File: strgutil.c

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/* strgutil.c -  string utilities
 * Copyright (C) 1994, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001,
 *               2003, 2004, 2005, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
 *
 * This file is part of GnuPG.
 *
 * GnuPG is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * GnuPG is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program; if not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 */

#include <config.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <errno.h>
#ifdef HAVE_LANGINFO_CODESET
#include <langinfo.h>
#endif

/* For W32 we use dynamic loading of the iconv dll and don't need any
 * iconv headers at all. */
#ifndef _WIN32
# ifndef HAVE_ICONV
#  undef USE_GNUPG_ICONV
# endif
#endif

#ifdef USE_GNUPG_ICONV
# include <limits.h>
# ifndef _WIN32
#  include <iconv.h>
# endif
#endif

#include "types.h"
#include "util.h"
#include "memory.h"
#include "i18n.h"
#include "dynload.h"
#include "estream-printf.h"

/* Our xasprintf replacements are expected to work with our memory
   allocator.  Let's test for this here.  */
#if !defined(_ESTREAM_PRINTF_MALLOC) || !defined(_ESTREAM_PRINTF_FREE)
#error Please define _ESTREAM_PRINTF_MALLOC and _FREE
#endif



#ifndef USE_GNUPG_ICONV
static ushort koi8_unicode[128] = {
    0x2500,0x2502,0x250c,0x2510,0x2514,0x2518,0x251c,0x2524,
    0x252c,0x2534,0x253c,0x2580,0x2584,0x2588,0x258c,0x2590,
    0x2591,0x2592,0x2593,0x2320,0x25a0,0x2219,0x221a,0x2248,
    0x2264,0x2265,0x00a0,0x2321,0x00b0,0x00b2,0x00b7,0x00f7,
    0x2550,0x2551,0x2552,0x0451,0x2553,0x2554,0x2555,0x2556,
    0x2557,0x2558,0x2559,0x255a,0x255b,0x255c,0x255d,0x255e,
    0x255f,0x2560,0x2561,0x0401,0x2562,0x2563,0x2564,0x2565,
    0x2566,0x2567,0x2568,0x2569,0x256a,0x256b,0x256c,0x00a9,
    0x044e,0x0430,0x0431,0x0446,0x0434,0x0435,0x0444,0x0433,
    0x0445,0x0438,0x0439,0x043a,0x043b,0x043c,0x043d,0x043e,
    0x043f,0x044f,0x0440,0x0441,0x0442,0x0443,0x0436,0x0432,
    0x044c,0x044b,0x0437,0x0448,0x044d,0x0449,0x0447,0x044a,
    0x042e,0x0410,0x0411,0x0426,0x0414,0x0415,0x0424,0x0413,
    0x0425,0x0418,0x0419,0x041a,0x041b,0x041c,0x041d,0x041e,
    0x041f,0x042f,0x0420,0x0421,0x0422,0x0423,0x0416,0x0412,
    0x042c,0x042b,0x0417,0x0428,0x042d,0x0429,0x0427,0x042a
};

static ushort latin2_unicode[128] = {
    0x0080,0x0081,0x0082,0x0083,0x0084,0x0085,0x0086,0x0087,
    0x0088,0x0089,0x008A,0x008B,0x008C,0x008D,0x008E,0x008F,
    0x0090,0x0091,0x0092,0x0093,0x0094,0x0095,0x0096,0x0097,
    0x0098,0x0099,0x009A,0x009B,0x009C,0x009D,0x009E,0x009F,
    0x00A0,0x0104,0x02D8,0x0141,0x00A4,0x013D,0x015A,0x00A7,
    0x00A8,0x0160,0x015E,0x0164,0x0179,0x00AD,0x017D,0x017B,
    0x00B0,0x0105,0x02DB,0x0142,0x00B4,0x013E,0x015B,0x02C7,
    0x00B8,0x0161,0x015F,0x0165,0x017A,0x02DD,0x017E,0x017C,
    0x0154,0x00C1,0x00C2,0x0102,0x00C4,0x0139,0x0106,0x00C7,
    0x010C,0x00C9,0x0118,0x00CB,0x011A,0x00CD,0x00CE,0x010E,
    0x0110,0x0143,0x0147,0x00D3,0x00D4,0x0150,0x00D6,0x00D7,
    0x0158,0x016E,0x00DA,0x0170,0x00DC,0x00DD,0x0162,0x00DF,
    0x0155,0x00E1,0x00E2,0x0103,0x00E4,0x013A,0x0107,0x00E7,
    0x010D,0x00E9,0x0119,0x00EB,0x011B,0x00ED,0x00EE,0x010F,
    0x0111,0x0144,0x0148,0x00F3,0x00F4,0x0151,0x00F6,0x00F7,
    0x0159,0x016F,0x00FA,0x0171,0x00FC,0x00FD,0x0163,0x02D9
};
#endif /*!USE_GNUPG_ICONV*/


#ifndef MB_LEN_MAX
#define MB_LEN_MAX 16
#endif


static const char *active_charset_name = "iso-8859-1";
static ushort *active_charset = NULL;
static int no_translation = 0;
static int use_iconv = 0;


#ifdef _WIN32
typedef void* iconv_t;
#ifndef ICONV_CONST
#define ICONV_CONST const 
#endif

iconv_t (* __stdcall iconv_open) (const char *tocode, const char *fromcode);
size_t  (* __stdcall iconv) (iconv_t cd,
                             const char **inbuf, size_t *inbytesleft,
                             char **outbuf, size_t *outbytesleft);
int     (* __stdcall iconv_close) (iconv_t cd);

#endif /*_WIN32*/



#ifdef _WIN32
static int 
load_libiconv (void)
{
  static int done;
  
  if (!done)
    {
      void *handle;

      done = 1; /* Do it right now because we might get called recursivly
                   through gettext.  */
    
      handle = dlopen ("iconv.dll", RTLD_LAZY);
      if (handle)
        {
          iconv_open  = dlsym (handle, "libiconv_open");
          if (iconv_open)
            iconv      = dlsym (handle, "libiconv");
          if (iconv)    
            iconv_close = dlsym (handle, "libiconv_close");
        }
      if (!handle || !iconv_close)
        {
          log_info (_("error loading `%s': %s\n"),
                     "iconv.dll",  dlerror ());
          log_info(_("please see http://www.gnupg.org/download/iconv.html "
                     "for more information\n"));
          iconv_open = NULL;
          iconv = NULL;
          iconv_close = NULL;
          if (handle)
              dlclose (handle);
        }
    }
  return iconv_open? 0: -1;
}    
#endif /* _WIN32 */




void
free_strlist( STRLIST sl )
{
    STRLIST sl2;

    for(; sl; sl = sl2 ) {
	sl2 = sl->next;
	xfree(sl);
    }
}


STRLIST
add_to_strlist( STRLIST *list, const char *string )
{
    STRLIST sl;

    sl = xmalloc( sizeof *sl + strlen(string));
    sl->flags = 0;
    strcpy(sl->d, string);
    sl->next = *list;
    *list = sl;
    return sl;
}

/****************
 * Same as add_to_strlist() but if is_utf8 is *not* set a conversion
 * to UTF8 is done
 */
STRLIST
add_to_strlist2( STRLIST *list, const char *string, int is_utf8 )
{
    STRLIST sl;

    if( is_utf8 )
	sl = add_to_strlist( list, string );
    else {
	char *p = native_to_utf8( string );
	sl = add_to_strlist( list, p );
	xfree( p );
    }
    return sl;
}

STRLIST
append_to_strlist( STRLIST *list, const char *string )
{
    STRLIST r, sl;

    sl = xmalloc( sizeof *sl + strlen(string));
    sl->flags = 0;
    strcpy(sl->d, string);
    sl->next = NULL;
    if( !*list )
	*list = sl;
    else {
	for( r = *list; r->next; r = r->next )
	    ;
	r->next = sl;
    }
    return sl;
}

STRLIST
append_to_strlist2( STRLIST *list, const char *string, int is_utf8 )
{
    STRLIST sl;

    if( is_utf8 )
	sl = append_to_strlist( list, string );
    else {
	char *p = native_to_utf8( string );
	sl = append_to_strlist( list, p );
	xfree( p );
    }
    return sl;
}


STRLIST
strlist_prev( STRLIST head, STRLIST node )
{
    STRLIST n;

    for(n=NULL; head && head != node; head = head->next )
	n = head;
    return n;
}

STRLIST
strlist_last( STRLIST node )
{
    if( node )
	for( ; node->next ; node = node->next )
	    ;
    return node;
}

char *
pop_strlist( STRLIST *list )
{
  char *str=NULL;
  STRLIST sl=*list;

  if(sl)
    {
      str=xmalloc(strlen(sl->d)+1);
      strcpy(str,sl->d);

      *list=sl->next;
      xfree(sl);
    }

  return str;
}

/****************
 * Look for the substring SUB in buffer and return a pointer to that
 * substring in BUF or NULL if not found.
 * Comparison is case-insensitive.
 */
const char *
memistr( const char *buf, size_t buflen, const char *sub )
{
    const byte *t, *s ;
    size_t n;

    for( t=buf, n=buflen, s=sub ; n ; t++, n-- )
	if( toupper(*t) == toupper(*s) ) {
	    for( buf=t++, buflen = n--, s++;
		 n && toupper(*t) == toupper(*s); t++, s++, n-- )
		;
	    if( !*s )
		return buf;
	    t = buf; n = buflen; s = sub ;
	}

    return NULL ;
}

const char *
ascii_memistr( const char *buf, size_t buflen, const char *sub )
{
    const byte *t, *s ;
    size_t n;

    for( t=buf, n=buflen, s=sub ; n ; t++, n-- )
	if( ascii_toupper(*t) == ascii_toupper(*s) ) {
	    for( buf=t++, buflen = n--, s++;
		 n && ascii_toupper(*t) == ascii_toupper(*s); t++, s++, n-- )
		;
	    if( !*s )
		return buf;
	    t = buf; n = buflen; s = sub ;
	}

    return NULL ;
}


/* Like strncpy() but copy at max N-1 bytes and append a '\0'.  With
 * N given as 0 nothing is copied at all. With DEST given as NULL
 * sufficient memory is allocated using xmalloc (note that xmalloc is
 * guaranteed to succeed or to abort the process).  */
char *
mem2str( char *dest , const void *src , size_t n )
{
    char *d;
    const char *s;

    if( n ) {
	if( !dest )
	    dest = xmalloc( n ) ;
	d = dest;
	s = src ;
	for(n--; n && *s; n-- )
	    *d++ = *s++;
	*d = '\0' ;
    }

    return dest ;
}


/*
 * Remove leading and trailing white spaces
 */
char *
trim_spaces( char *str )
{
    char *string, *p, *mark;

    string = str;
    /* Find first non space character. */
    for( p=string; *p && isspace( *(byte*)p ) ; p++ )
	;
    /* Move characters. */
    for( (mark = NULL); (*string = *p); string++, p++ )
	if( isspace( *(byte*)p ) ) {
	    if( !mark )
		mark = string ;
	}
	else
	    mark = NULL ;
    if( mark )
	*mark = '\0' ;  /* Remove trailing spaces.  */

    return str ;
}



unsigned int
trim_trailing_chars( byte *line, unsigned len, const char *trimchars )
{
    byte *p, *mark;
    unsigned n;

    for(mark=NULL, p=line, n=0; n < len; n++, p++ ) {
	if( strchr(trimchars, *p ) ) {
	    if( !mark )
		mark = p;
	}
	else
	    mark = NULL;
    }

    if( mark ) {
	*mark = 0;
	return mark - line;
    }
    return len;
}

/****************
 * Remove trailing white spaces and return the length of the buffer
 */
unsigned
trim_trailing_ws( byte *line, unsigned len )
{
    return trim_trailing_chars( line, len, " \t\r\n" );
}


unsigned int
check_trailing_chars( const byte *line, unsigned int len,
                      const char *trimchars )
{
    const byte *p, *mark;
    unsigned int n;

    for(mark=NULL, p=line, n=0; n < len; n++, p++ ) {
	if( strchr(trimchars, *p ) ) {
	    if( !mark )
		mark = p;
	}
	else
	    mark = NULL;
    }

    if( mark ) {
	return mark - line;
    }
    return len;
}


/****************
 * Remove trailing white spaces and return the length of the buffer
 */
unsigned int
check_trailing_ws( const byte *line, unsigned int len )
{
    return check_trailing_chars( line, len, " \t\r\n" );
}



int
string_count_chr( const char *string, int c )
{
    int count;
    for(count=0; *string; string++ )
	if( *string == c )
	    count++;
    return count;
}

#ifdef USE_GNUPG_ICONV
static void
handle_iconv_error (const char *to, const char *from, int use_fallback)
{
  if (errno == EINVAL)
    {
      static int shown1, shown2;
      int x;

      if (to && !strcmp (to, "utf-8"))
        {
          x = shown1;
          shown1 = 1;
        }
      else
        {
          x = shown2;
          shown2 = 1;
        }

      if (!x)
        log_info (_("conversion from `%s' to `%s' not available\n"),
                  from, to);
    }
  else
    {
      static int shown;

      if (!shown)
        log_info (_("iconv_open failed: %s\n"), strerror (errno));
      shown = 1;
    }

  if (use_fallback)
    {
      /* To avoid further error messages we fallback to Latin-1 for the
         native encoding.  This is justified as one can expect that on a
         utf-8 enabled system nl_langinfo() will work and thus we won't
         never get to here.  Thus Latin-1 seems to be a reasonable
         default.  */
      active_charset_name = "iso-8859-1";
      no_translation = 0;
      active_charset = NULL;
      use_iconv = 0;
    }
}
#endif /*USE_GNUPG_ICONV*/

int
set_native_charset( const char *newset )
{
    const char *full_newset;

    if (!newset) {
#ifdef _WIN32
        static char codepage[30];
        unsigned int cpno;
        const char *aliases;

        /* We are a console program thus we need to use the
           GetConsoleOutputCP function and not the the GetACP which
           would give the codepage for a GUI program.  Note this is
           not a bulletproof detection because GetConsoleCP might
           return a different one for console input.  Not sure how to
           cope with that.  If the console Code page is not known we
           fall back to the system code page.  */
        cpno = GetConsoleOutputCP ();
        if (!cpno)
          cpno = GetACP ();
        sprintf (codepage, "CP%u", cpno );
        /* Resolve alias.  We use a long string string and not the
           usual array to optimize if the code is taken to a DSO.
           Taken from libiconv 1.9.2. */
        newset = codepage;
        for (aliases = ("CP936"   "\0" "GBK" "\0"
                        "CP1361"  "\0" "JOHAB" "\0"
                        "CP20127" "\0" "ASCII" "\0"
                        "CP20866" "\0" "KOI8-R" "\0"
                        "CP21866" "\0" "KOI8-RU" "\0"
                        "CP28591" "\0" "ISO-8859-1" "\0"
                        "CP28592" "\0" "ISO-8859-2" "\0"
                        "CP28593" "\0" "ISO-8859-3" "\0"
                        "CP28594" "\0" "ISO-8859-4" "\0"
                        "CP28595" "\0" "ISO-8859-5" "\0"
                        "CP28596" "\0" "ISO-8859-6" "\0"
                        "CP28597" "\0" "ISO-8859-7" "\0"
                        "CP28598" "\0" "ISO-8859-8" "\0"
                        "CP28599" "\0" "ISO-8859-9" "\0"
                        "CP28605" "\0" "ISO-8859-15" "\0"
			"CP65001" "\0" "UTF-8" "\0");
             *aliases;
             aliases += strlen (aliases) + 1, aliases += strlen (aliases) + 1)
          {
            if (!strcmp (codepage, aliases) ||(*aliases == '*' && !aliases[1]))
              {
                newset = aliases + strlen (aliases) + 1;
                break;
              }
          }

#else
#ifdef HAVE_LANGINFO_CODESET
        newset = nl_langinfo (CODESET);
#else /* !HAVE_LANGINFO_CODESET */
        /* Try to get the used charset from environment variables.  */
        static char codepage[30];
        const char *lc, *dot, *mod;

        strcpy (codepage, "iso-8859-1");
        lc = getenv ("LC_ALL");
        if (!lc || !*lc) {
            lc = getenv ("LC_CTYPE");
            if (!lc || !*lc)
                lc = getenv ("LANG");
        }
        if (lc && *lc) {
            dot = strchr (lc, '.');
            if (dot) {
                mod = strchr (++dot, '@');
                if (!mod)
                    mod = dot + strlen (dot);
                if (mod - dot < sizeof codepage && dot != mod) {
                    memcpy (codepage, dot, mod - dot);
                    codepage [mod - dot] = 0;
                }
            }
        }
        newset = codepage;
#endif  /* !HAVE_LANGINFO_CODESET */
#endif
    }

    full_newset = newset;
    if (strlen (newset) > 3 && !ascii_memcasecmp (newset, "iso", 3)) {
        newset += 3;
        if (*newset == '-' || *newset == '_')
            newset++;
    }

    /* Note that we silently assume that plain ASCII is actually meant
       as Latin-1.  This makes sense because many Unix system don't
       have their locale set up properly and thus would get annoying
       error messages and we have to handle all the "bug"
       reports. Latin-1 has always been the character set used for 8
       bit characters on Unix systems. */
    if( !*newset
        || !ascii_strcasecmp (newset, "8859-1" )
        || !ascii_strcasecmp (newset, "646" )
        || !ascii_strcasecmp (newset, "ASCII" )
        || !ascii_strcasecmp (newset, "ANSI_X3.4-1968" )
        ) {
        active_charset_name = "iso-8859-1";
        no_translation = 0;
	active_charset = NULL;
        use_iconv = 0;
    }
    else if( !ascii_strcasecmp (newset, "utf8" )
             || !ascii_strcasecmp(newset, "utf-8") ) {
	active_charset_name = "utf-8";
        no_translation = 1;
	active_charset = NULL;
        use_iconv = 0;
    }
#ifdef USE_GNUPG_ICONV
    else {
      iconv_t cd;

#ifdef _WIN32
      if (load_libiconv ())
          return G10ERR_GENERAL;
#endif /*_WIN32*/      

      cd = iconv_open (full_newset, "utf-8");
      if (cd == (iconv_t)-1) {
          handle_iconv_error (full_newset, "utf-8", 0);
          return G10ERR_GENERAL;
      }
      iconv_close (cd);
      cd = iconv_open ("utf-8", full_newset);
      if (cd == (iconv_t)-1) {
          handle_iconv_error ("utf-8", full_newset, 0);
          return G10ERR_GENERAL;
      }
      iconv_close (cd);
      active_charset_name = full_newset;
      no_translation = 0;
      active_charset = NULL; 
      use_iconv = 1;
    }
#else /*!USE_GNUPG_ICONV*/
    else if( !ascii_strcasecmp( newset, "8859-2" ) ) {
	active_charset_name = "iso-8859-2";
        no_translation = 0;
	active_charset = latin2_unicode;
        use_iconv = 0;
    }
    else if( !ascii_strcasecmp( newset, "koi8-r" ) ) {
	active_charset_name = "koi8-r";
        no_translation = 0;
	active_charset = koi8_unicode;
        use_iconv = 0;
    }
    else
	return G10ERR_GENERAL;
#endif /*!USE_GNUPG_ICONV*/
    return 0;
}

const char*
get_native_charset()
{
    return active_charset_name;
}

/****************
 * Convert string, which is in native encoding to UTF8 and return the
 * new allocated UTF8 string.
 */
char *
native_to_utf8( const char *string )
{
  const byte *s;
  char *buffer;
  byte *p;
  size_t length=0;
  
  if (no_translation)
    { /* Already utf-8 encoded. */
      buffer = xstrdup (string);
    }
  else if( !active_charset && !use_iconv) /* Shortcut implementation
                                             for Latin-1.  */
    { 
      for(s=string; *s; s++ ) 
        {
          length++;
          if( *s & 0x80 )
            length++;
	}
      buffer = xmalloc( length + 1 );
      for(p=buffer, s=string; *s; s++ )
        {
          if( *s & 0x80 )
            {
              *p++ = 0xc0 | ((*s >> 6) & 3);
              *p++ = 0x80 | ( *s & 0x3f );
            }
          else
            *p++ = *s;
        }
      *p = 0;
    }
  else       /* Need to use a translation table. */
    { 
#ifdef USE_GNUPG_ICONV
      iconv_t cd;
      const char *inptr;
      char *outptr;
      size_t inbytes, outbytes;
     
      cd = iconv_open ("utf-8", active_charset_name);
      if (cd == (iconv_t)-1)
        {
          handle_iconv_error ("utf-8", active_charset_name, 1);
          return native_to_utf8 (string);
        }

      for (s=string; *s; s++ ) 
        {
          length++;
          if ((*s & 0x80))
            length += 5; /* We may need up to 6 bytes for the utf8 output. */
        }
      buffer = xmalloc (length + 1);

      inptr = string;
      inbytes = strlen (string);
      outptr = buffer;
      outbytes = length;
      if ( iconv (cd, (ICONV_CONST char **)&inptr, &inbytes,
                  &outptr, &outbytes) == (size_t)-1)
        {
          static int shown;

          if (!shown)
            log_info (_("conversion from `%s' to `%s' failed: %s\n"),
                      active_charset_name, "utf-8", strerror (errno));
          shown = 1;
          /* We don't do any conversion at all but use the strings as is. */
          strcpy (buffer, string);
        }
      else /* Success.  */
        {
          *outptr = 0;
          /* We could realloc the buffer now but I doubt that it makes
             much sense given that it will get freed anyway soon
             after.  */
        }
      iconv_close (cd);

#else /*!USE_GNUPG_ICONV*/
      for(s=string; *s; s++ ) 
        {
          length++;
          if( *s & 0x80 )
            length += 2; /* We may need up to 3 bytes. */
        }
      buffer = xmalloc( length + 1 );
      for(p=buffer, s=string; *s; s++ ) {
        if( *s & 0x80 ) {
          ushort val = active_charset[ *s & 0x7f ];
          if( val < 0x0800 ) {
            *p++ = 0xc0 | ( (val >> 6) & 0x1f );
            *p++ = 0x80 | (  val & 0x3f );
          }
          else {
            *p++ = 0xe0 | ( (val >> 12) & 0x0f );
            *p++ = 0x80 | ( (val >>  6) & 0x3f );
            *p++ = 0x80 | (  val & 0x3f );
          }
        }
        else
          *p++ = *s;
      }
      *p = 0;
#endif /*!USE_GNUPG_ICONV*/

    }
  return buffer;
}


/****************
 * Convert string, which is in UTF8 to native encoding.  illegal
 * encodings by some "\xnn" and quote all control characters. A
 * character with value DELIM will always be quoted, it must be a
 * vanilla ASCII character.  A DELIM value of -1 is special: it disables 
 * all quoting of control characters.
 */
char *
utf8_to_native( const char *string, size_t length, int delim )
{
    int nleft;
    int i;
    byte encbuf[8];
    int encidx;
    const byte *s;
    size_t n;
    byte *buffer = NULL, *p = NULL;
    unsigned long val = 0;
    size_t slen;
    int resync = 0;

    /* 1. pass (p==NULL): count the extended utf-8 characters */
    /* 2. pass (p!=NULL): create string */
    for( ;; ) {
	for( slen=length, nleft=encidx=0, n=0, s=string; slen; s++, slen-- ) {
	    if( resync ) {
		if( !(*s < 128 || (*s >= 0xc0 && *s <= 0xfd)) ) {
		    /* still invalid */
		    if( p ) {
			sprintf(p, "\\x%02x", *s );
			p += 4;
		    }
		    n += 4;
		    continue;
		}
		resync = 0;
	    }
	    if( !nleft ) {
		if( !(*s & 0x80) ) { /* plain ascii */
		    if( delim != -1 
                        && (*s < 0x20 || *s == 0x7f || *s == delim
                            || (delim && *s=='\\'))) {
			n++;
			if( p )
			    *p++ = '\\';
			switch( *s ) {
			  case '\n': n++; if( p ) *p++ = 'n'; break;
			  case '\r': n++; if( p ) *p++ = 'r'; break;
			  case '\f': n++; if( p ) *p++ = 'f'; break;
			  case '\v': n++; if( p ) *p++ = 'v'; break;
			  case '\b': n++; if( p ) *p++ = 'b'; break;
			  case	 0 : n++; if( p ) *p++ = '0'; break;
			  default:
                            n += 3;
                            if ( p ) {
                                sprintf( p, "x%02x", *s );
                                p += 3;
                            }
                            break;
			}
		    }
		    else {
			if( p ) *p++ = *s;
			n++;
		    }
		}
		else if( (*s & 0xe0) == 0xc0 ) { /* 110x xxxx */
		    val = *s & 0x1f;
		    nleft = 1;
                    encidx = 0;
		    encbuf[encidx++] = *s;
		}
		else if( (*s & 0xf0) == 0xe0 ) { /* 1110 xxxx */
		    val = *s & 0x0f;
		    nleft = 2;
                    encidx = 0;
		    encbuf[encidx++] = *s;
		}
		else if( (*s & 0xf8) == 0xf0 ) { /* 1111 0xxx */
		    val = *s & 0x07;
		    nleft = 3;
                    encidx = 0;
		    encbuf[encidx++] = *s;
		}
		else if( (*s & 0xfc) == 0xf8 ) { /* 1111 10xx */
		    val = *s & 0x03;
		    nleft = 4;
                    encidx = 0;
		    encbuf[encidx++] = *s;
		}
		else if( (*s & 0xfe) == 0xfc ) { /* 1111 110x */
		    val = *s & 0x01;
		    nleft = 5;
                    encidx = 0;
		    encbuf[encidx++] = *s;
		}
		else {	/* invalid encoding: print as \xnn */
		    if( p ) {
			sprintf(p, "\\x%02x", *s );
			p += 4;
		    }
		    n += 4;
		    resync = 1;
		}
	    }
	    else if( *s < 0x80 || *s >= 0xc0 ) { /* invalid */
		if( p ) {
                    for(i=0; i < encidx; i++ ) {
                        sprintf(p, "\\x%02x", encbuf[i] );
                        p += 4;
                    }
		    sprintf(p, "\\x%02x", *s );
		    p += 4;
		}
		n += 4 + 4*encidx;
		nleft = 0;
                encidx = 0;
		resync = 1;
	    }
	    else {
		encbuf[encidx++] = *s;
		val <<= 6;
		val |= *s & 0x3f;
		if( !--nleft ) { /* ready */
                    if (no_translation) {
                        if( p ) {
                            for(i=0; i < encidx; i++ )
                                *p++ = encbuf[i];
                        }
                        n += encidx;
                        encidx = 0;
                    }
#ifdef USE_GNUPG_ICONV
                    else if(use_iconv) {
                        /* Our strategy for using iconv is a bit
                         * strange but it better keeps compatibility
                         * with previous versions in regard to how
                         * invalid encodings are displayed.  What we
                         * do is to keep the utf-8 as is and have the
                         * real translation step then at the end.
                         * Yes, I know that this is ugly.  However we
                         * are short of the 1.4 release and for this
                         * branch we should not mee too much around
                         * with iconv things.  One reason for this is
                         * that we don't know enough about non-GNU
                         * iconv implementation and want to minimize
                         * the risk of breaking the code on too many
                         * platforms.  */
                        if( p ) {
                            for(i=0; i < encidx; i++ )
                                *p++ = encbuf[i];
                        }
                        n += encidx;
                        encidx = 0;
                    }
#endif /*USE_GNUPG_ICONV*/
		    else if( active_charset ) { /* table lookup */
			for(i=0; i < 128; i++ ) {
			    if( active_charset[i] == val )
				break;
			}
			if( i < 128 ) { /* we can print this one */
			    if( p ) *p++ = i+128;
			    n++;
			}
			else { /* we do not have a translation: print utf8 */
			    if( p ) {
				for(i=0; i < encidx; i++ ) {
				    sprintf(p, "\\x%02x", encbuf[i] );
				    p += 4;
				}
			    }
			    n += encidx*4;
                            encidx = 0;
			}
		    }
		    else { /* native set */
			if( val >= 0x80 && val < 256 ) {
			    n++;    /* we can simply print this character */
			    if( p ) *p++ = val;
			}
			else { /* we do not have a translation: print utf8 */
			    if( p ) {
				for(i=0; i < encidx; i++ ) {
				    sprintf(p, "\\x%02x", encbuf[i] );
				    p += 4;
				}
			    }
			    n += encidx*4;
                            encidx = 0;
			}
		    }
		}

	    }
	}
	if( !buffer ) { /* allocate the buffer after the first pass */
	    buffer = p = xmalloc( n + 1 );
	}
#ifdef USE_GNUPG_ICONV
        else if(use_iconv) {
            /* Note: See above for comments.  */
            iconv_t cd;
            const char *inptr;
            char *outbuf, *outptr;
            size_t inbytes, outbytes;
            
            *p = 0;  /* Terminate the buffer. */

            cd = iconv_open (active_charset_name, "utf-8");
            if (cd == (iconv_t)-1)
                {
                    handle_iconv_error (active_charset_name, "utf-8", 1);
                    xfree (buffer);
                    return utf8_to_native (string, length, delim);
                }

            /* Allocate a new buffer large enough to hold all possible
             * encodings. */
            n = p - buffer + 1;
            inbytes = n - 1;;
            inptr = buffer;
            outbytes = n * MB_LEN_MAX;
            if (outbytes / MB_LEN_MAX != n) 
                BUG (); /* Actually an overflow. */
            outbuf = outptr = xmalloc (outbytes);
            if ( iconv (cd, (ICONV_CONST char **)&inptr, &inbytes,
                        &outptr, &outbytes) == (size_t)-1) {
                static int shown;
                
                if (!shown)
                  log_info (_("conversion from `%s' to `%s' failed: %s\n"),
                            "utf-8", active_charset_name, strerror (errno));
                shown = 1;
                /* Didn't worked out.  Temporary disable the use of
                 * iconv and fall back to our old code. */
                xfree (buffer);
                buffer = NULL;
                xfree (outbuf);
                use_iconv = 0;
                outbuf = utf8_to_native (string, length, delim);
                use_iconv = 1;
            }
            else { /* Success.  */
                *outptr = 0;
                /* We could realloc the buffer now but I doubt that it makes
                   much sense given that it will get freed anyway soon
                   after.  */
                xfree (buffer);
            }
            iconv_close (cd);
            return outbuf;
        }
#endif /*USE_GNUPG_ICONV*/
	else {
	    *p = 0; /* make a string */
	    return buffer;
	}
    }
}

/* This is similar to native_to_utf8, except it can take any input
   (which may or may not be UTF8 encoded) and return something that is
   (almost) definitely UTF8.  This code is mostly borrowed from
   GPA. */

char *
string_to_utf8 (const char *string)
{
  const char *s;
  
  if (!string)
    return NULL;
  
  /* Due to a bug in old and not so old PGP versions user IDs have
     been copied verbatim into the key.  Thus many users with Umlauts
     et al. in their name will see their names garbled.  Although this
     is not an issue for me (;-)), I have a couple of friends with
     Umlauts in their name, so let's try to make their life easier by
     detecting invalid encodings and convert that to Latin-1.  We use
     this even for X.509 because it may make things even better given
     all the invalid encodings often found in X.509 certificates.  */
  for (s = string; *s && !(*s & 0x80); s++)
    ;
  if (*s && ((s[1] & 0xc0) == 0x80) && ( ((*s & 0xe0) == 0xc0)
                                         || ((*s & 0xf0) == 0xe0)
                                         || ((*s & 0xf8) == 0xf0)
                                         || ((*s & 0xfc) == 0xf8)
                                         || ((*s & 0xfe) == 0xfc)) )
    {  
      /* Possible utf-8 character followed by continuation byte.
         Although this might still be Latin-1 we better assume that it
         is valid utf-8. */
      return xstrdup (string);
     }
  else if (*s && !strchr (string, 0xc3))
    {
      size_t length=0;
      char *buffer,*p;

      /* No 0xC3 character in the string; assume that it is Latin-1.  */

      for(s=string; *s; s++ ) 
        {
          length++;
          if( *s & 0x80 )
            length++;
	}
      buffer = xmalloc( length + 1 );
      for(p=buffer, s=string; *s; s++ )
        {
          if( *s & 0x80 )
            {
              *p++ = 0xc0 | ((*s >> 6) & 3);
              *p++ = 0x80 | ( *s & 0x3f );
            }
          else
            *p++ = *s;
        }
      *p = 0;

      return buffer;
    }
  else
    {
      /* Everything else is assumed to be UTF-8.  We do this even that
         we know the encoding is not valid.  However as we only test
         the first non-ascii character, valid encodings might
         follow.  */
      return xstrdup (string);
    }
}

/* Same as asprintf but return an allocated buffer suitable to be
   freed using xfree.  This function simply dies on memory failure,
   thus no extra check is required. */
char *
xasprintf (const char *fmt, ...)
{
  va_list ap;
  char *buf;

  va_start (ap, fmt);
  if (estream_vasprintf (&buf, fmt, ap) < 0)
    log_fatal ("estream_asprintf failed: %s\n", strerror (errno));
  va_end (ap);
  return buf;
}

/* Same as above but return NULL on memory failure.  */
char *
xtryasprintf (const char *fmt, ...)
{
  int rc;
  va_list ap;
  char *buf;

  va_start (ap, fmt);
  rc = estream_vasprintf (&buf, fmt, ap);
  va_end (ap);
  if (rc < 0)
    return NULL;
  return buf;
}


char *
xtryvasprintf (const char *fmt, va_list arg_ptr)
{
  int rc;
  char *buf;

  rc = estream_vasprintf (&buf, fmt, arg_ptr);
  if (rc < 0)
    return NULL;
  return buf;
}


/****************************************************
 ******** locale insensitive ctype functions ********
 ****************************************************/
/* FIXME: replace them by a table lookup and macros */
int
ascii_isupper (int c)
{
    return c >= 'A' && c <= 'Z';
}

int
ascii_islower (int c)
{
    return c >= 'a' && c <= 'z';
}

int
ascii_memcasecmp( const char *a, const char *b, size_t n )
{
    if (a == b)
        return 0;
    for ( ; n; n--, a++, b++ ) {
	if( *a != *b  && ascii_toupper (*a) != ascii_toupper (*b) )
            return *a == *b? 0 : (ascii_toupper (*a) - ascii_toupper (*b));
    }
    return 0;
}



/*********************************************
 ********** missing string functions *********
 *********************************************/

#ifndef HAVE_STPCPY
char *
stpcpy(char *a,const char *b)
{
    while( *b )
	*a++ = *b++;
    *a = 0;

    return (char*)a;
}
#endif

#ifndef HAVE_STRLWR
char *
strlwr(char *s)
{
    char *p;
    for(p=s; *p; p++ )
	*p = tolower(*(unsigned char *)p);
    return s;
}
#endif

#ifndef HAVE_STRCASECMP
int
strcasecmp( const char *a, const char *b )
{
    for( ; *a && *b; a++, b++ ) {
	if( *a != *b
            && toupper(*(const byte *)a) != toupper(*(const byte *)b) )
	    break;
    }
    return *(const byte*)a - *(const byte*)b;
}
#endif

#ifndef HAVE_STRNCASECMP
int
strncasecmp( const char *a, const char *b, size_t n )
{
    for( ; n && *a && *b; a++, b++, n--) {
	if( *a != *b
            && toupper(*(const byte *)a) != toupper(*(const byte *)b) )
	    break;
    }
    if (!n)
      return 0;
    return *(const byte*)a - *(const byte*)b;
}
#endif


#ifdef _WIN32
const char *
w32_strerror (int w32_errno)
{
  static char strerr[256];
  int ec = (int)GetLastError ();
  
  if (w32_errno == 0)
    w32_errno = ec;
  FormatMessage (FORMAT_MESSAGE_FROM_SYSTEM, NULL, w32_errno,
                 MAKELANGID (LANG_NEUTRAL, SUBLANG_DEFAULT),
                 strerr, DIM (strerr)-1, NULL);
  return strerr;    
}
#endif /*_WIN32*/