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C RCS $Id: gnuplot.doc,v 1.61 1997/11/25 23:03:25 drd Exp $
C 10 October 1997
C Copyright (C) 1986  1993, 1997 Thomas Williams, Colin Kelley
C
^ <h2> An Interactive Plotting Program </h2><p>
^ <h2> Thomas Williams & Colin Kelley</h2><p>
^ <h2> Version 3.6 organized by: David Denholm </h2><p>
^ <h2>Major contributors (alphabetic order):</h2>
^<ul><h3>
^<li> John Campbell
^<li> Robert Cunningham
^<li> David Denholm
^<li> Gershon Elber
^<li> Roger Fearick
^<li> Carsten Grammes
^<li> Thomas Koenig
^<li> David Kotz
^<li> Ed Kubaitis
^<li> Russell Lang
^<li> Alexander Lehmann
^<li> Carsten Steger
^<li> Tom Tkacik
^<li> Jos Van der Woude
^<li> Alex Woo
^</h3></ul> <p>
^<h2> Copyright (C) 1986  1993, 1997 Thomas Williams, Colin Kelley<p>
^ Mailing list for comments: infognuplot@dartmouth.edu <p>
^ Mailing list for bug reports: buggnuplot@dartmouth.edu<p>
^</h2><p>
^<h3> This manual was prepared by Dick Crawford</h3><p>
^<h3> 10 October 1997</h3><p>
^<hr>
1 gnuplot
2 Copyright
?copyright
Copyright (C) 1986  1993, 1997 Thomas Williams, Colin Kelley
Permission to use, copy, and distribute this software and its documentation
for any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the
above copyright notice appears in all copies and that both that copyright
notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation.
Permission to modify the software is granted, but not the right to distribute
the modified code. Modifications are to be distributed as patches to the
released version.
This software is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty.
AUTHORS
Original Software:
Thomas Williams, Colin Kelley.
Gnuplot 2.0 additions:
Russell Lang, Dave Kotz, John Campbell.
Gnuplot 3.0 additions:
Gershon Elber and many others.
2 Introduction
?introduction
?
`gnuplot` is a commanddriven interactive function and data plotting program.
It is case sensitive (commands and function names written in lowercase are
not the same as those written in CAPS). All command names may be abbreviated
as long as the abbreviation is not ambiguous. Any number of commands may
appear on a line (with the exception that `load` or `call` must be the final
command), separated by semicolons (;). Strings are indicated with quotes.
They may be either single or double quotation marks, e.g.,
load "filename"
cd 'dir'
although there are some subtle differences (see `syntax` for more details).
Any commandline arguments are assumed to be names of files containing
`gnuplot` commands, with the exception of standard X11 arguments, which are
processed first. Each file is loaded with the `load` command, in the order
specified. `gnuplot` exits after the last file is processed. When no load
files are named, `gnuplot` enters into an interactive mode.
Many `gnuplot` commands have multiple options. These options must appear in
the proper order, although unwanted ones may be omitted in most cases. Thus
if the entire command is "command a b c", then "command a c" will probably
work, but "command c a" will fail.
Commands may extend over several input lines by ending each line but the last
with a backslash (\). The backslash must be the _last_ character on each
line. The effect is as if the backslash and newline were not there. That
is, no white space is implied, nor is a comment terminated. Therefore,
commenting out a continued line comments out the entire command (see
`comment`). But note that if an error occurs somewhere on a multiline
command, the parser may not be able to locate precisely where the error is
and in that case will not necessarily point to the correct line.
In this document, curly braces ({}) denote optional arguments and a vertical
bar () separates mutually exclusive choices. `gnuplot` keywords or `help`
topics are indicated by backquotes or `boldface` (where available). Angle
brackets (<>) are used to mark replaceable tokens.
For online help on any topic, type `help` followed by the name of the topic
or just `help` or `?` to get a menu of available topics.
The new `gnuplot` user should begin by reading about the `plot` command (if
online, type `help plot`).
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/simple/simple.html"> Simple Plots Demo </a>
2 Seekingassistance
?seekingassistance
There is a mailing list for `gnuplot` users. Note, however, that the
newsgroup
comp.graphics.apps.gnuplot
is identical to the mailing list (they both carry the same set of messages).
We prefer that you read the messages through the newsgroup rather than
subscribing to the mailing list. Administrative requests should be sent to
majordomo@dartmouth.edu
Send a message with the body (not the subject) consisting of the single word
"help" (without the quotes) for more details.
The address for mailing to list members is:
infognuplot@dartmouth.edu
Bug reports and code contributions should be mailed to:
buggnuplot@dartmouth.edu
The list of those interested in betatest versions is:
infognuplotbeta@dartmouth.edu
There is also a World Wide Web page with uptodate information, including
known bugs:
^ <a href="http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/gnuplot_info.html">
http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/gnuplot
^ </a>
Before seeking help, please check the
^ <a href="http://www.unikarlsruhe.de/~ig25/gnuplotfaq.html">
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) list.
^ </a>
If you do not have a copy of the FAQ, you may request a copy by email from
the Majordomo address above, or see the WWW `gnuplot` page.
When posting a question, please include full details of the version of
`gnuplot`, the machine, and operating system you are using. A _small_ script
demonstrating the problem may be useful. Function plots are preferable to
datafile plots. If emailing to infognuplot, please state whether or not
you are subscribed to the list, so that users who use news will know to email
a reply to you. There is a form for such postings on the WWW site.
2 What's New in version 3.6
?what'snew
Gnuplot version 3.6 contains many new features. This section gives a partial
list and links to the new items in no particular order.
1. `fit f(x) 'file' via` uses the MarquardtLevenberg method to fit data.
(This is only slightly different from the `gnufit` patch available for 3.5.)
2. Greatly expanded `using` command. See `plot using`.
3. `set timefmt` allows for the use of dates as input and output for time
series plots. See `Time/Date data` and
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/timefmt/timefmt.html">
timedat.dem.
^ </a>
4. Multiline labels and font selection in some drivers.
5. Minor (unlabeled) tics. See `set mxtics`.
6. `key` options for moving the key box in the page (and even outside of the
plot), putting a title on it and a box around it, and more. See `set key`.
7. Multiplots on a single logical page with `set multiplot`.
8. Enhanced `postscript` driver with super/subscripts and font changes.
(This was a separate driver (`enhpost`) that was available as a patch for
3.5.)
9. Second axes: use the top and right axes independently of the bottom and
left, both for plotting and labels. See `plot`.
10. Special datafile names `''` and `""`. See `plot specialfilenames`.
11. Additional coordinate systems for labels and arrows. See `coordinates`.
12. `set size` can try to plot with a specified aspect ratio.
13. `set missing` now treats missing data correctly.
14. The `call` command: `load` with arguments.
15. More flexible `range` commands with `reverse` and `writeback` keywords.
16. `set encoding` for multilingual encoding.
17. New `x11` driver with persistent and multiple windows.
18. New plotting styles: `xerrorbars`, `histeps`, `financebars` and more.
See `set style`.
19. New tic label formats, including `"%l %L"` which uses the mantissa and
exponents to a given base for labels. See `set format`.
20. New drivers, including `cgm` for inclusion into MSOffice applications
and `gif` for serving plots to the WEB.
21. Smoothing and splinefitting options for `plot`. See `plot smooth`.
22. `set margin` and `set origin` give much better control over where a
graph appears on the page.
23. `set border` now controls each border individually.
24. The new commands `if` and `reread` allow command loops.
25. Point styles and sizes, line types and widths can be specified on the
`plot` command. Line types and widths can also be specified for grids,
borders, tics and arrows. See `plot with`. Furthermore these types may be
combined and stored for further use. See `set linestyle`.
26. Text (labels, tic labels, and the time stamp) can be written vertically
by those terminals capable of doing so.
2 Commandlineediting
?lineediting
?editing
?history
?commandlineediting
Commandline editing is supported by the Unix, Atari, VMS, MSDOS and OS/2
versions of `gnuplot`. Also, a history mechanism allows previous commands to
be edited and reexecuted. After the command line has been edited, a newline
or carriage return will enter the entire line without regard to where the
cursor is positioned.
(The readline function in `gnuplot` is not the same as the readline used in
GNU Bash and GNU Emacs. If the GNU version is desired, it may be selected
instead of the `gnuplot` version at compile time.)
The editing commands are as follows:
@start table  first is interactive cleartext form
`Lineediting`:
^B moves back a single character.
^F moves forward a single character.
^A moves to the beginning of the line.
^E moves to the end of the line.
^H and DEL delete the previous character.
^D deletes the current character.
^K deletes from current position to the end of line.
^L,^R redraws line in case it gets trashed.
^U deletes the entire line.
^W deletes the last word.
`History`:
^P moves back through history.
^N moves forward through history.
#Character && Function \\ \hline
#\multicolumn{3}{c}{Line Editing}\\
#\verb~^B~ && move back a single character.\\
#\verb~^F~ && move forward a single character.\\
#\verb~^A~ && move to the beginning of the line.\\
#\verb~^E~ && move to the end of the line.\\
#\verb~^H, DEL~ && delete the previous character.\\
#\verb~^D~ && delete the current character.\\
#\verb~^K~ && delete from current position to the end of line.\\
#\verb~^L, ^R~ && redraw line in case it gets trashed.\\
#\verb~^U~ && delete the entire line. \\
#\verb~^W~ && delete from the current word to the end of line. \\ \hline
#\multicolumn{3}{c}{History} \\
#\verb~^P~ && move back through history.\\
#\verb~^N~ && move forward through history.\\
%Character@@Function
%_
%@@Line Editing
%^B@@move back a single character.
%^F@@move forward a single character.
%^A@@move to the beginning of the line.
%^E@@move to the end of the line.
%^H, DEL@@delete the previous character.
%^D@@delete the current character.
%^K@@delete from current position to the end of line.
%^L, ^R@@redraw line in case it gets trashed.
%^U@@delete the entire line.
%^W@@delete from the current word to the end of line.
%_
%@@History
%^P@@move back through history.
%^N@@move forward through history.
@end table
On the IBM PC, the use of a TSR program such as DOSEDIT or CED may be desired
for line editing. The default makefile assumes that this is the case; by
default `gnuplot` will be compiled with no lineediting capability. If you
want to use `gnuplot`'s line editing, set READLINE in the makefile and add
readline.obj to the link file. The following arrow keys may be used on the
IBM PC and Atari versions if readline is used:
@start table  first is interactive cleartext form
Left Arrow  same as ^B.
Right Arrow  same as ^F.
Ctrl Left Arrow  same as ^A.
Ctrl Right Arrow  same as ^E.
Up Arrow  same as ^P.
Down Arrow  same as ^N.
#Arrow key & Function & \\ \hline
#Left & same as \verb~^B~. & \\
#Right & same as \verb~^F~. & \\
#Ctrl Left & same as \verb~^A~. & \\
#Ctrl Right & same as \verb~^E~. & \\
#Up & same as \verb~^P~. & \\
#Down & same as \verb~^N~. & \\
%Arrow key@@Function
%_
%Left Arrow@@same as ^B.
%Right Arrow@@same as ^F.
%Ctrl Left Arrow@@same as ^A.
%Ctrl Right Arrow@@same as ^E.
%Up Arrow@@same as ^P.
%Down Arrow@@same as ^N.
%_
@end table
The Atari version of readline defines some additional key aliases:
@start table  first is interactive cleartext form
Undo  same as ^L.
Home  same as ^A.
Ctrl Home  same as ^E.
Esc  same as ^U.
Help  `help` plus return.
Ctrl Help  `help `.
#Arrow key & Function & \\ \hline
#Undo & same as \verb~^L~. & \\
#Home & same as \verb~^A~. & \\
#Ctrl Home & same as \verb~^E~. & \\
#Esc & same as \verb~^U~. & \\
#Help & `{\bf help}' plus return. & \\
#Ctrl Help & `{\bf help }'. & \\
%Arrow key@@Function
%_
%Undo@@same as ^L.
%Home@@same as ^A.
%Ctrl Home@@same as ^E.
%Esc@@same as ^U.
%Help@@help plus return.
%Ctrl Help@@help .
%_
@end table
2 Comments
?comments
Comments are supported as follows: a # may appear in most places in a line
and `gnuplot` will ignore the rest of the line. It will not have this effect
inside quotes, inside numbers (including complex numbers), inside command
substitutions, etc. In short, it works anywhere it makes sense to work.
2 Coordinates
?coordinates
The commands `set arrow`, `set key`, and `set label` allow you to draw
something at an arbitrary position on the graph. This position is specified
by the syntax:
{<system>} <x>, {<system>} <y> {,{<system>} <z>}
Each <system> can either be `first`, `second`, `graph` or `screen`.
`first` places the x, y, or z coordinate in the system defined by the left
and bottom axes; `second` places it in the system defined by the second axes
(top and right); `graph` specifies the area within the axes0,0 is bottom
left and 1,1 is top right (for splot, 0,0,0 is bottom left of plotting area;
use negative z to get to the basesee `set ticslevel`); and `screen`
specifies the screen area (the entire areanot just the portion selected by
`set size`), with 0,0 at bottom left and 1,1 at top right.
If the coordinate system for x is not specified, `first` is used. If the
system for y is not specified, the one used for x is adopted.
If one (or more) axis is timeseries, the appropriate coordinate should
be given as a quoted time string according to the `timefmt` format string.
See `set xdata` and `set timefmt`. `gnuplot` will also accept an integer
expression, which will be interpreted as seconds from 1 January 2000.
2 Environment
?environment
A number of shell environment variables are understood by `gnuplot`. None of
these are required, but may be useful.
If GNUTERM is defined, it is used as the name of the terminal type to be
used. This overrides any terminal type sensed by `gnuplot` on startup, but
is itself overridden by the .gnuplot (or equivalent) startup file (see
`startup`) and, of course, by later explicit changes.
On Unix, AmigaDOS, AtariTOS, MSDOS and OS/2, GNUHELP may be defined to be
the pathname of the HELP file (gnuplot.gih).
On VMS, the logical name gnuplot$HELP should be defined as the name of the
help library for `gnuplot`. The `gnuplot` help can be put inside any system
help library, allowing access to help from both within and outside `gnuplot`
if desired.
On Unix, HOME is used as the name of a directory to search for a .gnuplot
file if none is found in the current directory. On AmigaDOS, AtariTOS,
MSDOS and OS/2, gnuplot is used. On VMS, SYS$LOGIN: is used. See `help
startup`.
On Unix, PAGER is used as an output filter for help messages.
On Unix, AtariTOS and AmigaDOS, SHELL is used for the `shell` command. On
MSDOS and OS/2, COMSPEC is used for the `shell` command.
On MSDOS, if the BGI interface is used, BGI is used to point to the full
path of the BGI drivers directory. Furthermore, SVGA is used to name the
Super VGA BGI driver in 800x600 resolution and its mode of operation is
Name.Mode. E.g., if the Super VGA driver is
C:\TC\BGI\SVGADRV.BGI
and mode 3 is used for 800x600 resolution, then use the following:
set BGI=C:\TC\BGI
set SVGA=SVGADRV.3
FIT_SCRIPT may be used to specify a `gnuplot` command to be executed when a
fit is interruptedsee `fit`. FIT_LOG specifies the filename of the
logfile maintained by fit.
2 Expressions
?expressions
In general, any mathematical expression accepted by C, FORTRAN, Pascal, or
BASIC is valid. The precedence of these operators is determined by the
specifications of the C programming language. White space (spaces and tabs)
is ignored inside expressions.
Complex constants are expressed as {<real>,<imag>}, where <real> and <imag>
must be numerical constants. For example, {3,2} represents 3 + 2i; {0,1}
represents 'i' itself. The curly braces are explicitly required here.
Note that gnuplot uses both "real" and "integer" arithmetic, like FORTRAN and
C. Integers are entered as "1", "10", etc; reals as "1.0", "10.0", "1e1",
3.5e1, etc. The most important difference between the two forms is in
division: division of integers truncates: 5/2 = 2; division of reals does
not: 5.0/2.0 = 2.5. In mixed expressions, integers are "promoted" to reals
before evaluation: 5/2e0 = 2.5. The result of division of a negative integer
by a positive one may vary among compilers. Try a test like "print 5/2" to
determine if your system chooses 2 or 3 as the answer.
The real and imaginary parts of complex expressions are always real, whatever
the form in which they are entered: in {3,2} the "3" and "2" are reals, not
integers.
3 Functions
?expressions functions
?functions
The functions in `gnuplot` are the same as the corresponding functions in
the Unix math library, except that all functions accept integer, real, and
complex arguments, unless otherwise noted.
For those functions that accept or return angles that may be given in either
degrees or radians (sin(x), cos(x), tan(x), asin(x), acos(x), atan(x),
atan2(x) and arg(z)), the unit may be selected by `set angles`, which
defaults to radians.
@start table
#Function & Arguments & Returns \\ \hline
%Function@Arguments@Returns
%_
4 abs
?expressions functions abs
?functions abs
?abs
#abs(x) & any & absolute value of {\tt x}, $x$; same type \\
#abs(x) & complex & length of {\tt x}, $\sqrt{{\mbox{real}(x)^{2} +
#\mbox{imag}(x)^{2}}}$ \\
%abs(x)@any@absolute value of x, $x$; same type
%abs(x)@complex@length of x, $sqrt{roman real (x) sup 2 + roman imag (x) sup 2}$
The `abs` function returns the absolute value of its argument. The returned
value is of the same type as the argument.
For complex arguments, abs(x) is defined as the length of x in the complex
plane [i.e., sqrt(real(x)**2 + imag(x)**2) ].
4 acos
?expressions functions acos
?functions acos
?acos
#acos(x) & any & $\cos^{1} x$ (inverse cosine) \\
%acos(x)@any@$cos sup 1 x$ (inverse cosine)
The `acos` function returns the arc cosine (inverse cosine) of its argument.
`acos` returns its argument in radians or degrees, as selected by `set
angles`.
4 acosh
?expressions functions acosh
?functions acosh
?acosh
#acosh(x) & any & $\cosh^{1} x$ (inverse hyperbolic cosine) in radians \\
%acosh(x)@any@$cosh sup 1 x$ (inverse hyperbolic cosine) in radians
The `acosh` function returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of its argument in
radians.
4 arg
?expressions functions arg
?functions arg
?arg
#arg(x) & complex & the phase of $x$ \\
%arg(x)@complex@the phase of $x$
The `arg` function returns the phase of a complex number in radians or
degrees, as selected by `set angles`.
4 asin
?expressions functions asin
?functions asin
?asin
#asin(x) & any & $\sin^{1} x$ (inverse sin) \\
%asin(x)@any@$sin sup 1 x$ (inverse sin)
The `asin` function returns the arc sin (inverse sin) of its argument.
`asin` returns its argument in radians or degrees, as selected by `set
angles`.
4 asinh
?expressions functions asinh
?functions asinh
?asinh
#asinh(x) & any & $\sinh^{1} x$ (inverse hyperbolic sin) in radians \\
%asinh(x)@any@$sinh sup 1 x$ (inverse hyperbolic sin) in radians
The `asinh` function returns the inverse hyperbolic sin of its argument in
radians.
4 atan
?expressions functions atan
?functions atan
?atan
#atan(x) & any & $\tan^{1} x$ (inverse tangent) \\
%atan(x)@any@$tan sup 1 x$ (inverse tangent)
The `atan` function returns the arc tangent (inverse tangent) of its
argument. `atan` returns its argument in radians or degrees, as selected by
`set angles`.
4 atan2
?expressions functions atan2
?functions atan2
?atan2
#atan2(y,x) & int or real & $\tan^{1} (y/x)$ (inverse tangent) \\
%atan2(y,x)@int or real@$tan sup 1 (y/x)$ (inverse tangent)
The `atan2` function returns the arc tangent (inverse tangent) of the ratio
of the real parts of its arguments. `atan2` returns its argument in radians
or degrees, as selected by `set angles`, in the correct quadrant.
4 atanh
?expressions functions atanh
?functions atanh
?atan
#atanh(x) & any & $\tanh^{1} x$ (inverse hyperbolic tangent) in radians \\
%atanh(x)@any@$tanh sup 1 x$ (inverse hyperbolic tangent) in radians
The `atanh` function returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of its argument
in radians.
4 besj0
?expressions functions besj0
?functions besj0
?besj0
#besj0(x) & int or real & $j_{0}$ Bessel function of $x$, in radians \\
%besj0(x)@int or real@$j sub 0$ Bessel function of $x$, in radians
The `besj0` function returns the j0th Bessel function of its argument.
`besj0` expects its argument to be in radians.
4 besj1
?expressions functions besj1
?functions besj1
?besj1
#besj1(x) & int or real & $j_{1}$ Bessel function of $x$, in radians \\
%besj1(x)@int or real@$j sub 1$ Bessel function of $x$, in radians
The `besj1` function returns the j1st Bessel function of its argument.
`besj1` expects its argument to be in radians.
4 besy0
?expressions functions besy0
?functions besy0
?besy0
#besy0(x) & int or real & $y_{0}$ Bessel function of $x$, in radians \\
%besy0(x)@int or real@$y sub 0$ Bessel function of $x$, in radians
The `besy0` function returns the y0th Bessel function of its argument.
`besy0` expects its argument to be in radians.
4 besy1
?expressions functions besy1
?functions besy1
?besy1
#besy1(x) & int or real & $y_{1}$ Bessel function of $x$, in radians \\
%besy1(x)@int or real@$y sub 1$ Bessel function of $x$, in radians
The `besy1` function returns the y1st Bessel function of its argument.
`besy1` expects its argument to be in radians.
4 ceil
?expressions functions ceil
?functions ceil
?ceil
#ceil(x) & any & $\lceil x \rceil$, smallest integer not less than $x$
#(real part) \\
%ceil(x)@any@$left ceiling x right ceiling$, smallest integer not less than $x$ (real part)
The `ceil` function returns the smallest integer that is not less than its
argument. For complex numbers, `ceil` returns the smallest integer not less
than the real part of its argument.
4 cos
?expressions functions cos
?functions cos
?cos
#cos(x) & any & $\cos x$, cosine of $x$ \\
%cos(x)@radians@$cos~x$, cosine of $x$
The `cos` function returns the cosine of its argument. `cos` accepts its
argument in radians or degrees, as selected by `set angles`.
4 cosh
?expressions functions cosh
?functions cosh
?cosh
#cosh(x) & any & $\cosh x$, hyperbolic cosine of $x$ in radians \\
%cosh(x)@any@$cosh~x$, hyperbolic cosine of $x$ in radians
The `cosh` function returns the hyperbolic cosine of its argument. `cosh`
expects its argument to be in radians.
4 erf
?expressions functions erf
?functions erf
?erf
#erf(x) & any & $\mbox{Erf}(\mbox{real}(x))$, error function of real($x$) \\
%erf(x)@any@$erf ( roman real (x))$, error function of real ($x$)
The `erf` function returns the error function of the real part of its
argument. If the argument is a complex value, the imaginary component is
ignored.
4 erfc
?expressions functions erfc
?functions erfc
?erfc
#erfc(x) & any & $\mbox{Erfc}(\mbox{real}(x))$, 1.0  error function of real($x$) \\
%erfc(x)@any@$erfc ( roman real (x))$, 1.0  error function of real ($x$)
The `erfc` function returns 1.0  the error function of the real part of its
argument. If the argument is a complex value, the imaginary component is
ignored.
4 exp
?expressions functions exp
?functions exp
?exp
#exp(x) & any & $e^{x}$, exponential function of $x$ \\
%exp(x)@any@$e sup x$, exponential function of $x$
The `exp` function returns the exponential function of its argument (`e`
raised to the power of its argument). On some implementations (notably
suns), exp(x) returns undefined for very large x. A userdefined function
like safe(x) = x<100 ? 0 : exp(x) might prove useful in these cases.
4 floor
?expressions functions floor
?functions floor
?floor
#floor(x) & any & $\lfloor x \rfloor$, largest integer not greater
#than $x$ (real part) \\
%floor(x)@any@$left floor x right floor$, largest integer not greater than $x$ (real part)
The `floor` function returns the largest integer not greater than its
argument. For complex numbers, `floor` returns the largest integer not
greater than the real part of its argument.
4 gamma
?expressions functions gamma
?functions gamma
?gamma
#gamma(x) & any & $\mbox{Gamma}(\mbox{real}(x))$, gamma function of real($x$) \\
%gamma(x)@any@$GAMMA ( roman real (x))$, gamma function of real ($x$)
The `gamma` function returns the gamma function of the real part of its
argument. For integer n, gamma(n+1) = n!. If the argument is a complex
value, the imaginary component is ignored.
4 ibeta
?expressions functions ibeta
?functions ibeta
?ibeta
#ibeta(p,q,x) & any & $\mbox{Ibeta}(\mbox{real}(p,q,x))$, ibeta function of real($p$,$q$,$x$) \\
%ibeta(p,q,x)@any@$Ibeta ( roman real (p,q,x))$, ibeta function of real ($p$,$q$,$x$)
The `ibeta` function returns the incomplete beta function of the real parts
of its arguments. p, q > 0 and x in [0:1]. If the arguments are complex,
the imaginary components are ignored.
4 inverf
?expressions functions inverf
?functions inverf
?inverf
#inverf(x) & any & inverse error function of real($x$) \\
%inverf(x)@any@inverse error function real($x$)
The `inverf` function returns the inverse error function of the real part
of its argument.
4 igamma
?expressions functions igamma
?functions igamma
?igamma
#igamma(a,x) & any & $\mbox{Igamma}(\mbox{real}(a,x))$, igamma function of real($a$,$x$) \\
%igamma(a,x)@any@$Igamma ( roman real (a,x))$, igamma function of real ($a$,$x$)
The `igamma` function returns the incomplete gamma function of the real
parts of its arguments. a > 0 and x >= 0. If the arguments are complex,
the imaginary components are ignored.
4 imag
?expressions functions imag
?functions imag
?imag
#imag(x) & complex & imaginary part of $x$ as a real number \\
%imag(x)@complex@imaginary part of $x$ as a real number
The `imag` function returns the imaginary part of its argument as a real
number.
4 invnorm
?expressions functions invnorm
?functions invnorm
?invnorm
#invnorm(x) & any & inverse normal distribution function of real($x$) \\
%invnorm(x)@any@inverse normal distribution function real($x$)
The `invnorm` function returns the inverse normal distribution function of
the real part of its argument.
4 int
?expressions functions int
?functions int
?int
#int(x) & real & integer part of $x$, truncated toward zero \\
%int(x)@real@integer part of $x$, truncated toward zero
The `int` function returns the integer part of its argument, truncated
toward zero.
4 lgamma
?expressions functions lgamma
?functions lgamma
?lgamma
#lgamma(x) & any & $\mbox{Lgamma}(\mbox{real}(x))$, lgamma function of real($x$) \\
%lgamma(x)@any@$Lgamma ( roman real (x))$, lgamma function of real ($x$)
The `lgamma` function returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function
of the real part of its argument. If the argument is a complex value, the
imaginary component is ignored.
4 log
?expressions functions log
?functions log
?log
#log(x) & any & $\log_{e} x$, natural logarithm (base $e$) of $x$ \\
%log(x)@any@$ln~x$, natural logarithm (base $e$) of $x$
The `log` function returns the natural logarithm (base `e`) of its argument.
4 log10
?expressions functions log10
?functions log10
?log10
#log10(x) & any & $\log_{10} x$, logarithm (base $10$) of $x$ \\
%log10(x)@any@${log sub 10}~x$, logarithm (base $10$) of $x$
The `log10` function returns the logarithm (base 10) of its argument.
4 norm
?expressions functions norm
?functions norm
?norm
#norm(x) & any & normal distribution (Gaussian) function of real($x$) \\
%norm(x)@any@$norm(x)$, normal distribution function of real($x$)
The `norm` function returns the normal distribution function (or Gaussian)
of the real part of its argument.
4 rand
?expressions functions rand
?functions rand
?rand
#rand(x) & any & $\mbox{Rand}(\mbox{real}(x))$, pseudo random number generator \\
%rand(x)@any@$rand ( roman real (x))$, pseudo random number generator
The `rand` function returns a pseudo random number in the interval [0:1]
using the real part of its argument as a seed. If seed < 0, the sequence
is (re)initialized. If the argument is a complex value, the imaginary
component is ignored.
4 real
?expressions functions real
?functions real
?real
#real(x) & any & real part of $x$ \\
%real(x)@any@real part of $x$
The `real` function returns the real part of its argument.
4 sgn
?expressions functions sgn
?functions sgn
?sgn
#sgn(x) & any & 1 if $x>0$, 1 if $x<0$, 0 if $x=0$. imag($x$) ignored \\
%sgn(x)@any@1 if $x > 0$, 1 if $x < 0$, 0 if $x = 0$. $roman imag (x)$ ignored
The `sgn` function returns 1 if its argument is positive, 1 if its argument
is negative, and 0 if its argument is 0. If the argument is a complex value,
the imaginary component is ignored.
4 sin
?expressions functions sin
?functions sin
?sin
#sin(x) & any & $\sin x$, sine of $x$ \\
%sin(x)@any@$sin~x$, sine of $x$
The `sin` function returns the sine of its argument. `sin` expects its
argument to be in radians or degrees, as selected by `set angles`.
4 sinh
?expressions functions sinh
?functions sinh
?sinh
#sinh(x) & any & $\sinh x$, hyperbolic sine $x$ in radians \\
%sinh(x)@any@$sinh~x$, hyperbolic sine $x$ in radians
The `sinh` function returns the hyperbolic sine of its argument. `sinh`
expects its argument to be in radians.
4 sqrt
?expressions functions sqrt
?functions sqrt
?sqrt
#sqrt(x) & any & $\sqrt{x}$, square root of $x$ \\
%sqrt(x)@any@$sqrt x $, square root of $x$
The `sqrt` function returns the square root of its argument.
4 tan
?expressions functions tan
?functions tan
?tan
#tan(x) & any & $\tan x$, tangent of $x$ \\
%tan(x)@any@$tan~x$, tangent of $x$
The `tan` function returns the tangent of its argument. `tan` expects
its argument to be in radians or degrees, as selected by `set angles`.
4 tanh
?expressions functions tanh
?functions tanh
?tanh
#tanh(x) & any & $\tanh x$, hyperbolic tangent of $x$ in radians\\
%tanh(x)@any@$tanh~x$, hyperbolic tangent of $x$ in radians
The `tanh` function returns the hyperbolic tangent of its argument. `tanh`
expects its argument to be in radians.
@end table
A few additional functions are also available.
@start table
#Function & Arguments & Returns \\ \hline
%Function@Arguments@Returns
%_
4 column
?expressions functions column
?functions column
?column
#column(x) & int & column $x$ during datafile manipulation. \\
%column(x)@int@ column $x$ during datafile manipulation.
`column(x)` may be used only in expressions as part of `using` manipulations
to fits or datafile plots. See `plot datafile using`.
4 tm_hour
?expressions tm_hour
?functions tm_hour
#tm\_hour(x) & int & the hour \\
%tm_hour(x)@int@the hour
The `tm_hour` function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from
1 Jan 2000. It returns the hour (an integer in the range 023) as a real.
4 tm_mday
?expressions tm_mday
?functions tm_mday
#tm\_mday(x) & int & the day of the month \\
%tm_mday(x)@int@the day of the month
The `tm_mday` function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from
1 Jan 2000. It returns the day of the month (an integer in the range 131)
as a real.
4 tm_min
?expressions tm_min
?functions tm_min
#tm\_min(x) & int & the minute \\
%tm_min(x)@int@the minute
The `tm_min` function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from
1 Jan 2000. It returns the minute (an integer in the range 059) as a real.
4 tm_mon
?expressions tm_mon
?functions tm_mon
#tm\_mon(x) & int & the month \\
%tm_mon(x)@int@the month
The `tm_mon` function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from
1 Jan 2000. It returns the month (an integer in the range 112) as a real.
4 tm_sec
?expressions tm_sec
?functions tm_sec
#tm\_sec(x) & int & the second \\
%tm_sec(x)@int@the second
The `tm_sec` function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from
1 Jan 2000. It returns the second (an integer in the range 059) as a real.
4 tm_wday
?expressions tm_wday
?functions tm_wday
#tm\_wday(x) & int & the day of the week \\
%tm_wday(x)@int@the day of the week
The `tm_wday` function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from
1 Jan 2000. It returns the day of the week (an integer in the range 17) as
a real.
4 tm_yday
?expressions tm_yday
?functions tm_yday
#tm\_yday(x) & int & the day of the year \\
%tm_yday(x)@int@the day of the year
The `tm_yday` function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from
1 Jan 2000. It returns the day of the year (an integer in the range 1366)
as a real.
4 tm_year
?expressions tm_year
?functions tm_year
#tm\_year(x) & int & the year \\
%tm_year(x)@int@the year
The `tm_year` function interprets its argument as a time, in seconds from
1 Jan 2000. It returns the year (an integer) as a real.
4 valid
?expressions functions valid
?functions valid
?valid
#valid(x) & int & test validity of $\mbox{column}(x)$ during datafile manip.\\
%valid(x)@int@ test validity of column($x$) during datafile manip.
`valid(x)` may be used only in expressions as part of `using` manipulations
to fits or datafile plots. See `plot datafile using`.
@end table
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/airfoil/airfoil.html">Use of functions and complex variables for airfoils </a>
3 Operators
?expressions operators
?operators
The operators in `gnuplot` are the same as the corresponding operators in the
C programming language, except that all operators accept integer, real, and
complex arguments, unless otherwise noted. The ** operator (exponentiation)
is supported, as in FORTRAN.
Parentheses may be used to change order of evaluation.
4 Unary
?expressions operators unary
?operators unary
?unary
The following is a list of all the unary operators and their usages:
@start table  first is interactive cleartext form
Symbol Example Explanation
 a unary minus
+ +a unary plus (nooperation)
~ ~a * one's complement
! !a * logical negation
! a! * factorial
$ $3 * call arg/column during `using` manipulation
#\multicolumn{3}{c}{Unary Operators}\\
#Symbol & Example & Explanation \\ \hline
#\verb@@ & \verb@a@ & unary minus \\
#\verb@+@ & \verb@+a@ & unary plus (nooperation) \\
#\verb@~@ & \verb@~a@ & * one's complement \\
#\verb@!@ & \verb@!a@ & * logical negation \\
#\verb@!@ & \verb@a!@ & * factorial \\
#\verb@$@ & \verb@$3@ & * call arg/column during `using` manipulation \\
C ugly hack: doc2ms uses $ as delimiter for eqn's so it doesn't seem to
C be able to print them. So we have to typeset this table without using
C eqn (at least that's the only solution I found, without any real docs
C on *roff and eqn
C First, terminate the table doc2ms.c already started:
%.TE
C ... then turn off eqn delimiters:
%.EQ
%delim off
%.EN
C ... and restart the table:
%.TS
%center box tab (@) ;
%c c l .
%Symbol@Example@Explanation
%_
%@a@unary minus
%+@+a@unary plus (nooperation)
%~@~a@* one's complement
%!@!a@* logical negation
%!@a!@* factorial
%$@$3@* call arg/column during `using` manipulation
%_
@end table
(*) Starred explanations indicate that the operator requires an integer
argument.
Operator precedence is the same as in Fortran and C. As in those languages,
parentheses may be used to change the order of operation. Thus 2**2 = 4,
but (2)**2 = 4.
The factorial operator returns a real number to allow a greater range.
4 Binary
?expressions operators binary
?operators binary
?binary
The following is a list of all the binary operators and their usages:
@start table  first is interactive cleartext form
Symbol Example Explanation
** a**b exponentiation
* a*b multiplication
/ a/b division
% a%b * modulo
+ a+b addition
 ab subtraction
== a==b equality
!= a!=b inequality
< a<b less than
<= a<=b less than or equal to
> a>b greater than
>= a>=b greater than or equal to
& a&b * bitwise AND
^ a^b * bitwise exclusive OR
 ab * bitwise inclusive OR
&& a&&b * logical AND
 ab * logical OR
#\multicolumn{3}{c}{Binary Operators} \\
#Symbol & Example & Explanation \\ \hline
#\verb~**~ & \verb~a**b~ & exponentiation\\
#\verb~*~ & \verb~a*b~ & multiplication\\
#\verb~/~ & \verb~a/b~ & division\\
#\verb~%~ & \verb~a%b~ & * modulo\\
#\verb~+~ & \verb~a+b~ & addition\\
#\verb~~ & \verb~ab~ & subtraction\\
#\verb~==~ & \verb~a==b~ & equality\\
#\verb~!=~ & \verb~a!=b~ & inequality\\
#\verb~<~ & \verb~a<b~ & less than\\
#\verb~<=~ & \verb~a<=b~ & less than or equal to\\
#\verb~>~ & \verb~a>b~ & greater than\\
#\verb~>=~ & \verb~a>=b~ & greater than or equal to\\
#\verb~&~ & \verb~a&b~ & * bitwise AND\\
#\verb~^~ & \verb~a^b~ & * bitwise exclusive OR\\
#\verb~~ & \verb~ab~ & * bitwise inclusive OR\\
#\verb~&&~ & \verb~a&&b~ & * logical AND\\
#\verb~~ & \verb~ab~ & * logical OR\\
%Symbol@Example@Explanation
%_
%**@a**b@exponentiation
%*@a*b@multiplication
%/@a/b@division
%%@a%b@* modulo
%+@a+b@addition
%@ab@subtraction
%==@a==b@equality
%!=@a!=b@inequality
%<@a<b@less than
%<=@a<=b@less than or equal to
%>@a>b@greater than
%>=@a>=b@greater than or equal to
%&@a&b@* bitwise AND
%^@a^b@* bitwise exclusive OR
%@ab@* bitwise inclusive OR
%&&@a&&b@* logical AND
%@ab@* logical OR
@end table
(*) Starred explanations indicate that the operator requires integer
arguments.
Logical AND (&&) and OR () shortcircuit the way they do in C. That is,
the second `&&` operand is not evaluated if the first is false; the second
`` operand is not evaluated if the first is true.
4 Ternary
?expressions operators ternary
?operators ternary
?ternary
There is a single ternary operator:
@start table  first is interactive cleartext form
Symbol Example Explanation
?: a?b:c ternary operation
#\multicolumn{3}{c}{Ternary Operator} \\
#Symbol & Example & Explanation \\ \hline
#\verb~?:~ & \verb~a?b:c~ & ternary operation\\
%Symbol@Example@Explanation
%_
%?:@a?b:c@* ternary operation
@end table
The ternary operator behaves as it does in C. The first argument (a), which
must be an integer, is evaluated. If it is true (nonzero), the second
argument (b) is evaluated and returned; otherwise the third argument (c) is
evaluated and returned.
The ternary operator is very useful both in constructing piecewise functions
and in plotting points only when certain conditions are met.
Examples:
Plot a function that is to equal sin(x) for 0 <= x < 1, 1/x for 1 <= x < 2,
and undefined elsewhere:
f(x) = 0<=x && x<1 ? sin(x) : 1<=x && x<2 ? 1/x : 1/0
plot f(x)
^ <img align=bottom src="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/doc/ternary.gif" alt="[ternary.gif]" width=640 height=480>
Note that `gnuplot` quietly ignores undefined values, so the final branch of
the function (1/0) will produce no plottable points. Note also that f(x)
will be plotted as a continuous function across the discontinuity if a line
style is used. To plot it discontinuously, create separate functions for the
two pieces. (Parametric functions are also useful for this purpose.)
For data in a file, plot the average of the data in columns 2 and 3 against
the datum in column 1, but only if the datum in column 4 is nonnegative:
plot 'file' using 1:( $4<0 ? 1/0 : ($2+$3)/2 )
Please see `plot datafile using` for an explanation of the `using` syntax.
3 Userdefined
?expressions userdefined
?userdefined
?variables
New userdefined variables and functions of one through five variables may
be declared and used anywhere, including on the `plot` command itself.
Userdefined function syntax:
<funcname>( <dummy1> {,<dummy2>} ... {,<dummy5>} ) = <expression>
where <expression> is defined in terms of <dummy1> through <dummy5>.
Userdefined variable syntax:
<variablename> = <constantexpression>
Examples:
w = 2
q = floor(tan(pi/2  0.1))
f(x) = sin(w*x)
sinc(x) = sin(pi*x)/(pi*x)
delta(t) = (t == 0)
ramp(t) = (t > 0) ? t : 0
min(a,b) = (a < b) ? a : b
comb(n,k) = n!/(k!*(nk)!)
len3d(x,y,z) = sqrt(x*x+y*y+z*z)
plot f(x) = sin(x*a), a = 0.2, f(x), a = 0.4, f(x)
^ <img align=bottom src="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/doc/userdefined.gif" alt="[userdefined.gif]" width=640 height=480>
Note that the variable `pi` is already defined. But it is in no way magic;
you may redefine it to be whatever you like.
Valid names are the same as in most programming languages: they must begin
with a letter, but subsequent characters may be letters, digits, "$", or "_".
Note, however, that the `fit` mechanism uses several variables with names
that begin "FIT_". It is safest to avoid using such names. "FIT_LIMIT",
however, is one that you may wish to redefine.
See `show functions` and `show variables`.
2 Glossary
?glossary
Throughout this document an attempt has been made to maintain consistency of
nomenclature. This cannot be wholly successful because as `gnuplot` has
evolved over time, certain command and keyword names have been adopted that
preclude such perfection. This section contains explanations of the way
some of these terms are used.
A "page" or "screen" is the entire area addressable by `gnuplot`. On a
monitor, it is the full screen; on a plotter, it is a single sheet of
paper.
A screen may contain one or more "plots". A plot is defined by an
abscissa and an ordinate, although these need not actually appear on it, as
well as the margins and any text written therein.
A plot contains one "graph". A graph is defined by an abscissa and an
ordinate, although these need not actually appear on it.
A graph may contain one or more "lines". A line is a single function or
data set. "Line" is also a plotting style. The word will also be used in
sense "a line of text". Presumably the context will always remove the
ambiguity.
The lines on a graph may have individual names. These may be listed together
with a sample of the plotting style used to represent them in the "key",
sometimes also called the "legend".
The word "title" occurs with multiple meanings in `gnuplot`. In this
document, it will always be preceded by the adjective "plot", "line", or
"key" to differentiate among them.
A graph may have up to four labelled axes. Various commands have the name of
an axis built into their names, such as `set xlabel`. Other commands have
one or more axis names as options, such as `set logscale xy`. The names of
the four axes for these usages are "x" for the axis along the bottom border
of the plot, "y" for the left border, "x2" for the top border, and "y2" for
the right border. "z" also occurs in commands used with 3d plotting.
When discussing data files, the term "record" will be resurrected and used to
denote a single line in the file, that is, the characters between newline or
endofrecord characters. A "point" is the datum on a single record, and a
"dataline" is a set of points on consecutive records, delimited by blank
records.
2 Plotting
?plotting
There are three `gnuplot` commands which actually create a plot: `plot`,
`splot` and `replot`. `plot` generates 2d plots, `splot` generates 3d
plots (actually 2d projections, of course), and `replot` appends its
arguments to the previous `plot` or `splot` and executes the modified
command.
Much of the general information about plotting can be found in the discussion
of `plot`; information specific to 3d can be found in the `splot` section.
`plot` operates in either rectangular or polar coordinates  see `set polar`
for details of the latter. `splot` operates only in rectangular coordinates,
but the `set mapping` command allows for a few other coordinate systems to be
treated. In addition, the `using` option allows both `plot` and `splot` to
treat almost any coordinate system you'd care to define.
`splot` can plot surfaces and contours in addition to lines. See `splot
datafile` for information about the requisite file structure for both of
these; see `set isosamples` for information about defining the grid for a 3d
function. See `set contour` and `set cntrparam` for information about
contours.
2 Startup
?startup
?start
?.gnuplot
When `gnuplot` is run, it looks for an initialization file to load. This
file is called `.gnuplot` on Unix and AmigaDOS systems, and `GNUPLOT.INI`
on other systems. If this file is not found in the current directory, the
program will look for it in the home directory (under AmigaDOS,
Atari(single)TOS, MSDOS and OS/2, the environment variable `gnuplot` should
contain the name of this directory). Note: if NOCWDRC is defined during the
installation, `gnuplot` will not read from the current directory.
If the initialization file is found, `gnuplot` executes the commands in it.
These may be any legal `gnuplot` commands, but typically they are limited to
setting the terminal and defining frequentlyused functions or variables.
2 Substitution
?substitution
Commandline substitution is specified by a system command enclosed in
backquotes. This command is spawned and the output it produces replaces
the name of the command (and backquotes) on the command line.
Newlines in the output produced by the spawned command are replaced with
blanks.
Commandline substitution can be used anywhere on the `gnuplot` command
line.
Example:
This will run the program `leastsq` and replace `leastsq` (including
backquotes) on the command line with its output:
f(x) = `leastsq`
or, in VMS
f(x) = `run leastsq`
2 Syntax
?syntax
?specify
?punctuation
The general rules of syntax and punctuation in `gnuplot` are that keywords
and options are orderdependent. Options and any accompanying parameters are
separated by spaces whereas lists and coordinates are separated by commas.
Ranges are separated by colons and enclosed in braces [], text and file names
are enclosed in quotes, and a few miscellaneous things are enclosed in
parentheses. Brackets {} are used for a few special purposes.
Commas are used to separate coordinates on the `set` commands `arrow`,
`key`, and `label`; the list of variables being fitted (the list after the
`via` keyword on the `fit` command); lists of discrete contours or the loop
parameters which specify them on the `set cntrparam` command; the arguments
of the `set` commands `dgrid3d`, `dummy`, `isosamples`, `offsets`, `origin`,
`samples`, `size`, `time`, and `view`; lists of tics or the loop parameters
which specify them; the offsets for titles and axis labels; parametric
functions to be used to calculate the x, y, and z coordinates on the `plot`,
`replot` and `splot` commands; and the complete sets of keywords specifying
individual plots (data sets or functions) on the `plot`, `replot` and `splot`
commands.
Parentheses are used to delimit sets of explicit tics (as opposed to loop
parameters) and to indicate computations in the `using` filter of the `fit`,
`plot`, `replot` and `splot` commands.
(Parentheses and commas are also used as usual in function notation.)
Braces are used to delimit ranges, whether they are given on `set`, `plot` or
`splot` commands.
Colons are used to separate extrema in `range` specifications (whether they
are given on `set`, `plot` or `splot` commands) and to separate entries in
the `using` filter of the `plot`, `replot`, `splot` and `fit` commands.
Semicolons are used to separate commands given on a single command line.
Brackets are used in text to be specially processed by some terminals, like
`postscript`. They are also used to denote complex numbers: {3,2} = 3 + 2i.
Text may be enclosed in single or doublequotes. Backslash processing of
sequences like \n (newline) and \345 (octal character code) is performed for
doublequoted strings, but not for singlequoted strings.
The justification is the same for each line of a multiline string. Thus the
centerjustified string
"This is the first line of text.\nThis is the second line."
will produce
This is the first line of text.
This is the second line.
but
'This is the first line of text.\nThis is the second line.'
will produce
This is the first line of text.\nThis is the second line.
At present you should not embed \n inside {} when using the enhanced option
of the postscript terminal.
The EEPIC, Imagen, Uniplex, LaTeX, and TPIC drivers allow a newline to be
specified by \\ in a singlequoted string or \\\\ in a doublequoted string.
Backquotes are used to enclose system commands for substitution.
2 Time/Date data
?time/date
`gnuplot` supports the use of time and/or date information as input data.
This feature is activated by the commands `set xdata time`, `set ydata time`,
etc.
Internally all times and dates are converted to the number of seconds from
the year 2000. The command `set timefmt` defines the format for all inputs:
data files, ranges, tics, label positionsin short, anything that accepts a
data value must receive it in this format. Since only one input format can
be in force at a given time, all time/date quantities being input at the same
time must be presented in the same format. Thus if both x and y data in a
file are time/date, they must be in the same format.
Commands like `show xrange` will reinterpret the integer according to
`timefmt`. If you change `timefmt`, and then `show` the quantity again, it
will be displayed in the new `timefmt`. For that matter, if you give the
deactivation command (like `set xdata`), the quantity will be shown in its
numerical form.
The command `set format` defines the format that will be used for tic labels,
whether or not the specified axis is time/date.
If time/date information is to be plotted from a file, the `using` option
_must_ be used on the `plot` or `splot` command. These commands simply use
white space to separate columns, but white space may be embedded within the
time/date string. If you use tabs as a separator, some trialanderror may
be necessary to discover how your system treats them.
The following example demonstrates time/date plotting.
Suppose the file "data" contains records like
03/21/95 10:00 6.02e23
This file can be plotted by
set xdata time
set timefmt "%m/%d"
set xrange ["03/21":"03/22"]
set format x "%m/%d"
set timefmt "%m/%d/%y %H:%M"
plot "data" using 1:3
which will produce xtic labels that look like "03/21".
See the descriptions of each command for more details.
1 Commands
?commands
2 cd
?cd
The `cd` command changes the working directory.
Syntax:
cd '<directoryname>'
The directory name must be enclosed in quotes.
Examples:
cd 'subdir'
cd ".."
DOS users _must_ use singlequotesbackslash [\] has special significance
inside doublequotes. For example,
cd "c:\newdata"
fails, but
cd 'c:\newdata'
works as expected.
2 call
?call
The `call` command is identical to the load command with one exception: you
can have up to ten additional parameters to the command (delimited according
to the standard parser rules) which can be substituted into the lines read
from the file. As each line is read from the `call`ed input file, it is
scanned for the sequence `$` (dollarsign) followed by a digit (09). If
found, the sequence is replaced by the corresponding parameter from the
`call` command line. If the parameter was specified as a string in the
`call` line, it is substituted without its enclosing quotes. `$` followed by
any character other than a digit will be that character. E.g. use `$$` to
get a single `$`. Providing more than ten parameters on the `call` command
line will cause an error. A parameter that was not provided substitutes as
nothing. Files being `call`ed may themselves contain `call` or `load`
commands.
The `call` command _must_ be the last command on a multicommand line.
Syntax:
call "<inputfile>" <parameter0> <parm1> ... <parm9>
The name of the input file must be enclosed in quotes, and it is recommended
that parameters are similarly enclosed in quotes (future versions of gnuplot
may treat quoted and unquoted arguments differently).
Example:
If the file 'calltest.gp' contains the line:
print "p0=$0 p1=$1 p2=$2 p3=$3 p4=$4 p5=$5 p6=$6 p7=x$7x"
entering the command:
call 'calltest.gp' "abcd" 1.2 + "'quoted'"  "$2"
will display:
p0=abcd p1=1.2 p2=+ p3='quoted' p4= p5= p6=$2 p7=xx
NOTE: there is a clash in syntax with the datafile `using` callback
operator. Use `$$n` or `column(n)` to access column n from a datafile inside
a `call`ed datafile plot.
2 clear
?clear
The `clear` command erases the current screen or output device as specified
by `set output`. This usually generates a formfeed on hardcopy devices. Use
`set terminal` to set the device type.
For some terminals `clear` erases only the portion of the plotting surface
defined by `set size`, so for these it can be used in conjunction with `set
multiplot` to create an inset.
Example:
set multiplot
plot sin(x)
set origin 0.5,0.5
set size 0.4,0.4
clear
plot cos(x)
set nomultiplot
Please see `set multiplot`, `set size`, and `set origin` for details of these
commands.
2 exit
?exit
?quit
The commands `exit` and `quit` and the ENDOFFILE character will exit
`gnuplot`. Each of these commands will clear the output device (as does
the `clear` command) before exiting.
2 fit
?fit
This implementation incorporates the capability of nonlinear least squares
fitting using the MarquardtLevenberg Algorithm. It may fit any userdefined
function to any set of data points (x,y) or (x,y,z). x, y, z and the
function's return type _must_ be real! Any variable occurring in the
function body may serve as a fit parameter (fitting functions without
adjustable parameters make no sense).
Syntax:
fit {[xrange]} {[yrange]} <function>
'<datafile>' {datafilemodifiers}
via {'<parameter file>'  <var1>,<var2>,...}
Notice that `via` is now a required keyword, to distinguish it from a 'scanf'
format string.
[xrange] and [yrange] are of the form [{variable=}{<min>}{:<max>}], allowing
the range of the fit to be limited temporarily in a manner analogous to
`plot`. <function> is any valid `gnuplot` expression, although it is usual
to use a previously userdefined function of the form f(x) or f(x,y).
<datafile> is treated as in the `plot` command. All the modifiers for
datafiles (`using`, `every`,...) in `plot` are available here (except
`smooth`)see `plot datafile` for full details. The default columns for x
and y are 1 and 2. These may be changed by the `using x:y` mechanism. If
`using` has a third entry (a column or an expression), it will be interpreted
as the standard deviation of each y value and will be used to compute the
weight; otherwise all data will be weighted equally. If four columns are
specified, they are x:y:z:errornote that an error _must_ be specified in
order to perform a 3d fit. If errors are not available, a constant value
can be specified, e.g., `using ...:(1)`.
Initial values for the parameters to be fit may be specified in a (load)file
wherein each line is of the form:
varname = value
Comments, marked by '#', and blank lines are permissible. The special form
varname = value # FIXED
means that the variable is treated as a `fixed parameter` that is initialized
but will not be adjusted. It is not necessary (but sometimes useful for
clarity) to specify them at all. The keyword `# FIXED` has to appear in
exactly this form.
The other means of specifying the adjustable parameters is to provide a
commaseparated list of variable names after the `via` keyword. If any of
these variables do not yet exist within the current `gnuplot` session, they
are created with an initial value of 1.0, but the fit is more likely to
converge if a more appropriate starting value is given. If this form is
used, it may prove beneficial to iterate the fit, allowing only one or two
variables to be adjusted at a time until a reasonably close fit is obtained,
before allowing `fit` to vary all parameters.
After each iteration step, detailed information is given about the fit's
state, both on the screen and on a logfile "fit.log". This file will never be
erased but always appended to so that the fit's history isn't lost. After
each iteration step, the fit may be interrupted by pressing CtrlC (any key
_but_ CtrlC under MSDOS and Atari Multitasking Systems). Then you have the
options of stopping (and accepting the current parameter values), continuing
the iteration of the fit, or executing a `gnuplot` command specified by an
environment variable FIT_SCRIPT. A `plot` or `load` command may be useful in
this context.
Special `gnuplot` variables:
FIT_LIMIT
may be specified to change the default epsilon limit (1e5). When the sum
of squared residuals changes between two iteration steps by less than a
factor of this number, the fit is considered to have 'converged'.
Once the fit is converged, the final values may be stored in (load)file
suitable for use as an initialvalue file, as discussed above. Please see
`update` for details.
FIT_MAXITER
may be specified to limit the number of iterations performed without
convergence by FIT_LIMIT. A value of 0 (or not defining it at all) means
that there is no limit.
[FIT_SKIP was available in previous releases of gnufit. Its functionality
is now obtained using the `every` modifier for datafiles. FIT_INDEX was
previously available in order to allow multibranch fitting. Multibranch
fitting in 2d can now be done as a pseudo3d fit in which the y values are
the dataline number (`using 1:1:...`) or index (`using 1:2:...`).]
Environment variables:
FIT_LOG
changes the logfile's path from './fit.log' (write permission is necessary).
FIT_SCRIPT
specifies a command to be executed after an user interrupt.
Examples:
f(x) = a*x**2 + b*x + c
FIT_LIMIT = 1e6
fit f(x) 'measured.dat' via 'start.par'
fit f(x) 'measured.dat' using 3:($75) via 'start.par'
fit f(x) './data/trash.dat' using 1:2:3 via a, b, c
fit f(x,y) 'surface.dat' using 1:2:3:(1) via a, b, c
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/fit/fit.html"> See the `fit` demos. </a>
3 Introduction To Fitting
?fit introduction
Beginner's guide to fitting in general
`fit` is used to find a set of parameters to be used in a parametric function
to make it fit to your data optimally. The quantity to be minimized is the
sum of squared differences between your input data points and the function
values at the same places, usually called 'chisquared' (i.e. the Greek letter
chi, to the power of 2). (To be precise, the differences will be divided by
the input data errors before being squared; see `fit errors` for details.)
Now that you know why it's called 'least squares fitting', let's see why it's
'nonlinear'. That's because the function's dependence on the parameters (not
the data!) may be nonlinear. Of course, this might not tell you much if you
didn't know already, so let me try to describe it. If the fitting problem
were to be linear, the target function would have to be a sum of simple,
nonparametric functions, each multiplied by one parameter. (For example,
consider the function f(x) = c*sin(x), where we want to find the best value
for the constant c. This is nonlinear in x, of course, but it is linear in
c. Since the fitting procedure solves for c, it has a linear equation to
solve.) For such a linear case, the task of fitting can be performed by
comparatively simple linear algebra in one direct step. But `fit` can do
more for you: the parameters may be used in your function in any way you can
imagine. To handle this more general case, however, it has to perform an
iteration, i.e. it will repeat a sequence of steps until it finds the fit to
have 'converged', or until you stop it.
Generally, the function to be fitted will come from some kind of theory (some
prefer the term 'model' here) that makes a prediction about how the data
should behave, and `fit` is then used to find the free parameters of the
theory. This is a typical task in scientific work, where you have lots of
data that depend in more or less complicated ways on the values you're
interested in. The results will then usually be of the form 'the measured
data can be described by the {foo} theory, for the following set of
parameters', and then a set of values is given, together with the errors of
your determination of these values.
This reasoning implies that `fit` is probably _not_ your tool of choice if
all you really want is a smooth line through your data points. If you want
this, the `smooth` option to `plot` is what you've been looking for, not
`fit`. See `plot datafile smooth` for details.
3 Errors In Fitting
?fit errors
One of the most important things to keep in mind when using `fit` is the
handling of errors. Here, this term refers to the measurement errors
accompanying both your input data and resulting parameters.
The reason for the importance of input data errors to fitting is that
normally the single measurements aren't all of the same quality, so they
shouldn't have the same importance in determining the results. That's one
major reason for dividing the differences between data and function by the
input errors, also known as 'weighting', in the computation of chisquared.
By weighting, deviations from your function at places where the data have
large errors will have a smaller part in chisquared, as the division will
make them smaller compared to the better measurements. Another reason for
the division is that, for mathematical reasons, chisquared has to be a
dimensionless variable, i.e. chisquared should be something like '15.3', not
'15.3 square seconds'.
Without input data errors being given, all data will be weighted equally, and
the resulting errors of the parameters won't have much of a real meaning.
Therefore, you should always try to find a sensible set of yerrors for your
data. An important example is that of data representing a histogram. In
such a case, the square root of the y value is often the correct input error
to use.
Once the fit iteration has stopped, it will display a load of valuable
information which you will have to learn to interpret before you can use it.
The 'sum of squares residuals' is the distance between the data and your fit
function, shortly called 'chisquared'. This is what `fit` tries to minimize.
To quickly test if your fit went well, check that this is about the same as
the number of data points minus the number of parameters (all this is only
valid if you supplied yerrors, and the number of data points is large
enough). For details on this, look up the 'Chisquared distribution' in your
favourite statistics textbook.
If chisquared is much larger than that, then your function didn't fit the
data very well. Try another, more general one, or allow more of the
parameters to be adjusted by `fit`. Another possible reason could be that
the yerrors you supplied were a bit optimistic, i.e. too small.
If, on the other hand, chisquared is too small, then the function fit the
data _too_ well. Either the given yerrors were too large, or the function
is too general. You should try to restrict it by either fixing some
parameters, or just make it simpler one way or the other.
If all else went well, you'll see a list of the resulting parameter values,
together with estimates of the errors of these values. And you should
always be aware of this: they're _estimates_, not more. You'll have to get
used to both `fit` and kind of problems you usually apply it to before you
can use these errors for anything serious. To start with, the errors
reported by `fit` are insensitive to the global scale of the yerrors, i.e.
if you multiply all yerrors by a constant, the resulting parameter errors
don't change.
And, to repeat this once more: if you didn't supply yerrors, the parameter
errors will normally be meaningless.
3 Tips and Tricks
?fit tips
Here are some tips to keep in mind to get the most out of `fit`. They're not
very organized, so you'll have to read them several times until their essence
has sunk in.
The two forms of the `via` argument to `fit` serve two largely distinct
purposes. The `via "file"` form is best used for batch operation (possibly
unattended), where you just supply the startup values in a file and perhaps
later use `update` to copy the results back into another file (or the same
one).
The `via var1, var2, ...` form is best used interactively. Using the command
history mechanism built into gnuplot, you can easily edit the list of
parameters to be fitted or supply new startup values for the next try. This
is particularly useful for hard problems, where a direct fit to all the
parameters at once won't work, at least not without really _good_ values to
start with. To find such a set of good starting parameters, you can iterate
several times, fitting only some of the parameters each time, until the
values are close enough to the goal that the final fit (to all the
parameters at once) will work.
A general word about starting values: `fit` may, and often will, get really
badly lost in searching for the optimal parameter set if you start it way off
any possible solution. The main reason for this is that nonlinear fitting is
not guaranteed to converge to a global optimum. It can get stuck in a local
optimum, and there's no way for the routine to find out about that. You'll
have to use your own judgement in checking whether this has happened to you
or not.
To partly avoid that problem, you should put all starting values at least
roughly into the vicinity of the solution. At least the order of magnitude
should be correct, if possible. The better your starting values are, the
less errorprone the fit. A good way to find starting values is to draw data
and fitfunction into one plot, and iterate, changing the values and
`replot`ting until reasonable similarity is reached. The same plot is also
useful to check if the fit got stuck in a nonglobal minimum.
Make sure that there is no mutual dependency among parameters of the function
you are fitting. E.g., don't try to fit a*exp(x+b), because a*exp(x+b) =
a*exp(b)*exp(x). Instead, fit either a*exp(x) or exp(x+b).
A technical issue: the parameters must not be too different in magnitude.
The larger the quotient of the largest and the smallest absolute parameter
values, the slower the fit will converge. If the quotient is close to or
above the inverse of the machine floating point precision, it may take next
to forever to converge, or refuse to converge at all. You'll have to adapt
your function to avoid this, e.g. replace 'parameter' by '1e9*parameter' in
the function definition, and divide the starting value by 1e9.
If you can write your function as a linear combination of simple functions
weighted by the parameters to be fitted, by all means do so. That helps a
lot, because the problem is then not nonlinear any more. It should take only
a really small number of iterations to converge on a linear case, maybe even
only one.
In prescriptions for analysing data from practical experimentation courses,
you'll often find descriptions how to first fit your data to some functions,
maybe in a multistep process accounting for several aspects of the
underlying theory one by one, and then extract the data you really wanted
from the fitting parameters of that function. With `fit`, this last step can
often be eliminated by rewriting the model function to directly use the
desired final parameters. Transforming data can also be avoided quite often,
although sometimes at the cost of a harder fit problem. If you think this
contradicts the previous paragraph about keeping the fit function as simple
as possible, you're correct.
Finally, a nice quote from the manual of another fitting package (fudgit)
that kind of summarizes all these issues: "Nonlinear fitting is an art!"
2 help
?help
The `help` command displays online help. To specify information on a
particular topic use the syntax:
help {<topic>}
If <topic> is not specified, a short message is printed about `gnuplot`.
After help for the requested topic is given, a menu of subtopics is given;
help for a subtopic may be requested by typing its name, extending the help
request. After that subtopic has been printed, the request may be extended
again or you may go back one level to the previous topic. Eventually, the
`gnuplot` command line will return.
If a question mark (?) is given as the topic, the list of topics currently
available is printed on the screen.
2 if
?if
The `if` command allows commands to be executed conditionally.
Syntax:
if (<condition>) <commandline>
<condition> will be evaluated. If it is true (nonzero), then the command(s)
of the <commandline> will be executed. If <condition> is false (zero), then
the entire <commandline> is ignored. Note that use of `;` to allow multiple
commands on the same line will _not_ end the conditionalized commands.
Examples:
pi=3
if (pi!=acos(1)) print "?Fixing pi!"; pi=acos(1); print pi
will display:
?Fixing pi!
3.14159265358979
but
if (1==2) print "Never see this"; print "Or this either"
will not display anything.
See `reread` for an example of how `if` and `reread` can be used together to
perform a loop.
2 load
?load
The `load` command executes each line of the specified input file as if it
had been typed in interactively. Files created by the `save` command can
later be `load`ed. Any text file containing valid commands can be created
and then executed by the `load` command. Files being `load`ed may themselves
contain `load` or `call` commands. See `comment` for information about
comments in commands.
The `load` command _must_ be the last command on a multicommand line.
Syntax:
load "<inputfile>"
The name of the input file must be enclosed in quotes.
Examples:
load 'work.gnu'
load "func.dat"
The `load` command is performed implicitly on any file names given as
arguments to `gnuplot`. These are loaded in the order specified, and
then `gnuplot` exits. See also `call`.
2 pause
?pause
The `pause` command displays any text associated with the command and then
waits a specified amount of time or until the carriage return is pressed.
`pause` is especially useful in conjunction with `load` files.
Syntax:
pause <time> {"<string>"}
<time> may be any integer constant or expression. Choosing 1 will wait
until a carriage return is hit, zero (0) won't pause at all, and a positive
integer will wait the specified number of seconds. `pause 0` is synonymous
with `print`.
Note: Since `pause` communicates with the operating system rather than the
graphics, it may behave differently with different device drivers (depending
upon how text and graphics are mixed).
Examples:
pause 1 # Wait until a carriage return is hit
pause 3 # Wait three seconds
pause 1 "Hit return to continue"
pause 10 "Isn't this pretty? It's a cubic spline."
2 plot
?plot
`plot` is the primary command for drawing plots with `gnuplot`. It creates
plots of functions and data in many, many ways. `plot` is used to draw 2d
functions and data; `splot` draws 2d projections of 3d surfaces and data.
`plot` and `splot` contain many common features; see `splot` for differences.
Syntax:
plot {<ranges>}
{<function>  {"<datafile>" {datafilemodifiers}}}
{axes <axes>} {<titlespec>} {with <style>}
{, {definitions,} <function> ...}
where either a <function> or the name of a data file enclosed in quotes is
supplied. A function is a mathematical expression or a pair of mathematical
expressions in parametric mode. The expressions may be defined completely or
in part earlier in the stream of `gnuplot` commands (see `userdefined`).
It is also possible to define functions and parameters on the `plot` command
itself. This is done merely by isolating them from other items with commas.
There are four possible sets of axes available; the keyword <axes> is used to
select the axes for which a particular line should be scaled. `x1y1` refers
to the axes on the bottom and left; `x2y2` to those on the top and right;
`x1y2` to those on the bottom and right; and `x2y1` to those on the top and
left. Ranges specified on the `plot` command apply only to the first set of
axes (bottom left).
Examples:
plot sin(x)
plot f(x) = sin(x*a), a = .2, f(x), a = .4, f(x)
plot [t=1:10] [pi:pi*2] tan(t), \
"data.1" using (tan($2)):($3/$4) smooth csplines \
axes x1y2 notitle with lines 5
3 datafile
?plot datafile
?plot datafile
?datafile
?datafile
?data
Discrete data contained in a file can be displayed by specifying the name of
the data file (enclosed in quotes) on the `plot` or `splot` command line.
Syntax:
{s}plot '<file_name>' {index <index list>}
{every <every list>}
{thru <thru expression>}
{using <using list>}
{smooth <option>}
The modifiers `index`, `every`, `thru`, `using`, and `smooth` are discussed
separately. In brief, `index` selects which data sets in a multidataset
file are to be plotted, `every` specifies which points within a single data
set are to be plotted, `using` determines how the columns within a single
record are to be interpreted (`thru` is a special case of `using`), and
`smooth` allows for simple interpolation and approximation.
Data files should contain one data point per record. Records beginning with
# (or ! on VMS) will be treated as comments and ignored. Each data point
represents an (x,y) pair. For `plot`s with error bars (see `set style
errorbars`), each data point is (x,y,ydelta), (x,y,ylow,yhigh), (x,y,xdelta),
(x,y,xlow,xhigh), or (x,y,xlow,xhigh,ylow,yhigh). In all cases, the numbers
on each record of a data file must be separated by white space (one or more
blanks or tabs), unless a format specifier is provided by the `using` option.
This white space divides each record into columns.
Data may be written in exponential format with the exponent preceded by the
letter e, E, d, D, q, or Q.
Only one column (the y value) need be provided. If x is omitted, `gnuplot`
provides integer values starting at 0.
In datafiles, blank records (records with no characters other than blanks and
a newline and/or carriage return) are significantpairs of blank records
separate `index`es (see `plot datafile index`). Data separated by double
blank records are treated as if they were in separate data files.
Single blank records designate discontinuities in a `plot`; no line will join
points separated by a blank records (if they are plotted with a line style).
If autoscaling has been enabled (`set autoscale`), the axes are automatically
extended to include all datapoints, with a whole number of tic marks if tics
are being drawn. This has two consequences: i) For `splot`, the corner of
the surface may not coincide with the corner of the base. In this case, no
vertical line is drawn. ii) When plotting data with the same x range on a
dualaxis graph, the x coordinates may not coincide if the x2tics are not
being drawn. This is because the x axis has been autoextended to a whole
number of tics, but the x2 axis has not. The following example illustrates
the problem:
reset; plot '', ''
1 1
19 19
e
1 1
19 19
e
4 every
?plot datafile every
?plot datafile every
?plot every
?datafile every
?datafile every
?every
The `every` keyword allows a periodic sampling of a data set to be plotted.
In the discussion a "point" is a datum defined by a single record in the
file.
Syntax:
plot 'file' every {<point_incr>}
{:{<line_incr>}
{:{<start_point>}
{:{<start_line>}
{:{<end_point>}
{:<end_line>}}}}}
The data points to be plotted are selected according to a loop from
<`start_point`> to <`end_point`> with increment <`point_incr`> and the
datalines according to a loop from <`start_line`> to <`end_line`> with
increment <`line_incr`>.
The first datum in each dataline is numbered '0', as is the first dataline in
the file.
Note that records containing unplottable information are counted.
Any of the numbers can be omitted; the increments default to unity, the start
values to the first point or dataline, and the end values to the last point
or dataline. If `every` is not specified, all points in all datalines are
plotted.
Examples:
every :::3::3 # selects just the fourth dataline ('0' is first)
every :::::9 # selects the first 10 datalines
every 2:2 # selects every other point in every other dataline
every ::5::15 # selects points 5 through 15 in each dataline
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/simple/simple.html">Simple Plot Demos </a>,
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/surfacea/surfacea.html">Nonparametric splot demos </a>, and
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/surfaceb/surfaceb.html">Parametric splot demos.</a>
4 example datafile
?plot datafile example
?plot datafile example
?plot example
?datafile example
?datafile example
?example
This example compares the data in the file population.dat to a theoretical
curve:
pop(x) = 103*exp((1965x)/10)
plot [1960:1990] 'population.dat', pop(x)
The file "population.dat" might contain:
# Gnu population in Antarctica since 1965
1965 103
1970 55
1975 34
1980 24
1985 10
^ <img align=bottom src="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/doc/population.gif" alt="[population.gif]" width=640 height=480>
4 index
?plot datafile index
?plot datafile index
?plot index
?datafile index
?datafile index
?index
The `index` keyword allows only some of the data sets in a multidataset
file to be plotted.
Syntax:
plot 'file' index <m>{{:<n>}:<p>}
Data sets are separated by pairs of blank records. `index <m>` selects only
set <m>; `index <m>:<n>` selects sets in the range <m> to <n>; and `index
<m>:<n>:<p>` selects indices <m>, <m>+<p>, <m>+2<p>, etc., but stopping at
<n>. Following C indexing, the index 0 is assigned to the first data set in
the file. Specifying too large an index results in an error message. If
`index` is not specified, all sets are plotted as a single data set.
Example:
plot 'file' index 4:5
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/multimsh/multimsh.html"> splot with indices demo. </a>
4 smooth
?plot datafile smooth
?plot datafile smooth
?plot smooth
?datafile smooth
?datafile smooth
?smooth
`gnuplot` includes a few generalpurpose routines for interpolation and
approximation of data; these are grouped under the `smooth` option. More
sophisticated data processing may be performed by preprocessing the data
externally or by using `fit` with an appropriate model.
Syntax:
smooth {unique  csplines  acsplines  bezier  sbezier}
`unique` plots the data after making them monotonic. Each of the other
routines uses the data to determine the coefficients of a continuous curve
between the endpoints of the data. This curve is then plotted in the same
manner as a function, that is, by finding its value at uniform intervals
along the abscissa (see `set samples`) and connecting these points with
straight line segments (if a line style is chosen).
If `autoscale` is in effect, the ranges will be computed such that the
plotted curve lies within the borders of the graph.
If too few points are available to allow the selected option to be applied,
an error message is produced. The minimum number is one for `unique`, four
for `acsplines`, and three for the others.
The `smooth` options have no effect on function plots.
5 acsplines
?plot datafile smooth acsplines
?plot datafile smooth acsplines
?datafile smooth acsplines
?datafile smooth acsplines
?plot smooth acsplines
?plot acsplines
?smooth acsplines
?acsplines
`acsplines` approximates the data with a "natural smoothing spline". After
the data are made monotonic in x (see `smooth unique`), a curve is piecewise
constructed from segments of cubic polynomials whose coefficients are found
by the weighting the data points; the weights are taken from the third column
in the data file. That default can be modified by the third entry in the
`using` list, e.g.,
plot 'datafile' using 1:2:(1.0) smooth acsplines
Qualitatively, the absolute magnitude of the weights determines the number
of segments used to construct the curve. If the weights are large, the
effect of each datum is large and the curve approaches that produced by
connecting consecutive points with natural cubic splines. If the weights are
small, the curve is composed of fewer segments and thus is smoother; the
limiting case is the single segment produced by a weighted linear least
squares fit to all the data. The smoothing weight can be expressed in terms
of errors as a statistical weight for a point divided by a "smoothing factor"
for the curve so that (standard) errors in the file can be used as smoothing
weights.
Example:
sw(x,S)=1/(x*x*S)
plot 'data_file' using 1:2:(sw($3,100)) smooth acsplines
5 bezier
?plot datafile smooth bezier
?plot datafile smooth bezier
?plot smooth bezier
?datafile smooth bezier
?datfile smooth bezier
?plot bezier
?smooth bezier
?bezier
The `bezier` option approximates the data with a Bezier curve of degree n
(the number of data points) that connects the endpoints.
5 csplines
?plot datafile smooth csplines
?plot datafile smooth csplines
?plot smooth csplines
?datafile smooth csplines
?datafile smooth csplines
?plot csplines
?smooth csplines
?csplines
The `csplines` option connects consecutive points by natural cubic splines
after rendering the data monotonic (see `smooth unique`).
5 sbezier
?plot datafile smooth sbezier
?plot datafile smooth sbezier
?plot smooth sbezier
?datafile smooth sbezier
?datafile smooth sbezier
?plot sbezier
?smooth sbezier
?sbezier
The `sbezier` option first renders the data monotonic (`unique`) and then
applies the `bezier` algorithm.
5 unique
?plot datafile smooth unique
?plot datafile smooth unique
?plot smooth unique
?datafile smooth unique
?datafile smooth unique
?plot unique
?smooth unique
?unique
The `unique` option makes the data monotonic in x; points with the same
xvalue are replaced by a single point having the average yvalue. The
resulting points are then connected by straight line segments.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/mgr/mgr.html"> See demos. </a>
4 specialfilenames
?plot datafile specialfilenames
?plot datafile specialfilenames
?plot specialfilenames
?datafile specialfilenames
?specialfilenames
A special filename of `''` specifies that the data are inline; i.e., they
follow the command. Only the data follow the command; `plot` options like
filters, titles, and line styles remain on the 'plot' command line. This is
similar to << in unix shell script, and $DECK in VMS DCL. The data are
entered as though they are being read from a file, one data point per record.
The letter "e" at the start of the first column terminates data entry. The
`using` option can be applied to these datausing it to filter them through
a function might make sense, but selecting columns probably doesn't!
`''` is intended for situations where it is useful to have data and commands
together, e.g., when `gnuplot` is run as a subprocess of some frontend
application. Some of the demos, for example, might use this feature. While
`plot` options such as `index` and `every` are recognized, their use forces
you to enter data that won't be used. For example, while
plot '' index 0, '' index 1
2
4
6
10
12
14
e
2
4
6
10
12
14
e
does indeed work,
plot '', ''
2
4
6
e
10
12
14
e
is a lot easier to type.
If you use `''` with `replot`, you may need to enter the data more than once
(see `replot`).
A blank filename ('') specifies that the previous filename should be reused.
This can be useful with things like
plot 'a/very/long/filename' using 1:2, '' using 1:3, '' using 1:4
(If you use both `''` and `''` on the same `plot` command, you'll need to
have two sets of inline data, as in the example above.)
On some computer systems with a popen function (Unix), the datafile can be
piped through a shell command by starting the file name with a '<'. For
example,
pop(x) = 103*exp(x/10)
plot "< awk '{print $11965, $2}' population.dat", pop(x)
would plot the same information as the first population example but with
years since 1965 as the x axis. If you want to execute this example, you
have to delete all comments from the data file above or substitute the
following command for the first part of the command above (the part up to
the comma):
plot "< awk '$0 !~ /^#/ {print $11965, $2}' population.dat"
While this approach is most flexible, it is possible to achieve simple
filtering with the `using` or `thru` keywords.
4 thru
?plot datafile thru
?plot datafile thru
?plot thru
?datafile thru
?datafile thru
?thru
The `thru` function is provided for backward compatibility.
Syntax:
plot 'file' thru f(x)
It is equivalent to:
plot 'file' using 1:(f($2))
While the latter appears more complex, it is much more flexible. The more
natural
plot 'file' thru f(y)
also works (i.e. you can use y as the dummy variable).
`thru` is parsed for `splot` and `fit` but has no effect.
4 using
?plot datafile using
?plot datafile using
?plot using
?datafile using
?datafile using
?using
The most common datafile modifier is `using`.
Syntax:
plot 'file' using {<entry> {:<entry> {:<entry> ...}}} {'format'}
If a format is specified, each datafile record is read using the C library's
'scanf' function, with the specified format string. Otherwise the record is
read and broken into columns at spaces or tabs. A format cannot be specified
if timeformat data is being used (this must be done by `set data time`).
The resulting array of data is then sorted into columns according to the
entries. Each <entry> may be a simple column number, which selects the
datum, an expression enclosed in parentheses, or empty. The expression can
use $1 to access the first item read, $2 for the second item, and so on. It
can also use `column(x)` and `valid(x)` where x is an arbitrary expression
resulting in an integer. `column(x)` returns the x'th datum; `valid(x)`
tests that the datum in the x'th column is a valid number. A column number
of 0 generates a number increasing (from zero) with each point, and is reset
upon encountering two blank records. A column number of 1 gives the
dataline number, which starts at 0, increments at single blank records, and
is reset at double blank records. A column number of 2 gives the index
number, which is incremented only when two blank records are found. An empty
<entry> will default to its order in the list of entries. For example,
`using ::4` is interpreted as `using 1:2:4`.
N.B.the `call` command also uses $'s as a special character. See `call`
for details about how to include a column number in a `call` argument list.
If the `using` list has but a single entry, that <entry> will be used for y
and the data point number is used for x; for example, "`plot 'file' using 1`"
is identical to "`plot 'file' using 0:1`". If the `using` list has two
entries, these will be used for x and y. Additional entries are usually
errors in x and/or y. See `set style` for details about plotting styles that
make use of error information, and `fit` for use of error information in
curve fitting.
'scanf' accepts several numerical specifications but `gnuplot` requires all
inputs to be doubleprecision floatingpoint variables, so `lf` is the only
permissible specifier. 'scanf' expects to see white spacea blank, tab
("\t"), newline ("\n"), or formfeed ("\f")between numbers; anything else
in the input stream must be explicitly skipped.
Note that the use of "\t", "\n", or "\f" or requires use of doublequotes
rather than singlequotes.
Examples:
This creates a plot of the sum of the 2nd and 3rd data against the first:
(The format string specifies comma rather than spaceseparated columns.)
plot 'file' using 1:($2+$3) '%lf,%lf,%lf'
In this example the data are read from the file "MyData" using a more
complicated format:
plot "MyData" using "%*lf%lf%*20[^\n]%lf"
The meaning of this format is:
%*lf ignore a number
%lf read a doubleprecision number (x by default)
%*20[^\n] ignore 20 nonnewline characters
%lf read a doubleprecision number (y by default)
One trick is to use the ternary `?:` operator to filter data:
plot 'file' using 1:($3>10 ? $2 : 1/0)
which plots the datum in column two against that in column one provided
the datum in column three exceeds ten. `1/0` is undefined; `gnuplot`
quietly ignores undefined points, so unsuitable points are suppressed.
In fact, you can use a constant expression for the column number, provided it
doesn't start with an opening parenthesis; constructs like `using
0+(complicated expression)` can be used. The crucial point is that the
expression is evaluated once if it doesn't start with a left parenthesis, or
once for each data point read if it does.
If timeseries data are being used, the time can span multiple columns. The
starting column should be specified. Note that the spaces within the time
must be included when calculating starting columns for other data. E.g., if
the first element on a line is a time with an embedded space, the y value
should be specified as column three.
It should be noted that `plot 'file'`, `plot 'file' using 1:2`, and `plot
'file' using ($1):($2)` can be subtly different: 1) if `file` has some lines
with one column and some with two, the first will invent x values when they
are missing, the second will quietly ignore the lines with one column, and
the third will store an undefined value for lines with one point (so that in
a plot with lines, no line joins points across the bad point); 2) if a line
contains text at the first column, the first will abort the plot on an error,
but the second and third should quietly skip the garbage.
In fact, it is often possible to plot a file with lots of lines of garbage at
the top simply by specifying
plot 'file' using 1:2
If you want to leave text in your data files, it is always safe to put the
comment character (#) in the first column of the text lines.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/using/using.html"> Feeble using demos. </a>
3 errorbars
?plot errorbars
?splot errorbars
?errorbars
Error bars are supported for 2d data file plots by reading one to four
additional columns (or `using` entries); these additional values are used in
different ways by the various errorbar styles.
In the default situation, `gnuplot` expects to see three, four, or six
numbers on each line of the data fileeither
(x, y, ydelta),
(x, y, ylow, yhigh),
(x, y, xdelta),
(x, y, xlow, xhigh),
(x, y, xdelta, ydelta), or
(x, y, xlow, xhigh, ylow, yhigh).
The x coordinate must be specified. The order of the numbers must be
exactly as given above, though the `using` qualifier can manipulate the order
and provide values for missing columns. For example,
plot 'file' with errorbars
plot 'file' using 1:2:(sqrt($1)) with xerrorbars
plot 'file' using 1:2:($1$3):($1+$3):4:5 with xyerrorbars
The last example is for a file containing an unsupported combination of
relative x and absolute y errors. The `using` entry generates absolute x min
and max from the relative error.
The y error bar is a vertical line plotted from (x, ylow) to (x, yhigh).
If ydelta is specified instead of ylow and yhigh, ylow = y  ydelta and
yhigh = y + ydelta are derived. If there are only two numbers on the record,
yhigh and ylow are both set to y. The x error bar is a horizontal line
computed in the same fashion. To get lines plotted between the data points,
`plot` the data file twice, once with errorbars and once with lines (but
remember to use the `notitle` option on one to avoid two entries in the key).
The error bars have crossbars at each end unless `set bar` is used (see `set
bar` for details).
If autoscaling is on, the ranges will be adjusted to include the error bars.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/errorbar/errorbar.html"> Errorbar demos. </a>
See `plot using`, `plot with`, and `set style` for more information.
3 parametric
?plot parametric
?splot parametric
?parametric
When in parametric mode (`set parametric`) mathematical expressions must be
given in pairs for `plot` and in triplets for `splot`.
Examples:
plot sin(t),t**2
splot cos(u)*cos(v),cos(u)*sin(v),sin(u)
Data files are plotted as before, except any preceding parametric function
must be fully specified before a data file is given as a plot. In other
words, the x parametric function (`sin(t)` above) and the y parametric
function (`t**2` above) must not be interrupted with any modifiers or data
functions; doing so will generate a syntax error stating that the parametric
function is not fully specified.
Other modifiers, such as `with` and `title`, may be specified only after the
parametric function has been completed:
plot sin(t),t**2 title 'Parametric example' with linespoints
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/param/param.html"> Parametric Mode Demos. </a>
3 ranges
?splot ranges
?plot ranges
?ranges
The optional ranges specify the region of the graph that will be displayed.
Syntax:
[{<dummyvar>=}{{<min>}:{<max>}}]
[{{<min>}:{<max>}}]
The first form applies to the independent variable (`xrange` or `trange`, if
in parametric mode). The second form applies to the dependent variable
`yrange` (and `xrange`, too, if in parametric mode). <dummyvar> is a new
name for the independent variable. (The defaults may be changed with `set
dummy`.) The optional <min> and <max> terms can be constant expressions or *.
In nonparametric mode, the order in which ranges must be given is `xrange`
and `yrange`.
In parametric mode, the order for the `plot` command is `trange`, `xrange`,
and `yrange`. The following `plot` command shows setting the `trange` to
[pi:pi], the `xrange` to [1.3:1.3] and the `yrange` to [1:1] for the
duration of the graph:
plot [pi:pi] [1.3:1.3] [1:1] sin(t),t**2
Note that the x2range and y2range cannot be specified here`set x2range`
and `set y2range` must be used.
Ranges are interpreted in the order listed above for the appropriate mode.
Once all those needed are specified, no further ones must be listed, but
unneeded ones cannot be skippeduse an empty range `[]` as a placeholder.
`*` can be used to allow autoscaling of either of min and max. See also
`set autoscale`.
Ranges specified on the `plot` or `splot` command line affect only that
graph; use the `set xrange`, `set yrange`, etc., commands to change the
default ranges for future graphs.
With time data, you must provide the range (in the same manner as the time
appears in the datafile) within quotes. `gnuplot` uses the `timefmt` string
to read the valuesee `set timefmt`.
Examples:
This uses the current ranges:
plot cos(x)
This sets the x range only:
plot [10:30] sin(pi*x)/(pi*x)
This is the same, but uses t as the dummyvariable:
plot [t = 10 :30] sin(pi*t)/(pi*t)
This sets both the x and y ranges:
plot [pi:pi] [3:3] tan(x), 1/x
This sets only the y range, and turns off autoscaling on both axes:
plot [ ] [2:sin(5)*8] sin(x)**besj0(x)
This sets xmax and ymin only:
plot [:200] [pi:] exp(sin(x))
This sets the x range for a timeseries:
set timefmt "%d/%m/%y %H:%M"
plot ["1/6/93 12:00":"5/6/93 12:00"] 'timedata.dat'
^<a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/ranges/ranges.html"> See Demo. </a>
3 title
?plot title
?splot title
A line title for each function and data set appears in the key, accompanied
by a sample of the line and/or symbol used to represent it. It can be
changed by using the `title` option.
Syntax:
title "<title>"  notitle
where <title> is the new title of the line and must be enclosed in quotes.
The quotes will not be shown in the key. A special character may be given as
a backslash followed by its octal value ("\345"). The tab character "\t" is
understood. Note that backslash processing occurs only for strings enclosed
in double quotesuse single quotes to prevent such processing. The newline
character "\n" is not processed in key entries in either type of string.
The line title and sample can be omitted from the key by using the keyword
`notitle`. A null title (`title ''`) is equivalent to `notitle`. If only
the sample is wanted, use one or more blanks (`title ' '`).
By default the line title is the function or file name as it appears on the
`plot` command. If it is a file name, any datafile modifiers specified will
be included in the default title.
The layout of the key itself (position, title justification, etc.) can be
controlled by `set key`. Please see `set key` for details.
Examples:
This plots y=x with the title 'x':
plot x
This plots x squared with title "x^2" and "data.1" with title 'measured
data':
plot x**2 title "x^2", "data.1" t 'measured data'
This puts an untitled circular border around a polar graph:
set polar; plot my_function(t), 1 notitle
3 with
?plot with
?plot style
?splot with
?splot style
?style
?with
Functions and data may be displayed in one of a large number of styles.
The `with` keyword provides the means of selection.
Syntax:
with <style> { {linestyle  ls <line_style>}
 {{linetype  lt <line_type>}
{linewidth  lw <line_width>}
{pointtype  pt <point_type>}
{pointsize  ps <point_size>}} }
where <style> is either `lines`, `points`, `linespoints`, `impulses`, `dots`,
`steps`, `fsteps`, `histeps`, `errorbars`, `xerrorbars`, `yerrorbars`,
`xyerrorbars`, `boxes`, `boxerrorbars`, `boxxyerrorbars`, `financebars`,
`candlesticks` or `vector`. Some of these styles require additional
information. See `set style <style>` for details of each style.
Default styles are chosen with the `set function style` and `set data style`
commands.
By default, each function and data file will use a different line type and
point type, up to the maximum number of available types. All terminal
drivers support at least six different point types, and reuse them, in
order, if more are required. The LaTeX driver supplies an additional six
point types (all variants of a circle), and thus will only repeat after 12
curves are plotted with points. The PostScript drivers (`postscript`)
supplies a total of 64.
If you wish to choose the line or point type for a single plot, <line_type>
and <point_type> may be specified. These are positive integer constants (or
expressions) that specify the line type and point type to be used for the
plot. Use `test` to display the types available for your terminal.
You may also scale the line width and point size for a plot by using
<line_width> and <point_size>, which are specified relative to the default
values for each terminal. The pointsize may also be altered globallysee
`set pointsize` for details. But note that both <point_size> as set here and
as set by `set pointsize` multiply the default point sizetheir effects are
not cumulative. That is, `set pointsize 2; plot x w p ps 3` will use points
three times default size, not six.
If you have defined specific line type/width and point type/size combinations
with `set linestyle`, one of these may be selected by setting <line_style> to
the index of the desired style.
The keywords may be abbreviated as indicated.
Note that the linewidth and pointsize options are not supported by all
terminals.
Examples:
This plots sin(x) with impulses:
plot sin(x) with impulses
This plots x with points, x**2 with the default:
plot x*y w points, x**2 + y**2
This plots tan(x) with the default function style, "data.1" with lines:
plot [ ] [2:5] tan(x), "data.1" with l
This plots "leastsq.dat" with impulses:
plot 'leastsq.dat' w i
This plots the data file 'population' with boxes:
plot "population" with boxes
This plots "exper.dat" with errorbars and lines connecting the points
('exper.dat' should have three or four data columns):
plot 'exper.dat' w lines, 'exper.dat' notitle w errorbars
This plots sin(x) and cos(x) with linespoints, using the same line type but
different point types:
plot sin(x) with linesp lt 1 pt 3, cos(x) with linesp lt 1 pt 4
This plots file "data" with points of type 3 and twice usual size:
plot "data" with points pointtype 3 pointsize 2
This plots two data sets with lines differing only by weight:
plot "d1" t "good" w l lt 2 lw 3, "d2" t "bad" w l lt 2 lw 1
See `set style` to change the default styles.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/styles/styles.html"> Styles demos. </a>
2 print
?print
The `print` command prints the value of <expression> to the screen. It is
synonymous with `pause 0`. <expression> may be anything that `gnuplot` can
evaluate that produces a number, or it can be a string.
Syntax:
print <expression> {, <expression>, ...}
See `expressions`.
2 pwd
?pwd
The `pwd` command prints the name of the working directory to the screen.
2 quit
?quit
The `exit` and `quit` commands and ENDOFFILE character will exit `gnuplot`.
Each of these commands will clear the output device (as does the `clear`
command) before exiting.
2 replot
?replot
The `replot` command without arguments repeats the last `plot` or `splot`
command. This can be useful for viewing a plot with different `set` options,
or when generating the same plot for several devices.
Arguments specified after a `replot` command will be added onto the last
`plot` or `splot` command (with an implied ',' separator) before it is
repeated. `replot` accepts the same arguments as the `plot` and `splot`
commands except that ranges cannot be specified. Thus you can use `replot`
to plot a function against the second axes if the previous command was `plot`
but not if it was `splot`, and similarly you can use `replot` to add a plot
from a binary file only if the previous command was `splot`.
N.B.use of
plot '' ; ... ; replot
is not recommended. `gnuplot` does not store the inline data internally, so
since `replot` appends new information to the previous `plot` and then
executes the modified command, the `''` from the initial `plot` will expect
to read inline data again.
Note that `replot` does not work in `multiplot` mode, since it reproduces
only the last plot rather than the entire screen.
See also `commandlineediting` for ways to edit the last `plot` (`splot`)
command.
2 reread
?reread
The `reread` command causes the current `gnuplot` command file, as specified
by a `load` command or on the command line, to be reset to its starting
point before further commands are read from it. This essentially implements
an endless loop of the commands from the beginning of the command file to
the `reread` command. (But this is not necessarily a disaster`reread` can
be very useful when used in conjunction with `if`. See `if` for details.)
The `reread` command has no effect if input from standard input.
Examples:
Suppose the file "looper" contains the commands
a=a+1
plot sin(x*a)
pause 1
if(a<5) reread
and from within `gnuplot` you submit the commands
a=0
load 'looper'
The result will be four plots (separated by the `pause` message).
Suppose the file "data" contains six columns of numbers with a total yrange
from 0 to 10; the first is x and the next are five different functions of x.
Suppose also that the file "plotter" contains the commands
c_p = c_p+1
plot "$0" using 1:c_p with lines linetype c_p
if(c_p < n_p) reread
and from within `gnuplot` you submit the commands
n_p=6
c_p=1
set nokey
set yrange [0:10]
set multiplot
call 'plotter' 'data'
set nomultiplot
The result is a single graph consisting of five plots. The yrange must be
set explicitly to guarantee that the five separate graphs (drawn on top of
each other in multiplot mode) will have exactly the same axes. The linetype
must be specified; otherwise all the plots would be drawn with the same type.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/animate/animate.html"> Reread Animation Demo</a>
2 reset
?reset
The `reset` command causes all options that can be set with the `set`
command to take on their default values. The only exceptions are that the
terminal set with `set term` and the output file set with `set output` are
left unchanged. This command is useful, e.g., to restore the default
settings at the end of a command file, or to return to a defined state after
lots of settings have been changed within a command file. Please refer to
the `set` command to see the default values that the various options take.
2 save
?save
The `save` command saves userdefined functions, variables, `set` options,
or all three, plus the last `plot` (`splot`) command to the specified file.
Syntax:
save {<option>} "<filename>"
where <option> is `functions`, `variables` or `set`. If no option is used,
`gnuplot` saves functions, variables, `set` options and the last `plot`
(`splot`) command.
`save`d files are written in text format and may be read by the `load`
command.
The filename must be enclosed in quotes.
Examples:
save "work.gnu"
save functions 'func.dat'
save var 'var.dat'
save set "options.dat"
2 setshow
?set
?show
?show all
The `set` command sets _lots_ of options. No screen is drawn, however, until
a `plot`, `splot`, or `replot` command is given.
The `show` command shows their settings. `show all` shows all the
settings.
If a variable contains time/date data, `show` will display it according to
the format currently defined by `set timefmt`, even if that was not in effect
when the variable was initially defined.
3 angles
?set angles
?show angles
?angles
?set angles degrees
By default, `gnuplot` assumes the independent variable in polar graphs is in
units of radians. If `set angles degrees` is specified before `set polar`,
then the default range is [0:360] and the independent variable has units of
degrees. This is particularly useful for plots of data files. The angle
setting also applies to 3d mapping as set via the `set mapping` command.
Syntax:
set angles {degrees  radians}
show angles
The angle specified in `set grid polar` is also read and displayed in the
units specified by `set angles`.
`set angles` also affects the arguments of the machinedefined functions
sin(x), cos(x) and tan(x), and the outputs of asin(x), acos(x), atan(x),
atan2(x), and arg(x). It has no effect on the arguments of hyperbolic
functions or Bessel functions. Note that the output of inverse hyperbolic
functions of complex arguments are effected, however; if these functions are
used, `set angles radians` must be in effect:
x={1.0,0.1}
set angles radians
y=sinh(x)
print y #prints {1.16933, 0.154051}
print asinh(y) #prints {1.0, 0.1}
but
set angles degrees
y=sinh(x)
print y #prints {1.16933, 0.154051}
print asinh(y) #prints {57.29578, 5.729578}
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/poldat/poldat.html"> Polar plot using `set angles`. </a>
3 arrow
?set arrow
?set noarrow
?show arrow
?arrow
?noarrow
Arbitrary arrows can be placed on a plot using the `set arrow` command.
Syntax:
set arrow {<tag>} {from <position>} {to <position>} {{no}head}
{ {linestyle  ls <line_style>}
 {linetype  lt <line_type>}
{linewidth  lw <line_width} }
set noarrow {<tag>}
show arrow
<tag> is an integer that identifies the arrow. If no tag is given, the
lowest unused tag value is assigned automatically. The tag can be used to
delete or change a specific arrow. To change any attribute of an existing
arrow, use the `set arrow` command with the appropriate tag and specify the
parts of the arrow to be changed.
The <position>s are specified by either x,y or x,y,z, and may be preceded by
`first`, `second`, `graph`, or `screen` to select the coordinate system.
Unspecified coordinates default to 0. The endpoints can be specified in
one of four coordinate systems`first` or `second` axes, `graph` or
`screen`. See `coordinates` for details. A coordinate system specifier
does not carry over from the "from" position to the "to" position. Arrows
outside the screen boundaries are permitted but may cause device errors.
Specifying `nohead` produces an arrow drawn without a heada line segment.
This gives you yet another way to draw a line segment on the plot. By
default, arrows have heads.
The line style may be selected from a userdefined list of line styles (see
`set linestyle`) or may be defined here by providing values for <line_type>
(an index from the default list of styles) and/or <line_width> (which is a
multiplier for the default width).
Note, however, that if a userdefined line style has been selected, its
properties (type and width) cannot be altered merely by issuing another
`set arrow` command with the appropriate index and `lt` or `lw`.
Examples:
To set an arrow pointing from the origin to (1,2) with userdefined style 5,
use:
set arrow to 1,2 ls 5
To set an arrow from bottom left of plotting area to (5,5,3), and tag the
arrow number 3, use:
set arrow 3 from graph 0,0 to 5,5,3
To change the preceding arrow to end at 1,1,1, without an arrow head and
double its width, use:
set arrow 3 to 1,1,1 nohead lw 2
To draw a vertical line from the bottom to the top of the graph at x=3, use:
set arrow from 3, graph 0 to 3, graph 1 nohead
To delete arrow number 2, use:
set noarrow 2
To delete all arrows, use:
set noarrow
To show all arrows (in tag order), use:
show arrow
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/arrows/arrows.html"> Arrows Demos. </a>
3 autoscale
?set autoscale
?set noautoscale
?show autoscale
?autoscale
?noautoscale
Autoscaling may be set individually on the x, y or z axis or globally on all
axes. The default is to autoscale all axes.
Syntax:
set autoscale {<axes>{minmax}}
set noautoscale {<axes>{minmax}}
show autoscale
where <axes> is either `x`, `y`, `z`, `x2`, `y2` or `xy`. A keyword with
`min` or `max` appended (this cannot be done with `xy`) tells `gnuplot` to
autoscale just the minimum or maximum of that axis. If no keyword is given,
all axes are autoscaled.
When autoscaling, the axis range is automatically computed and the dependent
axis (y for a `plot` and z for `splot`) is scaled to include the range of the
function or data being plotted.
If autoscaling of the dependent axis (y or z) is not set, the current y or z
range is used.
Autoscaling the independent variables (x for `plot` and x,y for `splot`) is a
request to set the domain to match any data file being plotted. If there are
no data files, autoscaling an independent variable has no effect. In other
words, in the absence of a data file, functions alone do not affect the x
range (or the y range if plotting z = f(x,y)).
Please see `set xrange` for additional information about ranges.
The behavior of autoscaling remains consistent in parametric mode, (see `set
parametric`). However, there are more dependent variables and hence more
control over x, y, and z axis scales. In parametric mode, the independent or
dummy variable is t for `plot`s and u,v for `splot`s. `autoscale` in
parametric mode, then, controls all ranges (t, u, v, x, y, and z) and allows
x, y, and z to be fully autoscaled.
Autoscaling works the same way for polar mode as it does for parametric mode
for `plot`, with the extension that in polar mode `set dummy` can be used to
change the independent variable from t (see `set dummy`).
When tics are displayed on second axes but no plot has been specified for
those axes, x2range and y2range are inherited from xrange and yrange. This
is done _before_ xrange and yrange are autoextended to a whole number of
tics, which can cause unexpected results.
Examples:
This sets autoscaling of the y axis (other axes are not affected):
set autoscale y
This sets autoscaling only for the minimum of the y axis (the maximum of the
y axis and the other axes are not affected):
set autoscale ymin
This sets autoscaling of the x and y axes:
set autoscale xy
This sets autoscaling of the x, y, z, x2 and y2 axes:
set autoscale
This disables autoscaling of the x, y, z, x2 and y2 axes:
set noautoscale
This disables autoscaling of the z axis only:
set noautoscale z
4 parametric mode
?set autoscale parametric
?set autoscale t
When in parametric mode (`set parametric`), the xrange is as fully scalable
as the y range. In other words, in parametric mode the x axis can be
automatically scaled to fit the range of the parametric function that is
being plotted. Of course, the y axis can also be automatically scaled just
as in the nonparametric case. If autoscaling on the x axis is not set, the
current x range is used.
Data files are plotted the same in parametric and nonparametric mode.
However, there is a difference in mixed function and data plots: in
nonparametric mode with autoscaled x, the x range of the datafile controls
the x range of the functions; in parametric mode it has no influence.
For completeness a last command `set autoscale t` is accepted. However, the
effect of this "scaling" is very minor. When `gnuplot` determines that the
t range would be empty, it makes a small adjustment if autoscaling is true.
Otherwise, `gnuplot` gives an error. Such behavior may, in fact, not be very
useful and the command `set autoscale t` is certainly questionable.
`splot` extends the above ideas as you would expect. If autoscaling is set,
then x, y, and z ranges are computed and each axis scaled to fit the
resulting data.
4 polar mode
?set autoscale polar
?set autoscale t
When in polar mode (`set polar`), the xrange and the yrange are both found
from the polar coordinates, and thus they can both be automatically scaled.
In other words, in polar mode both the x and y axes can be automatically
scaled to fit the ranges of the polar function that is being plotted.
When plotting functions in polar mode, the rrange may be autoscaled. When
plotting data files in polar mode, the trange may also be autoscaled. Note
that if the trange is contained within one quadrant, autoscaling will produce
a polar plot of only that single quadrant.
Explicitly setting one or two ranges but not others may lead to unexpected
results.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/poldat/poldat.html"> See polar demos </a>
3 bar
?set bar
?show bar
The `set bar` command controls the tics at the ends of errorbars.
Syntax:
set bar {small  large  <size>}
show bar
`small` is a synonym for 0.0, and `large` for 1.0.
The default is 1.0 if no size is given.
3 bmargin
?set bmargin
?bmargin
The command `set bmargin` sets the size of the bottom margin. Please see
`set margin` for details.
3 border
?set border
?set noborder
?show border
?border
?noborder
The `set border` and `set noborder` commands control the display of the graph
borders for the `plot` and `splot` commands.
Syntax:
set border {<integer>}
set noborder
show border
The borders are encoded in a 12bit integer. The bottom four bits control
the border for `plot` and the sides of the base for `splot`, the next four
bits control the verticals in `splot` and the top four bits control the edges
on top of the `splot`. In detail, the `<integer>` should be the sum of the
appropriate entries from the following table:
@start table  first is interactive cleartext form
plot border
and
splot base splot verticals splot top
bottom (south) 1 16 256
left (west) 2 32 512
top (north) 4 64 1024
right (east) 8 128 2048
#\multicolumn{4}{c}{Border Specification} \\
# & plot border & & \\
# & and & & \\
# & splot base & splot verticals & splot top \\ \hline
#bottom (south) & 1 & 16 & 256 \\
#left (west) & 2 & 32 & 512 \\
#top (north) & 4 & 64 & 1024 \\
#right (east) & 8 & 128 & 2048 \\
%@plot border@@
%@and@@
%@splot base@splot verticals@splot top
%_
%bottom (south)@1@16@256
%left (west)@2@32@512
%top (north)@4@64@1024
%right (east)@8@128@2048
@end table
The default is 31, which is all four sides for `plot`, and base and z axis
for `splot`.
To have tics on edges other than bottom and left, disable the usual tics and
enable the second axes.
Examples:
Draw all borders:
set border
Draw only the SOUTHWEST borders:
set border 3
Draw a complete box around a `splot`:
set border 4095
Draw a partial box, omitting the front vertical:
set border 127+256+512
Draw only the NORTHEAST borders:
set noxtics; set noytics; set x2tics; set y2tics; set border 12
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/borders/borders.html"> Borders Demo. </a>
3 boxwidth
?set boxwidth
?show boxwidth
?boxwidth
The `set boxwidth` command is used to set the default width of boxes in the
`boxes` and `boxerrorbars` styles.
Syntax:
set boxwidth {<width>}
show boxwidth
If a data file is plotted without the width being specified in the third,
fourth, or fifth column (or `using` entry), or if a function is plotted, the
width of each box is set by the `set boxwidth` command. (If a width is given
both in the file and by the `set boxwidth` command, the one in the file is
used.) If the width is not specified in one of these ways, the width of each
box will be calculated automatically so that it touches the adjacent boxes.
In a fourcolumn data set, the fourth column will be interpreted as the box
width unless the width is set to 2.0, in which case the width will be
calculated automatically. See `set style boxerrorbars` for more details.
To set the box width to automatic use the command
set boxwidth
or, for fourcolumn data,
set boxwidth 2
The same effect can be achieved with the `using` keyword in `plot`:
plot 'file' using 1:2:3:4:(2)
3 clabel
?set clabel
?set noclabel
?show clabel
?clabel
?noclabel
`gnuplot` will vary the linetype used for each contour level when clabel is
set. When this option on (the default), a legend labels each linestyle with
the z level it represents. It is not possible at present to separate the
contour labels from the surface key.
Syntax:
set clabel {'<format>'}
set noclabel
show clabel
The default for the format string is %8.3g, which gives three decimal places.
This may produce poor label alignment if the key is altered from its default
configuration.
See also `set contour`.
3 clip
?set clip
?set noclip
?show clip
?clip
?noclip
`gnuplot` can clip data points and lines that are near the boundaries of a
graph.
Syntax:
set clip <cliptype>
set noclip <cliptype>
show clip
Three clip types are supported by `gnuplot`: `points`, `one`, and `two`.
One, two, or all three clip types may be active for a single graph.
The `points` clip type forces `gnuplot` to clip (actually, not plot at all)
data points that fall within but too close to the boundaries. This is done
so that large symbols used for points will not extend outside the boundary
lines. Without clipping points near the boundaries, the plot may look bad.
Adjusting the x and y ranges may give similar results.
Setting the `one` clip type causes `gnuplot` to draw a line segment which has
only one of its two endpoints within the graph. Only the inrange portion of
the line is drawn. The alternative is to not draw any portion of the line
segment.
Some lines may have both endpoints out of range, but pass through the graph.
Setting the `two` cliptype allows the visible portion of these lines to be
drawn.
In no case is a line drawn outside the graph.
The defaults are `noclip points`, `clip one`, and `noclip two`.
To check the state of all forms of clipping, use
show clip
For backward compatibility with older versions, the following forms are also
permitted:
set clip
set noclip
`set clip` is synonymous with `set clip points`; `set noclip` turns off all
three types of clipping.
3 cntrparam
?set cntrparam
?show cntrparam
?cntrparam
`set cntrparam` controls the generation of contours and their smoothness for
a contour plot.
Syntax:
set cntrparam { {linear  cubicspline  bspline}
 points <n>  order <n>
 levels {auto} {<n>}
 discrete <z1> {,<z2>} ...
 incremental {<start>, <incr> {,<end>}} }
show cntrparam
This command controls the way contours are plotted. <n> should be an
integral constant expression and <z1>, <z2> ... any constant expressions.
The parameters are:
`linear`, `cubicspline`, `bspline`Controls type of approximation or
interpolation. If `linear`, then the contours are drawn piecewise linear, as
extracted from the surface directly. If `cubicspline`, then piecewise linear
contours are interpolated to form somewhat smoother contours, but which may
undulate. If `bspline`, a guaranteedsmoother curve is drawn, which only
approximates the piecewise linear data.
`points`Eventually all drawings are done with piecewise linear strokes.
This number controls the number of points used to approximate a curve.
It is relevant only for `cubicspline` and `bspline` modes.
`order`Order of the bspline approximation to be used. The bigger this
order is, the smoother the resulting contour. (Of course, higher order
bspline curves will move further away from the original piecewise linear
data.) This option is relevant for `bspline` mode only. Allowed values are
integers in the range from 2 (linear) to 10.
`levels`Approximate number of contour levels. Selection of the levels is
controlled by `auto` (default), `discrete`, and `incremental`. For `auto`,
if the surface is bounded by zmin and zmax, contours will be generated at
integer multiples of dz between zmin and zmax, where dz is 1, 2, or 5 times
some power of ten (like the step between two tic marks). For `discrete`,
contours will be generated at z = <z1>, <z2> ... as specified. The number of
discrete levels is limited to MAX_DISCRETE_LEVELS, defined in plot.h to be
30. If `incremental`, contours are generated at values of z beginning at
<start> and increasing by <increment> until <end> is reached. If <end> is
not specified, MAX_DISCRETE_LEVELS will be generated.
If the command `set cntrparam` is given without any arguments specified, the
defaults are used: linear, 5 points, order 4, 5 `auto` levels.
Examples:
set cntrparam bspline
set cntrparam points 7
set cntrparam order 10
To select 5 levels automatically:
set cntrparam levels auto 5
To specify discrete levels at .1, .37, and .9:
set cntrparam levels discrete .1,1/exp(1),.9
To specify levels from 0 to 4 with increment 1:
set cntrparam levels incremental 0,1,4
To set the number of levels to 10 (retaining the current settings of auto,
discr. and increment's start and increment value, while changing its end):
set cntrparam levels 10
To set the start and increment while retaining the number of levels:
set cntrparam levels incremental 100,50
See also `set contour` for control of where the contours are drawn, and `set
clabel` for control of the format of the contour labels.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/contours/contours.html">Contours Demo</a> and
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/discrete/discrete.html">contours with User Defined Levels.</a>
3 contour
?set contour
?set nocontour
?show contour
?contour
?nocontour
`set contour` enables contour drawing for surfaces. This option is available
for `splot` only.
Syntax:
set contour {base  surface  both}
set nocontour
show contour
The three options specify where to draw the contours: `base` draws the
contours on the grid base where the x/ytics are placed, `surface` draws the
contours on the surfaces themselves, and `both` draws the contours on both
the base and the surface. If no option is provided, the default is `base`.
See also `set cntrparam` for the parameters that affect the drawing of
contours, and `set clabel` for control of labelling of the contours.
The surface can be switched off (see `set surface`), giving a contouronly
graph. Though it is possible to use `set view` to enlarge the plot to fill
the screen, better results can be obtained by writing the contour information
out to a file, and rereading it as a 2d datafile plot:
set nosurface
set contour
set cntrparam ...
set term table
set out 'filename'
splot ...
set out
# contour info now in filename
set term <whatever>
plot 'filename'
In order to draw contours, the data must be organized as "grid data". In
such a file all of the points for a single y value are listed, then all the
points for the next y, and so on. A single blank line (a line containing no
characters other than blank spaces and a carriage return and/or a line feed)
separates one y value group from the next. See also `plot datafile`.
If contours are desired from nongrid data, `set dgrid3d` can be used to
create an appropriate grid. See `set dgrid3d` for more information.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/contours/contours.html">Contours Demo</a> and
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/discrete/discrete.html">contours with User Defined Levels.</a>
3 data style
?set data style
?show data style
?data style
The `set data style` command changes the default plotting style for data
plots.
Syntax:
set data style <stylechoice>
show data style
See `set style` for the choices. If no choice is given, the choices are
listed. `show data style` shows the current default data plotting style.
3 dgrid3d
?set dgrid3d
?set nodgrid3d
?show dgrid3d
?dgrid3d
?nodgrid3d
The `set dgrid3d` command enables and sets the different parameters for
nongrid to grid data mapping.
Syntax:
set dgrid3d {<row_size>} {,{<col_size>} {,<norm>}}
set nodgrid3d
show dgrid3d
By default `dgrid3d` is disabled. When enabled, 3d data read from a file
are always treated as a scattered data set. A grid with dimensions derived
from a bounding box of the scattered data and size as specified by the
row/col_size parameters is created for plotting and contouring. The grid is
equally spaced in x and y; the z values are computed as weighted averages of
the scattered points' values.
The third parameter, norm, controls the weighting: each point is weighted
inversely by its distance (from the grid point) raised to the norm power.
(Actually it's not quite the distance: the weights are given by the inverse
of dx^norm + dy^norm, where dx and dy are the components of the separation
of the grid point from each data point.) Thus the closer the data point is
to a grid point, the more effect it has on that grid point. In `gnuplot`,
this distance computation is optimized for norms that are powers of 2,
specifically 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16, but any nonnegative integer can be used.
The `dgrid3d` option is a simple low pass filter that converts scattered data
to a grid data set. More sophisticated approaches to this problem exist and
should be used to preprocess the data outside `gnuplot` if this simple
solution is found inadequate.
Examples:
set dgrid3d 10,10,1 # defaults
set dgrid3d ,,4
The first specifies that a grid of size 10 by 10 is to be constructed using
the L2 norm (a norm of 2 is to be used in the distance computation). The
second only modifies the norm to be used to L4.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/scatter/scatter.html"> Dgrid3d Demo.</a>
3 dummy
?set dummy
?show dummy
?dummy
The `set dummy` command changes the default dummy variable names.
Syntax:
set dummy {<dummyvar>} {,<dummyvar>}
show dummy
By default, `gnuplot` assumes that the independent, or "dummy", variable for
the `plot` command is "t" if in parametric or polar mode, or "x" otherwise.
Similarly the independent variables for the `splot` command are "u" and "v"
in parametric mode (`splot` cannot be used in polar mode), or "x" and "y"
otherwise.
It may be more convenient to call a dummy variable by a more physically
meaningful or conventional name. For example, when plotting time functions:
set dummy t
plot sin(t), cos(t)
At least one dummy variable must be set on the command; `set dummy` by itself
will generate an error message.
Examples:
set dummy u,v
set dummy ,s
The second example sets the second variable to s.
3 encoding
?set encoding
?show encoding
?encoding
The `set encoding` command selects a character encoding. Valid values are
`default`, which does nothing; `iso_8859_1` (known in the PostScript world as
`ISOLatin1`), which is used on many Unix workstations and with MSWindows;
`cp850`, for OS/2; and `cp437`, for MSDOS.
Syntax:
set encoding <value>
show encoding
Please note that this is not supported on all terminal types. Note also that
the device must be able to produce the nonstandard characters.
3 format
?set format
?show format
?format
The format of the ticmark labels can be set with the `set format` command.
Syntax:
set format {<axes>} {"<formatstring>"}
set format {<axes>} {'<formatstring>'}
show format
where <axes> is either `x`, `y`, `z`, `xy`, `x2`, `y2` or nothing (which is
the same as `xy`). The length of the string representing a ticmark (after
formatting with 'printf') is restricted to 100 characters. If the format
string is omitted, the format will be returned to the default "%g". For
LaTeX users, the format "$%g$" is often desirable. If the empty string "" is
used, no label will be plotted with each tic, though the tic mark will still
be plotted. To eliminate all tic marks, use `set noxtics` or `set noytics`.
Newline (\n) is accepted in the format string. Use doublequotes rather than
singlequotes to enable such interpretation. See also `syntax`.
The default format for both axes is "%g", but other formats such as "%.2f" or
"%3.0em" are often desirable. Anything accepted by 'printf' when given a
double precision number, and accepted by the terminal, will work. Some other
options have been added. If the format string looks like a floating point
format, then `gnuplot` tries to construct a reasonable format.
Characters not preceded by "%" are printed verbatim. Thus you can include
spaces and labels in your format string, such as "%g m", which will put " m"
after each number. If you want "%" itself, double it: "%g %%".
The acceptable formats (if not in date/time mode) are:
@start table  first is interactive cleartext form
Format Explanation
%f floating point notation
%e or %E exponential notation; an "e" or "E" before the power
%g or %G the shorter of %e (or %E) and %f
%x or %X hex
%o or %O octal
%t mantissa to base 10
%l mantissa to base of current logscale
%s mantissa to base of current logscale; scientific power
%T power to base 10
%L power to base of current logscale
%S scientific power
%c character replacement for scientific power
%P multiple of pi
#\multicolumn{3}{c}{Format Specifiers}\\
#Format && Explanation \\ \hline
#\verb@%f@ && floating point notation \\
#\verb@%e@ or \verb@%E@ && exponential notation; an "e" or "E" before the power \\
#\verb@%g@ or \verb@%G@ && the shorter of \verb@%e@ (or \verb@%E@) and \verb@%f@ \\
#\verb@%x@ or \verb@%X@ && hex \\
#\verb@%o@ or \verb@%O@ && octal \\
#\verb@%t@ && mantissa to base 10 \\
#\verb@%l@ && mantissa to base of current logscale \\
#\verb@%s@ && mantissa to base of current logscale; scientific power \\
#\verb@%T@ && power to base 10 \\
#\verb@%L@ && power to base of current logscale \\
#\verb@%S@ && scientific power \\
#\verb@%c@ && character replacement for scientific power \\
#\verb@%P@ && multiple of pi \\
%Format@Explanation
%_
%%f@floating point notation
%%e or %E@exponential notation; an "e" or "E" before the power
%%g or %G@the shorter of %e (or %E) and %f
%%x or %X@hex
%%o or %O@octal
%%t@mantissa to base 10
%%l@mantissa to base of current logscale
%%s@mantissa to base of current logscale; scientific power
%%T@power to base 10
%%L@power to base of current logscale
%%S@scientific power
%%c@character replacement for scientific power
%%P@multiple of pi
%_
@end table
A 'scientific' power is one such that the exponent is a multiple of three.
Character replacement of scientific powers (`"%c"`) has been implemented
for powers in the range 18 to +18. For numbers outside of this range the
format reverts to exponential.
Other acceptable modifiers (which come after the "%" but before the format
specifier) are "", which leftjustifies the number; "+", which forces all
numbers to be explicitly signed; "#", which places a decimal point after
floats that have only zeroes following the decimal point; a positive integer,
which defines the field width; "0" (the digit, not the letter) immediately
preceding the field width, which indicates that leading zeroes are to be used
instead of leading blanks; and a decimal point followed by a nonnegative
integer, which defines the precision (the minimum number of digits of an
integer, or the number of digits following the decimal point of a float).
Some releases of 'printf' may not support all of these modifiers but may also
support others; in case of doubt, check the appropriate documentation and
then experiment.
Examples:
set format y "%t"; set ytics (5,10) # "5.0" and "1.0"
set format y "%s"; set ytics (500,1000) # "500" and "1.0"
set format y "+12.3f"; set ytics(12345) # "+12345.000 "
set format y "%.2t*10^%+03T"; set ytic(12345)# "1.23*10^+04"
set format y "%s*10^{%S}"; set ytic(12345) # "12.345*10^{3}"
set format y "%s %cg"; set ytic(12345) # "12.345 kg"
set format y "%.0P pi"; set ytic(6.283185) # "2 pi"
set format y "%.0P%%"; set ytic(50) # "50%"
set log y 2; set format y '%l'; set ytics (1,2,3)
#displays "1.0", "1.0" and "1.5" (since 3 is 1.5 * 2^1)
There are some problem cases that arise when numbers like 9.999 are printed
with a format that requires both rounding and a power.
If the data type for the axis is date/time, the format string must contain
valid codes for the 'strftime' function (outside of `gnuplot`, type "man
strftime"). See `set timefmt` for a list of the allowed input format codes.
In date/time mode, the acceptable formats are:
@start table  first is interactive cleartext form
Format Explanation
%a abbreviated name of day of the week
%A full name of day of the week
%b or %h abbreviated name of the month
%B full name of the month
%d day of the month, 131
%D shorthand for "%m/%d/%y"
%H or %k hour, 024
%I or %l hour, 012
%j day of the year, 1366
%m month, 112
%M minute, 060
%p "am" or "pm"
%r shorthand for "%I:%M:%S %p"
%R shorthand for %H:%M"
%S second, 060
%T shorthand for "%H:%M:%S"
%U week of the year (week starts on Sunday)
%w day of the week, 06 (Sunday = 0)
%W week of the year (week starts on Monday)
%y year, 099
%Y year, 4digit
#\multicolumn{3}{c}{Date/Time Format Specifiers}\\
#Format && Explanation \\ \hline
#\verb@%a@ && abbreviated name of day of the week \\
#\verb@%A@ && full name of day of the week \\
#\verb@%b@ or \verb@%h@ && abbreviated name of the month \\
#\verb@%B@ && full name of the month \\
#\verb@%d@ && day of the month, 131 \\
#\verb@%D@ && shorthand for \verb@"%m/%d/%y"@ \\
#\verb@%H@ or \verb@%k@ && hour, 024 \\
#\verb@%I@ or \verb@%l@ && hour, 012 \\
#\verb@%j@ && day of the year, 1366 \\
#\verb@%m@ && month, 112 \\
#\verb@%M@ && minute, 060 \\
#\verb@%p@ && "am" or "pm" \\
#\verb@%r@ && shorthand for \verb@"%I:%M:%S %p"@ \\
#\verb@%R@ && shorthand for \verb@%H:%M"@ \\
#\verb@%S@ && second, 060 \\
#\verb@%T@ && shorthand for \verb@"%H:%M:%S"@ \\
#\verb@%U@ && week of the year (week starts on Sunday) \\
#\verb@%w@ && day of the week, 06 (Sunday = 0) \\
#\verb@%W@ && week of the year (week starts on Monday) \\
#\verb@%y@ && year, 099 \\
#\verb@%Y@ && year, 4digit \\
%Format@Explanation
%_
%%a@abbreviated name of day of the week
%%A@full name of day of the week
%%b or %h@abbreviated name of the month
%%B@full name of the month
%%d@day of the month, 131
%%D@shorthand for "%m/%d/%y"
%%H or %k@hour, 024
%%I or %l@hour, 012
%%j@day of the year, 1366
%%m@month, 112
%%M@minute, 060
%%p@"am" or "pm"
%%r@shorthand for "%I:%M:%S %p"
%%R@shorthand for %H:%M"
%%S@second, 060
%%T@shorthand for "%H:%M:%S"
%%U@week of the year (week starts on Sunday)
%%w@day of the week, 06 (Sunday = 0)
%%W@week of the year (week starts on Monday)
%%y@year, 099
%%Y@year, 4digit
%_
@end table
Except for the nonnumerical formats, these may be preceded by a "0" ("zero",
not "oh") to pad the field length with leading zeroes, and a positive digit,
to define the minimum field width (which will be overridden if the specified
width is not large enough to contain the number). There is a 24character
limit to the length of the printed text; longer strings will be truncated.
Examples:
Suppose the text is "76/12/25 23:11:11". Then
set format x # defaults to "12/25/76" \n "23:11"
set format x "%A, %d %b %Y" # "Saturday, 25 Dec 1976"
set format x "%r %d" # "11:11:11 pm 12/25/76"
Suppose the text is "98/07/06 05:04:03". Then
set format x "%1y/%2m/%3d %01H:%02M:%03S" # "98/ 7/ 6 5:04:003"
See also `set xtics` for more information about tic labels.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/electron/electron.html"> See demo. </a>
3 function style
?set function style
?show function style
?function style
The `set function style` command changes the default plotting style for
function plots.
Syntax:
set function style <stylechoice>
show function style
See `set style` for the choices. If no choice is given, the choices are
listed. `show function style` shows the current default function plotting
style.
3 functions
?show functions
The `show functions` command lists all userdefined functions and their
definitions.
Syntax:
show functions
For information about the definition and usage of functions in `gnuplot`,
please see `expressions` and `userdefined`.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/spline/spline.html"> Splines as User Defined Functions.</a>
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/airfoil/airfoil.html">Use of functions and complex variables for airfoils </a>
3 grid
?set grid
?set nogrid
?show grid
?grid
?nogrid
The `set grid` command allows grid lines to be drawn on the plot.
Syntax:
set grid {{no}{m}xtics} {{no}{m}ytics} {{no}{m}ztics}
{{no}{m}x2tics} {{no}{m}y2tics}
{polar {<angle>}} {<major_linetype> {<minor_linetype>}}
set nogrid
show grid
The grid can be enabled and disabled for the major and/or minor tic marks on
any axis, and the linetype can be specified for major and minor grid lines.
But note that <major_linetype> and <minor_linetype> are indices in the
default linetype list provided by the terminal; userdefined linetypes (via
the `set linestyle` command) are not accessible for grid lines.
Additionally, a polar grid can be selected for 2d plotscircles are drawn
to intersect the selected tics, and radial lines are drawn at definable
intervals. (The interval is given in degrees or radians ,depending on the
`set angles` setting.) Note that a polar grid is no longer automatically
generated in polar mode.
The pertinent tics must be enabled before `set grid` can draw them; `gnuplot`
will quietly ignore instructions to draw grid lines at nonexistent tics, but
they will appear if the tics are subsequently enabled.
If no linetype is specified for the minor gridlines, the same linetype as the
major gridlines is used. The default polar angle is 30 degrees.
Z grid lines are drawn on the back of the plot. This looks better if a
partial box is drawn around the plotsee `set border`.
3 hidden3d
?set hidden3d
?set nohidden3d
?show hidden3d
?hidden3d
?nohidden3d
The `set hidden3d` command enables hidden line removal for surface
plotting (see `splot`). Some optional features of the underlying
algorithm can also be controlled using this command.
Syntax:
set hidden3d {defaults}
set hidden3d {{offset <offset>}  {nooffset}}
{trianglepattern <bitpattern>}
{{undefined <level>}  {noundefined}}
{{no}altdiagonal}
{{no}bentover}
set nohidden3d
show hidden3d
In contrast to the usual display in gnuplot, hidden line removal
actually treats the given function or data grids as real surfaces that
can't be seen through, so parts behind the surface will be hidden by
it. For this to be possible, the surface needs to have 'grid
structure' (see `help splot datafile` about this), and it has to be
drawn `with lines` or `with linespoints`.
When this flag is set, both the hidden portion of the surface and
possibly its contours drawn on the base (see `set contour`) as well as
the grid will be hidden. Each surface has its hidden parts removed
with respect to itself and to other surfaces, if more than one surface
is plotted. Contours drawn on the surface (`set contour surface`)
don't work. Labels and arrows are always visible and are
unaffected. The key is also never hidden by the surface.
The algorithm used to remove the hidden parts of the surfaces has some
additional features controllable by this command. Specifying
`defaults` will set them all to their default settings, as detailed
below. If `defaults` is not given, only explicitly specified options
will be influenced: all others will keep their previous values, so
you can turn on/off hidden line removal via `set {no}hidden3d`,
without modifying the set of options you chose.
The first option, `offset`, influences the linestyle used for lines on
the 'back' side. Normally, they are drawn in a linestyle one index
number higher than the one used for the front, to make the two sides
of the surface distinguishable. You can specify a different line style
offset to add instead of the default 1, by `offset <offset>`. Option
`nooffset` stands for `offset 0`, making the two sides of the surface
use the same linestyle.
Next comes the option 'trianglepattern <bitpattern>'. This gives a
number between 0 and 7, interpreted as a bit pattern. Each bit decides
on the visibility of one edge of the triangles each surface is split
up into. Bit 0 is for the 'horizontal' edges of the grid, Bit 1 for
the 'vertical' ones, and Bit 2 for the diagonals that split each cell
of the original grid into two triangles. The default pattern is 3,
making all horizontal and vertical lines visible, but not the
diagonals. You may want to choose 7 to see those diagonals as well.
Using the `undefined <level>` option, you can decide what the
algorithm is to do with data points that are undefined (missing data,
or undefined function values), or exceed the given x, y or
zranges. Such points can either be plotted nevertheless, or taken out
of the input data set. All surface elements touching a point that's
taken out will be taken out as well, thus creating a hole in the
surface. At <level> 3, equivalent to option `noundefined`, no points
will be thrown away at all. This may produce all kinds of problems
elsewhere, so you should avoid this. <level> 2 will throw away
undefined points, but keep the outofrange ones. <level> 1, the
default, will get rid of outofrange points as well.
By specifying `noaltdiagonal`, you can override the default handling
of a special case can occur if `undefined` is active (i.e. <level> is
not 3). Each cell of the grid structured input surface will be divided
in two triangles along one of its diagonals. Normally, all these
diagonals have the same orientation relative to the grid. Now, if
exactly one of the four cell corners is excluded by the `undefined`
handler, and this is on the usual diagonal, both triangles will be
excluded. If the default setting of `altdiagonal` is active, the other
diagonal will be chosen for this cell instead, minimizing the size of
the hole in the surface.
The `bentover` option controls what happens to another special case,
this time in conjunction with the `trianglepattern`. For rather crumpy
surfaces, it can happen that the two triangles a surface cell is
divided into are seen from opposite sides (i.e. the original
quadrangle is 'bent over'), as illustrated in the following ASCII art:
CB
\  original quadrangle: AB
 \   /
 /\  / 
/ \ CD
A D
If the diagonal edges of the surface cells aren't generally made
visible by bit 2 of the <bitpattern> there, the edge CB above wouldn't
be drawn at all, normally, making the resulting display hard to
understand. Therefore, the default option of `bentover` will turn it
visible in this case. If you don't want that, you may give
`nobentover` instead.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/hidden/hidden.html"> Hidden Line Removal Demo</a> and
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/singulr/singulr.html"> Complex Hidden Line Demo. </a>
3 isosamples
?set isosamples
?show isosamples
?isosamples
The isoline density of surfaces may be changed by the `set isosamples`
command.
Syntax:
set isosamples <iso_1> {,<iso_2>}
show isosamples
Each surface plot will have <iso_1> isou lines and <iso_2> isov lines. If
you only specify <iso_1>, <iso_2> will be set to the same value as <iso_1>.
By default, sampling is set to 10 isolines per u or v axis. A higher
sampling rate will produce more accurate plots, but will take longer. These
parameters have no effect on data file plotting.
An isoline is a curve parameterized by one of the surface parameters while
the other surface parameter is fixed. Isolines provide a simple means to
display a surface. By fixing the u parameter of surface s(u,v), the isou
lines of the form c(v) = s(u0,v) are produced, and by fixing the v parameter,
the isov lines of the form c(u) = s(u,v0) are produced.
When a surface plot is being done without the removal of hidden lines, `set
samples` also has an effect on the number of points being evaluatedit
controls the number of points sampled along each isoline. See `set samples`.
3 key
?set key
?set nokey
?show key
?key
?nokey
?legend
The `set key` enables a key (or legend) describing plots on a plot.
The contents of the key, i.e., the names given to each plotted data set and
function and samples of the lines and/or symbols used to represent them, are
determined by the `title` and `with` options of the {`s`}`plot` command.
Please see `plot title` and `plot with` for more information.
Syntax:
set key { left  right  top  bottom  outside  below
 <position>}
{Left  Right} {{no}reverse}
{samplen <sample_length>} {spacing <vertical_spacing>}
{width <width_increment>}
{title "<text>"} {{no}box {<linetype>}}
set nokey
show key
By default the key is placed in the upper right corner of the graph. The
keywords `left`, `right`, `top`, `bottom`, `outside` and `below` may be used
to place the key in the other corners inside the graph or to the right
(outside) or below the graph. They may be given alone or combined.
Justification of the labels within the key is controlled by `Left` or `Right`
(default is `Right`). The text and sample can be reversed (`reverse`) and a
box can be drawn around the key (`box {<linetype>}`) in a specified linetype.
But note that <linetype> is an index in the default linetype list provided by
the terminal; userdefined linetypes (via the `set linestyle` command) are
not accessible for the key box.
The length of the sample line can be controlled by `samplen`. The sample
length is computed as the sum of the tic length and <sample_length> times the
character width. `samplen` also affects the positions of point samples in
the key since these are drawn at the midpoint of the sample line, even if it
is not drawn. <sample_length> must be an integer.
The vertical spacing between lines is controlled by `spacing`. The spacing
is set equal to the product of the pointsize, the vertical tic size, and
<vertical_spacing>. The program will guarantee that the vertical spacing is
no smaller than the character height.
The <width_increment> is a number of character widths to be added to or
subtracted from the length of the string. This is useful only when you are
putting a box around the key and you are using control characters in the text.
`gnuplot` simply counts the number of characters in the string when computing
the box width; this allows you to correct it.
A title can be put on the key (`title "<text>"`)see also `syntax` for the
distinction between text in single or doublequotes. The key title uses the
same justification as do the plot titles.
The defaults for `set key` are `right`, `top`, `Right`, `noreverse`, `samplen
4`, `spacing 1.25`, `title ""`, and `nobox`. The default <linetype> is the
same as that used for the plot borders. Entering `set key` with no options
returns the key to its default configuration.
The <position> can be a simple x,y,z as in previous versions, but these can
be preceded by one of four keywords (`first`, `second`, `graph`, `screen`)
which selects the coordinate system in which the position is specified. See
`coordinates` for more details.
The key is drawn as a sequence of lines, with one plot described on each
line. On the righthand side (or the lefthand side, if `reverse` is
selected) of each line is a representation that attempts to mimic the way the
curve is plotted. On the other side of each line is the text description
(the line title), obtained from the `plot` command. The lines are vertically
arranged so that an imaginary straight line divides the left and righthand
sides of the key. It is the coordinates of the top of this line that are
specified with the `set key` command. In a `plot`, only the x and y
coordinates are used to specify the line position. For a `splot`, x, y and
z are all used as a 3d location mapped using the same mapping as the graph
itself to form the required 2d screen position of the imaginary line.
Some or all of the key may be outside of the graph boundary, although this
may interfere with other labels and may cause an error on some devices. If
you use the keywords `outside` or `below`, `gnuplot` makes space for the keys
and the graph becomes smaller. Putting keys outside to the right, they
occupy as few columns as possible, and putting them below, as many columns as
possible (depending of the length of the labels), thus stealing as little
space from the graph as possible.
When using the TeX or PostScript drivers, or similar drivers where formatting
information is embedded in the string, `gnuplot` is unable to calculate
correctly the width of the string for key positioning. If the key is to be
positioned at the left, it may be convenient to use the combination `set key
left Left reverse`. The box and gap in the grid will be the width of the
literal string.
If `splot` is being used to draw contours, the contour labels will be listed
in the key. If the alignment of these labels is poor or a different number
of decimal places is desired, the label format can be specified. See `set
clabel` for details.
Examples:
This places the key at the default location:
set key
This disables the key:
set nokey
This places a key at coordinates 2,3.5,2 in the default (first) coordinate
system:
set key 2,3.5,2
This places the key below the graph:
set key below
This places the key in the bottom left corner, leftjustifies the text,
gives it a title, and draws a box around it in linetype 3:
set key left bottom Left title 'Legend' box 3
3 label
?set label
?set nolabel
?show label
?label
?nolabel
Arbitrary labels can be placed on the plot using the `set label` command.
Syntax:
set label {<tag>} {"<label_text>"} {at <position>}
{<justification>} {{no}rotate} {font "<name><,size>"}
set nolabel {<tag>}
show label
The <position> is specified by either x,y or x,y,z, and may be preceded by
`first`, `second`, `graph`, or `screen` to select the coordinate system.
See `coordinates` for details.
The tag is an integer that is used to identify the label. If no <tag> is
given, the lowest unused tag value is assigned automatically. The tag can be
used to delete or modify a specific label. To change any attribute of an
existing label, use the `set label` command with the appropriate tag, and
specify the parts of the label to be changed.
By default, the text is placed flush left against the point x,y,z. To adjust
the way the label is positioned with respect to the point x,y,z, add the
parameter <justification>, which may be `left`, `right` or `center`,
indicating that the point is to be at the left, right or center of the text.
Labels outside the plotted boundaries are permitted but may interfere with
axis labels or other text.
If `rotate` is given, the label is written vertically (if the terminal can do
so, of course).
If one (or more) axis is timeseries, the appropriate coordinate should be
given as a quoted time string according to the `timefmt` format string. See
`set xdata` and `set timefmt`.
The EEPIC, Imagen, LaTeX, and TPIC drivers allow \\ in a string to specify
a newline.
Examples:
To set a label at (1,2) to "y=x", use:
set label "y=x" at 1,2
To set a label of the sign Sigma of size 24 at the center of the graph, use:
set label "S" at graph 0.5,0.5 center font "Symbol,24"
To set a label "y=x^2" with the right of the text at (2,3,4), and tag the
label as number 3, use:
set label 3 "y=x^2" at 2,3,4 right
To change the preceding label to center justification, use:
set label 3 center
To delete label number 2, use:
set nolabel 2
To delete all labels, use:
set nolabel
To show all labels (in tag order), use:
show label
To set a label on a graph with a timeseries on the x axis, use, for example:
set timefmt "%d/%m/%y,%H:%M"
set label "Harvest" at "25/8/93",1
3 linestyle
?set linestyle
?set nolinestyle
?show linestyle
?linestyle
Each terminal has a default set of line and point types, which can be seen
by using the command `test`. `set linestyle` defines a set of line types
and widths and point types and sizes so that you can refer to them later by
an index instead of repeating all the information at each invocation.
Syntax:
set linestyle <index> {linetype  lt <line_type>}
{linewidth  lw <line_width>}
{pointtype  pt <point_type>}
{pointsize  ps <point_size>}
set nolinestyle
show linestyle
The line and point types are taken from the default types for the terminal
currently in use. The line width and point size are multipliers for the
default width and size (but note that <point_size> here is unaffected by
the multiplier given on 'set pointsize').
The defaults for the line and point types is the index. The defaults for
the width and size are both unity.
Linestyles created by this mechanism do not replace the default styles;
both may be used.
Not all terminals support the line width and point size features, so these
terminals obviously cannot fully support `set linestyle`.
Note that this feature is not completely installed; linestyles defined by
this mechanism may be used with 'plot', 'splot', 'replot', and 'set arrow',
but not by other commands that allow the default index to be used, such as
'set grid'.
Example:
Suppose that the default lines for indices 1, 2, and 3 are red, green, and
blue, respectively, and the default point shapes for the same indices are a
square, a cross, and a triangle, respectively. Then
set linestyle 1 lt 2 lw 2 pt 3 ps 0.5
defines a new linestyle that is green and twice the default width and a new
pointstyle that is a halfsized triangle. The commands
set function style lines
plot f(x) lt 3, g(x) ls 1
will create a plot of f(x) using the default blue line and a plot of g(x)
using the userdefined wide green line. Similarly the commands
set function style linespoints
plot p(x) lt 1 pt 3, q(x) ls 1
will create a plot of f(x) using the default triangles connected by a red
line and q(x) using small triangles connected by a green line.
3 lmargin
?set lmargin
?lmargin
The command `set lmargin` sets the size of the left margin. Please see
`set margin` for details.
3 locale
?set locale
?show logscale
?locale
The `locale` setting determines the language with which `{x,y,z}{d,m}tics`
will write the days and months.
Syntax:
set locale {"<locale>"}
<locale> may be any language designation acceptable to your installation.
See your system documentation for the available options. The default value
is determined from the LANG environment variable.
3 logscale
?set logscale
?set nologscale
?show logscale
?logscale
?nologscale
Log scaling may be set on the x, y, z, x2 and/or y2 axes.
Syntax:
set logscale <axes> <base>
set nologscale <axes>
show logscale
where <axes> may be any combinations of `x`, `y`, and `z`, in any order, or
`x2` or `y2` and where <base> is the base of the log scaling. If <base> is
not given, then 10 is assumed. If <axes> is not given, then all axes are
assumed. `set nologscale` turns off log scaling for the specified axes.
Examples:
To enable log scaling in both x and z axes:
set logscale xz
To enable scaling log base 2 of the y axis:
set logscale y 2
To disable z axis log scaling:
set nologscale z
3 mapping
?set mapping
?show mapping
?mapping
If data are provided to `splot` in spherical or cylindrical coordinates,
the `set mapping` command should be used to instruct `gnuplot` how to
interpret them.
Syntax:
set mapping {cartesian  spherical  cylindrical}
A cartesian coordinate system is used by default.
For a spherical coordinate system, the data occupy two or three columns (or
`using` entries). The first two are interpreted as the polar and azimuthal
angles theta and phi (in the units specified by `set angles`). The radius r
is taken from the third column if there is one, or is set to unity if there
is no third column. The mapping is:
x = r * cos(theta) * cos(phi)
y = r * sin(theta) * cos(phi)
z = r * sin(phi)
Note that this is a "geographic" spherical system, rather than a "polar" one.
For a cylindrical coordinate system, the data again occupy two or three
columns. The first two are interpreted as theta (in the units specified by
`set angles`) and z. The radius is either taken from the third column or set
to unity, as in the spherical case. The mapping is:
x = r * cos(theta)
y = r * sin(theta)
z = z
The effects of `mapping` can be duplicated with the `using` filter on the
`splot` command, but `mapping` may be more convenient if many data files are
to be processed. However even if `mapping` is used, `using` may still be
necessary if the data in the file are not in the required order.
`mapping` has no effect on `plot`s.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/world/world.html">Mapping Demos.</a>
3 margin
?set margin
?show margin
?margin
Normally the margins of the plot are automatically calculated based on tics
and axis labels. These computed values can be overridden by the `set margin`
commands. `show margin` shows the current settings.
Syntax:
set bmargin {<margin>}
set lmargin {<margin>}
set rmargin {<margin>}
set tmargin {<margin>}
show margin
The units of <margin> are character heights or widths, as appropriate. A
positive value defines the absolute size of the margin. A negative value (or
none) causes `gnuplot` to revert to the computed value.
3 missing
?set missing
?missing
The `set missing` command allows you to tell `gnuplot` what character is
used in a data file to denote missing data.
Syntax:
set missing {"<character>"}
show missing
Example:
set missing "?"
would mean that, when plotting a file containing
1 1
2 ?
3 2
the middle line would be ignored.
There is no default character for `missing`.
3 multiplot
?set multiplot
?multiplot
?set nomultiplot
The command `set multiplot` places `gnuplot` in the multiplot mode, in which
several plots are placed on the same page, window, or screen.
Syntax:
set multiplot
set nomultiplot
For some terminals, no plot is displayed until the command `set nomultiplot`
is given, which causes the entire page to be drawn and then returns `gnuplot`
to its normal singleplot mode. For other terminals, each separate `plot`
command produces a plot, but the screen may not be cleared between plots.
Any labels or arrows that have been defined will be drawn for each plot
according to the current size and origin (unless their coordinates are
defined in the `screen` system). Just about everything else that can be
`set` is applied to each plot, too. If you want something to appear only
once on the page, for instance a single time stamp, you'll need to put a `set
time`/`set notime` pair around one of the `plot`, `splot` or `replot`
commands within the `set multiplot`/`set nomultiplot` block.
The commands `set origin` and `set size` must be used to correctly position
each plot; see `set origin` and `set size` for details of their usage.
Example:
set size 0.7,0.7
set origin 0.1,0.1
set multiplot
set size 0.4,0.4
set origin 0.1,0.1
plot sin(x)
set size 0.2,0.2
set origin 0.5,0.5
plot cos(x)
set nomultiplot
displays a plot of cos(x) stacked above a plot of sin(x). Note the initial
`set size` and `set origin`. While these are not always required, their
inclusion is recommended. Some terminal drivers require that bounding box
information be available before any plots can be made, and the form given
above guarantees that the bounding box will include the entire plot array
rather than just the bounding box of the first plot.
`set size` and `set origin` refer to the entire plotting area used for each
plot. If you want to have the axes themselves line up, perhaps to avoid
having to label all of them, you need to guarantee that the margins are the
same size. This can be done with the `set margin` commands. Please see `set
margin` for their use.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/multiplot/multiplt.html"> See demo. </a>
3 mx2tics
?set mx2tics
?set nomx2tics
?show mx2tics
?mx2tics
?nomx2tics
Minor tic marks along the x2 (top) axis are controlled by `set mx2tics`.
Please see `set mxtics`.
3 mxtics
?set mxtics
?set nomxtics
?show mxtics
?mxtics
?nomxtics
Minor tic marks along the x axis are controlled by `set mxtics`. They can be
turned off with `set nomxtics`. Similar commands control minor tics along
the other axes.
Syntax:
set mxtics {<freq>  default}
set nomxtics
show mxtics
The same syntax applies to `mytics`, `mztics`, `mx2tics` and `my2tics`.
<freq> is the number of subintervals (NOT the number of minor tics) between
major tics (ten is the default for a linear axis, so there are nine minor
tics between major tics). Selecting `default` will return the number of minor
ticks to its default value.
If the axis is logarithmic, the number of subintervals will be set to a
reasonable number by default (based upon the length of a decade). This will
be overridden if <freq> is given. However the usual minor tics (2, 3, ...,
8, 9 between 1 and 10, for example) are obtained by setting <freq> to 10,
even though there are but nine subintervals.
Minor tics can be used only with uniformly spaced major tics. Since major
tics can be placed arbitrarily by `set {xx2yy2z}tics`, minor tics cannot
be used if major tics are explicitly `set`.
By default, minor tics are off for linear axes and on for logarithmic axes.
They inherit the settings for `axisborder` and `{no}mirror` specified for
the major tics. Please see `set xtics` for information about these.
3 my2tics
?set my2tics
?set nomy2tics
?show my2tics
?my2tics
?nomy2tics
Minor tic marks along the y2 (righthand) axis are controlled by `set
my2tics`. Please see `set mxtics`.
3 mytics
?set mytics
?set nomytics
?show mytics
?mytics
?nomytics
Minor tic marks along the y axis are controlled by `set mytics`. Please
see `set mxtics`.
3 mztics
?set mztics
?set nomztics
?show mztics
?mztics
?nomztics
Minor tic marks along the z axis are controlled by `set mztics`. Please
see `set mxtics`.
3 offsets
?set offsets
?set nooffsets
?show offsets
?offsets
?nooffsets
Offsets provide a mechanism to put a boundary around the data inside of an
autoscaled graph.
Syntax:
set offsets <left>, <right>, <top>, <bottom>
set nooffsets
show offsets
Each offset may be a constant or an expression. Each defaults to 0. Left
and right offsets are given in units of the x axis, top and bottom offsets in
units of the y axis. A positive offset expands the graph in the specified
direction, e.g., a positive bottom offset makes ymin more negative. Negative
offsets, while permitted, can have unexpected interactions with autoscaling
and clipping.
Offsets are ignored in `splot`s.
Example:
set offsets 0, 0, 2, 2
plot sin(x)
This graph of sin(x) will have a y range [3:3] because the function
will be autoscaled to [1:1] and the vertical offsets are each two.
3 origin
?set origin
?show origin
?origin
The `set origin` command is used to specify the origin of a plotting surface
(i.e., the graph and its margins) on the screen. The coordinates are given
in the `screen` coordinate system (see `coordinates` for information about
this system).
Syntax:
set origin <xorigin>,<yorigin>
3 output
?set output
?show output
?output
By default, screens are displayed to the standard output. The `set output`
command redirects the display to the specified file or device.
Syntax:
set output {"<filename>"}
show output
The filename must be enclosed in quotes. If the filename is omitted, any
output file opened by a previous invocation of `set output` will be closed
and new output will be sent to STDOUT. (If you give the command `set output
"STDOUT"`, your output may be sent to a file named "STDOUT"! ["May be", not
"will be", because some terminals, like `x11`, ignore `set output`.])
MSDOS users should note that the \ character has special significance in
doublequoted strings, so singlequotes should be used for filenames in
different directories.
When both `set terminal` and `set output` are used together, it is safest to
give `set terminal` first, because some terminals set a flag which is needed
in some operating systems. This would be the case, for example, if the
operating system needs to know whether or not a file is to be formatted in
order to open it properly.
On machines with popen functions (Unix), output can be piped through a shell
command if the first character of the filename is ''. For instance,
set output "lpr Plaser filename"
set output "lp dlaser filename"
On MSDOS machines, `set output "PRN"` will direct the output to the default
printer. On VMS, output can be sent directly to any spooled device. It is
also possible to send the output to DECnet transparent tasks, which allows
some flexibility.
3 parametric
?set parametric
?set noparametric
?show parametric
?parametric
?noparametric
The `set parametric` command changes the meaning of `plot` (`splot`) from
normal functions to parametric functions. The command `set noparametric`
restores the plotting style to normal, singlevalued expression plotting.
Syntax:
set parametric
set noparametric
show parametric
For 2d plotting, a parametric function is determined by a pair of parametric
functions operating on a parameter. An example of a 2d parametric function
would be `plot sin(t),cos(t)`, which draws a circle (if the aspect ratio is
set correctlysee `set size`). `gnuplot` will display an error message if
both functions are not provided for a parametric `plot`.
For 3d plotting, the surface is described as x=f(u,v), y=g(u,v), z=h(u,v).
Therefore a triplet of functions is required. An example of a 3d parametric
function would be `cos(u)*cos(v),cos(u)*sin(v),sin(u)`, which draws a sphere.
`gnuplot` will display an error message if all three functions are not
provided for a parametric `splot`.
The total set of possible plots is a superset of the simple f(x) style plots,
since the two functions can describe the x and y values to be computed
separately. In fact, plots of the type t,f(t) are equivalent to those
produced with f(x) because the x values are computed using the identity
function. Similarly, 3d plots of the type u,v,f(u,v) are equivalent to
f(x,y).
Note that the order the parametric functions are specified is xfunction,
yfunction (and zfunction) and that each operates over the common parametric
domain.
Also, the `set parametric` function implies a new range of values. Whereas
the normal f(x) and f(x,y) style plotting assume an xrange and yrange (and
zrange), the parametric mode additionally specifies a trange, urange, and
vrange. These ranges may be set directly with `set trange`, `set urange`,
and `set vrange`, or by specifying the range on the `plot` or `splot`
commands. Currently the default range for these parametric variables is
[5:5]. Setting the ranges to something more meaningful is expected.
3 pointsize
?set pointsize
?show pointsize
?pointsize
The `set pointsize` command changes the size of the points used in plots.
Syntax:
set pointsize <pointsize>
show pointsize
Default is pointsize 1.0. Larger pointsizes (>1.0) are useful for high
resolution in bitmapped graphics.
The pointsize of a single plot may be changed on the `plot` command. See
`plot with` for details.
Please note that the pointsize setting is not supported with all terminal
types.
3 polar
?set polar
?set nopolar
?show polar
?polar
?nopolar
The `set polar` command changes the meaning of the plot from rectangular
coordinates to polar coordinates.
Syntax:
set polar
set nopolar
show polar
There have been changes made to polar mode in version 3.6, so that scripts
for `gnuplot` versions 3.5 and earlier will require modification. The main
change is that the dummy variable t is used for the angle so that the x and
y ranges can be controlled independently. Other changes are:
1) tics are no longer put along the zero axes automatically
use `set xtics axis nomirror`; `set ytics axis nomirror`;
2) the grid, if selected, is not automatically polar
use `set grid polar`;
3) the grid is not labelled with angles
use `set label` as necessary.
In polar coordinates, the dummy variable (t) is an angle. The default range
of t is [0:2*pi], or, if degree units have been selected, to [0:360] (see
`set angles`).
The command `set nopolar` changes the meaning of the plot back to the default
rectangular coordinate system.
The `set polar` command is not supported for `splot`s. See the `set mapping`
command for similar functionality for `splot`s.
While in polar coordinates the meaning of an expression in t is really
r = f(t), where t is an angle of rotation. The trange controls the domain
(the angle) of the function, and the x and y ranges control the range of the
graph in the x and y directions. Each of these ranges, as well as the
rrange, may be autoscaled or set explicitly. See `set xrange` for details
of all the `set range` commands.
Example:
set polar
plot t*sin(t)
plot [2*pi:2*pi] [3:3] [3:3] t*sin(t)
The first `plot` uses the default polar angular domain of 0 to 2*pi. The
radius and the size of the graph are scaled automatically. The second `plot`
expands the domain, and restricts the size of the graph to [3:3] in both
directions.
You may want to `set size square` to have `gnuplot` try to make the aspect
ratio equal to unity, so that circles look circular.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/polar/polar.html">Polar demos </a>
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/poldat/poldat.html">Polar Data Plot. </a>
3 rmargin
?set rmargin
?rmargin
The command `set rmargin` sets the size of the right margin. Please see
`set margin` for details.
3 rrange
?set rrange
?show rrange
?rrange
The `set rrange` command sets the range of the radial coordinate for a
graph in polar mode. Please see `set xrange` for details.
3 samples
?set samples
?show samples
?samples
The sampling rate of functions may be changed by the `set samples` command.
Syntax:
set samples <samples_1> {,<samples_2>}
show samples
By default, sampling is set to 100 points. A higher sampling rate will
produce more accurate plots, but will take longer. This parameter has no
effect on datafile plotting unless one of the `smooth` options is used.
When a 2d graph is being done, only the value of <samples_1> is relevant.
When a surface plot is being done without the removal of hidden lines, the
value of samples specifies the number of samples that are to be evaluated for
isoline. Each isov line will have <sample_1> samples and each isou line
will have <sample_2> samples. If you only specify <samples_1>, <samples_2>
will be set to the same value as <samples_1>. See also `set isosamples`.
3 size
?set size
?show size
?size
The `set size` command scales the displayed size of the plot.
Syntax:
set size {{no}square  ratio <r>  noratio} {<xscale>,<yscale>}
show size
The <xscale> and <yscale> values are the scaling factors for the size of the
plot, which includes the graph and the margins.
`ratio` causes `gnuplot` to try to create a graph with an aspect ratio of <r>
(the ratio of the yaxis length to the xaxis length) within the portion of
the plot specified by <xscale> and <yscale>.
The meaning of a negative value for <r> is different. If <r>=1, gnuplot
tries to set the scales so that the unit has the same length on both the x
and y axes (suitable for geographical data, for instance). If <r>=2, the
unit on y has twice the length of the unit on x, and so on.
The success of `gnuplot` in producing the requested aspect ratio depends on
the terminal selected. The graph area will be the largest rectangle of
aspect ratio <r> that will fit into the specified portion of the output
(leaving adequate margins, of course).
`square` is a synonym for `ratio 1`.
Both `noratio` and `nosquare` return the graph to its default aspect ratio
(1.0), but do not return <xscale> or <yscale> to their default values (also
1.0).
`ratio` and `square` have no effect on 3d plots.
`set size` is relative to the default size, which differs from terminal to
terminal. Since `gnuplot` fills as much of the available plotting area as
possible by default, it is safer to use `set size` to decrease the size of
a plot than to increase it. See `set terminal` for the default sizes.
On some terminals, changing the size of the plot will result in text being
misplaced.
Examples:
To set the size to normal size use:
set size 1,1
To make the graph half size and square use:
set size square 0.5,0.5
To make the graph twice as high as wide use:
set size ratio 2
^<a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/airfoil/airfoil.html"> See demo. </a>
3 style
?set function style
?show function style
?set data style
?show data style
?set style
?show style
Default styles are chosen with the `set function style` and `set data style`
commands. See `plot with` for information about how to override the default
plotting style for individual functions and data sets.
Syntax:
set function style <style>
set data style <style>
show function style
show data style
The types used for all line and point styles (i.e., solid, dashdot, color,
etc. for lines; circles, squares, crosses, etc. for points) will be either
those specified on the `plot` or `splot` command or will be chosen
sequentially from the types available to the terminal in use. Use the
command `test` to see what is available.
None of the styles requiring more than two columns of information (e.g.,
`errorbars`) can be used with `splot`s or function `plot`s. Neither `boxes`
nor any of the `steps` styles can be used with `splot`s. If an inappropriate
style is specified, it will be changed to `points`.
For 2d data with more than two columns, `gnuplot` is picky about the allowed
`errorbar` styles. The `using` option on the `plot` command can be used to
set up the correct columns for the style you want. (In this discussion,
"column" will be used to refer both to a column in the data file and an entry
in the `using` list.)
For three columns, only `xerrorbars`, `yerrorbars` (or `errorbars`), `boxes`,
and `boxerrorbars` are allowed. If another plot style is used, the style
will be changed to `yerrorbars`. The `boxerrorbars` style will calculate the
boxwidth automatically.
For four columns, only `xerrorbars`, `yerrorbars` (or `errorbars`),
`xyerrorbars`, `boxxyerrorbars`, and `boxerrorbars` are allowed. An illegal
style will be changed to `yerrorbars`.
Fivecolumn data allow only the `boxerrorbars`, `financebars`, and
`candlesticks` styles. (The last two of these are primarily used for plots
of financial prices.) An illegal style will be changed to `boxerrorbars`
before plotting.
Six and sevencolumn data only allow the `xyerrorbars` and `boxxyerrorbars`
styles. Illegal styles will be changed to `xyerrorbars` before plotting.
For more information about error bars, please see `plot errorbars`.
4 boxerrorbars
?set style boxerrorbars
?style boxerrorbars
?boxerrorbars
The `boxerrorbars` style is only relevant to 2d data plotting. It is a
combination of the `boxes` and `yerrorbars` styles. The boxwidth will come
from the fourth column if the y errors are in the form of "ydelta" and the
boxwidth was not previously set equal to 2.0 (`set boxwidth 2.0`) or from
the fifth column if the y errors are in the form of "ylow yhigh". The
special case `boxwidth = 2.0` is for fourcolumn data with y errors in the
form "ylow yhigh". In this case the boxwidth will be calculated so that each
box touches the adjacent boxes. The width will also be calculated in cases
where threecolumn data are used.
The box height is determined from the y error in the same way as it is for
the `yerrorbars` styleeither from yydelta to y+ydelta or from ylow to
yhigh, depending on how many data columns are provided.
^<a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/errorbar/errorbar.html"> See Demo. </a>
4 boxes
?set style boxes
?style boxes
?boxes
?set style bargraph
?style bargraph
?bargraph
The `boxes` style is only relevant to 2d plotting. It draws a box centered
about the given x coordinate from the x axis (not the graph border) to the
given y coordinate. The width of the box is obtained in one of three ways.
If it is a data plot and the data file has a third column, this will be used
to set the width of the box. If not, if a width has been set using the `set
boxwidth` command, this will be used. If neither of these is available, the
width of each box will be calculated automatically so that it touches the
adjacent boxes.
4 boxxyerrorbars
?set style boxxyerrorbars
?style boxxyerrorbars
?boxxyerrorbars
The `boxxyerrorbars` style is only relevant to 2d data plotting. It is a
combination of the `boxes` and `xyerrorbars` styles.
The box width and height are determined from the x and y errors in the same
way as they are for the `xyerrorbars` styleeither from xlow to xhigh and
from ylow to yhigh, or from xxdelta to x+xdelta and from yydelta to
y+ydelta , depending on how many data columns are provided.
4 candlesticks
?set style candlesticks
?style candlesticks
?candlesticks
The `candlesticks` style is only relevant for 2d data plotting of financial
data. Five columns of data are required; in order, these should be the x
coordinate (most likely a date) and the opening, low, high, and closing
prices. The symbol is an open rectangle, centered horizontally at the x
coordinate and limited vertically by the opening and closing prices. A
vertical line segment at the x coordinate extends up from the top of the
rectangle to the high price and another down to the low. The width of the
rectangle may be changed by `set bar`. The symbol will be unchanged if the
low and high prices are interchanged or if the opening and closing prices
are interchanged. See `set bar` and `financebars`.
^<a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/finance/finance.html"> See demos.</a>
4 dots
?set style dots
?style dots
?dots
The `dots` style plots a tiny dot at each point; this is useful for scatter
plots with many points.
4 financebars
?set style financebars
?style financebars
?financebars
The `financebars` style is only relevant for 2d data plotting of financial
data. Five columns of data are required; in order, these should be the x
coordinate (most likely a date) and the opening, low, high, and closing
prices. The symbol is a vertical line segment, located horizontally at the x
coordinate and limited vertically by the high and low prices. A horizontal
tic on the left marks the opening price and one on the right marks the
closing price. The length of these tics may be changed by `set bar`. The
symbol will be unchanged if the high and low prices are interchanged. See
`set bar` and `candlesticks`.
^<a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/finance/finance.html"> See demos.</a>
4 fsteps
?set style fsteps
?style fsteps
?fsteps
The `fsteps` style is only relevant to 2d plotting. It connects consecutive
points with two line segments: the first from (x1,y1) to (x1,y2) and the
second from (x1,y2) to (x2,y2).
^<a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/steps/steps.html"> See demo. </a>
4 histeps
?set style histeps
?style histeps
?histeps
The `histeps` style is only relevant to 2d plotting. It is intended for
plotting histograms. Yvalues are assumed to be centered at the xvalues;
the point at x1 is represented as a horizontal line from ((x0+x1)/2,y1) to
((x1+x2)/2,y1). The lines representing the end points are extended so that
the step is centered on at x. Adjacent points are connected by a vertical
line at their average x, that is, from ((x1+x2)/2,y1) to ((x1+x2)/2,y2).
If `autoscale` is in effect, it selects the xrange from the data rather than
the steps, so the end points will appear only half as wide as the others.
^<a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/steps/steps.html"> See demo. </a>
`histeps` is only a plotting style; `gnuplot` does not have the ability to
create bins and determine their population from some data set.
4 impulses
?set style impulses
?style impulses
?impulses
The `impulses` style displays a vertical line from the x axis (not the graph
border), or from the grid base for `splot`, to each point.
4 lines
?set style lines
?style lines
?lines
The `lines` style connects adjacent points with straight line segments.
4 linespoints
?set style linespoints
?set style lp
?style linespoints
?style lp
?linespoints
?lp
The `linespoints` style does both `lines` and `points`, that is, it draws a
small symbol at each point and then connects adjacent points with straight
line segments. The command `set pointsize` may be used to change the size of
the points. See `set pointsize` for its usage.
`linespoints` may be abbreviated `lp`.
4 points
?set style points
?style points
?points
The `points` style displays a small symbol at each point. The command `set
pointsize` may be used to change the size of the points. See `set pointsize`
for its usage.
4 steps
?set style steps
?style steps
?steps
The `steps` style is only relevant to 2d plotting. It connects consecutive
points with two line segments: the first from (x1,y1) to (x2,y1) and the
second from (x2,y1) to (x2,y2).
^<a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/steps/steps.html"> See demo. </a>
4 vector
?set style vector
?style vector
?vector
The `vector` style draws a vector from (x,y) to (x+xdelta,y+ydelta). Thus
it requires four columns of data. It also draws a small arrowhead at the
end of the vector.
The `vector` style is still experimental: it doesn't get clipped properly
and other things may also be wrong with it. Use it at your own risk.
4 xerrorbars
?set style xerrorbars
?style xerrorbars
?xerrorbars
The `xerrorbars` style is only relevant to 2d data plots. `xerrorbars` is
like `dots`, except that a horizontal error bar is also drawn. At each point
(x,y), a line is drawn from (xlow,y) to (xhigh,y) or from (xxdelta,y) to
(x+xdelta,y), depending on how many data columns are provided. A tic mark
is placed at the ends of the error bar (unless `set bar` is usedsee `set
bar` for details).
4 xyerrorbars
?set style xyerrorbars
?style xyerrorbars
?xyerrorbars
The `xyerrorbars` style is only relevant to 2d data plots. `xyerrorbars` is
like `dots`, except that horizontal and vertical error bars are also drawn.
At each point (x,y), lines are drawn from (x,yydelta) to (x,y+ydelta) and
from (xxdelta,y) to (x+xdelta,y) or from (x,ylow) to (x,yhigh) and from
(xlow,y) to (xhigh,y), depending upon the number of data columns provided. A
tic mark is placed at the ends of the error bar (unless `set bar` is
usedsee `set bar` for details).
If data are provided in an unsupported mixed form, the `using` filter on the
`plot` command should be used to set up the appropriate form. For example,
if the data are of the form (x,y,xdelta,ylow,yhigh), then you can use
plot 'data' using 1:2:($1$3),($1+$3),4,5 with xyerrorbars
4 yerrorbars
?set style yerrorbars
?style yerrorbars
?yerrorbars
?set style errorbars
?style errorbars
?errorbars
The `yerrorbars` (or `errorbars`) style is only relevant to 2d data plots.
`yerrorbars` is like `dots`, except that a vertical error bar is also drawn.
At each point (x,y), a line is drawn from (x,yydelta) to (x,y+ydelta) or
from (x,ylow) to (x,yhigh), depending on how many data columns are provided.
A tic mark is placed at the ends of the error bar (unless `set bar` is
usedsee `set bar` for details).
^<a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/errorbar/errorbar.html"> See demo. </a>
3 surface
?set surface
?set nosurface
?show surface
?surface
?nosurface
The command `set surface` controls the display of surfaces, which are drawn
as a mesh of isolines.
Syntax:
set surface
set nosurface
show surface
Whenever `set nosurface` is issued, no surface isolines/mesh will be drawn.
This is useful if contours are to be displayed by themselves. See also `set
contour`.
^ <h2> Terminal Types </h2>
3 terminal
?set terminal
?set term
?show terminal
?terminal
?term
`gnuplot` supports many different graphics devices. Use `set terminal` to
tell `gnuplot` what kind of output to generate.
Syntax:
set terminal {<terminaltype>}
show terminal
If <terminaltype> is omitted, `gnuplot` will list the available terminal
types. <terminaltype> may be abbreviated.
Use `set output` to redirect this output to a file or device.
If both `set terminal` and `set output` are used together, it is safest to
give `set terminal` first, because some terminals set a flag which is needed
in some operating systems.
Several terminals have additional options. For example, see `dumb`,
`iris4d`, `hpljii` or `postscript`.
This document may describe drivers that are not available to you because they
were not installed, or it may not describe all the drivers that are available
to you, depending on its output format.
<4  all terminal stuff is pulled from the .trm files
3 tics
?set tics
?show tics
?tics
The `set tics` command can be used to change the tics to be drawn outwards.
Syntax:
set tics {<direction>}
show tics
where <direction> may be `in` (the default) or `out`.
See also `set xtics` for more control of major (labelled) tic marks and `set
mxtics` for control of minor tic marks.
3 ticslevel
?set ticslevel
?show ticslevel
?ticslevel
Using `splot`, one can adjust the relative height of the vertical (Z) axis
using `set ticslevel`. The numeric argument provided specifies the location
of the bottom of the scale (as a fraction of the zrange) above the xyplane.
The default value is 0.5. Negative values are permitted, but tic labels on
the three axes may overlap.
To place the xyplane at a position 'pos' on the zaxis, `ticslevel` should
be set equal to (pos  zmin) / (zmin  zmax).
Syntax:
set ticslevel {<level>}
show tics
See also `set view`.
3 ticscale
?set ticscale
?show ticscale
?ticscale
The size of the tic marks can be adjusted with `set ticscale`.
Syntax:
set ticscale {<major> {<minor>}}
show tics
If <minor> is not specified, it is 0.5*<major>. The default size is 1.0 for
major tics and 0.5 for minor tics. Note that it is possible to have the tic
marks pointing outward by specifying a negative size.
3 timestamp
?set timestamp
?set time
?set notimestamp
?show timestamp
?timestamp
?notimestamp
The command `set timestamp` places the time and date of the plot in the left
margin.
Syntax:
set timestamp {"<format>"} {topbottom} {{no}rotate}
{<xoff>}{,<yoff>} {"<font>"}
set notimestamp
show timestamp
The format string allows you to choose the format used to write the date and
time. Its default value is what asctime() uses: "%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Y"
(weekday, month name, day of the month, hours, minutes, seconds, fourdigit
year). With `top` or `bottom` you can place the timestamp at the top or
bottom of the left margin (default: bottom). `rotate` lets you write the
timestamp vertically, if your terminal supports vertical text. The constants
<xoff> and <off> are offsets from the default position given in character
screen coordinates. <font> is used to specify the font with which the time
is to be written.
The abbreviation `time` may be used in place of `timestamp`.
Example:
set timestamp "%d/%m/%y %H:%M" 80,2 "Helvetica"
See `set timefmt` for more information about time format strings.
3 timefmt
?set timefmt
?show timefmt
?timefmt
This command applies to timeseries where data are composed of dates/times.
It has no meaning unless the command `set xdata time` is given also.
Syntax:
set timefmt "<format string>"
show timefmt
The string argument tells `gnuplot` how to read timedata from the datafile.
The valid formats are:
@start table  first is interactive cleartext form
Format Explanation
%d day of the month, 131
%m month of the year, 112
%y year, 099
%Y year, 4digit
%j day of the year, 1365
%H hour, 024
%M minute, 060
%S second, 060
%b threecharacter abbreviation of the name of the month
%B name of the month
#\multicolumn{3}{c}{Format Specifiers}\\
#Format && Explanation \\ \hline
#\verb@%d@ && day of the month, 131 \\
#\verb@%m@ && month of the year, 112 \\
#\verb@%y@ && year, 099 \\
#\verb@%Y@ && year, 4digit \\
#\verb@%j@ && day of the year, 1365 \\
#\verb@%H@ && hour, 024 \\
#\verb@%M@ && minute, 060 \\
#\verb@%S@ && second, 060 \\
#\verb@%b@ && threecharacter abbreviation of the name of the month \\
#\verb@%B@ && name of the month \\
%Format@Explanation
%_
%%d@day of the month, 131
%%m@month of the year, 112
%%y@year, 099
%%Y@year, 4digit
%%j@day of the year, 1365
%%H@hour, 024
%%M@minute, 060
%%S@second, 060
%%b@threecharacter abbreviation of the name of the month
%%B@name of the month
%_
@end table
Any character is allowed in the string, but must match exactly. \t (tab) is
recognized. Backslashoctals (\nnn) are converted to char. If there is no
separating character between the date/time elements, then %d, %m, %y, %H, %M
and %S read two digits each, %Y reads four digits and %j reads three digits.
%b requires three characters, and %B requires as many as it needs.
Spaces are treated slightly differently. A space in the string stands for
zero or more whitespace characters in the file. That is, "%H %M" can be used
to read "1220" and "12 20" as well as "12 20".
Each set of nonblank characters in the timedata counts as one column in the
`using n:n` specification. Thus `11:11 25/12/76 21.0` consists of three
columns. To avoid confusion, `gnuplot` requires that you provide a complete
`using` specification if your file contains timedata.
Since `gnuplot` cannot read nonnumerical text, if the date format includes
the day or month in words, the format string must exclude this text. But
it can still be printed with the "%a", "%A", "%b", or "%B" specifier: see
`set format` for more details about these and other options for printing
timedata. (`gnuplot` will determine the proper month and weekday from the
numerical values.)
See also `set xdata` and `Time/date` for more information.
Example:
set timefmt "%d/%m/%Y\t%H:%M"
tells `gnuplot` to read date and time separated by tab. (But look closely at
your datawhat began as a tab may have been converted to spaces somewhere
along the line; the format string must match what is actually in the file.)
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/timedat/timedat.html"> Time Data Demo </a>
3 title
?set title
?show title
?title
The `set title` command produces a plot title that is centered at the top of
the plot. `set title` is a special case of `set label`.
Syntax:
set title {"<titletext>"} {<xoff>}{,<yoff>} {"<font>,{<size>}"}
show title
Specifying constants <xoff> or <yoff> as optional offsets for the title will
move the title <xoff> or <yoff> character screen coordinates (not graph
coordinates). For example, "`set title ,1`" will change only the y offset
of the title, moving the title down by roughly the height of one character.
<font> is used to specify the font with which the title is to be written;
the units of the font <size> depend upon which terminal is used.
`set title` with no parameters clears the title.
See `syntax` for details about the processing of backslash sequences and
the distinction between single and doublequotes.
3 tmargin
?set tmargin
?tmargin
The command `set tmargin` sets the size of the top margin. Please see
`set margin` for details.
3 trange
?set trange
?show trange
?trange
The `set trange` command sets the parametric range used to compute x and y
values when in parametric or polar modes. Please see `set xrange` for
details.
3 urange
?set urange
?show urange
?urange
The `set urange` and `set vrange` commands set the parametric ranges used
to compute x, y, and z values when in `splot` parametric mode. Please see
`set xrange` for details.
3 variables
?show variables
The `show variables` command lists all userdefined variables and their
values.
Syntax:
show variables
3 view
?set view
?show view
?view
The `set view` command sets the viewing angle for `splot`s. It controls how
the 3d coordinates of the plot are mapped into the 2d screen space. It
provides controls for both rotation and scaling of the plotted data, but
supports orthographic projections only.
Syntax:
set view <rot_x> {,{<rot_z>}{,{<scale>}{,<scale_z>}}}
show view
where <rot_x> and <rot_z> control the rotation angles (in degrees) in a
virtual 3d coordinate system aligned with the screen such that initially
(that is, before the rotations are performed) the screen horizontal axis is
x, screen vertical axis is y, and the axis perpendicular to the screen is z.
The first rotation applied is <rot_x> around the x axis. The second rotation
applied is <rot_z> around the new z axis.
<rot_x> is bounded to the [0:180] range with a default of 60 degrees, while
<rot_z> is bounded to the [0:360] range with a default of 30 degrees.
<scale> controls the scaling of the entire `splot`, while <scale_z> scales
the z axis only. Both scales default to 1.0.
Examples:
set view 60, 30, 1, 1
set view ,,0.5
The first sets all the four default values. The second changes only scale,
to 0.5.
See also `set ticslevel`.
3 vrange
?set vrange
?show vrange
?vrange
The `set urange` and `set vrange` commands set the parametric ranges used
to compute x, y, and z values when in `splot` parametric mode. Please see
`set xrange` for details.
3 x2data
?set x2data
?show x2data
?x2data
The `set x2data` command sets data on the x2 (top) axis to timeseries
(dates/times). Please see `set xdata`.
3 x2dtics
?set x2dtics
?set nox2dtics
?show x2dtics
?x2dtics
?nox2dtics
The `set x2dtics` command changes tics on the x2 (top) axis to days of the
week. Please see `set xmtics` for details.
3 x2label
?set x2label
?show x2label
?x2label
The `set x2label` command sets the label for the x2 (top) axis. Please see
`set xlabel`.
3 x2mtics
?set x2mtics
?set nox2mtics
?show x2mtics
?x2mtics
?nox2mtics
The `set x2mtics` command changes tics on the x2 (top) axis to months of the
year. Please see `set xmtics` for details.
3 x2range
?set x2range
?show x2range
?x2range
The `set x2range` command sets the horizontal range that will be displayed on
the x2 (top) axis. Please see `set xrange` for details.
3 x2tics
?set x2tics
?set nox2tics
?show x2tics
?x2tics
?nox2tics
The `set x2tics` command controls major (labelled) tics on the x2 (top) axis.
Please see `set xtics` for details.
3 x2zeroaxis
?set x2zeroaxis
?set nox2zeroaxis
?show x2zeroaxis
?x2zeroaxis
?nox2zeroaxis
The `set x2zeroaxis` command draws a line at the origin of the x2 (top) axis
(x2 = 0). For details, please see
`set zeroaxis`.
3 xdata
?set xdata
?show xdata
?xdata
This command sets the datatype on the x axis to date/time. A similar command
does the same thing for each of the other axes.
Syntax:
set xdata {time}
show xdata
The same syntax applies to `ydata`, `zdata`, `x2data` and `y2data`.
The `time` option signals that the datatype is indeed date/time. If the
option is not specified, the datatype reverts to normal.
See `set timefmt` to tell `gnuplot` how to read date or time data. The
date/time is converted to seconds from start of the century. There is
currently only one timefmt, which implies that all the date/time columns must
confirm to this format. Specification of ranges should be supplied as quoted
strings according to this format to avoid interpretation of the date/time as
an expression.
The function 'strftime' (type "man strftime" on unix to look it up) is used
to print ticmark labels. `gnuplot` tries to figure out a reasonable format
for this unless the `set format x "string"` has supplied something that does
not look like a decimal format (more than one '%' or neither %f nor %g).
See also `Time/date` for more information.
3 xdtics
?set xdtics
?set noxdtics
?show xdtics
?xdtics
?noxdtics
The `set xdtics` commands converts the xaxis tic marks to days of the week
where 0=Sun and 6=Sat. Overflows are converted modulo 7 to dates. `set
noxdtics` returns the labels to their default values. Similar commands do
the same things for the other axes.
Syntax:
set xdtics
set noxdtics
show xdtics
The same syntax applies to `ydtics`, `zdtics`, `x2dtics` and `y2dtics`.
See also the `set format` command.
3 xlabel
?set xlabel
?show xlabel
?xlabel
The `set xlabel` command sets the x axis label. Similar commands set labels
on the other axes.
Syntax:
set xlabel {"<label>"} {<xoff>}{,<yoff>} {"<font>{,<size>}"}
show xlabel
The same syntax applies to `x2label`, `ylabel`, `y2label` and `zlabel`.
Specifying the constants <xoff> or <yoff> as optional offsets for a label
will move it <xoff> or <yoff> character widths or heights. For example,
"` set xlabel 1`" will change only the x offset of the xlabel, moving the
label roughly one character width to the left. The size of a character
depends on both the font and the terminal.
<font> is used to specify the font in which the label is written; the units
of the font <size> depend upon which terminal is used.
To clear a label, put no options on the command line, e.g., "`set y2label`".
The default positions of the axis labels are as follows:
xlabel: The xaxis label is centered below the bottom axis.
ylabel: The position of the yaxis label depends on the terminal, and can be
one of the following three positions:
1. Horizontal text flushed left at the top left of the plot. Terminals that
cannot rotate text will probably use this method. If `set x2tics` is also
in use, the ylabel may overwrite the leftmost x2tic label. This may be
remedied by adjusting the ylabel position or the left margin.
2. Vertical text centered vertically at the left of the plot. Terminals
that can rotate text will probably use this method.
3. Horizontal text centered vertically at the left of the plot. The EEPIC,
LaTeX and TPIC drivers use this method. The user must insert line breaks
using \\ to prevent the ylabel from overwriting the plot. To produce a
vertical row of characters, add \\ between every printing character (but this
is ugly).
zlabel: The zaxis label is centered along the z axis and placed in the space
above the grid level.
y2label: The y2axis label is placed to the right of the y2 axis. The
position is terminaldependent in the same manner as is the yaxis label.
x2label: The x2axis label is placed above the top axis but below the plot
title. It is also possible to create an x2axis label by using newline
characters to make a multiline plot title, e.g.,
set title "This is the title\n\nThis is the x2label"
Note that double quotes must be used. The same font will be used for both
lines, of course.
If you are not satisfied with the default position of an axis label, use `set
label` insteadthat command gives you much more control over where text is
placed.
Please see `set syntax` for further information about backslash processing
and the difference between single and doublequoted strings.
3 xmtics
?set xmtics
?set noxmtics
?show xmtics
?xmtics
?noxmtics
The `set xmtics` commands converts the xaxis tic marks to months of the
year where 1=Jan and 12=Dec. Overflows are converted modulo 12 to months.
The tics are returned to their default labels by `set noxmtics`. Similar
commands perform the same duties for the other axes.
Syntax:
set xmtics
set noxmtics
show xmtics
The same syntax applies to `x2mtics`, `ymtics`, `y2mtics`, and `zmtics`.
See also the `set format` command.
3 xrange
?set xrange
?show xrange
?xrange
The `set xrange` command sets the horizontal range that will be displayed.
A similar command exists for each of the other axes, as well as for the
polar radius r and the parametric variables t, u, and v.
Syntax:
set xrange [{{<min>}:{<max>}}] {{no}reverse} {{no}writeback}
show xrange
where <min> and <max> terms are constants, expressions or an asterisk to set
autoscaling. If the data are date/time, you must give the range as a quoted
string according to the `set timefmt` format. Any value omitted will not be
changed.
The same syntax applies to `yrange`, `zrange`, `x2range`, `y2range`,
`rrange`, `trange`, `urange` and `vrange`.
The `reverse` option reverses the direction of the axis, e.g., `set xrange
[0:1] reverse` will produce an axis with 1 on the left and 0 on the right.
This is identical to the axis produced by `set xrange [1:0]`, of course.
`reverse` is intended primarily for use with `autoscale`.
The `writeback` option essentially saves the range found by `autoscale` in
the buffers that would be filled by `set xrange`. This is useful if you wish
to plot several functions together but have the range determined by only
some of them. The `writeback` operation is performed during the `plot`
execution, so it must be specified before that command. For example,
set xrange [10:10]
set yrange [] writeback
plot sin(x)
set noautoscale y
replot x/2
results in a yrange of [1:1] as found only from the range of sin(x); the
[5:5] range of x/2 is ignored. Executing `show yrange` after each command
in the above example should help you understand what is going on.
In 2d, `xrange` and `yrange` determine the extent of the axes, `trange`
determines the range of the parametric variable in parametric mode or the
range of the angle in polar mode. Similarly in parametric 3d, `xrange`,
`yrange`, and `zrange` govern the axes and `urange` and `vrange` govern the
parametric variables.
In polar mode, `rrange` determines the radial range plotted. <rmin> acts as
an additive constant to the radius, whereas <rmax> acts as a clip to the
radiusno point with radius greater than <rmax> will be plotted. `xrange`
and `yrange` are affectedthe ranges can be set as if the graph was of
r(t)rmin, with rmin added to all the labels.
Any range may be partially or totally autoscaled, although it may not make
sense to autoscale a parametric variable unless it is plotted with data.
Ranges may also be specified on the `plot` command line. A range given on
the plot line will be used for that single `plot` command; a range given by
a `set` command will be used for all subsequent plots that do not specify
their own ranges. The same holds true for `splot`.
Examples:
To set the xrange to the default:
set xrange [10:10]
To set the yrange to increase downwards:
set yrange [10:10]
To change zmax to 10 without affecting zmin (which may still be autoscaled):
set zrange [:10]
To autoscale xmin while leaving xmax unchanged:
set xrange [*:]
3 xtics
?set xtics
?set noxtics
?show xtics
?xtics
?noxtics
Fine control of the major (labelled) tics on the x axis is possible with the
`set xtics` command. The tics may be turned off with the `set noxtics`
command, and may be turned on (the default state) with `set xtics`. Similar
commands control the major tics on the y, z, x2 and y2 axes.
Syntax:
set xtics {axis  border} {{no}mirror} {{no}rotate}
{ <incr>
 <start>, <incr> {,<end>}
 ({"<label>"} <pos> {,{"<label>"} <pos>}...) }
set noxtics
show xtics
The same syntax applies to `ytics`, `ztics`, `x2tics` and `y2tics`.
`axis` or `border` tells `gnuplot` to put the tics (both the tics themselves
and the accompanying labels) along the axis or the border, respectively.
`mirror` tells it to put unlabelled tics at the same positions on the
opposite border. `nomirror` does what you think it does. `rotate` asks
`gnuplot` to rotate the text through 90 degrees, if the underlying terminal
driver supports text rotation. `norotate` cancels this. The defaults are
`border mirror norotate` for tics on the x, y, x2, and y2 axes. For the
z axis, the the `{axis  border}` option is not available and the default
is `nomirror`. If you do want to mirror the zaxis tics, you might want
to create a bit more room for them with `set border`.
The positions of the tics may be specified in either of two forms:
The <start>, <incr>, <end> form specifies that a series of tics will be
plotted on the axis between the values <start> and <end> with an increment of
<incr>. If <end> is not given, it is assumed to be infinity. The increment
may be negative. If neither <start> nor <end> is given, <start> is assumed
to be negative infinity, <end> is assumed to be positive infinity, and the
tics will be drawn at multiples of <step>there will be a tic at zero (if
it is within the plotted range). If the axis is logarithmic, the increment
will be used as a multiplicative factor.
Examples:
Make tics at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, ..., 9.5, 10.
set xtics 0,.5,10
Make tics at ..., 10, 5, 0, 5, 10, ...
set xtics 5
Make tics at 1, 100, 1e4, 1e6, 1e8.
set logscale x; set xtics 1,100,10e8
The ("<label>" <pos>, ...) form allows arbitrary tic positions or nonnumeric
tic labels. A set of tics is a set of positions, each with its own optional
label. Note that the label is a string enclosed by quotes, and may be a
constant string, such as "hello", or contain formatting information for the
tic number (which is the same as the position), such as "%3f clients". See
`set format` for more information about this case. The label may be made
empty by specifying it as an empty string. If no string is given, the
default label (numerical) is used. In this form, the tics do not need to be
listed in numerical order.
Examples:
set xtics ("low" 0, "medium" 50, "high" 100)
set xtics (1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128,256,512,1024)
set ytics ("bottom" 0, "" 10, "top" 20)
In the second example, all tics are labelled. In the third, only the end
tics are labelled.
Tics will only be plotted when in range.
Minor (unlabelled) tics can be added by the `set mxtics` command.
In case of timeseries data, position values must be given as quoted dates
or times according to the format `timefmt`. If the <start>, <incr>, <end>
form is used, <start> and <end> must be given according to `timefmt`, but
<incr> must be in seconds. Times will be written out according to the format
given on "set format", however.
Examples:
set xdata time
set timefmt "%d/%m"
set format x "%b %d"
set xrange ["00/12":"06/12"]
set xtics "01/12", 172800, "05/12"
set xdata time
set timefmt "%d/%m"
set format x "%b %d"
set xrange ["00/12":"06/12"]
set xtics ("01/12", "" "03/12", "05/12")
Both of these will produce tics "Dec 1", "Dec 3", and "Dec 5", but in the
second example the tic at "Dec 3" will be unlabelled.
3 xzeroaxis
?set xzeroaxis
?set noxzeroaxis
?show xzeroaxis
?xzeroaxis
?noxzeroaxis
The `set xzeroaxis` command draws a line at x = 0. For details, please see
`set zeroaxis`.
3 y2data
?set y2data
?show y2data
?y2data
The `set y2data` command sets y2 (righthand) axis data to timeseries
(dates/times). Please see `set xdata`.
3 y2dtics
?set y2dtics
?set noy2dtics
?show y2dtics
?y2dtics
?noy2dtics
The `set y2dtics` command changes tics on the y2 (righthand) axis to days of
the week. Please see `set xmtics` for details.
3 y2label
?set y2label
?show y2label
?y2label
The `set y2dtics` command sets the label for the y2 (righthand) axis.
Please see `set xlabel`.
3 y2mtics
?set y2mtics
?set noy2mtics
?show y2mtics
?y2mtics
?noy2mtics
The `set y2mtics` command changes tics on the y2 (righthand) axis to months
of the year. Please see `set xmtics` for details.
3 y2range
?set y2range
?show y2range
?y2range
The `set y2range` command sets the vertical range that will be displayed on
the y2 (righthand) axis. Please see `set xrange` for details.
3 y2tics
?set y2tics
?set noy2tics
?show y2tics
?y2tics
?noy2tics
The `set y2tics` command controls major (labelled) tics on the y2 (righthand)
axis. Please see `set xtics` for details.
3 y2zeroaxis
?set y2zeroaxis
?set noy2zeroaxis
?show y2zeroaxis
?y2zeroaxis
?noy2zeroaxis
The `set y2zeroaxis` command draws a line at the origin of the y2 (righthand)
axis (y2 = 0). For details, please see `set zeroaxis`.
3 ydata
?set ydata
?show ydata
?ydata
Sets yaxis data to timeseries (dates/times). Please see `set xdata`.
3 ydtics
?set ydtics
?set noydtics
?show ydtics
?ydtics
?noydtics
The `set ydtics` command changes tics on the y axis to days of the week.
Please see `set xmtics` for details.
3 ylabel
?set ylabel
?show ylabel
?ylabel
This command sets the label for the y axis. Please see `set xlabel`.
3 ymtics
?set ymtics
?set noymtics
?show ymtics
?ymtics
?noymtics
The `set ymtics` command changes tics on the y axis to months of the year.
Please see `set xmtics` for details.
3 yrange
?set yrange
?show yrange
?yrange
The `set yrange` command sets the vertical range that will be displayed on
the y axis. Please see `set xrange` for details.
3 ytics
?set ytics
?set noytics
?show ytics
?ytics
?noytics
The `set ytics` command controls major (labelled) tics on the y axis.
Please see `set xtics` for details.
3 yzeroaxis
?set yzeroaxis
?set noyzeroaxis
?show yzeroaxis
?yzeroaxis
?noyzeroaxis
The `set yzeroaxis` command draws a line at y = 0. For details, please see
`set zeroaxis`.
3 zdata
?set zdata
?show zdata
?zdata
Set zaxis date to timeseries (dates/times). Please see `set xdata`.
3 zdtics
?set zdtics
?set nozdtics
?show zdtics
?zdtics
?nozdtics
The `set zdtics` command changes tics on the z axis to days of the week.
Please see `set xmtics` for details.
3 zero
?set zero
?show zero
?zero
The `zero` value is the default threshold for values approaching 0.0.
Syntax:
set zero <expression>
show zero
`gnuplot` will not plot a point if its imaginary part is greater in magnitude
than the `zero` threshold. Axis ranges cannot be less than `zero`. The
default `zero` value is 1e8.
3 zeroaxis
?set zeroaxis
?set nozeroaxis
?show zeroaxis
?zeroaxis
?nozeroaxis
The x axis may be drawn by `set xzeroaxis` and removed by `set noxzeroaxis`.
Similar commands behave similarly for the y, x2, and y2 axes.
Syntax:
set zeroaxis {<linetype>}
set xzeroaxis {<linetype>}
set yzeroaxis {<linetype>}
set x2zeroaxis {<linetype>}
set y2zeroaxis {<linetype>}
set nozeroaxis
set noxzeroaxis
etc.
show zeroaxis
show xzeroaxis
etc.
By default, these options are off. The selected zero axis is drawn with a
line of type <linetype> from the default linetype list provided by the
terminal; userdefined linetypes (via the `set linestyle` command) are not
accessible for these axes. If <linetype> is not specified, any zero axes
selected will be drawn using the axis linetype (linetype 0).
`set zeroaxis l` is equivalent to `set xzeroaxis l; set yzeroaxis l`. `set
nozeroaxis` is equivalent to `set noxzeroaxis; set noyzeroaxis`.
3 zlabel
?set zlabel
?show zlabel
?zlabel
This command sets the label for the z axis. Please see `set xlabel`.
3 zmtics
?set zmtics
?set nozmtics
?show zmtics
?zmtics
?nozmtics
The `set zmtics` command changes tics on the z axis to months of the year.
Please see `set xmtics` for details.
3 zrange
?set zrange
?show zrange
?zrange
The `set zrange` command sets the range that will be displayed on the z axis.
The zrange is used only by `splot` and is ignored by `plot`. Please see `set
xrange` for details.
3 ztics
?set ztics
?set noztics
?show ztics
?ztics
?noztics
The `set ztics` command controls major (labelled) tics on the z axis.
Please see `set xtics` for details.
2 shell
?shell
The `shell` command spawns an interactive shell. To return to `gnuplot`,
type `logout` if using VMS, `exit` or the ENDOFFILE character if using
Unix, `endcli` if using AmigaDOS, or `exit` if using MSDOS or OS/2.
A single shell command may be spawned by preceding it with the ! character
($ if using VMS) at the beginning of a command line. Control will return
immediately to `gnuplot` after this command is executed. For example, in
Unix, AmigaDOS, MSDOS or OS/2,
! dir
prints a directory listing and then returns to `gnuplot`.
On an Atari, the `!` command first checks whether a shell is already loaded
and uses it, if available. This is practical if `gnuplot` is run from
`gulam`, for example.
2 splot
?splot
`splot` is the primary command for drawing 3d plots (well, actually
projections on a 2d surface, but you knew that). It can create a plot from
functions or data in a manner very similar to the `plot` command.
Please see `plot` for features common to the `plot` command; only differences
are discussed in detail here.
Syntax:
splot {<ranges>}
{<function>  {"<datafile>" {datafilemodifiers}}}
{<titlespec>} {with <style>}
{, {definitions,} <function> ...}
where either a <function> or the name of a data file enclosed in quotes is
supplied. A function is a mathematical expression, or a triple (`splot`) of
mathematical expressions in parametric mode.
By default `splot` draws the xy plane completely below the plotted data. The
offset between the lowest ztic and the xy plane can be changed by `set
ticslevel`. The orientation of a 'splot' is controlled by `set view`. See
`set view` and `set ticslevel` for more information.
The syntax for setting ranges on the `splot` command is the same as for
`plot`. In nonparametric mode, the order in which ranges must be given is
`xrange`, `yrange`, and `zrange`. In parametric mode, the order is `urange`,
`vrange`, `xrange`, `yrange`, and `zrange`.
The `title` option is the same as in `plot`. The operation of `with` is also
the same as in `plot`, except that the plotting styles available to `splot`
are limited to `lines`, `points`, `linespoints`, `dots`, and `impulses`; the
errorbar capabilities of `plot` are not available for `splot`.
The datafile options have more differences.
3 datafile
?splot datafile
?splot datafile
Discrete data contained in a file can be displayed by specifying the name of
the data file (enclosed in quotes) on the `plot` or `splot` command line.
Syntax:
splot '<file_name>' {binary  matrix}
{index <index list>}
{every <every list>}
{using <using list>}
The special filenames `""` and `""` are permitted, as in `plot`.
In brief, `binary` indicates that the file is binary, `matrix` indicates that
the data are in matrix form, `index` selects which data sets in a
multidataset file are to be plotted, `every` specifies which datalines
within a single data set are to be plotted, and `using` determines how the
columns within a single record are to be interpreted.
The options `index` and `every` behave the same way as with `plot`. `using`
also does, with the obvious difference that the `using` list must provide
three entries instead of two.
The `plot` options `thru` and `smooth` are not available for `splot`.
Data file organization is essentially the same as for `plot`, except that
each point is an (x,y,z) triple. If only a single value is provided, it will
be used for z, the data point number will be used for x, and the yisoline
number will be used for y; thus "`splot 'file' using 1`" is identical to
"`splot 'file' using 0:1:1`". If two values are provided, `gnuplot` gives
you an error message. Three values are interpreted as an (x,y,z) triple.
Additional values are generally used as errors, which can be used by `fit`.
Single blank records separate datalines (which are interpreted as yisolines)
in a `splot` datafile. No line will join points separated by a blank record.
If all datalines contain the same number of points,`gnuplot` will draw
crossisolines in the opposite direction. This is termed "grid data", and is
required for drawing a surface, for contouring (`set contour`) and
hiddenline removal (`set hidden3d`).
It is no longer necessary to specify `parametric` mode for threecolumn
`splot`s.
4 binary
?splot datafile binary
?splot datafile binary
?splot binary
?datafile binary
?datafile binary
?binary
?binary data
?binary files
In previous versions, `gnuplot` dynamically detected binary data files. It
is now necessary to specify the keyword `binary` directly after the filename.
Single precision floats are stored in a binary file as follows:
<N+1> <y0> <y1> <y2> ... <yN>
<x0> <z0,0> <z0,1> <z0,2> ... <z0,N>
<x1> <z1,0> <z1,1> <z1,2> ... <z1,N>
: : : : ... :
which are converted into triplets:
<x0> <y0> <z0,0>
<x0> <y1> <z0,1>
<x0> <y2> <z0,2>
: : :
<x0> <yN> <z0,N>
<x1> <y0> <z1,0>
<x1> <y1> <z1,1>
: : :
These triplets are then converted into `gnuplot` isocurves and then
`gnuplot` proceeds in the usual manner to do the rest of the plotting.
A collection of matrix and vector manipulation routines (in C) is provided
in `binary.c`. The routine to write binary data is
int fwrite_matrix(file,m,nrl,nrl,ncl,nch,row_title,column_title)
An example of using these routines is provided in the file `bf_test.c`, which
generates binary files for the demo file `demo/binary.dem`.
The `index` keyword is not supported, since the file format allows only one
surface per file. The `every` and `using` filters are supported. `using`
operates as if the data were read in the above triplet form.
^ <a href="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/binary/binary.html">Binary File Splot Demo.</a>
4 example datafile
?splot datafile example
?splot datafile example
?splot example
A simple example of plotting a 3d data file is
splot 'datafile.dat'
where the file "datafile.dat" might contain:
# The valley of the Gnu.
0 0 10
0 1 10
0 2 10
1 0 10
1 1 5
1 2 10
2 0 10
2 1 1
2 2 10
3 0 10
3 1 0
3 2 10
Note that "datafile.dat" defines a 4 by 3 grid ( 4 rows of 3 points each ).
Rows are separated by blank records.
^ <img align=bottom src="http://www.nas.nasa.gov/~woo/gnuplot/doc/splot.gif" alt="[splot.gif]" width=640 height=480>
Note also that the x value is held constant within each dataline. If you
instead keep y constant, and plot with hiddenline removal enabled, you will
find that the surface is drawn 'insideout'.
Actually for grid data it is not necessary to keep the x values constant
within an dataline, nor is it necessary to keep the y values the same along
the perpendicular datalines. `gnuplot` requires only that the number of
points be the same for each dataline.
4 matrix
?splot datafile matrix
?splot datafile matrix
?splot matrix
?datafile matrix
?datafile matrix
?matrix
The `matrix` flag indicates that the data are stored in matrix format. In
its present implementation the zvalues are read in a row at a time, i. e.,
z11 z12 z13 z14 ...
z21 z22 z23 z24 ...
z31 z32 z33 z34 ...
and so forth. The row and column indices are used for the x and yvalues.
used as x, y, and z.
2 test
?test
`test` creates a display of line and point styles and other useful things
appropriate for the terminal you are using.
Syntax:
test
2 update
?update
This command writes the current values of the fit parameters into the given
file, which is formatted as an initialvalue file (as described in the `fit`
section). This is useful for saving the current values for later use or for
restarting a converged or stopped fit.
Syntax:
update <filename> {<filename>}
If the file already exists, `gnuplot` first renames it by appending `.old`
and then opens a new file. That is, "`update 'fred'`" behaves the same way
as "`!rename fred fred.old; update 'fred.old' 'fred'`". [On DOS and other
systems that use the twelvecharacter "filename.ext" naming convention, "ext"
will be "`old`" and "filename" will be related (hopefully recognizably) to
the initial name. Renaming is not done at all on VMS systems, since they use
fileversioning.]
If a second filename is supplied, the updated values are written to this
file instead, and the original parameter file is left unmodified.
Please see `fit` for more information.
1 Graphical User Interfaces
?graphical user interfaces
?gui's
Several graphical user interfaces have been written for `gnuplot` and one for
win32 is included in this distribution. In addition, there is a Macintosh
interface at
^<a href="ftp://ftp.ee.gatech.edu/pub/mac/gnuplot">
ftp://ftp.ee.gatech.edu/pub/mac/gnuplot
^</a>
and several X11 interfaces include three Tcl/Tk located at the usual Tcl/Tk
repositories.
1 Bugs
?bugs
The bessel functions do not work for complex arguments.
The gamma function does not work for complex arguments.
There is a bug in the stdio library for old Sun operating systems (SunOS
Sys43.2). The "%g" format for 'printf' sometimes incorrectly prints numbers
(e.g., 200000.0 as "2"). Thus, tic mark labels may be incorrect on a Sun4
version of `gnuplot`. A workaround is to rescale the data or use the `set
format` command to change the tic mark format to "%7.0f" or some other
appropriate format. This appears to have been fixed in SunOS 4.0.
Another bug: On a Sun3 under SunOS 4.0, and on Sun4's under Sys43.2 and
SunOS 4.0, the 'sscanf' routine incorrectly parses "00 12" with the format
"%f %f" and reads 0 and 0 instead of 0 and 12. This affects data input. If
the data file contains x coordinates that are zero but are specified like
'00', '000', etc, then you will read the wrong y values. Check any data
files or upgrade the SunOS. It appears to have been fixed in SunOS 4.1.1.
Suns appear to overflow when calculating exp(x) for large x, so `gnuplot`
gets an undefined result. One workaround is to make a userdefined function
like e(x) = x<500 ? 0 : exp(x). This affects plots of Gaussians (exp(x*x))
in particular, since x*x grows quite rapidly.
Microsoft C 5.1 has a nasty bug associated with the %g format for 'printf'.
When any of the formats "%.2g", "%.1g", "%.0g", "%.g" are used, 'printf' will
incorrectly print numbers in the range 1e4 to 1e1. Numbers that should be
printed in the %e format are incorrectly printed in the %f format, with the
wrong number of zeros after the decimal point. To work around this problem,
use the %e or %f formats explicitly.
`gnuplot`, when compiled with Microsoft C, did not work correctly on two VGA
displays that were tested. The CGA, EGA and VGA drivers should probably be
rewritten to use the Microsoft C graphics library. `gnuplot` compiled with
Borland C++ uses the Turbo C graphics drivers and does work correctly with
VGA displays.
VAX/VMS 4.7 C compiler release 2.4 also has a poorly implemented %g format
for 'printf'. The numbers are printed numerically correct, but may not be in
the requested format. The K&R second edition says that for the %g format, %e
is used if the exponent is less than 4 or greater than or equal to the
precision. The VAX uses %e format if the exponent is less than 1. The VAX
appears to take no notice of the precision when deciding whether to use %e or
%f for numbers less than 1. To work around this problem, use the %e or %f
formats explicitly. From the VAX C 2.4 release notes: e,E,f,F,g,G Result
will always contain a decimal point. For g and G, trailing zeros will not
be removed from the result.
VAX/VMS 5.2 C compiler release 3.0 has a slightly better implemented %g
format than release 2.4, but not much. Trailing decimal points are now
removed, but trailing zeros are still not removed from %g numbers in
exponential format.
The two preceding problems are actually in the libraries rather than in the
compilers. Thus the problems will occur whether `gnuplot` is built using
either the DEC compiler or some other one (e.g. the latest gcc).
ULTRIX X11R3 has a bug that causes the X11 driver to display "every other"
graph. The bug seems to be fixed in DEC's release of X11R4 so newer releases
of ULTRIX don't seem to have the problem. Solutions for older sites include
upgrading the X11 libraries (from DEC or direct from MIT) or defining
ULTRIX_KLUDGE when compiling the x11.trm file. Note that the kludge is not
an ideal fix, however.
The constant HUGE was incorrectly defined in the NeXT OS 2.0 operating
system. HUGE should be set to 1e38 in plot.h. This error has been corrected
in the 2.1 version of NeXT OS.
Some older models of HP plotters do not have a page eject command 'PG'. The
current HPGL driver uses this command in HPGL_reset. This may need to be
removed for these plotters. The current PCL5 driver uses HPGL/2 for text as
well as graphics. This should be modified to use scalable PCL fonts.
On the Atari version, it is not possible to send output directly to the
printer (using `/dev/lp` as output file), since CRs are added to LFs in
binary output. As a workaround, write the output to a file and copy it to
the printer afterwards using a shell command.
On AIX 4, the literal 'NaNq' in a datafile causes the special internal value
'notanumber' to be stored, rather than setting an internal 'undefined'
flag. A workaround is to use `set missing 'NaNq'`.
There may be an uptodate list of bugs since the release on the WWW page:
http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/gnuplot
Please report any bugs to buggnuplot@dartmouth.edu.
