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<a name="Reading-and-writing-permutations"></a>
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Next: <a href="Permutations-in-cyclic-form.html#Permutations-in-cyclic-form" accesskey="n" rel="next">Permutations in cyclic form</a>, Previous: <a href="Applying-Permutations.html#Applying-Permutations" accesskey="p" rel="previous">Applying Permutations</a>, Up: <a href="Permutations.html#Permutations" accesskey="u" rel="up">Permutations</a> &nbsp; [<a href="Function-Index.html#Function-Index" title="Index" rel="index">Index</a>]</p>
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<hr>
<a name="Reading-and-writing-permutations-1"></a>
<h3 class="section">9.7 Reading and writing permutations</h3>

<p>The library provides functions for reading and writing permutations to a
file as binary data or formatted text.
</p>
<dl>
<dt><a name="index-gsl_005fpermutation_005ffwrite"></a>Function: <em>int</em> <strong>gsl_permutation_fwrite</strong> <em>(FILE * <var>stream</var>, const gsl_permutation * <var>p</var>)</em></dt>
<dd><p>This function writes the elements of the permutation <var>p</var> to the
stream <var>stream</var> in binary format.  The function returns
<code>GSL_EFAILED</code> if there was a problem writing to the file.  Since the
data is written in the native binary format it may not be portable
between different architectures.
</p></dd></dl>

<dl>
<dt><a name="index-gsl_005fpermutation_005ffread"></a>Function: <em>int</em> <strong>gsl_permutation_fread</strong> <em>(FILE * <var>stream</var>, gsl_permutation * <var>p</var>)</em></dt>
<dd><p>This function reads into the permutation <var>p</var> from the open stream
<var>stream</var> in binary format.  The permutation <var>p</var> must be
preallocated with the correct length since the function uses the size of
<var>p</var> to determine how many bytes to read.  The function returns
<code>GSL_EFAILED</code> if there was a problem reading from the file.  The
data is assumed to have been written in the native binary format on the
same architecture.
</p></dd></dl>

<dl>
<dt><a name="index-gsl_005fpermutation_005ffprintf"></a>Function: <em>int</em> <strong>gsl_permutation_fprintf</strong> <em>(FILE * <var>stream</var>, const gsl_permutation * <var>p</var>, const char * <var>format</var>)</em></dt>
<dd><p>This function writes the elements of the permutation <var>p</var>
line-by-line to the stream <var>stream</var> using the format specifier
<var>format</var>, which should be suitable for a type of <var>size_t</var>. 
In ISO C99 the type modifier <code>z</code> represents <code>size_t</code>, so
<code>&quot;%zu\n&quot;</code> is a suitable format.<a name="DOCF9" href="#FOOT9"><sup>9</sup></a>
The function returns <code>GSL_EFAILED</code> if there was a problem writing
to the file.
</p></dd></dl>

<dl>
<dt><a name="index-gsl_005fpermutation_005ffscanf"></a>Function: <em>int</em> <strong>gsl_permutation_fscanf</strong> <em>(FILE * <var>stream</var>, gsl_permutation * <var>p</var>)</em></dt>
<dd><p>This function reads formatted data from the stream <var>stream</var> into the
permutation <var>p</var>.  The permutation <var>p</var> must be preallocated with
the correct length since the function uses the size of <var>p</var> to
determine how many numbers to read.  The function returns
<code>GSL_EFAILED</code> if there was a problem reading from the file.
</p></dd></dl>

<div class="footnote">
<hr>
<h4 class="footnotes-heading">Footnotes</h4>

<h3><a name="FOOT9" href="#DOCF9">(9)</a></h3>
<p>In versions of the 
GNU C library prior to the ISO C99 standard, 
the type modifier <code>Z</code> was used instead.</p>
</div>
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Next: <a href="Permutations-in-cyclic-form.html#Permutations-in-cyclic-form" accesskey="n" rel="next">Permutations in cyclic form</a>, Previous: <a href="Applying-Permutations.html#Applying-Permutations" accesskey="p" rel="previous">Applying Permutations</a>, Up: <a href="Permutations.html#Permutations" accesskey="u" rel="up">Permutations</a> &nbsp; [<a href="Function-Index.html#Function-Index" title="Index" rel="index">Index</a>]</p>
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