict_list)) ]
		for col_idx in range(len(column_labels)):
			max_len_str = '%s.%s' % (max_col_label_widths[col_idx], max_col_label_widths[col_idx])
			col_label_template = '%' + max_len_str + 's'
			table_header_line_w_col_labels += '| '
			table_header_line_w_col_labels += col_label_template % column_labels[col_idx]
			table_header_line_w_separator += '%s%s' % (u_box_plus, u_box_horiz_single)
			table_header_line_w_separator += u_box_horiz_single * max_col_label_widths[col_idx]
		table_lines.insert(0, table_header_line_w_separator)
		table_lines.insert(0, table_header_line_w_col_labels)

	if eol is None:
		return table_lines

	return ('|' + eol).join(table_lines) + '|' + eol

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def normalize_dict_like(d, required_keys, missing_key_template='<[%(key)s] MISSING>'):
	for key in required_keys:
		try:
			d[key]
		except KeyError:
			if missing_key_template is None:
				d[key] = None
			else:
				d[key] = missing_key_template % {'key': key}
	return d

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def enumerate_removable_partitions():
	try:
		import pyudev
		import psutil
	except ImportError:
		_log.error('pyudev and/or psutil not installed')
		return {}

	removable_partitions = {}
	ctxt = pyudev.Context()
	removable_devices = [ dev for dev in ctxt.list_devices(subsystem='block', DEVTYPE='disk') if dev.attributes.get('removable') == b'1' ]
	all_mounted_partitions = { part.device: part for part in psutil.disk_partitions() }
	for device in removable_devices:
		_log.debug('removable device: %s', device.properties['ID_MODEL'])
		partitions_on_removable_device = {
			part.device_node: {
				'type': device.properties['ID_TYPE'],
				'bus': device.properties['ID_BUS'],
				'device': device.properties['DEVNAME'],
				'partition': part.properties['DEVNAME'],
				'vendor': part.properties['ID_VENDOR'],
				'model': part.properties['ID_MODEL'],
				'fs_label': part.properties['ID_FS_LABEL'],
				'is_mounted': False,
				'mountpoint': None,
				'fs_type': None,
				'size_in_bytes': -1,
				'bytes_free': 0
			} for part in ctxt.list_devices(subsystem='block', DEVTYPE='partition', parent=device)
		}
		for part in partitions_on_removable_device:
			try:
				partitions_on_removable_device[part]['mountpoint'] = all_mounted_partitions[part].mountpoint
				partitions_on_removable_device[part]['is_mounted'] = True
				partitions_on_removable_device[part]['fs_type'] = all_mounted_partitions[part].fstype
				du = shutil.disk_usage(all_mounted_partitions[part].mountpoint)
				partitions_on_removable_device[part]['size_in_bytes'] = du.total
				partitions_on_removable_device[part]['bytes_free'] = du.free
			except KeyError:
				pass			# not mounted
		removable_partitions.update(partitions_on_removable_device)
	return removable_partitions

	# debugging:
	#ctxt = pyudev.Context()
	#for dev in ctxt.list_devices(subsystem='block', DEVTYPE='disk'):# if dev.attributes.get('removable') == b'1':
	#	for a in dev.attributes.available_attributes:
	#		print(a, dev.attributes.get(a))
	#	for key, value in dev.items():
	#		print('{key}={value}'.format(key=key, value=value))
	#	print('---------------------------')

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def enumerate_optical_writers():
	try:
		import pyudev
	except ImportError:
		_log.error('pyudev not installed')
		return []

	optical_writers = []
	ctxt = pyudev.Context()
	for dev in [ dev for dev in ctxt.list_devices(subsystem='block', DEVTYPE='disk') if dev.properties.get('ID_CDROM_CD_RW', None) == '1' ]:
		optical_writers.append ({
			'type': dev.properties['ID_TYPE'],
			'bus': dev.properties['ID_BUS'],
			'device': dev.properties['DEVNAME'],
			'model': dev.properties['ID_MODEL']
		})
	return optical_writers

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def prompted_input(prompt=None, default=None):
	"""Obtains entry from standard input.

	prompt: Prompt text to display in standard output
	default: Default value (for user to press enter only)
	CTRL-C: aborts and returns None
	"""
	if prompt is None:
		msg = '(CTRL-C aborts)'
	else:
		msg = '%s (CTRL-C aborts)' % prompt

	if default is None:
		msg = msg + ': '
	else:
		msg = '%s [%s]: ' % (msg, default)

	try:
		usr_input = input(msg)
	except KeyboardInterrupt:
		return None

	if usr_input == '':
		return default

	return usr_input

#===========================================================================
# image handling tools
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# builtin (ugly but tried and true) fallback icon
__icon_serpent = \
"""x\xdae\x8f\xb1\x0e\x83 \x10\x86w\x9f\xe2\x92\x1blb\xf2\x07\x96\xeaH:0\xd6\
\xc1\x85\xd5\x98N5\xa5\xef?\xf5N\xd0\x8a\xdcA\xc2\xf7qw\x84\xdb\xfa\xb5\xcd\
\xd4\xda;\xc9\x1a\xc8\xb6\xcd<\xb5\xa0\x85\x1e\xeb\xbc\xbc7b!\xf6\xdeHl\x1c\
\x94\x073\xec<*\xf7\xbe\xf7\x99\x9d\xb21~\xe7.\xf5\x1f\x1c\xd3\xbdVlL\xc2\
\xcf\xf8ye\xd0\x00\x90\x0etH \x84\x80B\xaa\x8a\x88\x85\xc4(U\x9d$\xfeR;\xc5J\
\xa6\x01\xbbt9\xceR\xc8\x81e_$\x98\xb9\x9c\xa9\x8d,y\xa9t\xc8\xcf\x152\xe0x\
\xe9$\xf5\x07\x95\x0cD\x95t:\xb1\x92\xae\x9cI\xa8~\x84\x1f\xe0\xa3ec"""

def get_icon(wx=None):

	paths = gmPaths(app_name = 'gnumed', wx = wx)

	candidates = [
		os.path.join(paths.system_app_data_dir, 'bitmaps', 'gm_icon-serpent_and_gnu.png'),
		os.path.join(paths.local_base_dir, 'bitmaps', 'gm_icon-serpent_and_gnu.png'),
		os.path.join(paths.system_app_data_dir, 'bitmaps', 'serpent.png'),
		os.path.join(paths.local_base_dir, 'bitmaps', 'serpent.png')
	]

	found_as = None
	for candidate in candidates:
		try:
			open(candidate, 'r').close()
			found_as = candidate
			break
		except IOError:
			_log.debug('icon not found in [%s]', candidate)

	if found_as is None:
		_log.warning('no icon file found, falling back to builtin (ugly) icon')
		icon_bmp_data = wx.BitmapFromXPMData(pickle.loads(zlib.decompress(__icon_serpent)))
		icon.CopyFromBitmap(icon_bmp_data)
	else:
		_log.debug('icon found in [%s]', found_as)
		icon = wx.Icon()
		try:
			icon.LoadFile(found_as, wx.BITMAP_TYPE_ANY)		#_PNG
		except AttributeError:
			_log.exception("this platform doesn't support wx.Icon().LoadFile()")

	return icon

#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
def create_qrcode(text=None, filename=None, qr_filename=None, verbose=False):
	assert (not ((text is None) and (filename is None))), 'either <text> or <filename> must be specified'

	try:
		import pyqrcode
	except ImportError:
		_log.exception('cannot import <pyqrcode>')
		return None
	if text is None:
		with io.open(filename, mode = 'rt', encoding = 'utf8') as input_file:
			text = input_file.read()
	if qr_filename is None:
		if filename is None:
			qr_filename = get_unique_filename(prefix = 'gm-qr-', suffix = '.png')
		else:
			qr_filename = get_unique_filename (
				prefix = fname_stem(filename) + '-',
				suffix = fname_extension(filename) + '.png'
			)
	_log.debug('[%s] -> [%s]', filename, qr_filename)
	qr = pyqrcode.create(text, encoding = 'utf8')
	if verbose:
		print('input file:', filename)
		print('output file:', qr_filename)
		print('text to encode:', text)
		print(qr.terminal())
	qr.png(qr_filename, quiet_zone = 1)
	return qr_filename

#===========================================================================
# main
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------
if __name__ == '__main__':

	if len(sys.argv) < 2:
		sys.exit()

	if sys.argv[1] != 'test':
		sys.exit()

	# for testing:
	logging.basicConfig(level = logging.DEBUG)
	from Gnumed.pycommon import gmI18N
	gmI18N.activate_locale()
	gmI18N.install_domain()

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_input2decimal():

		tests = [
			[None, False],

			['', False],
			[' 0 ', True, 0],

			[0, True, 0],
			[0.0, True, 0],
			[.0, True, 0],
			['0', True, 0],
			['0.0', True, 0],
			['0,0', True, 0],
			['00.0', True, 0],
			['.0', True, 0],
			[',0', True, 0],

			[0.1, True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],
			[.01, True, decimal.Decimal('0.01')],
			['0.1', True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],
			['0,1', True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],
			['00.1', True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],
			['.1', True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],
			[',1', True, decimal.Decimal('0.1')],

			[1, True, 1],
			[1.0, True, 1],
			['1', True, 1],
			['1.', True, 1],
			['1,', True, 1],
			['1.0', True, 1],
			['1,0', True, 1],
			['01.0', True, 1],
			['01,0', True, 1],
			[' 01, ', True, 1],

			[decimal.Decimal('1.1'), True, decimal.Decimal('1.1')]
		]
		for test in tests:
			conversion_worked, result = input2decimal(initial = test[0])

			expected2work = test[1]

			if conversion_worked:
				if expected2work:
					if result == test[2]:
						continue
					else:
						print("ERROR (conversion result wrong): >%s<, expected >%s<, got >%s<" % (test[0], test[2], result))
				else:
					print("ERROR (conversion worked but was expected to fail): >%s<, got >%s<" % (test[0], result))
			else:
				if not expected2work:
					continue
				else:
					print("ERROR (conversion failed but was expected to work): >%s<, expected >%s<" % (test[0], test[2]))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_input2int():
		print(input2int(0))
		print(input2int('0'))
		print(input2int('0', 0, 0))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_coalesce():

		val = None
		print(val, coalesce(val, 'is None', 'is not None'))
		val = 1
		print(val, coalesce(val, 'is None', 'is not None'))
		return

		import datetime as dt
		print(coalesce(value2test = dt.datetime.now(), template4value = '-- %s --', function4value = ('strftime', '%Y-%m-%d')))

		print('testing coalesce()')
		print("------------------")
		tests = [
			[None, 'something other than <None>', None, None, 'something other than <None>'],
			['Captain', 'Mr.', '%s.'[:4], 'Mr.', 'Capt.'],
			['value to test', 'test 3 failed', 'template with "%s" included', None, 'template with "value to test" included'],
			['value to test', 'test 4 failed', 'template with value not included', None, 'template with value not included'],
			[None, 'initial value was None', 'template4value: %s', None, 'initial value was None'],
			[None, 'initial value was None', 'template4value: %%(abc)s', None, 'initial value was None']
		]
		passed = True
		for test in tests:
			result = coalesce (
				value2test = test[0],
				return_instead = test[1],
				template4value = test[2],
				template4instead = test[3]
			)
			if result != test[4]:
				print("ERROR")
				print("coalesce: (%s, %s, %s, %s)" % (test[0], test[1], test[2], test[3]))
				print("expected:", test[4])
				print("received:", result)
				passed = False

		if passed:
			print("passed")
		else:
			print("failed")
		return passed
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_capitalize():
		print('testing capitalize() ...')
		success = True
		pairs = [
			# [original, expected result, CAPS mode]
			['Boot', 'Boot', CAPS_FIRST_ONLY],
			['boot', 'Boot', CAPS_FIRST_ONLY],
			['booT', 'Boot', CAPS_FIRST_ONLY],
			['BoOt', 'Boot', CAPS_FIRST_ONLY],
			['boots-Schau', 'Boots-Schau', CAPS_WORDS],
			['boots-sChau', 'Boots-Schau', CAPS_WORDS],
			['boot camp', 'Boot Camp', CAPS_WORDS],
			['fahrner-Kampe', 'Fahrner-Kampe', CAPS_NAMES],
			['häkkönen', 'Häkkönen', CAPS_NAMES],
			['McBurney', 'McBurney', CAPS_NAMES],
			['mcBurney', 'McBurney', CAPS_NAMES],
			['blumberg', 'Blumberg', CAPS_NAMES],
			['roVsing', 'RoVsing', CAPS_NAMES],
			['Özdemir', 'Özdemir', CAPS_NAMES],
			['özdemir', 'Özdemir', CAPS_NAMES],
		]
		for pair in pairs:
			result = capitalize(pair[0], pair[2])
			if result != pair[1]:
				success = False
				print('ERROR (caps mode %s): "%s" -> "%s", expected "%s"' % (pair[2], pair[0], result, pair[1]))

		if success:
			print("... SUCCESS")

		return success
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_import_module():
		print("testing import_module_from_directory()")
		path = sys.argv[1]
		name = sys.argv[2]
		try:
			mod = import_module_from_directory(module_path = path, module_name = name)
		except Exception:
			print("module import failed, see log")
			return False

		print("module import succeeded", mod)
		print(dir(mod))
		return True
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_mkdir():
		print("testing mkdir(%s)" % sys.argv[2])
		mkdir(sys.argv[2], 0o0700)
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_gmPaths():
		print("testing gmPaths()")
		print("-----------------")
		paths = gmPaths(wx=None, app_name='gnumed')
		print("user     config dir:", paths.user_config_dir)
		print("system   config dir:", paths.system_config_dir)
		print("local      base dir:", paths.local_base_dir)
		print("system app data dir:", paths.system_app_data_dir)
		print("working directory  :", paths.working_dir)
		print("temp directory     :", paths.tmp_dir)
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_none_if():
		print("testing none_if()")
		print("-----------------")
		tests = [
			[None, None, None],
			['a', 'a', None],
			['a', 'b', 'a'],
			['a', None, 'a'],
			[None, 'a', None],
			[1, 1, None],
			[1, 2, 1],
			[1, None, 1],
			[None, 1, None]
		]

		for test in tests:
			if none_if(value = test[0], none_equivalent = test[1]) != test[2]:
				print('ERROR: none_if(%s) returned [%s], expected [%s]' % (test[0], none_if(test[0], test[1]), test[2]))

		return True
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_bool2str():
		tests = [
			[True, 'Yes', 'Yes', 'Yes'],
			[False, 'OK', 'not OK', 'not OK']
		]
		for test in tests:
			if bool2str(test[0], test[1], test[2]) != test[3]:
				print('ERROR: bool2str(%s, %s, %s) returned [%s], expected [%s]' % (test[0], test[1], test[2], bool2str(test[0], test[1], test[2]), test[3]))

		return True
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_bool2subst():

		print(bool2subst(True, 'True', 'False', 'is None'))
		print(bool2subst(False, 'True', 'False', 'is None'))
		print(bool2subst(None, 'True', 'False', 'is None'))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_get_unique_filename():
		print(get_unique_filename())
		print(get_unique_filename(prefix='test-'))
		print(get_unique_filename(suffix='tst'))
		print(get_unique_filename(prefix='test-', suffix='tst'))
		print(get_unique_filename(tmp_dir='/home/ncq/Archiv/'))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_size2str():
		print("testing size2str()")
		print("------------------")
		tests = [0, 1, 1000, 10000, 100000, 1000000, 10000000, 100000000, 1000000000, 10000000000, 100000000000, 1000000000000, 10000000000000]
		for test in tests:
			print(size2str(test))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_unwrap():

		test = """
second line\n
	3rd starts with tab  \n
 4th with a space	\n

6th

"""
		print(unwrap(text = test, max_length = 25))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_wrap():
		test = 'line 1\nline 2\nline 3'

		print("wrap 5-6-7 initial 0, subsequent 0")
		print(wrap(test, 5))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 6))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 7))
		print("-------")
		input()
		print("wrap 5 initial 1-1-3, subsequent 1-3-1")
		print(wrap(test, 5, ' ', ' '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 5, ' ', '   '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 5, '   ', ' '))
		print("-------")
		input()
		print("wrap 6 initial 1-1-3, subsequent 1-3-1")
		print(wrap(test, 6, ' ', ' '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 6, ' ', '   '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 6, '   ', ' '))
		print("-------")
		input()
		print("wrap 7 initial 1-1-3, subsequent 1-3-1")
		print(wrap(test, 7, ' ', ' '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 7, ' ', '   '))
		print()
		print(wrap(test, 7, '   ', ' '))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_md5():
		print('md5 %s: %s' % (sys.argv[2], file2md5(sys.argv[2])))
		print('chunked md5 %s: %s' % (sys.argv[2], file2chunked_md5(sys.argv[2])))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_unicode():
		print(u_link_symbol * 10)
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_xml_escape():
		print(xml_escape_string('<'))
		print(xml_escape_string('>'))
		print(xml_escape_string('&'))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_tex_escape():
		tests = ['\\', '^', '~', '{', '}', '%',  '&', '#', '$', '_', u_euro, 'abc\ndef\n\n1234']
		tests.append('  '.join(tests))
		for test in tests:
			print('%s:' % test, tex_escape_string(test))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_rst2latex_snippet():
		tests = ['\\', '^', '~', '{', '}', '%',  '&', '#', '$', '_', u_euro, 'abc\ndef\n\n1234']
		tests.append('  '.join(tests))
		tests.append('C:\Windows\Programme\System 32\lala.txt')
		tests.extend([
			'should be identical',
			'text *some text* text',
			"""A List
======

1. 1
2. 2

3. ist-list
1. more
2. noch was ü
#. nummer x"""
		])
		for test in tests:
			print('==================================================')
			print('raw:')
			print(test)
			print('---------')
			print('ReST 2 LaTeX:')
			latex = rst2latex_snippet(test)
			print(latex)
			if latex.strip() == test.strip():
				print('=> identical')
			print('---------')
			print('tex_escape_string:')
			print(tex_escape_string(test))
			input()

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_strip_trailing_empty_lines():
		tests = [
			'one line, no embedded line breaks  ',
			'one line\nwith embedded\nline\nbreaks\n   '
		]
		for test in tests:
			print('as list:')
			print(strip_trailing_empty_lines(text = test, eol='\n', return_list = True))
			print('as string:')
			print('>>>%s<<<' % strip_trailing_empty_lines(text = test, eol='\n', return_list = False))
		tests = [
			['list', 'without', 'empty', 'trailing', 'lines'],
			['list', 'with', 'empty', 'trailing', 'lines', '', '  ', '']
		]
		for test in tests:
			print('as list:')
			print(strip_trailing_empty_lines(lines = test, eol = '\n', return_list = True))
			print('as string:')
			print(strip_trailing_empty_lines(lines = test, eol = '\n', return_list = False))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_fname_stem():
		tests = [
			r'abc.exe',
			r'\abc.exe',
			r'c:\abc.exe',
			r'c:\d\abc.exe',
			r'/home/ncq/tmp.txt',
			r'~/tmp.txt',
			r'./tmp.txt',
			r'./.././tmp.txt',
			r'tmp.txt'
		]
		for t in tests:
			print("[%s] -> [%s]" % (t, fname_stem(t)))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_dir_is_empty():
		print(sys.argv[2], 'empty:', dir_is_empty(sys.argv[2]))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_compare_dicts():
		d1 = {}
		d2 = {}
		d1[1] = 1
		d1[2] = 2
		d1[3] = 3
		# 4
		d1[5] = 5

		d2[1] = 1
		d2[2] = None
		# 3
		d2[4] = 4

		#compare_dict_likes(d1, d2)

		d1 = {1: 1, 2: 2}
		d2 = {1: 1, 2: 2}

		#compare_dict_likes(d1, d2, 'same1', 'same2')
		print(format_dict_like(d1, tabular = False))
		print(format_dict_like(d1, tabular = True))
		#print(format_dict_like(d2))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_format_compare_dicts():
		d1 = {}
		d2 = {}
		d1[1] = 1
		d1[2] = 2
		d1[3] = 3
		# 4
		d1[5] = 5

		d2[1] = 1
		d2[2] = None
		# 3
		d2[4] = 4

		print('\n'.join(format_dict_likes_comparison(d1, d2, 'd1', 'd2')))

		d1 = {1: 1, 2: 2}
		d2 = {1: 1, 2: 2}

		print('\n'.join(format_dict_likes_comparison(d1, d2, 'd1', 'd2')))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_rm_dir():
		rmdir('cx:\windows\system3__2xxxxxxxxxxxxx')

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_rm_dir_content():
		#print(rm_dir_content('cx:\windows\system3__2xxxxxxxxxxxxx'))
		print(rm_dir_content('/tmp/user/1000/tmp'))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_strip_prefix():
		tests = [
			('', '', ''),
			('a', 'a', ''),
			('GMd: a window title', _GM_TITLE_PREFIX + ':', 'a window title'),
			('\.br\MICROCYTES+1\.br\SPHEROCYTES       present\.br\POLYCHROMASIAmoderate\.br\\', '\.br\\', 'MICROCYTES+1\.br\SPHEROCYTES       present\.br\POLYCHROMASIAmoderate\.br\\')
		]
		for test in tests:
			text, prefix, expect = test
			result = strip_prefix(text, prefix, remove_whitespace = True)
			if result == expect:
				continue
			print('test failed:', test)
			print('result:', result)

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_shorten_text():
		tst = [
			('123', 1),
			('123', 2),
			('123', 3),
			('123', 4),
			('', 1),
			('1', 1),
			('12', 1),
			('', 2),
			('1', 2),
			('12', 2),
			('123', 2)
		]
		for txt, lng in tst:
			print('max', lng, 'of', txt, '=', shorten_text(txt, lng))
	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_fname_sanitize():
		tests = [
			'/tmp/test.txt',
			'/tmp/ test.txt',
			'/tmp/ tes\\t.txt',
			'test'
		]
		for test in tests:
			print (test, fname_sanitize(test))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_create_qrcode():
		print(create_qrcode(text = sys.argv[2], filename=None, qr_filename=None, verbose = True))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_enumerate_removable_partitions():
		parts = enumerate_removable_partitions()
		for part_name in parts:
			part = parts[part_name]
			print(part['device'])
			print(part['partition'])
			if part['is_mounted']:
				print('%s@%s: %s on %s by %s @ %s (FS=%s: %s free of %s total)' % (
					part['type'],
					part['bus'],
					part['fs_label'],
					part['model'],
					part['vendor'],
					part['mountpoint'],
					part['fs_type'],
					part['bytes_free'],
					part['size_in_bytes']
				))
			else:
				print('%s@%s: %s on %s by %s (not mounted)' % (
					part['type'],
					part['bus'],
					part['fs_label'],
					part['model'],
					part['vendor']
				))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_enumerate_optical_writers():
		for writer in enumerate_optical_writers():
			print('%s@%s: %s @ %s' % (
				writer['type'],
				writer['bus'],
				writer['model'],
				writer['device']
			))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_copy_tree_content():
		print(sys.argv[2], '->', sys.argv[3])
		print(copy_tree_content(sys.argv[2], sys.argv[3]))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_mk_sandbox_dir():
		print(mk_sandbox_dir(base_dir = '/tmp/abcd/efg/h'))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_make_table_from_dicts():
		dicts = [
			{'pkey': 1, 'value': 'a122'},
			{'pkey': 2, 'value': 'b23'},
			{'pkey': 3, 'value': 'c3'},
			{'pkey': 4, 'value': 'd4ssssssssssss'},
			{'pkey': 5, 'value': 'd4  asdfas '},
			{'pkey': 5, 'value': 'c5---'},
		]
		with open('x.txt', 'w', encoding = 'utf8') as f:
			f.write(dicts2table(dicts, left_margin=2, eol='\n', keys2ignore=None, show_only_changes=True, column_labels = ['d1', 'd2', 'd3', 'd4', 'd5', 'd6']))
			#print(dicts2table(dicts, left_margin=2, eol='\n', keys2ignore=None, show_only_changes=True, column_labels = ['d1', 'd2', 'd3', 'd4', 'd5', 'd6']))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	def test_decorate_window_title():
		for txt in globals():
			print(decorate_window_title(txt))

	#-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	#test_coalesce()
	#test_capitalize()
	#test_import_module()
	#test_mkdir()
	#test_gmPaths()
	#test_none_if()
	#test_bool2str()
	#test_bool2subst()
	#test_get_unique_filename()
	#test_size2str()
	#test_wrap()
	#test_input2decimal()
	#test_input2int()
	#test_unwrap()
	#test_md5()
	#test_unicode()
	#test_xml_escape()
	#test_strip_trailing_empty_lines()
	#test_fname_stem()
	#test_tex_escape()
	#test_rst2latex_snippet()
	#test_dir_is_empty()
	#test_compare_dicts()
	#test_rm_dir()
	#test_rm_dir_content()
	#test_strip_prefix()
	#test_shorten_text()
	#test_format_compare_dicts()
	#test_fname_sanitize()
	#test_create_qrcode()
	#test_enumerate_removable_partitions()
	#test_enumerate_optical_writers()
	#test_copy_tree_content()
	#test_mk_sandbox_dir()
	test_make_table_from_dicts()
	#test_decorate_window_title()

#===========================================================================