File: navigation2d.cpp

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/*************************************************************************/
/*  navigation2d.cpp                                                     */
/*************************************************************************/
/*                       This file is part of:                           */
/*                           GODOT ENGINE                                */
/*                      https://godotengine.org                          */
/*************************************************************************/
/* Copyright (c) 2007-2018 Juan Linietsky, Ariel Manzur.                 */
/* Copyright (c) 2014-2018 Godot Engine contributors (cf. AUTHORS.md)    */
/*                                                                       */
/* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining */
/* a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the       */
/* "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including   */
/* without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,   */
/* distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to    */
/* permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to */
/* the following conditions:                                             */
/*                                                                       */
/* The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be        */
/* included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.       */
/*                                                                       */
/* THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,       */
/* EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF    */
/* MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.*/
/* IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY  */
/* CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,  */
/* TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE     */
/* SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.                */
/*************************************************************************/

#include "navigation2d.h"

#define USE_ENTRY_POINT

void Navigation2D::_navpoly_link(int p_id) {

	ERR_FAIL_COND(!navpoly_map.has(p_id));
	NavMesh &nm = navpoly_map[p_id];
	ERR_FAIL_COND(nm.linked);

	PoolVector<Vector2> vertices = nm.navpoly->get_vertices();
	int len = vertices.size();
	if (len == 0)
		return;

	PoolVector<Vector2>::Read r = vertices.read();

	for (int i = 0; i < nm.navpoly->get_polygon_count(); i++) {

		//build

		List<Polygon>::Element *P = nm.polygons.push_back(Polygon());
		Polygon &p = P->get();
		p.owner = &nm;

		Vector<int> poly = nm.navpoly->get_polygon(i);
		int plen = poly.size();
		const int *indices = poly.ptr();
		bool valid = true;
		p.edges.resize(plen);

		Vector2 center;
		float sum = 0;

		for (int j = 0; j < plen; j++) {

			int idx = indices[j];
			if (idx < 0 || idx >= len) {
				valid = false;
				break;
			}

			Polygon::Edge e;
			Vector2 ep = nm.xform.xform(r[idx]);
			center += ep;
			e.point = _get_point(ep);
			p.edges[j] = e;

			int idxn = indices[(j + 1) % plen];
			if (idxn < 0 || idxn >= len) {
				valid = false;
				break;
			}

			Vector2 epn = nm.xform.xform(r[idxn]);

			sum += (epn.x - ep.x) * (epn.y + ep.y);
		}

		p.clockwise = sum > 0;

		if (!valid) {
			nm.polygons.pop_back();
			ERR_CONTINUE(!valid);
			continue;
		}

		p.center = center / plen;

		//connect

		for (int j = 0; j < plen; j++) {

			int next = (j + 1) % plen;
			EdgeKey ek(p.edges[j].point, p.edges[next].point);

			Map<EdgeKey, Connection>::Element *C = connections.find(ek);
			if (!C) {

				Connection c;
				c.A = &p;
				c.A_edge = j;
				c.B = NULL;
				c.B_edge = -1;
				connections[ek] = c;
			} else {

				if (C->get().B != NULL) {
					ConnectionPending pending;
					pending.polygon = &p;
					pending.edge = j;
					p.edges[j].P = C->get().pending.push_back(pending);
					continue;
					//print_line(String()+_get_vertex(ek.a)+" -> "+_get_vertex(ek.b));
				}

				C->get().B = &p;
				C->get().B_edge = j;
				C->get().A->edges[C->get().A_edge].C = &p;
				C->get().A->edges[C->get().A_edge].C_edge = j;
				p.edges[j].C = C->get().A;
				p.edges[j].C_edge = C->get().A_edge;
				//connection successful.
			}
		}
	}

	nm.linked = true;
}

void Navigation2D::_navpoly_unlink(int p_id) {

	ERR_FAIL_COND(!navpoly_map.has(p_id));
	NavMesh &nm = navpoly_map[p_id];
	ERR_FAIL_COND(!nm.linked);

	//print_line("UNLINK");

	for (List<Polygon>::Element *E = nm.polygons.front(); E; E = E->next()) {

		Polygon &p = E->get();

		int ec = p.edges.size();
		Polygon::Edge *edges = p.edges.ptrw();

		for (int i = 0; i < ec; i++) {
			int next = (i + 1) % ec;

			EdgeKey ek(edges[i].point, edges[next].point);
			Map<EdgeKey, Connection>::Element *C = connections.find(ek);
			ERR_CONTINUE(!C);

			if (edges[i].P) {
				C->get().pending.erase(edges[i].P);
				edges[i].P = NULL;

			} else if (C->get().B) {
				//disconnect

				C->get().B->edges[C->get().B_edge].C = NULL;
				C->get().B->edges[C->get().B_edge].C_edge = -1;
				C->get().A->edges[C->get().A_edge].C = NULL;
				C->get().A->edges[C->get().A_edge].C_edge = -1;

				if (C->get().A == &E->get()) {

					C->get().A = C->get().B;
					C->get().A_edge = C->get().B_edge;
				}
				C->get().B = NULL;
				C->get().B_edge = -1;

				if (C->get().pending.size()) {
					//reconnect if something is pending
					ConnectionPending cp = C->get().pending.front()->get();
					C->get().pending.pop_front();

					C->get().B = cp.polygon;
					C->get().B_edge = cp.edge;
					C->get().A->edges[C->get().A_edge].C = cp.polygon;
					C->get().A->edges[C->get().A_edge].C_edge = cp.edge;
					cp.polygon->edges[cp.edge].C = C->get().A;
					cp.polygon->edges[cp.edge].C_edge = C->get().A_edge;
					cp.polygon->edges[cp.edge].P = NULL;
				}

			} else {
				connections.erase(C);
				//erase
			}
		}
	}

	nm.polygons.clear();

	nm.linked = false;
}

int Navigation2D::navpoly_add(const Ref<NavigationPolygon> &p_mesh, const Transform2D &p_xform, Object *p_owner) {

	int id = last_id++;
	NavMesh nm;
	nm.linked = false;
	nm.navpoly = p_mesh;
	nm.xform = p_xform;
	nm.owner = p_owner;
	navpoly_map[id] = nm;

	_navpoly_link(id);

	return id;
}

void Navigation2D::navpoly_set_transform(int p_id, const Transform2D &p_xform) {

	ERR_FAIL_COND(!navpoly_map.has(p_id));
	NavMesh &nm = navpoly_map[p_id];
	if (nm.xform == p_xform)
		return; //bleh
	_navpoly_unlink(p_id);
	nm.xform = p_xform;
	_navpoly_link(p_id);
}
void Navigation2D::navpoly_remove(int p_id) {

	ERR_FAIL_COND(!navpoly_map.has(p_id));
	_navpoly_unlink(p_id);
	navpoly_map.erase(p_id);
}

Vector<Vector2> Navigation2D::get_simple_path(const Vector2 &p_start, const Vector2 &p_end, bool p_optimize) {

	Polygon *begin_poly = NULL;
	Polygon *end_poly = NULL;
	Vector2 begin_point;
	Vector2 end_point;
	float begin_d = 1e20;
	float end_d = 1e20;

	//look for point inside triangle

	for (Map<int, NavMesh>::Element *E = navpoly_map.front(); E; E = E->next()) {

		if (!E->get().linked)
			continue;
		for (List<Polygon>::Element *F = E->get().polygons.front(); F; F = F->next()) {

			Polygon &p = F->get();
			if (begin_d || end_d) {
				for (int i = 2; i < p.edges.size(); i++) {

					if (begin_d > 0) {

						if (Geometry::is_point_in_triangle(p_start, _get_vertex(p.edges[0].point), _get_vertex(p.edges[i - 1].point), _get_vertex(p.edges[i].point))) {

							begin_poly = &p;
							begin_point = p_start;
							begin_d = 0;
							if (end_d == 0)
								break;
						}
					}

					if (end_d > 0) {

						if (Geometry::is_point_in_triangle(p_end, _get_vertex(p.edges[0].point), _get_vertex(p.edges[i - 1].point), _get_vertex(p.edges[i].point))) {

							end_poly = &p;
							end_point = p_end;
							end_d = 0;
							if (begin_d == 0)
								break;
						}
					}
				}
			}

			p.prev_edge = -1;
		}
	}

	//start or end not inside triangle.. look for closest segment :|
	if (begin_d || end_d) {
		for (Map<int, NavMesh>::Element *E = navpoly_map.front(); E; E = E->next()) {

			if (!E->get().linked)
				continue;
			for (List<Polygon>::Element *F = E->get().polygons.front(); F; F = F->next()) {

				Polygon &p = F->get();
				int es = p.edges.size();
				for (int i = 0; i < es; i++) {

					Vector2 edge[2] = {
						_get_vertex(p.edges[i].point),
						_get_vertex(p.edges[(i + 1) % es].point)
					};

					if (begin_d > 0) {
						Vector2 spoint = Geometry::get_closest_point_to_segment_2d(p_start, edge);
						float d = spoint.distance_to(p_start);
						if (d < begin_d) {
							begin_poly = &p;
							begin_point = spoint;
							begin_d = d;
						}
					}

					if (end_d > 0) {
						Vector2 spoint = Geometry::get_closest_point_to_segment_2d(p_end, edge);
						float d = spoint.distance_to(p_end);
						if (d < end_d) {
							end_poly = &p;
							end_point = spoint;
							end_d = d;
						}
					}
				}
			}
		}
	}

	if (!begin_poly || !end_poly) {

		return Vector<Vector2>(); //no path
	}

	if (begin_poly == end_poly) {

		Vector<Vector2> path;
		path.resize(2);
		path[0] = begin_point;
		path[1] = end_point;
		//print_line("Direct Path");
		return path;
	}

	bool found_route = false;

	List<Polygon *> open_list;

	begin_poly->entry = p_start;

	for (int i = 0; i < begin_poly->edges.size(); i++) {

		if (begin_poly->edges[i].C) {

			begin_poly->edges[i].C->prev_edge = begin_poly->edges[i].C_edge;
#ifdef USE_ENTRY_POINT
			Vector2 edge[2] = {
				_get_vertex(begin_poly->edges[i].point),
				_get_vertex(begin_poly->edges[(i + 1) % begin_poly->edges.size()].point)
			};

			Vector2 entry = Geometry::get_closest_point_to_segment_2d(begin_poly->entry, edge);
			begin_poly->edges[i].C->distance = begin_poly->entry.distance_to(entry);
			begin_poly->edges[i].C->entry = entry;
#else
			begin_poly->edges[i].C->distance = begin_poly->center.distance_to(begin_poly->edges[i].C->center);
#endif
			open_list.push_back(begin_poly->edges[i].C);

			if (begin_poly->edges[i].C == end_poly) {
				found_route = true;
			}
		}
	}

	while (!found_route) {

		if (open_list.size() == 0) {
			//print_line("NOU OPEN LIST");
			break;
		}
		//check open list

		List<Polygon *>::Element *least_cost_poly = NULL;
		float least_cost = 1e30;

		//this could be faster (cache previous results)
		for (List<Polygon *>::Element *E = open_list.front(); E; E = E->next()) {

			Polygon *p = E->get();

			float cost = p->distance;
			cost += p->center.distance_to(end_point);

			if (cost < least_cost) {

				least_cost_poly = E;
				least_cost = cost;
			}
		}

		Polygon *p = least_cost_poly->get();
		//open the neighbours for search
		int es = p->edges.size();

		for (int i = 0; i < es; i++) {

			Polygon::Edge &e = p->edges[i];

			if (!e.C)
				continue;

#ifdef USE_ENTRY_POINT
			Vector2 edge[2] = {
				_get_vertex(p->edges[i].point),
				_get_vertex(p->edges[(i + 1) % es].point)
			};

			Vector2 edge_entry = Geometry::get_closest_point_to_segment_2d(p->entry, edge);
			float distance = p->entry.distance_to(edge_entry) + p->distance;

#else

			float distance = p->center.distance_to(e.C->center) + p->distance;

#endif

			if (e.C->prev_edge != -1) {
				//oh this was visited already, can we win the cost?

				if (e.C->distance > distance) {

					e.C->prev_edge = e.C_edge;
					e.C->distance = distance;
#ifdef USE_ENTRY_POINT
					e.C->entry = edge_entry;
#endif
				}
			} else {
				//add to open neighbours

				e.C->prev_edge = e.C_edge;
				e.C->distance = distance;
#ifdef USE_ENTRY_POINT
				e.C->entry = edge_entry;
#endif

				open_list.push_back(e.C);

				if (e.C == end_poly) {
					//oh my reached end! stop algorithm
					found_route = true;
					break;
				}
			}
		}

		if (found_route)
			break;

		open_list.erase(least_cost_poly);
	}

	if (found_route) {

		Vector<Vector2> path;

		if (p_optimize) {
			//string pulling

			Vector2 apex_point = end_point;
			Vector2 portal_left = apex_point;
			Vector2 portal_right = apex_point;
			Polygon *left_poly = end_poly;
			Polygon *right_poly = end_poly;
			Polygon *p = end_poly;

			while (p) {

				Vector2 left;
				Vector2 right;

//#define CLOCK_TANGENT(m_a,m_b,m_c) ( ((m_a)-(m_c)).cross((m_a)-(m_b)) )
#define CLOCK_TANGENT(m_a, m_b, m_c) ((((m_a).x - (m_c).x) * ((m_b).y - (m_c).y) - ((m_b).x - (m_c).x) * ((m_a).y - (m_c).y)))

				if (p == begin_poly) {
					left = begin_point;
					right = begin_point;
				} else {
					int prev = p->prev_edge;
					int prev_n = (p->prev_edge + 1) % p->edges.size();
					left = _get_vertex(p->edges[prev].point);
					right = _get_vertex(p->edges[prev_n].point);

					if (p->clockwise) {
						SWAP(left, right);
					}
					/*if (CLOCK_TANGENT(apex_point,left,(left+right)*0.5) < 0){
						SWAP(left,right);
					}*/
				}

				bool skip = false;

				/*
				print_line("-----\nAPEX: "+(apex_point-end_point));
				print_line("LEFT:");
				print_line("\tPortal: "+(portal_left-end_point));
				print_line("\tPoint: "+(left-end_point));
				print_line("\tLeft Tangent: "+rtos(CLOCK_TANGENT(apex_point,portal_left,left)));
				print_line("\tLeft Distance: "+rtos(portal_left.distance_squared_to(apex_point)));
				print_line("\tLeft Test: "+rtos(CLOCK_TANGENT(apex_point,left,portal_right)));
				print_line("RIGHT:");
				print_line("\tPortal: "+(portal_right-end_point));
				print_line("\tPoint: "+(right-end_point));
				print_line("\tRight Tangent: "+rtos(CLOCK_TANGENT(apex_point,portal_right,right)));
				print_line("\tRight Distance: "+rtos(portal_right.distance_squared_to(apex_point)));
				print_line("\tRight Test: "+rtos(CLOCK_TANGENT(apex_point,right,portal_left)));
				*/

				if (CLOCK_TANGENT(apex_point, portal_left, left) >= 0) {
					//process
					if (portal_left.distance_squared_to(apex_point) < CMP_EPSILON || CLOCK_TANGENT(apex_point, left, portal_right) > 0) {
						left_poly = p;
						portal_left = left;
						//print_line("***ADVANCE LEFT");
					} else {

						apex_point = portal_right;
						p = right_poly;
						left_poly = p;
						portal_left = apex_point;
						portal_right = apex_point;
						if (!path.size() || path[path.size() - 1].distance_to(apex_point) > CMP_EPSILON)
							path.push_back(apex_point);
						skip = true;
						//print_line("addpoint left");
						//print_line("***CLIP LEFT");
					}
				}

				if (!skip && CLOCK_TANGENT(apex_point, portal_right, right) <= 0) {
					//process
					if (portal_right.distance_squared_to(apex_point) < CMP_EPSILON || CLOCK_TANGENT(apex_point, right, portal_left) < 0) {
						right_poly = p;
						portal_right = right;
						//print_line("***ADVANCE RIGHT");
					} else {

						apex_point = portal_left;
						p = left_poly;
						right_poly = p;
						portal_right = apex_point;
						portal_left = apex_point;
						if (!path.size() || path[path.size() - 1].distance_to(apex_point) > CMP_EPSILON)
							path.push_back(apex_point);
						//print_line("addpoint right");
						//print_line("***CLIP RIGHT");
					}
				}

				if (p != begin_poly)
					p = p->edges[p->prev_edge].C;
				else
					p = NULL;
			}

		} else {
			//midpoints
			Polygon *p = end_poly;

			while (true) {
				int prev = p->prev_edge;
				int prev_n = (p->prev_edge + 1) % p->edges.size();
				Vector2 point = (_get_vertex(p->edges[prev].point) + _get_vertex(p->edges[prev_n].point)) * 0.5;
				path.push_back(point);
				p = p->edges[prev].C;
				if (p == begin_poly)
					break;
			}
		}

		if (!path.size() || path[path.size() - 1].distance_squared_to(begin_point) > CMP_EPSILON) {
			path.push_back(begin_point); // Add the begin point
		} else {
			path[path.size() - 1] = begin_point; // Replace first midpoint by the exact begin point
		}

		path.invert();

		if (path.size() <= 1 || path[path.size() - 1].distance_squared_to(end_point) > CMP_EPSILON) {
			path.push_back(end_point); // Add the end point
		} else {
			path[path.size() - 1] = end_point; // Replace last midpoint by the exact end point
		}

		return path;
	}

	return Vector<Vector2>();
}

Vector2 Navigation2D::get_closest_point(const Vector2 &p_point) {

	Vector2 closest_point = Vector2();
	float closest_point_d = 1e20;

	for (Map<int, NavMesh>::Element *E = navpoly_map.front(); E; E = E->next()) {

		if (!E->get().linked)
			continue;
		for (List<Polygon>::Element *F = E->get().polygons.front(); F; F = F->next()) {

			Polygon &p = F->get();
			for (int i = 2; i < p.edges.size(); i++) {

				if (Geometry::is_point_in_triangle(p_point, _get_vertex(p.edges[0].point), _get_vertex(p.edges[i - 1].point), _get_vertex(p.edges[i].point))) {

					return p_point; //inside triangle, nothing else to discuss
				}
			}
		}
	}

	for (Map<int, NavMesh>::Element *E = navpoly_map.front(); E; E = E->next()) {

		if (!E->get().linked)
			continue;
		for (List<Polygon>::Element *F = E->get().polygons.front(); F; F = F->next()) {

			Polygon &p = F->get();
			int es = p.edges.size();
			for (int i = 0; i < es; i++) {

				Vector2 edge[2] = {
					_get_vertex(p.edges[i].point),
					_get_vertex(p.edges[(i + 1) % es].point)
				};

				Vector2 spoint = Geometry::get_closest_point_to_segment_2d(p_point, edge);
				float d = spoint.distance_squared_to(p_point);
				if (d < closest_point_d) {

					closest_point = spoint;
					closest_point_d = d;
				}
			}
		}
	}

	return closest_point;
}

Object *Navigation2D::get_closest_point_owner(const Vector2 &p_point) {

	Object *owner = NULL;
	Vector2 closest_point = Vector2();
	float closest_point_d = 1e20;

	for (Map<int, NavMesh>::Element *E = navpoly_map.front(); E; E = E->next()) {

		if (!E->get().linked)
			continue;
		for (List<Polygon>::Element *F = E->get().polygons.front(); F; F = F->next()) {

			Polygon &p = F->get();
			for (int i = 2; i < p.edges.size(); i++) {

				if (Geometry::is_point_in_triangle(p_point, _get_vertex(p.edges[0].point), _get_vertex(p.edges[i - 1].point), _get_vertex(p.edges[i].point))) {

					E->get().owner;
				}
			}
		}
	}

	for (Map<int, NavMesh>::Element *E = navpoly_map.front(); E; E = E->next()) {

		if (!E->get().linked)
			continue;
		for (List<Polygon>::Element *F = E->get().polygons.front(); F; F = F->next()) {

			Polygon &p = F->get();
			int es = p.edges.size();
			for (int i = 0; i < es; i++) {

				Vector2 edge[2] = {
					_get_vertex(p.edges[i].point),
					_get_vertex(p.edges[(i + 1) % es].point)
				};

				Vector2 spoint = Geometry::get_closest_point_to_segment_2d(p_point, edge);
				float d = spoint.distance_squared_to(p_point);
				if (d < closest_point_d) {

					closest_point = spoint;
					closest_point_d = d;
					owner = E->get().owner;
				}
			}
		}
	}

	return owner;
}

void Navigation2D::_bind_methods() {

	ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("navpoly_add", "mesh", "xform", "owner"), &Navigation2D::navpoly_add, DEFVAL(Variant()));
	ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("navpoly_set_transform", "id", "xform"), &Navigation2D::navpoly_set_transform);
	ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("navpoly_remove", "id"), &Navigation2D::navpoly_remove);

	ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("get_simple_path", "start", "end", "optimize"), &Navigation2D::get_simple_path, DEFVAL(true));
	ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("get_closest_point", "to_point"), &Navigation2D::get_closest_point);
	ClassDB::bind_method(D_METHOD("get_closest_point_owner", "to_point"), &Navigation2D::get_closest_point_owner);
}

Navigation2D::Navigation2D() {

	ERR_FAIL_COND(sizeof(Point) != 8);
	cell_size = 1; // one pixel
	last_id = 1;
}