File: db.go

package info (click to toggle)
golang-github-coreos-bbolt 1.3.1-coreos.5-3
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: buster, experimental, sid
  • size: 600 kB
  • sloc: makefile: 25
file content (1137 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 31,236 bytes parent folder | download | duplicates (2)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
package bolt

import (
	"errors"
	"fmt"
	"hash/fnv"
	"log"
	"os"
	"runtime"
	"sort"
	"sync"
	"time"
	"unsafe"
)

// The largest step that can be taken when remapping the mmap.
const maxMmapStep = 1 << 30 // 1GB

// The data file format version.
const version = 2

// Represents a marker value to indicate that a file is a Bolt DB.
const magic uint32 = 0xED0CDAED

const pgidNoFreelist pgid = 0xffffffffffffffff

// IgnoreNoSync specifies whether the NoSync field of a DB is ignored when
// syncing changes to a file.  This is required as some operating systems,
// such as OpenBSD, do not have a unified buffer cache (UBC) and writes
// must be synchronized using the msync(2) syscall.
const IgnoreNoSync = runtime.GOOS == "openbsd"

// Default values if not set in a DB instance.
const (
	DefaultMaxBatchSize  int = 1000
	DefaultMaxBatchDelay     = 10 * time.Millisecond
	DefaultAllocSize         = 16 * 1024 * 1024
)

// default page size for db is set to the OS page size.
var defaultPageSize = os.Getpagesize()

// The time elapsed between consecutive file locking attempts.
const flockRetryTimeout = 50 * time.Millisecond

// DB represents a collection of buckets persisted to a file on disk.
// All data access is performed through transactions which can be obtained through the DB.
// All the functions on DB will return a ErrDatabaseNotOpen if accessed before Open() is called.
type DB struct {
	// When enabled, the database will perform a Check() after every commit.
	// A panic is issued if the database is in an inconsistent state. This
	// flag has a large performance impact so it should only be used for
	// debugging purposes.
	StrictMode bool

	// Setting the NoSync flag will cause the database to skip fsync()
	// calls after each commit. This can be useful when bulk loading data
	// into a database and you can restart the bulk load in the event of
	// a system failure or database corruption. Do not set this flag for
	// normal use.
	//
	// If the package global IgnoreNoSync constant is true, this value is
	// ignored.  See the comment on that constant for more details.
	//
	// THIS IS UNSAFE. PLEASE USE WITH CAUTION.
	NoSync bool

	// When true, skips syncing freelist to disk. This improves the database
	// write performance under normal operation, but requires a full database
	// re-sync during recovery.
	NoFreelistSync bool

	// When true, skips the truncate call when growing the database.
	// Setting this to true is only safe on non-ext3/ext4 systems.
	// Skipping truncation avoids preallocation of hard drive space and
	// bypasses a truncate() and fsync() syscall on remapping.
	//
	// https://github.com/boltdb/bolt/issues/284
	NoGrowSync bool

	// If you want to read the entire database fast, you can set MmapFlag to
	// syscall.MAP_POPULATE on Linux 2.6.23+ for sequential read-ahead.
	MmapFlags int

	// MaxBatchSize is the maximum size of a batch. Default value is
	// copied from DefaultMaxBatchSize in Open.
	//
	// If <=0, disables batching.
	//
	// Do not change concurrently with calls to Batch.
	MaxBatchSize int

	// MaxBatchDelay is the maximum delay before a batch starts.
	// Default value is copied from DefaultMaxBatchDelay in Open.
	//
	// If <=0, effectively disables batching.
	//
	// Do not change concurrently with calls to Batch.
	MaxBatchDelay time.Duration

	// AllocSize is the amount of space allocated when the database
	// needs to create new pages. This is done to amortize the cost
	// of truncate() and fsync() when growing the data file.
	AllocSize int

	path     string
	file     *os.File
	lockfile *os.File // windows only
	dataref  []byte   // mmap'ed readonly, write throws SEGV
	data     *[maxMapSize]byte
	datasz   int
	filesz   int // current on disk file size
	meta0    *meta
	meta1    *meta
	pageSize int
	opened   bool
	rwtx     *Tx
	txs      []*Tx
	stats    Stats

	freelist     *freelist
	freelistLoad sync.Once

	pagePool sync.Pool

	batchMu sync.Mutex
	batch   *batch

	rwlock   sync.Mutex   // Allows only one writer at a time.
	metalock sync.Mutex   // Protects meta page access.
	mmaplock sync.RWMutex // Protects mmap access during remapping.
	statlock sync.RWMutex // Protects stats access.

	ops struct {
		writeAt func(b []byte, off int64) (n int, err error)
	}

	// Read only mode.
	// When true, Update() and Begin(true) return ErrDatabaseReadOnly immediately.
	readOnly bool
}

// Path returns the path to currently open database file.
func (db *DB) Path() string {
	return db.path
}

// GoString returns the Go string representation of the database.
func (db *DB) GoString() string {
	return fmt.Sprintf("bolt.DB{path:%q}", db.path)
}

// String returns the string representation of the database.
func (db *DB) String() string {
	return fmt.Sprintf("DB<%q>", db.path)
}

// Open creates and opens a database at the given path.
// If the file does not exist then it will be created automatically.
// Passing in nil options will cause Bolt to open the database with the default options.
func Open(path string, mode os.FileMode, options *Options) (*DB, error) {
	db := &DB{
		opened: true,
	}
	// Set default options if no options are provided.
	if options == nil {
		options = DefaultOptions
	}
	db.NoSync = options.NoSync
	db.NoGrowSync = options.NoGrowSync
	db.MmapFlags = options.MmapFlags
	db.NoFreelistSync = options.NoFreelistSync

	// Set default values for later DB operations.
	db.MaxBatchSize = DefaultMaxBatchSize
	db.MaxBatchDelay = DefaultMaxBatchDelay
	db.AllocSize = DefaultAllocSize

	flag := os.O_RDWR
	if options.ReadOnly {
		flag = os.O_RDONLY
		db.readOnly = true
	}

	// Open data file and separate sync handler for metadata writes.
	db.path = path
	var err error
	if db.file, err = os.OpenFile(db.path, flag|os.O_CREATE, mode); err != nil {
		_ = db.close()
		return nil, err
	}

	// Lock file so that other processes using Bolt in read-write mode cannot
	// use the database  at the same time. This would cause corruption since
	// the two processes would write meta pages and free pages separately.
	// The database file is locked exclusively (only one process can grab the lock)
	// if !options.ReadOnly.
	// The database file is locked using the shared lock (more than one process may
	// hold a lock at the same time) otherwise (options.ReadOnly is set).
	if err := flock(db, mode, !db.readOnly, options.Timeout); err != nil {
		db.lockfile = nil // make 'unused' happy. TODO: rework locks
		_ = db.close()
		return nil, err
	}

	// Default values for test hooks
	db.ops.writeAt = db.file.WriteAt

	if db.pageSize = options.PageSize; db.pageSize == 0 {
		// Set the default page size to the OS page size.
		db.pageSize = defaultPageSize
	}

	// Initialize the database if it doesn't exist.
	if info, err := db.file.Stat(); err != nil {
		return nil, err
	} else if info.Size() == 0 {
		// Initialize new files with meta pages.
		if err := db.init(); err != nil {
			return nil, err
		}
	} else {
		// Read the first meta page to determine the page size.
		var buf [0x1000]byte
		// If we can't read the page size, but can read a page, assume
		// it's the same as the OS or one given -- since that's how the
		// page size was chosen in the first place.
		//
		// If the first page is invalid and this OS uses a different
		// page size than what the database was created with then we
		// are out of luck and cannot access the database.
		//
		// TODO: scan for next page
		if bw, err := db.file.ReadAt(buf[:], 0); err == nil && bw == len(buf) {
			if m := db.pageInBuffer(buf[:], 0).meta(); m.validate() == nil {
				db.pageSize = int(m.pageSize)
			}
		} else {
			return nil, ErrInvalid
		}
	}

	// Initialize page pool.
	db.pagePool = sync.Pool{
		New: func() interface{} {
			return make([]byte, db.pageSize)
		},
	}

	// Memory map the data file.
	if err := db.mmap(options.InitialMmapSize); err != nil {
		_ = db.close()
		return nil, err
	}

	if db.readOnly {
		return db, nil
	}

	db.loadFreelist()

	// Flush freelist when transitioning from no sync to sync so
	// NoFreelistSync unaware boltdb can open the db later.
	if !db.NoFreelistSync && !db.hasSyncedFreelist() {
		tx, err := db.Begin(true)
		if tx != nil {
			err = tx.Commit()
		}
		if err != nil {
			_ = db.close()
			return nil, err
		}
	}

	// Mark the database as opened and return.
	return db, nil
}

// loadFreelist reads the freelist if it is synced, or reconstructs it
// by scanning the DB if it is not synced. It assumes there are no
// concurrent accesses being made to the freelist.
func (db *DB) loadFreelist() {
	db.freelistLoad.Do(func() {
		db.freelist = newFreelist()
		if !db.hasSyncedFreelist() {
			// Reconstruct free list by scanning the DB.
			db.freelist.readIDs(db.freepages())
		} else {
			// Read free list from freelist page.
			db.freelist.read(db.page(db.meta().freelist))
		}
		db.stats.FreePageN = len(db.freelist.ids)
	})
}

func (db *DB) hasSyncedFreelist() bool {
	return db.meta().freelist != pgidNoFreelist
}

// mmap opens the underlying memory-mapped file and initializes the meta references.
// minsz is the minimum size that the new mmap can be.
func (db *DB) mmap(minsz int) error {
	db.mmaplock.Lock()
	defer db.mmaplock.Unlock()

	info, err := db.file.Stat()
	if err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("mmap stat error: %s", err)
	} else if int(info.Size()) < db.pageSize*2 {
		return fmt.Errorf("file size too small")
	}

	// Ensure the size is at least the minimum size.
	var size = int(info.Size())
	if size < minsz {
		size = minsz
	}
	size, err = db.mmapSize(size)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// Dereference all mmap references before unmapping.
	if db.rwtx != nil {
		db.rwtx.root.dereference()
	}

	// Unmap existing data before continuing.
	if err := db.munmap(); err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// Memory-map the data file as a byte slice.
	if err := mmap(db, size); err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// Save references to the meta pages.
	db.meta0 = db.page(0).meta()
	db.meta1 = db.page(1).meta()

	// Validate the meta pages. We only return an error if both meta pages fail
	// validation, since meta0 failing validation means that it wasn't saved
	// properly -- but we can recover using meta1. And vice-versa.
	err0 := db.meta0.validate()
	err1 := db.meta1.validate()
	if err0 != nil && err1 != nil {
		return err0
	}

	return nil
}

// munmap unmaps the data file from memory.
func (db *DB) munmap() error {
	if err := munmap(db); err != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("unmap error: " + err.Error())
	}
	return nil
}

// mmapSize determines the appropriate size for the mmap given the current size
// of the database. The minimum size is 32KB and doubles until it reaches 1GB.
// Returns an error if the new mmap size is greater than the max allowed.
func (db *DB) mmapSize(size int) (int, error) {
	// Double the size from 32KB until 1GB.
	for i := uint(15); i <= 30; i++ {
		if size <= 1<<i {
			return 1 << i, nil
		}
	}

	// Verify the requested size is not above the maximum allowed.
	if size > maxMapSize {
		return 0, fmt.Errorf("mmap too large")
	}

	// If larger than 1GB then grow by 1GB at a time.
	sz := int64(size)
	if remainder := sz % int64(maxMmapStep); remainder > 0 {
		sz += int64(maxMmapStep) - remainder
	}

	// Ensure that the mmap size is a multiple of the page size.
	// This should always be true since we're incrementing in MBs.
	pageSize := int64(db.pageSize)
	if (sz % pageSize) != 0 {
		sz = ((sz / pageSize) + 1) * pageSize
	}

	// If we've exceeded the max size then only grow up to the max size.
	if sz > maxMapSize {
		sz = maxMapSize
	}

	return int(sz), nil
}

// init creates a new database file and initializes its meta pages.
func (db *DB) init() error {
	// Create two meta pages on a buffer.
	buf := make([]byte, db.pageSize*4)
	for i := 0; i < 2; i++ {
		p := db.pageInBuffer(buf[:], pgid(i))
		p.id = pgid(i)
		p.flags = metaPageFlag

		// Initialize the meta page.
		m := p.meta()
		m.magic = magic
		m.version = version
		m.pageSize = uint32(db.pageSize)
		m.freelist = 2
		m.root = bucket{root: 3}
		m.pgid = 4
		m.txid = txid(i)
		m.checksum = m.sum64()
	}

	// Write an empty freelist at page 3.
	p := db.pageInBuffer(buf[:], pgid(2))
	p.id = pgid(2)
	p.flags = freelistPageFlag
	p.count = 0

	// Write an empty leaf page at page 4.
	p = db.pageInBuffer(buf[:], pgid(3))
	p.id = pgid(3)
	p.flags = leafPageFlag
	p.count = 0

	// Write the buffer to our data file.
	if _, err := db.ops.writeAt(buf, 0); err != nil {
		return err
	}
	if err := fdatasync(db); err != nil {
		return err
	}

	return nil
}

// Close releases all database resources.
// All transactions must be closed before closing the database.
func (db *DB) Close() error {
	db.rwlock.Lock()
	defer db.rwlock.Unlock()

	db.metalock.Lock()
	defer db.metalock.Unlock()

	db.mmaplock.RLock()
	defer db.mmaplock.RUnlock()

	return db.close()
}

func (db *DB) close() error {
	if !db.opened {
		return nil
	}

	db.opened = false

	db.freelist = nil

	// Clear ops.
	db.ops.writeAt = nil

	// Close the mmap.
	if err := db.munmap(); err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// Close file handles.
	if db.file != nil {
		// No need to unlock read-only file.
		if !db.readOnly {
			// Unlock the file.
			if err := funlock(db); err != nil {
				log.Printf("bolt.Close(): funlock error: %s", err)
			}
		}

		// Close the file descriptor.
		if err := db.file.Close(); err != nil {
			return fmt.Errorf("db file close: %s", err)
		}
		db.file = nil
	}

	db.path = ""
	return nil
}

// Begin starts a new transaction.
// Multiple read-only transactions can be used concurrently but only one
// write transaction can be used at a time. Starting multiple write transactions
// will cause the calls to block and be serialized until the current write
// transaction finishes.
//
// Transactions should not be dependent on one another. Opening a read
// transaction and a write transaction in the same goroutine can cause the
// writer to deadlock because the database periodically needs to re-mmap itself
// as it grows and it cannot do that while a read transaction is open.
//
// If a long running read transaction (for example, a snapshot transaction) is
// needed, you might want to set DB.InitialMmapSize to a large enough value
// to avoid potential blocking of write transaction.
//
// IMPORTANT: You must close read-only transactions after you are finished or
// else the database will not reclaim old pages.
func (db *DB) Begin(writable bool) (*Tx, error) {
	if writable {
		return db.beginRWTx()
	}
	return db.beginTx()
}

func (db *DB) beginTx() (*Tx, error) {
	// Lock the meta pages while we initialize the transaction. We obtain
	// the meta lock before the mmap lock because that's the order that the
	// write transaction will obtain them.
	db.metalock.Lock()

	// Obtain a read-only lock on the mmap. When the mmap is remapped it will
	// obtain a write lock so all transactions must finish before it can be
	// remapped.
	db.mmaplock.RLock()

	// Exit if the database is not open yet.
	if !db.opened {
		db.mmaplock.RUnlock()
		db.metalock.Unlock()
		return nil, ErrDatabaseNotOpen
	}

	// Create a transaction associated with the database.
	t := &Tx{}
	t.init(db)

	// Keep track of transaction until it closes.
	db.txs = append(db.txs, t)
	n := len(db.txs)

	// Unlock the meta pages.
	db.metalock.Unlock()

	// Update the transaction stats.
	db.statlock.Lock()
	db.stats.TxN++
	db.stats.OpenTxN = n
	db.statlock.Unlock()

	return t, nil
}

func (db *DB) beginRWTx() (*Tx, error) {
	// If the database was opened with Options.ReadOnly, return an error.
	if db.readOnly {
		return nil, ErrDatabaseReadOnly
	}

	// Obtain writer lock. This is released by the transaction when it closes.
	// This enforces only one writer transaction at a time.
	db.rwlock.Lock()

	// Once we have the writer lock then we can lock the meta pages so that
	// we can set up the transaction.
	db.metalock.Lock()
	defer db.metalock.Unlock()

	// Exit if the database is not open yet.
	if !db.opened {
		db.rwlock.Unlock()
		return nil, ErrDatabaseNotOpen
	}

	// Create a transaction associated with the database.
	t := &Tx{writable: true}
	t.init(db)
	db.rwtx = t
	db.freePages()
	return t, nil
}

// freePages releases any pages associated with closed read-only transactions.
func (db *DB) freePages() {
	// Free all pending pages prior to earliest open transaction.
	sort.Sort(txsById(db.txs))
	minid := txid(0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF)
	if len(db.txs) > 0 {
		minid = db.txs[0].meta.txid
	}
	if minid > 0 {
		db.freelist.release(minid - 1)
	}
	// Release unused txid extents.
	for _, t := range db.txs {
		db.freelist.releaseRange(minid, t.meta.txid-1)
		minid = t.meta.txid + 1
	}
	db.freelist.releaseRange(minid, txid(0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF))
	// Any page both allocated and freed in an extent is safe to release.
}

type txsById []*Tx

func (t txsById) Len() int           { return len(t) }
func (t txsById) Swap(i, j int)      { t[i], t[j] = t[j], t[i] }
func (t txsById) Less(i, j int) bool { return t[i].meta.txid < t[j].meta.txid }

// removeTx removes a transaction from the database.
func (db *DB) removeTx(tx *Tx) {
	// Release the read lock on the mmap.
	db.mmaplock.RUnlock()

	// Use the meta lock to restrict access to the DB object.
	db.metalock.Lock()

	// Remove the transaction.
	for i, t := range db.txs {
		if t == tx {
			last := len(db.txs) - 1
			db.txs[i] = db.txs[last]
			db.txs[last] = nil
			db.txs = db.txs[:last]
			break
		}
	}
	n := len(db.txs)

	// Unlock the meta pages.
	db.metalock.Unlock()

	// Merge statistics.
	db.statlock.Lock()
	db.stats.OpenTxN = n
	db.stats.TxStats.add(&tx.stats)
	db.statlock.Unlock()
}

// Update executes a function within the context of a read-write managed transaction.
// If no error is returned from the function then the transaction is committed.
// If an error is returned then the entire transaction is rolled back.
// Any error that is returned from the function or returned from the commit is
// returned from the Update() method.
//
// Attempting to manually commit or rollback within the function will cause a panic.
func (db *DB) Update(fn func(*Tx) error) error {
	t, err := db.Begin(true)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// Make sure the transaction rolls back in the event of a panic.
	defer func() {
		if t.db != nil {
			t.rollback()
		}
	}()

	// Mark as a managed tx so that the inner function cannot manually commit.
	t.managed = true

	// If an error is returned from the function then rollback and return error.
	err = fn(t)
	t.managed = false
	if err != nil {
		_ = t.Rollback()
		return err
	}

	return t.Commit()
}

// View executes a function within the context of a managed read-only transaction.
// Any error that is returned from the function is returned from the View() method.
//
// Attempting to manually rollback within the function will cause a panic.
func (db *DB) View(fn func(*Tx) error) error {
	t, err := db.Begin(false)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	// Make sure the transaction rolls back in the event of a panic.
	defer func() {
		if t.db != nil {
			t.rollback()
		}
	}()

	// Mark as a managed tx so that the inner function cannot manually rollback.
	t.managed = true

	// If an error is returned from the function then pass it through.
	err = fn(t)
	t.managed = false
	if err != nil {
		_ = t.Rollback()
		return err
	}

	return t.Rollback()
}

// Batch calls fn as part of a batch. It behaves similar to Update,
// except:
//
// 1. concurrent Batch calls can be combined into a single Bolt
// transaction.
//
// 2. the function passed to Batch may be called multiple times,
// regardless of whether it returns error or not.
//
// This means that Batch function side effects must be idempotent and
// take permanent effect only after a successful return is seen in
// caller.
//
// The maximum batch size and delay can be adjusted with DB.MaxBatchSize
// and DB.MaxBatchDelay, respectively.
//
// Batch is only useful when there are multiple goroutines calling it.
func (db *DB) Batch(fn func(*Tx) error) error {
	errCh := make(chan error, 1)

	db.batchMu.Lock()
	if (db.batch == nil) || (db.batch != nil && len(db.batch.calls) >= db.MaxBatchSize) {
		// There is no existing batch, or the existing batch is full; start a new one.
		db.batch = &batch{
			db: db,
		}
		db.batch.timer = time.AfterFunc(db.MaxBatchDelay, db.batch.trigger)
	}
	db.batch.calls = append(db.batch.calls, call{fn: fn, err: errCh})
	if len(db.batch.calls) >= db.MaxBatchSize {
		// wake up batch, it's ready to run
		go db.batch.trigger()
	}
	db.batchMu.Unlock()

	err := <-errCh
	if err == trySolo {
		err = db.Update(fn)
	}
	return err
}

type call struct {
	fn  func(*Tx) error
	err chan<- error
}

type batch struct {
	db    *DB
	timer *time.Timer
	start sync.Once
	calls []call
}

// trigger runs the batch if it hasn't already been run.
func (b *batch) trigger() {
	b.start.Do(b.run)
}

// run performs the transactions in the batch and communicates results
// back to DB.Batch.
func (b *batch) run() {
	b.db.batchMu.Lock()
	b.timer.Stop()
	// Make sure no new work is added to this batch, but don't break
	// other batches.
	if b.db.batch == b {
		b.db.batch = nil
	}
	b.db.batchMu.Unlock()

retry:
	for len(b.calls) > 0 {
		var failIdx = -1
		err := b.db.Update(func(tx *Tx) error {
			for i, c := range b.calls {
				if err := safelyCall(c.fn, tx); err != nil {
					failIdx = i
					return err
				}
			}
			return nil
		})

		if failIdx >= 0 {
			// take the failing transaction out of the batch. it's
			// safe to shorten b.calls here because db.batch no longer
			// points to us, and we hold the mutex anyway.
			c := b.calls[failIdx]
			b.calls[failIdx], b.calls = b.calls[len(b.calls)-1], b.calls[:len(b.calls)-1]
			// tell the submitter re-run it solo, continue with the rest of the batch
			c.err <- trySolo
			continue retry
		}

		// pass success, or bolt internal errors, to all callers
		for _, c := range b.calls {
			if c.err != nil {
				c.err <- err
			}
		}
		break retry
	}
}

// trySolo is a special sentinel error value used for signaling that a
// transaction function should be re-run. It should never be seen by
// callers.
var trySolo = errors.New("batch function returned an error and should be re-run solo")

type panicked struct {
	reason interface{}
}

func (p panicked) Error() string {
	if err, ok := p.reason.(error); ok {
		return err.Error()
	}
	return fmt.Sprintf("panic: %v", p.reason)
}

func safelyCall(fn func(*Tx) error, tx *Tx) (err error) {
	defer func() {
		if p := recover(); p != nil {
			err = panicked{p}
		}
	}()
	return fn(tx)
}

// Sync executes fdatasync() against the database file handle.
//
// This is not necessary under normal operation, however, if you use NoSync
// then it allows you to force the database file to sync against the disk.
func (db *DB) Sync() error { return fdatasync(db) }

// Stats retrieves ongoing performance stats for the database.
// This is only updated when a transaction closes.
func (db *DB) Stats() Stats {
	db.statlock.RLock()
	defer db.statlock.RUnlock()
	return db.stats
}

// This is for internal access to the raw data bytes from the C cursor, use
// carefully, or not at all.
func (db *DB) Info() *Info {
	return &Info{uintptr(unsafe.Pointer(&db.data[0])), db.pageSize}
}

// page retrieves a page reference from the mmap based on the current page size.
func (db *DB) page(id pgid) *page {
	pos := id * pgid(db.pageSize)
	return (*page)(unsafe.Pointer(&db.data[pos]))
}

// pageInBuffer retrieves a page reference from a given byte array based on the current page size.
func (db *DB) pageInBuffer(b []byte, id pgid) *page {
	return (*page)(unsafe.Pointer(&b[id*pgid(db.pageSize)]))
}

// meta retrieves the current meta page reference.
func (db *DB) meta() *meta {
	// We have to return the meta with the highest txid which doesn't fail
	// validation. Otherwise, we can cause errors when in fact the database is
	// in a consistent state. metaA is the one with the higher txid.
	metaA := db.meta0
	metaB := db.meta1
	if db.meta1.txid > db.meta0.txid {
		metaA = db.meta1
		metaB = db.meta0
	}

	// Use higher meta page if valid. Otherwise fallback to previous, if valid.
	if err := metaA.validate(); err == nil {
		return metaA
	} else if err := metaB.validate(); err == nil {
		return metaB
	}

	// This should never be reached, because both meta1 and meta0 were validated
	// on mmap() and we do fsync() on every write.
	panic("bolt.DB.meta(): invalid meta pages")
}

// allocate returns a contiguous block of memory starting at a given page.
func (db *DB) allocate(txid txid, count int) (*page, error) {
	// Allocate a temporary buffer for the page.
	var buf []byte
	if count == 1 {
		buf = db.pagePool.Get().([]byte)
	} else {
		buf = make([]byte, count*db.pageSize)
	}
	p := (*page)(unsafe.Pointer(&buf[0]))
	p.overflow = uint32(count - 1)

	// Use pages from the freelist if they are available.
	if p.id = db.freelist.allocate(txid, count); p.id != 0 {
		return p, nil
	}

	// Resize mmap() if we're at the end.
	p.id = db.rwtx.meta.pgid
	var minsz = int((p.id+pgid(count))+1) * db.pageSize
	if minsz >= db.datasz {
		if err := db.mmap(minsz); err != nil {
			return nil, fmt.Errorf("mmap allocate error: %s", err)
		}
	}

	// Move the page id high water mark.
	db.rwtx.meta.pgid += pgid(count)

	return p, nil
}

// grow grows the size of the database to the given sz.
func (db *DB) grow(sz int) error {
	// Ignore if the new size is less than available file size.
	if sz <= db.filesz {
		return nil
	}

	// If the data is smaller than the alloc size then only allocate what's needed.
	// Once it goes over the allocation size then allocate in chunks.
	if db.datasz < db.AllocSize {
		sz = db.datasz
	} else {
		sz += db.AllocSize
	}

	// Truncate and fsync to ensure file size metadata is flushed.
	// https://github.com/boltdb/bolt/issues/284
	if !db.NoGrowSync && !db.readOnly {
		if runtime.GOOS != "windows" {
			if err := db.file.Truncate(int64(sz)); err != nil {
				return fmt.Errorf("file resize error: %s", err)
			}
		}
		if err := db.file.Sync(); err != nil {
			return fmt.Errorf("file sync error: %s", err)
		}
	}

	db.filesz = sz
	return nil
}

func (db *DB) IsReadOnly() bool {
	return db.readOnly
}

func (db *DB) freepages() []pgid {
	tx, err := db.beginTx()
	defer func() {
		err = tx.Rollback()
		if err != nil {
			panic("freepages: failed to rollback tx")
		}
	}()
	if err != nil {
		panic("freepages: failed to open read only tx")
	}

	reachable := make(map[pgid]*page)
	nofreed := make(map[pgid]bool)
	ech := make(chan error)
	go func() {
		for e := range ech {
			panic(fmt.Sprintf("freepages: failed to get all reachable pages (%v)", e))
		}
	}()
	tx.checkBucket(&tx.root, reachable, nofreed, ech)
	close(ech)

	var fids []pgid
	for i := pgid(2); i < db.meta().pgid; i++ {
		if _, ok := reachable[i]; !ok {
			fids = append(fids, i)
		}
	}
	return fids
}

// Options represents the options that can be set when opening a database.
type Options struct {
	// Timeout is the amount of time to wait to obtain a file lock.
	// When set to zero it will wait indefinitely. This option is only
	// available on Darwin and Linux.
	Timeout time.Duration

	// Sets the DB.NoGrowSync flag before memory mapping the file.
	NoGrowSync bool

	// Do not sync freelist to disk. This improves the database write performance
	// under normal operation, but requires a full database re-sync during recovery.
	NoFreelistSync bool

	// Open database in read-only mode. Uses flock(..., LOCK_SH |LOCK_NB) to
	// grab a shared lock (UNIX).
	ReadOnly bool

	// Sets the DB.MmapFlags flag before memory mapping the file.
	MmapFlags int

	// InitialMmapSize is the initial mmap size of the database
	// in bytes. Read transactions won't block write transaction
	// if the InitialMmapSize is large enough to hold database mmap
	// size. (See DB.Begin for more information)
	//
	// If <=0, the initial map size is 0.
	// If initialMmapSize is smaller than the previous database size,
	// it takes no effect.
	InitialMmapSize int

	// PageSize overrides the default OS page size.
	PageSize int

	// NoSync sets the initial value of DB.NoSync. Normally this can just be
	// set directly on the DB itself when returned from Open(), but this option
	// is useful in APIs which expose Options but not the underlying DB.
	NoSync bool
}

// DefaultOptions represent the options used if nil options are passed into Open().
// No timeout is used which will cause Bolt to wait indefinitely for a lock.
var DefaultOptions = &Options{
	Timeout:    0,
	NoGrowSync: false,
}

// Stats represents statistics about the database.
type Stats struct {
	// Freelist stats
	FreePageN     int // total number of free pages on the freelist
	PendingPageN  int // total number of pending pages on the freelist
	FreeAlloc     int // total bytes allocated in free pages
	FreelistInuse int // total bytes used by the freelist

	// Transaction stats
	TxN     int // total number of started read transactions
	OpenTxN int // number of currently open read transactions

	TxStats TxStats // global, ongoing stats.
}

// Sub calculates and returns the difference between two sets of database stats.
// This is useful when obtaining stats at two different points and time and
// you need the performance counters that occurred within that time span.
func (s *Stats) Sub(other *Stats) Stats {
	if other == nil {
		return *s
	}
	var diff Stats
	diff.FreePageN = s.FreePageN
	diff.PendingPageN = s.PendingPageN
	diff.FreeAlloc = s.FreeAlloc
	diff.FreelistInuse = s.FreelistInuse
	diff.TxN = s.TxN - other.TxN
	diff.TxStats = s.TxStats.Sub(&other.TxStats)
	return diff
}

type Info struct {
	Data     uintptr
	PageSize int
}

type meta struct {
	magic    uint32
	version  uint32
	pageSize uint32
	flags    uint32
	root     bucket
	freelist pgid
	pgid     pgid
	txid     txid
	checksum uint64
}

// validate checks the marker bytes and version of the meta page to ensure it matches this binary.
func (m *meta) validate() error {
	if m.magic != magic {
		return ErrInvalid
	} else if m.version != version {
		return ErrVersionMismatch
	} else if m.checksum != 0 && m.checksum != m.sum64() {
		return ErrChecksum
	}
	return nil
}

// copy copies one meta object to another.
func (m *meta) copy(dest *meta) {
	*dest = *m
}

// write writes the meta onto a page.
func (m *meta) write(p *page) {
	if m.root.root >= m.pgid {
		panic(fmt.Sprintf("root bucket pgid (%d) above high water mark (%d)", m.root.root, m.pgid))
	} else if m.freelist >= m.pgid && m.freelist != pgidNoFreelist {
		// TODO: reject pgidNoFreeList if !NoFreelistSync
		panic(fmt.Sprintf("freelist pgid (%d) above high water mark (%d)", m.freelist, m.pgid))
	}

	// Page id is either going to be 0 or 1 which we can determine by the transaction ID.
	p.id = pgid(m.txid % 2)
	p.flags |= metaPageFlag

	// Calculate the checksum.
	m.checksum = m.sum64()

	m.copy(p.meta())
}

// generates the checksum for the meta.
func (m *meta) sum64() uint64 {
	var h = fnv.New64a()
	_, _ = h.Write((*[unsafe.Offsetof(meta{}.checksum)]byte)(unsafe.Pointer(m))[:])
	return h.Sum64()
}

// _assert will panic with a given formatted message if the given condition is false.
func _assert(condition bool, msg string, v ...interface{}) {
	if !condition {
		panic(fmt.Sprintf("assertion failed: "+msg, v...))
	}
}