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<title>GNU Scientific Library &ndash; Reference Manual: Shared Libraries</title>

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<a name="Shared-Libraries"></a>
<div class="header">
<p>
Next: <a href="ANSI-C-Compliance.html#ANSI-C-Compliance" accesskey="n" rel="next">ANSI C Compliance</a>, Previous: <a href="Compiling-and-Linking.html#Compiling-and-Linking" accesskey="p" rel="previous">Compiling and Linking</a>, Up: <a href="Using-the-library.html#Using-the-library" accesskey="u" rel="up">Using the library</a> &nbsp; [<a href="Function-Index.html#Function-Index" title="Index" rel="index">Index</a>]</p>
</div>
<hr>
<a name="Shared-Libraries-1"></a>
<h3 class="section">2.3 Shared Libraries</h3>
<a name="index-shared-libraries"></a>
<a name="index-libraries_002c-shared"></a>
<a name="index-LD_005fLIBRARY_005fPATH"></a>
<p>To run a program linked with the shared version of the library the
operating system must be able to locate the corresponding <samp>.so</samp>
file at runtime.  If the library cannot be found, the following error
will occur:
</p>
<div class="example">
<pre class="example">$ ./a.out 
./a.out: error while loading shared libraries: 
libgsl.so.0: cannot open shared object file: No such 
file or directory
</pre></div>

<p>To avoid this error, either modify the system dynamic linker
configuration<a name="DOCF5" href="#FOOT5"><sup>5</sup></a> or
define the shell variable <code>LD_LIBRARY_PATH</code> to include the
directory where the library is installed.
</p>
<p>For example, in the Bourne shell (<code>/bin/sh</code> or <code>/bin/bash</code>),
the library search path can be set with the following commands:
</p>
<div class="example">
<pre class="example">$ LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/lib
$ export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
$ ./example
</pre></div>

<p>In the C-shell (<code>/bin/csh</code> or <code>/bin/tcsh</code>) the equivalent
command is,
</p>
<div class="example">
<pre class="example">% setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH /usr/local/lib
</pre></div>

<p>The standard prompt for the C-shell in the example above is the percent
character &lsquo;<samp>%</samp>&rsquo;, and should not be typed as part of the command.
</p>
<p>To save retyping these commands each session they can be placed in an
individual or system-wide login file.
</p>
<p>To compile a statically linked version of the program, use the
<code>-static</code> flag in <code>gcc</code>,
</p>
<div class="example">
<pre class="example">$ gcc -static example.o -lgsl -lgslcblas -lm
</pre></div>

<div class="footnote">
<hr>
<h4 class="footnotes-heading">Footnotes</h4>

<h3><a name="FOOT5" href="#DOCF5">(5)</a></h3>
<p><samp>/etc/ld.so.conf</samp> on GNU/Linux systems.</p>
</div>



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