File: iterator.go

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//  Copyright (c) 2016 Couchbase, Inc.
//  Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
//  you may not use this file except in compliance with the
//  License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
//    http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
//  software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS
//  IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either
//  express or implied. See the License for the specific language
//  governing permissions and limitations under the License.

package moss

import (
	"bytes"
	"container/heap"
	"io"
)

// DefaultNaiveSeekToMaxTries is the max number of attempts a forward
// iterator.SeekTo() will loop using simple Next()'s before giving up
// and starting a binary search for a given, forward seekToKey.
var DefaultNaiveSeekToMaxTries = 100

// An iterator tracks a min-heap "scan-line" of cursors through a
// segmentStack.  Iterator implements the sort.Interface and
// heap.Interface on its cursors.
type iterator struct {
	ss *segmentStack

	cursors []*cursor // The len(cursors) <= len(ss.a) (+1 when lowerLevelIter).

	startKeyInclusive []byte
	endKeyExclusive   []byte

	prefixLen int

	lowerLevelIter Iterator // May be nil.

	closer io.Closer

	iteratorOptions IteratorOptions
}

// A cursor rerpresents a logical entry position inside a segment in a
// segmentStack.  An ssIndex < 0 and pos < 0 mean that the op/k/v came
// from the lowerLevelIter.
type cursor struct {
	ssIndex int // Index into Iterator.ss.a.
	sc      SegmentCursor

	op uint64
	k  []byte
	v  []byte
}

// StartIterator returns a new iterator on the given segmentStack.
//
// On success, the returned Iterator will be positioned so that
// Iterator.Current() will either provide the first entry in the
// iteration range or ErrIteratorDone.
//
// A startKeyInclusive of nil means the logical "bottom-most" possible
// key and an endKeyExclusive of nil means the logical "top-most"
// possible key.
//
// StartIterator can optionally include deletion operations in the
// enumeration via the IteratorOptions.IncludeDeletions flag.
//
// StartIterator can skip lower segments, via the
// IteratorOptions.MinSegmentLevel parameter.  For example, to ignore
// the lowest, 0th segment, use MinSegmentLevel of 1.
func (ss *segmentStack) StartIterator(
	startKeyInclusive, endKeyExclusive []byte,
	iteratorOptions IteratorOptions) (Iterator, error) {
	iter, err :=
		ss.startIterator(startKeyInclusive, endKeyExclusive, iteratorOptions)
	if err != nil {
		return nil, err
	}

	return iter.optimize()
}

// startIterator() returns a new iterator on the given segmentStack.
//
// On success, the returned Iterator will be positioned so that
// Iterator.Current() will either provide the first entry in the
// iteration range or ErrIteratorDone.
//
// A startKeyInclusive of nil means the logical "bottom-most" possible
// key and an endKeyExclusive of nil means the logical "top-most"
// possible key.
//
// startIterator() can optionally include deletion operations in the
// enumeration via the IteratorOptions.IncludeDeletions flag.
//
// startIterator() can skip lower segments, via the
// IteratorOptions.MinSegmentLevel parameter.  For example, to ignore
// the lowest, 0th segment, use MinSegmentLevel of 1.
func (ss *segmentStack) startIterator(
	startKeyInclusive, endKeyExclusive []byte,
	iteratorOptions IteratorOptions) (*iterator, error) {
	if iteratorOptions.MaxSegmentHeight <= 0 {
		iteratorOptions.MaxSegmentHeight = len(ss.a)
	}

	prefixLen := 0
	if len(startKeyInclusive) > 0 &&
		len(endKeyExclusive) > 0 {
		prefixLen = sharedPrefixLen(startKeyInclusive, endKeyExclusive)
	}

	iter := &iterator{
		ss:      ss,
		cursors: make([]*cursor, 0, len(ss.a)+1),

		startKeyInclusive: startKeyInclusive,
		endKeyExclusive:   endKeyExclusive,

		prefixLen: prefixLen,

		iteratorOptions: iteratorOptions,
	}

	// ----------------------------------------------
	// Add cursors for our allowed segments.

	minSegmentLevel := iteratorOptions.MinSegmentLevel
	maxSegmentLevel := iteratorOptions.MaxSegmentHeight - 1

	ss.ensureSorted(minSegmentLevel, maxSegmentLevel)

	for ssIndex := minSegmentLevel; ssIndex <= maxSegmentLevel; ssIndex++ {
		b := ss.a[ssIndex]

		sc, err := b.Cursor(startKeyInclusive, endKeyExclusive)
		if err != nil {
			return nil, err
		}
		op, k, v := sc.Current()
		if op == 0 && k == nil && v == nil {
			continue
		}

		iter.cursors = append(iter.cursors, &cursor{
			ssIndex: ssIndex,
			sc:      sc,
			op:      op,
			k:       k,
			v:       v,
		})
	}

	// ----------------------------------------------
	// Add cursor for the lower level, if wanted.

	if !iteratorOptions.SkipLowerLevel &&
		ss.lowerLevelSnapshot != nil {
		llss := ss.lowerLevelSnapshot.addRef()
		if llss != nil {
			lowerLevelIter, err := llss.StartIterator(
				startKeyInclusive, endKeyExclusive, IteratorOptions{})

			llss.decRef()

			if err != nil {
				return nil, err
			}

			if lowerLevelIter != nil {
				k, v, err := lowerLevelIter.Current()
				if err != nil && err != ErrIteratorDone {
					return nil, err
				}
				if err == ErrIteratorDone {
					lowerLevelIter.Close()
				}
				if err == nil {
					iter.cursors = append(iter.cursors, &cursor{
						ssIndex: -1,
						op:      OperationSet,
						k:       k,
						v:       v,
					})

					iter.lowerLevelIter = lowerLevelIter
				}
			}
		}
	}

	// ----------------------------------------------
	// Heap-ify the cursors.

	heap.Init(iter)

	if !iteratorOptions.IncludeDeletions {
		entryEx, _, _, _ := iter.CurrentEx()
		if entryEx.Operation == OperationDel {
			iter.Next()
		}
	}

	return iter, nil
}

// Close must be invoked to release resources.
func (iter *iterator) Close() error {
	if iter.lowerLevelIter != nil {
		iter.lowerLevelIter.Close()
		iter.lowerLevelIter = nil
	}

	if iter.closer != nil {
		iter.closer.Close()
		iter.closer = nil
	}

	return nil
}

func (iter *iterator) InitCloser(closer io.Closer) error {
	if iter.closer != nil {
		return ErrAlreadyInitialized
	}
	iter.closer = closer
	return nil
}

// Next returns ErrIteratorDone if the iterator is done.
func (iter *iterator) Next() error {
	if len(iter.cursors) <= 0 {
		return ErrIteratorDone
	}

	lastK := iter.cursors[0].k

	for len(iter.cursors) > 0 {
		next := iter.cursors[0]

		if next.ssIndex < 0 && next.sc == nil {
			err := iter.lowerLevelIter.Next()
			if err == nil {
				next.k, next.v, err = iter.lowerLevelIter.Current()
				if err == nil && len(iter.cursors) > 1 {
					heap.Fix(iter, 0)
				}
			}

			if err != nil {
				iter.lowerLevelIter.Close()
				iter.lowerLevelIter = nil

				heap.Pop(iter)
			}
		} else {
			err := next.sc.Next()
			if err != nil {
				if err != ErrIteratorDone {
					return err
				}
				heap.Pop(iter)
			} else {
				next.op, next.k, next.v = next.sc.Current()
				if next.op == 0 {
					heap.Pop(iter)
				} else if len(iter.cursors) > 1 {
					heap.Fix(iter, 0)
				}
			}
		}

		if len(iter.cursors) <= 0 {
			return ErrIteratorDone
		}

		if !iteratorBytesEqual(iter.cursors[0].k, lastK) {
			if !iter.iteratorOptions.IncludeDeletions &&
				iter.cursors[0].op == OperationDel {
				lastK = iter.cursors[0].k
				continue
			}

			return nil
		}
	}

	return ErrIteratorDone
}

func iteratorBytesEqual(a, b []byte) bool {
	i := len(a)
	if i != len(b) {
		return false
	}
	for i > 0 { // Optimization to compare right-hand-side of keys first.
		i--
		if a[i] != b[i] {
			return false
		}
	}
	return true
}

func (iter *iterator) SeekTo(seekToKey []byte) error {
	key, _, err := iter.Current()
	if err != nil && err != ErrIteratorDone {
		return err
	}

	if key != nil {
		cmp := bytes.Compare(seekToKey, key)
		if cmp == 0 {
			return nil
		}

		if cmp > 0 {
			// Try a loop of naive Next()'s for several attempts.
			err = naiveSeekTo(iter, seekToKey, DefaultNaiveSeekToMaxTries)
			if err != ErrMaxTries {
				return err
			}
		}
	}

	// The seekToKey is before our current position, or we gave up on
	// the naiveSeekTo(), so start a brand new iterator to replace our
	// current iterator, bounded by the startKeyInclusive.
	//
	if bytes.Compare(seekToKey, iter.startKeyInclusive) < 0 {
		seekToKey = iter.startKeyInclusive
	}

	iterNew, err := iter.ss.startIterator(seekToKey,
		iter.endKeyExclusive, iter.iteratorOptions)
	if err != nil {
		return err
	}

	iterOld := *iter // Clone current iterator before overwriting it.
	iterOld.closer = nil

	iter.cursors = iterNew.cursors
	iter.lowerLevelIter = iterNew.lowerLevelIter

	iterOld.Close()

	_, _, err = iter.Current()

	return err
}

func naiveSeekTo(iter Iterator, seekToKey []byte, maxTries int) error {
	for i := 0; maxTries <= 0 || i < maxTries; i++ {
		key, _, err := iter.Current()
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}

		if bytes.Compare(seekToKey, key) <= 0 {
			return nil
		}

		err = iter.Next()
		if err != nil {
			return err
		}
	}

	return ErrMaxTries
}

// Current returns ErrIteratorDone if the iterator is done.
// Otherwise, Current() returns the current key and val, which should
// be treated as immutable or read-only.  The key and val bytes will
// remain available until the next call to Next() or Close().
func (iter *iterator) Current() ([]byte, []byte, error) {
	entryEx, key, val, err := iter.CurrentEx()
	if err != nil {
		return nil, nil, err
	}

	op := entryEx.Operation
	if op == OperationDel {
		return nil, nil, nil
	}

	if op == OperationMerge {
		var valMerged []byte
		valMerged, err = iter.ss.getMerged(key, val, iter.cursors[0].ssIndex-1,
			iter.iteratorOptions.base, ReadOptions{})
		if err != nil {
			return nil, nil, err
		}

		return key, valMerged, nil
	}

	return key, val, err
}

// CurrentEx is a more advanced form of Current() that returns more
// metadata.  It is used when IteratorOptions.IncludeDeletions is
// true.  It returns ErrIteratorDone if the iterator is done.
// Otherwise, the current operation, key, val are returned.
func (iter *iterator) CurrentEx() (
	entryEx EntryEx, key, val []byte, err error) {
	if len(iter.cursors) <= 0 {
		return EntryEx{}, nil, nil, ErrIteratorDone
	}

	cursor := iter.cursors[0]

	return EntryEx{Operation: cursor.op}, cursor.k, cursor.v, nil
}

func (iter *iterator) Len() int {
	return len(iter.cursors)
}

func (iter *iterator) Less(i, j int) bool {
	a := iter.cursors[i].k[iter.prefixLen:]
	b := iter.cursors[j].k[iter.prefixLen:]
	c := bytes.Compare(a, b)
	if c < 0 {
		return true
	}
	if c > 0 {
		return false
	}

	return iter.cursors[i].ssIndex > iter.cursors[j].ssIndex
}

func (iter *iterator) Swap(i, j int) {
	iter.cursors[i], iter.cursors[j] = iter.cursors[j], iter.cursors[i]
}

func (iter *iterator) Push(x interface{}) {
	// Push and Pop use pointer receivers because they modify the slice's length,
	// not just its contents.
	iter.cursors = append(iter.cursors, x.(*cursor))
}

func (iter *iterator) Pop() interface{} {
	n := len(iter.cursors)
	x := iter.cursors[n-1]
	iter.cursors = iter.cursors[0 : n-1]
	return x
}

// --------------------------------------------

// The optimize method tries to optimize an iterator.  For example,
// when there's only a single segment, then the heap can be avoided by
// using a simpler, faster iteratorSingle implementation.
func (iter *iterator) optimize() (Iterator, error) {
	if len(iter.cursors) != 1 {
		return iter, nil
	}

	cur := iter.cursors[0]

	if cur.ssIndex == -1 && cur.sc == nil {
		// Optimization to return lowerLevelIter directly.
		return iter.lowerLevelIter, nil
	}

	seg, ok := iter.ss.a[cur.ssIndex].(*segment)
	if !ok || seg == nil {
		return iter, nil
	}

	return &iteratorSingle{
		s:       seg,
		sc:      cur.sc,
		op:      cur.op,
		k:       cur.k,
		v:       cur.v,
		closer:  iter.closer,
		options: iter.ss.options,

		iteratorOptions: iter.iteratorOptions,
	}, nil
}

// --------------------------------------------

// sharedPrefixLen returns the length of the prefix shared by a and b,
// which can might be 0 length.
func sharedPrefixLen(a, b []byte) int {
	i := 0
	for i < len(a) && i < len(b) {
		if a[i] != b[i] {
			return i
		}
		i++
	}
	return i
}