File: Test.hs

package info (click to toggle)
haskell-esqueleto 2.4.3-5
  • links: PTS, VCS
  • area: main
  • in suites: stretch
  • size: 320 kB
  • ctags: 1
  • sloc: haskell: 2,972; makefile: 3
file content (1473 lines) | stat: -rw-r--r-- 53,534 bytes parent folder | download
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
{-# OPTIONS_GHC -fno-warn-unused-binds  #-}
{-# LANGUAGE ConstraintKinds
           , EmptyDataDecls
           , FlexibleContexts
           , FlexibleInstances
           , DeriveGeneric
           , GADTs
           , GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving
           , MultiParamTypeClasses
           , OverloadedStrings
           , QuasiQuotes
           , Rank2Types
           , TemplateHaskell
           , TypeFamilies
           , ScopedTypeVariables
           , CPP
           , TypeSynonymInstances
 #-}
module Main (main) where

import Control.Applicative ((<$>))
import Control.Arrow ((&&&))
import Control.Exception (IOException)
import Control.Monad (forM_, replicateM, replicateM_, void)
import Control.Monad.IO.Class (MonadIO(liftIO))
import Control.Monad.Logger (MonadLogger(..), runStderrLoggingT, runNoLoggingT)
import Control.Monad.Trans.Control (MonadBaseControl(..))
import Control.Monad.Trans.Reader (ReaderT)
import Data.Char (toLower, toUpper)
import Data.List (sortBy)
import Data.Monoid ((<>))
import Data.Ord (comparing)
import Database.Esqueleto
#if   defined (WITH_POSTGRESQL)
import Database.Persist.Postgresql (withPostgresqlConn)
#elif defined (WITH_MYSQL)
import Database.Persist.MySQL ( withMySQLConn
                              , connectHost
                              , connectDatabase
                              , connectUser
                              , connectPassword
                              , defaultConnectInfo)
#else
import Database.Persist.Sqlite (withSqliteConn)
#if MIN_VERSION_persistent_sqlite(2,1,3)
import Database.Sqlite (SqliteException)
#endif
#endif
import Database.Persist.TH
import Test.Hspec

import qualified Control.Monad.Trans.Resource as R
import qualified Data.List as L
import qualified Data.Set as S
import qualified Data.Text.Lazy.Builder as TLB
import qualified Database.Esqueleto.PostgreSQL as EP
import qualified Database.Esqueleto.Internal.Sql as EI


-- Test schema
share [mkPersist sqlSettings, mkMigrate "migrateAll"] [persistUpperCase|
  Foo
    name Int
    Primary name
  Bar
    quux FooId

  Person
    name String
    age Int Maybe
    weight Int Maybe
    favNum Int
    deriving Eq Show
  BlogPost
    title String
    authorId PersonId
    deriving Eq Show
  Follow
    follower PersonId
    followed PersonId
    deriving Eq Show

  CcList
    names [String]

  Frontcover
    number Int
    title String
    Primary number
    deriving Eq Show
  Article
    title String
    frontcoverNumber Int
    Foreign Frontcover fkfrontcover frontcoverNumber
    deriving Eq Show
  Tag
    name String
    Primary name
    deriving Eq Show
  ArticleTag
    articleId ArticleId
    tagId     TagId
    Primary   articleId tagId
    deriving Eq Show
  Article2
    title String
    frontcoverId FrontcoverId
    deriving Eq Show
  Point
    x Int
    y Int
    name String
    Primary x y
    deriving Eq Show
  Circle
    centerX Int
    centerY Int
    name String
    Foreign Point fkpoint centerX centerY
    deriving Eq Show
  Numbers
    int    Int
    double Double
|]

-- | this could be achieved with S.fromList, but not all lists
--   have Ord instances
sameElementsAs :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool
sameElementsAs l1 l2 = null (l1 L.\\ l2)

main :: IO ()
main = do
  let p1 = Person "John"   (Just 36) Nothing   1
      p2 = Person "Rachel" Nothing   (Just 37) 2
      p3 = Person "Mike"   (Just 17) Nothing   3
      p4 = Person "Livia"  (Just 17) (Just 18) 4
      p5 = Person "Mitch"  Nothing   Nothing   5
  hspec $ do
    describe "select" $ do
      it "works for a single value" $
        run $ do
          ret <- select $ return $ val (3 :: Int)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value 3 ]

      it "works for a pair of a single value and ()" $
        run $ do
          ret <- select $ return (val (3 :: Int), ())
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ (Value 3, ()) ]

      it "works for a single ()" $
        run $ do
          ret <- select $ return ()
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ () ]

      it "works for a single NULL value" $
        run $ do
          ret <- select $ return $ nothing
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value (Nothing :: Maybe Int) ]

    describe "select/from" $ do
      it "works for a simple example" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \person ->
                 return person
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p1e ]

      it "works for a simple self-join (one entity)" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \(person1, person2) ->
                 return (person1, person2)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ (p1e, p1e) ]

      it "works for a simple self-join (two entities)" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          p2e <- insert' p2
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \(person1, person2) ->
                 return (person1, person2)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldSatisfy` sameElementsAs [ (p1e, p1e)
                                                      , (p1e, p2e)
                                                      , (p2e, p1e)
                                                      , (p2e, p2e) ]

      it "works for a self-join via sub_select" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          p2k <- insert p2
          _f1k <- insert (Follow p1k p2k)
          _f2k <- insert (Follow p2k p1k)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \followA -> do
                 let subquery =
                       from $ \followB -> do
                       where_ $ followA ^. FollowFollower ==. followB ^. FollowFollowed
                       return $ followB ^. FollowFollower
                 where_ $ followA ^. FollowFollowed ==. sub_select subquery
                 return followA
          liftIO $ length ret `shouldBe` 2

      it "works for a self-join via exists" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          p2k <- insert p2
          _f1k <- insert (Follow p1k p2k)
          _f2k <- insert (Follow p2k p1k)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \followA -> do
                 where_ $ exists $
                          from $ \followB ->
                          where_ $ followA ^. FollowFollower ==. followB ^. FollowFollowed
                 return followA
          liftIO $ length ret `shouldBe` 2


      it "works for a simple projection" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          p2k <- insert p2
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p ->
                 return (p ^. PersonId, p ^. PersonName)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ (Value p1k, Value (personName p1))
                                  , (Value p2k, Value (personName p2)) ]

      it "works for a simple projection with a simple implicit self-join" $
        run $ do
          _ <- insert p1
          _ <- insert p2
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \(pa, pb) ->
                 return (pa ^. PersonName, pb ^. PersonName)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldSatisfy` sameElementsAs
                                  [ (Value (personName p1), Value (personName p1))
                                  , (Value (personName p1), Value (personName p2))
                                  , (Value (personName p2), Value (personName p1))
                                  , (Value (personName p2), Value (personName p2)) ]

      it "works with many kinds of LIMITs and OFFSETs" $
        run $ do
          [p1e, p2e, p3e, p4e] <- mapM insert' [p1, p2, p3, p4]
          let people = from $ \p -> do
                       orderBy [asc (p ^. PersonName)]
                       return p
          ret1 <- select $ do
                  p <- people
                  limit 2
                  limit 1
                  return p
          liftIO $ ret1 `shouldBe` [ p1e ]
          ret2 <- select $ do
                  p <- people
                  limit 1
                  limit 2
                  return p
          liftIO $ ret2 `shouldBe` [ p1e, p4e ]
          ret3 <- select $ do
                  p <- people
                  offset 3
                  offset 2
                  return p
          liftIO $ ret3 `shouldBe` [ p3e, p2e ]
          ret4 <- select $ do
                  p <- people
                  offset 3
                  limit 5
                  offset 2
                  limit 3
                  offset 1
                  limit 2
                  return p
          liftIO $ ret4 `shouldBe` [ p4e, p3e ]
          ret5 <- select $ do
                  p <- people
                  offset 1000
                  limit  1
                  limit  1000
                  offset 0
                  return p
          liftIO $ ret5 `shouldBe` [ p1e, p4e, p3e, p2e ]

      it "works with non-id primary key" $
        run $ do
          let fc = Frontcover number ""
              number = 101
              Right thePk = keyFromValues [toPersistValue number]
          fcPk <- insert fc
          [Entity _ ret] <- select $ from $ return
          liftIO $ do
            ret `shouldBe` fc
            fcPk `shouldBe` thePk

      it "works when returning a custom non-composite primary key from a query" $
        run $ do
          let name = "foo"
              t = Tag name
              Right thePk = keyFromValues [toPersistValue name]
          tagPk <- insert t
          [Value ret] <- select $ from $ \t' -> return (t'^.TagId)
          liftIO $ do
            ret `shouldBe` thePk
            thePk `shouldBe` tagPk

      it "works when returning a composite primary key from a query" $
        run $ do
          let p = Point 10 20 ""
          thePk <- insert p
          [Value ppk] <- select $ from $ \p' -> return (p'^.PointId)
          liftIO $ ppk `shouldBe` thePk


    describe "select/JOIN" $ do
      it "works with a LEFT OUTER JOIN" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          p2e <- insert' p2
          p3e <- insert' p3
          p4e <- insert' p4
          b12e <- insert' $ BlogPost "b" (entityKey p1e)
          b11e <- insert' $ BlogPost "a" (entityKey p1e)
          b31e <- insert' $ BlogPost "c" (entityKey p3e)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \(p `LeftOuterJoin` mb) -> do
                 on (just (p ^. PersonId) ==. mb ?. BlogPostAuthorId)
                 orderBy [ asc (p ^. PersonName), asc (mb ?. BlogPostTitle) ]
                 return (p, mb)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ (p1e, Just b11e)
                                  , (p1e, Just b12e)
                                  , (p4e, Nothing)
                                  , (p3e, Just b31e)
                                  , (p2e, Nothing) ]

      it "typechecks (A LEFT OUTER JOIN (B LEFT OUTER JOIN C))" $
        let _ = run $
                select $
                from $ \(a `LeftOuterJoin` (b `LeftOuterJoin` c)) ->
                let _ = [a, b, c] :: [ SqlExpr (Entity Person) ]
                in return a
        in return () :: IO ()

      it "typechecks ((A LEFT OUTER JOIN B) LEFT OUTER JOIN C)" $
        let _ = run $
                select $
                from $ \((a `LeftOuterJoin` b) `LeftOuterJoin` c) ->
                let _ = [a, b, c] :: [ SqlExpr (Entity Person) ]
                in return a
        in return () :: IO ()

      it "throws an error for using on without joins" $
        run (select $
             from $ \(p, mb) -> do
             on (just (p ^. PersonId) ==. mb ?. BlogPostAuthorId)
             orderBy [ asc (p ^. PersonName), asc (mb ?. BlogPostTitle) ]
             return (p, mb)
        ) `shouldThrow` (\(OnClauseWithoutMatchingJoinException _) -> True)

      it "throws an error for using too many ons" $
        run (select $
             from $ \(p `FullOuterJoin` mb) -> do
             on (just (p ^. PersonId) ==. mb ?. BlogPostAuthorId)
             on (just (p ^. PersonId) ==. mb ?. BlogPostAuthorId)
             orderBy [ asc (p ^. PersonName), asc (mb ?. BlogPostTitle) ]
             return (p, mb)
        ) `shouldThrow` (\(OnClauseWithoutMatchingJoinException _) -> True)

      it "works with ForeignKey to a non-id primary key returning one entity" $
        run $ do
          let fc = Frontcover number ""
              article = Article "Esqueleto supports composite pks!" number
              number = 101
              Right thePk = keyFromValues [toPersistValue number]
          fcPk <- insert fc
          insert_ article
          [Entity _ retFc] <- select $
            from $ \(a `InnerJoin` f) -> do
              on (f^.FrontcoverNumber ==. a^.ArticleFrontcoverNumber)
              return f
          liftIO $ do
            retFc `shouldBe` fc
            fcPk `shouldBe` thePk

      it "works with a ForeignKey to a non-id primary key returning both entities" $
        run $ do
          let fc = Frontcover number ""
              article = Article "Esqueleto supports composite pks!" number
              number = 101
              Right thePk = keyFromValues [toPersistValue number]
          fcPk <- insert fc
          insert_ article
          [(Entity _ retFc, Entity _ retArt)] <- select $
            from $ \(a `InnerJoin` f) -> do
              on (f^.FrontcoverNumber ==. a^.ArticleFrontcoverNumber)
              return (f, a)
          liftIO $ do
            retFc `shouldBe` fc
            retArt `shouldBe` article
            fcPk `shouldBe` thePk
            articleFkfrontcover retArt `shouldBe` thePk

      it "works with a non-id primary key returning one entity" $
        run $ do
          let fc = Frontcover number ""
              article = Article2 "Esqueleto supports composite pks!" thePk
              number = 101
              Right thePk = keyFromValues [toPersistValue number]
          fcPk <- insert fc
          insert_ article
          [Entity _ retFc] <- select $
            from $ \(a `InnerJoin` f) -> do
              on (f^.FrontcoverId ==. a^.Article2FrontcoverId)
              return f
          liftIO $ do
            retFc `shouldBe` fc
            fcPk `shouldBe` thePk

      it "works with a composite primary key" $
        pendingWith "Persistent does not create the CircleFkPoint constructor. See: https://github.com/yesodweb/persistent/issues/341"
        {-
        run $ do
          let p = Point x y ""
              c = Circle x y ""
              x = 10
              y = 15
              Right thePk = keyFromValues [toPersistValue x, toPersistValue y]
          pPk <- insert p
          insert_ c
          [Entity _ ret] <- select $ from $ \(c' `InnerJoin` p') -> do
            on (p'^.PointId ==. c'^.CircleFkpoint)
            return p'
          liftIO $ do
            ret `shouldBe` p
            pPk `shouldBe` thePk
       -}

      it "works when joining via a non-id primary key" $
        run $ do
          let fc = Frontcover number ""
              article = Article "Esqueleto supports composite pks!" number
              tag = Tag "foo"
              otherTag = Tag "ignored"
              number = 101
          insert_ fc
          insert_ otherTag
          artId <- insert article
          tagId <- insert tag
          insert_ $ ArticleTag artId tagId
          [(Entity _ retArt, Entity _ retTag)] <- select $
            from $ \(a `InnerJoin` at `InnerJoin` t) -> do
              on (t^.TagId ==. at^.ArticleTagTagId)
              on (a^.ArticleId ==. at^.ArticleTagArticleId)
              return (a, t)
          liftIO $ do
            retArt `shouldBe` article
            retTag `shouldBe` tag

      it "respects the associativity of joins" $
        run $ do
            void $ insert p1
            ps <- select . from $
                      \((p :: SqlExpr (Entity Person))
                       `LeftOuterJoin`
                        ((_q :: SqlExpr (Entity Person))
                         `InnerJoin` (_r :: SqlExpr (Entity Person)))) -> do
                on (val False) -- Inner join is empty
                on (val True)
                return p
            liftIO $ (entityVal <$> ps) `shouldBe` [p1]

    describe "select/where_" $ do
      it "works for a simple example with (==.)" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          _   <- insert' p2
          _   <- insert' p3
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 where_ (p ^. PersonName ==. val "John")
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p1e ]

      it "works for a simple example with (==.) and (||.)" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          p2e <- insert' p2
          _   <- insert' p3
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 where_ (p ^. PersonName ==. val "John" ||. p ^. PersonName ==. val "Rachel")
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p1e, p2e ]

      it "works for a simple example with (>.) [uses val . Just]" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          _   <- insert' p2
          _   <- insert' p3
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 where_ (p ^. PersonAge >. val (Just 17))
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p1e ]

      it "works for a simple example with (>.) and not_ [uses just . val]" $
        run $ do
          _   <- insert' p1
          _   <- insert' p2
          p3e <- insert' p3
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 where_ (not_ $ p ^. PersonAge >. just (val 17))
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p3e ]

      it "works with sum_" $
        run $ do
          _ <- insert' p1
          _ <- insert' p2
          _ <- insert' p3
          _ <- insert' p4
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p->
                 return $ joinV $ sum_ (p ^. PersonAge)
#if   defined(WITH_POSTGRESQL)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value $ Just (36 + 17 + 17 :: Rational ) ]
#elif defined(WITH_MYSQL)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value $ Just (36 + 17 + 17 :: Double ) ]
#else
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value $ Just (36 + 17 + 17 :: Int) ]
#endif

      it "works with avg_" $
        run $ do
          _ <- insert' p1
          _ <- insert' p2
          _ <- insert' p3
          _ <- insert' p4
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p->
                 return $ joinV $ avg_ (p ^. PersonAge)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value $ Just ((36 + 17 + 17) / 3 :: Double) ]

      it "works with min_" $
        run $ do
          _ <- insert' p1
          _ <- insert' p2
          _ <- insert' p3
          _ <- insert' p4
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p->
                 return $ joinV $ min_ (p ^. PersonAge)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value $ Just (17 :: Int) ]

      it "works with max_" $
        run $ do
          _ <- insert' p1
          _ <- insert' p2
          _ <- insert' p3
          _ <- insert' p4
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p->
                 return $ joinV $ max_ (p ^. PersonAge)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value $ Just (36 :: Int) ]

      it "works with lower_" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          p2e@(Entity _ bob) <- insert' $ Person "bob" (Just 36) Nothing   1

          -- lower(name) == 'john'
          ret1 <- select $
                  from $ \p-> do
                  where_ (lower_ (p ^. PersonName) ==. val (map toLower $ personName p1))
                  return p
          liftIO $ ret1 `shouldBe` [ p1e ]

          -- name == lower('BOB')
          ret2 <- select $
                  from $ \p-> do
                  where_ (p ^. PersonName ==. lower_ (val $ map toUpper $ personName bob))
                  return p
          liftIO $ ret2 `shouldBe` [ p2e ]

      it "works with random_" $
        run $ do
#if defined(WITH_POSTGRESQL) || defined(WITH_MYSQL)
          _ <- select $ return (random_ :: SqlExpr (Value Double))
#else
          _ <- select $ return (random_ :: SqlExpr (Value Int))
#endif
          return ()

      it "works with round_" $
        run $ do
          ret <- select $ return $ round_ (val (16.2 :: Double))
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value (16 :: Double) ]

      it "works with isNothing" $
        run $ do
          _   <- insert' p1
          p2e <- insert' p2
          _   <- insert' p3
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 where_ $ isNothing (p ^. PersonAge)
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p2e ]

      it "works with not_ . isNothing" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          _   <- insert' p2
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 where_ $ not_ (isNothing (p ^. PersonAge))
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p1e ]

      it "works for a many-to-many implicit join" $
        run $ do
          p1e@(Entity p1k _) <- insert' p1
          p2e@(Entity p2k _) <- insert' p2
          _                  <- insert' p3
          p4e@(Entity p4k _) <- insert' p4
          f12 <- insert' (Follow p1k p2k)
          f21 <- insert' (Follow p2k p1k)
          f42 <- insert' (Follow p4k p2k)
          f11 <- insert' (Follow p1k p1k)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \(follower, follows, followed) -> do
                 where_ $ follower ^. PersonId ==. follows ^. FollowFollower &&.
                          followed ^. PersonId ==. follows ^. FollowFollowed
                 orderBy [ asc (follower ^. PersonName)
                         , asc (followed ^. PersonName) ]
                 return (follower, follows, followed)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ (p1e, f11, p1e)
                                  , (p1e, f12, p2e)
                                  , (p4e, f42, p2e)
                                  , (p2e, f21, p1e) ]

      it "works for a many-to-many explicit join" $
        run $ do
          p1e@(Entity p1k _) <- insert' p1
          p2e@(Entity p2k _) <- insert' p2
          _                  <- insert' p3
          p4e@(Entity p4k _) <- insert' p4
          f12 <- insert' (Follow p1k p2k)
          f21 <- insert' (Follow p2k p1k)
          f42 <- insert' (Follow p4k p2k)
          f11 <- insert' (Follow p1k p1k)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \(follower `InnerJoin` follows `InnerJoin` followed) -> do
                 on $ followed ^. PersonId ==. follows ^. FollowFollowed
                 on $ follower ^. PersonId ==. follows ^. FollowFollower
                 orderBy [ asc (follower ^. PersonName)
                         , asc (followed ^. PersonName) ]
                 return (follower, follows, followed)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ (p1e, f11, p1e)
                                  , (p1e, f12, p2e)
                                  , (p4e, f42, p2e)
                                  , (p2e, f21, p1e) ]

      it "works for a many-to-many explicit join with LEFT OUTER JOINs" $
        run $ do
          p1e@(Entity p1k _) <- insert' p1
          p2e@(Entity p2k _) <- insert' p2
          p3e                <- insert' p3
          p4e@(Entity p4k _) <- insert' p4
          f12 <- insert' (Follow p1k p2k)
          f21 <- insert' (Follow p2k p1k)
          f42 <- insert' (Follow p4k p2k)
          f11 <- insert' (Follow p1k p1k)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \(follower `LeftOuterJoin` mfollows `LeftOuterJoin` mfollowed) -> do
                 on $      mfollowed ?. PersonId  ==. mfollows ?. FollowFollowed
                 on $ just (follower ^. PersonId) ==. mfollows ?. FollowFollower
                 orderBy [ asc ( follower ^. PersonName)
                         , asc (mfollowed ?. PersonName) ]
                 return (follower, mfollows, mfollowed)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ (p1e, Just f11, Just p1e)
                                  , (p1e, Just f12, Just p2e)
                                  , (p4e, Just f42, Just p2e)
                                  , (p3e, Nothing,  Nothing)
                                  , (p2e, Just f21, Just p1e) ]

      it "works with a composite primary key" $
        run $ do
          let p = Point x y ""
              x = 10
              y = 15
              Right thePk = keyFromValues [toPersistValue x, toPersistValue y]
          pPk <- insert p
          [Entity _ ret] <- select $ from $ \p' -> do
            where_ (p'^.PointId ==. val pPk)
            return p'
          liftIO $ do
            ret `shouldBe` p
            pPk `shouldBe` thePk


    describe "select/orderBy" $ do
      it "works with a single ASC field" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          p2e <- insert' p2
          p3e <- insert' p3
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 orderBy [asc $ p ^. PersonName]
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p1e, p3e, p2e ]

      it "works with two ASC fields (one call)" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          p2e <- insert' p2
          p3e <- insert' p3
          p4e <- insert' p4
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 orderBy [asc (p ^. PersonAge), asc (p ^. PersonName)]
                 return p
          -- in PostgreSQL nulls are bigger than everything
#ifdef WITH_POSTGRESQL
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p4e, p3e, p1e , p2e ]
#else
          -- in SQLite and MySQL, its the reverse
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p2e, p4e, p3e, p1e ]
#endif

      it "works with one ASC and one DESC field (two calls)" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          p2e <- insert' p2
          p3e <- insert' p3
          p4e <- insert' p4
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 orderBy [desc (p ^. PersonAge)]
                 orderBy [asc (p ^. PersonName)]
                 return p
#ifdef WITH_POSTGRESQL
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p2e, p1e, p4e, p3e ]
#else
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ p1e, p4e, p3e, p2e ]
#endif

      it "works with a sub_select" $
        run $ do
          [p1k, p2k, p3k, p4k] <- mapM insert [p1, p2, p3, p4]
          [b1k, b2k, b3k, b4k] <- mapM (insert . BlogPost "") [p1k, p2k, p3k, p4k]
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \b -> do
                 orderBy [desc $ sub_select $
                                 from $ \p -> do
                                 where_ (p ^. PersonId ==. b ^. BlogPostAuthorId)
                                 return (p ^. PersonName)
                         ]
                 return (b ^. BlogPostId)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` (Value <$> [b2k, b3k, b4k, b1k])

      it "works with asc random_" $
        run $ do
          _p1e <- insert' p1
          _p2e <- insert' p2
          _p3e <- insert' p3
          _p4e <- insert' p4
          rets <-
            fmap S.fromList $
            replicateM 11 $
            select $
            from $ \p -> do
            orderBy [asc (random_ :: SqlExpr (Value Double))]
            return (p ^. PersonId :: SqlExpr (Value PersonId))
          -- There are 2^4 = 16 possible orderings.  The chance
          -- of 11 random samplings returning the same ordering
          -- is 1/2^40, so this test should pass almost everytime.
          liftIO $ S.size rets `shouldSatisfy` (>2)

      it "works on a composite primary key" $
        run $ do
          let ps = [Point 2 1 "", Point 1 2 ""]
          mapM_ insert ps
          eps <- select $
            from $ \p' -> do
              orderBy [asc (p'^.PointId)]
              return p'
          liftIO $ map entityVal eps `shouldBe` reverse ps


    describe "SELECT DISTINCT" $ do
      let selDistTest
            :: (   forall m. RunDbMonad m
                => SqlQuery (SqlExpr (Value String))
                -> SqlPersistT (R.ResourceT m) [Value String])
            -> IO ()
          selDistTest q =
            run $ do
              p1k <- insert p1
              let (t1, t2, t3) = ("a", "b", "c")
              mapM_ (insert . flip BlogPost p1k) [t1, t3, t2, t2, t1]
              ret <- q $
                     from $ \b -> do
                     let title = b ^. BlogPostTitle
                     orderBy [asc title]
                     return title
              liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value t1, Value t2, Value t3 ]
      it "works on a simple example (selectDistinct)" $
        selDistTest selectDistinct

      it "works on a simple example (select . distinct)" $
        selDistTest (select . distinct)

      it "works on a simple example (distinct (return ()))" $
        selDistTest (\act -> select $ distinct (return ()) >> act)

#if defined(WITH_POSTGRESQL)
    describe "SELECT DISTINCT ON" $ do
      it "works on a simple example" $ do
        run $ do
          [p1k, p2k, _] <- mapM insert [p1, p2, p3]
          [_, bpB, bpC] <- mapM insert'
            [ BlogPost "A" p1k
            , BlogPost "B" p1k
            , BlogPost "C" p2k ]
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \bp ->
                 distinctOn [don (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId)] $ do
                 orderBy [asc (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId), desc (bp ^. BlogPostTitle)]
                 return bp
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` sortBy (comparing (blogPostAuthorId . entityVal)) [bpB, bpC]

      let slightlyLessSimpleTest q =
            run $ do
              [p1k, p2k, _] <- mapM insert [p1, p2, p3]
              [bpA, bpB, bpC] <- mapM insert'
                [ BlogPost "A" p1k
                , BlogPost "B" p1k
                , BlogPost "C" p2k ]
              ret <- select $
                     from $ \bp ->
                     q bp $ return bp
              let cmp = (blogPostAuthorId &&& blogPostTitle) . entityVal
              liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` sortBy (comparing cmp) [bpA, bpB, bpC]
      it "works on a slightly less simple example (two distinctOn calls, orderBy)" $
        slightlyLessSimpleTest $ \bp act ->
          distinctOn [don (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId)] $
          distinctOn [don (bp ^. BlogPostTitle)] $ do
            orderBy [asc (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId), asc (bp ^. BlogPostTitle)]
            act
      it "works on a slightly less simple example (one distinctOn call, orderBy)" $ do
        slightlyLessSimpleTest $ \bp act ->
          distinctOn [don (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId), don (bp ^. BlogPostTitle)] $ do
            orderBy [asc (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId), asc (bp ^. BlogPostTitle)]
            act
      it "works on a slightly less simple example (distinctOnOrderBy)" $ do
        slightlyLessSimpleTest $ \bp ->
          distinctOnOrderBy [asc (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId), asc (bp ^. BlogPostTitle)]
#endif

    describe "coalesce/coalesceDefault" $ do
      it "works on a simple example" $
        run $ do
          mapM_ insert' [p1, p2, p3, p4, p5]
          ret1 <- select $
                  from $ \p -> do
                  orderBy [asc (p ^. PersonId)]
                  return (coalesce [p ^. PersonAge, p ^. PersonWeight])
          liftIO $ ret1 `shouldBe` [ Value (Just (36 :: Int))
                                   , Value (Just 37)
                                   , Value (Just 17)
                                   , Value (Just 17)
                                   , Value Nothing
                                   ]

          ret2 <- select $
                  from $ \p -> do
                  orderBy [asc (p ^. PersonId)]
                  return (coalesceDefault [p ^. PersonAge, p ^. PersonWeight] (p ^. PersonFavNum))
          liftIO $ ret2 `shouldBe` [ Value (36 :: Int)
                                   , Value 37
                                   , Value 17
                                   , Value 17
                                   , Value 5
                                   ]

      it "works with sub-queries" $
        run $ do
          p1id <- insert p1
          p2id <- insert p2
          p3id <- insert p3
          _    <- insert p4
          _    <- insert p5
          _ <- insert $ BlogPost "a" p1id
          _ <- insert $ BlogPost "b" p2id
          _ <- insert $ BlogPost "c" p3id
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \b -> do
                   let sub =
                           from $ \p -> do
                           where_ (p ^. PersonId ==. b ^. BlogPostAuthorId)
                           return $ p ^. PersonAge
                   return $ coalesceDefault [sub_select sub] (val (42 :: Int))
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value (36 :: Int)
                                  , Value 42
                                  , Value 17
                                  ]

#if defined(WITH_POSTGRESQL) || defined(WITH_MYSQL)
      it "works on PostgreSQL and MySQL with <2 arguments" $
        run $ do
          _ :: [Value (Maybe Int)] <-
            select $
            from $ \p -> do
            return (coalesce [p ^. PersonAge])
          return ()
#else
      it "throws an exception on SQLite with <2 arguments" $
        run (select $
             from $ \p -> do
             return (coalesce [p ^. PersonAge]) :: SqlQuery (SqlExpr (Value (Maybe Int)))
#if MIN_VERSION_persistent_sqlite(2,1,3)
        ) `shouldThrow` (\(_ :: SqliteException) -> True)
#else
        ) `shouldThrow` (\(_ :: IOException) -> True)
#endif
#endif

    describe "text functions" $ do
      it "like, (%) and (++.) work on a simple example" $
         run $ do
           [p1e, p2e, p3e, p4e] <- mapM insert' [p1, p2, p3, p4]
           let nameContains t expected = do
                 ret <- select $
                        from $ \p -> do
                        where_ (p ^. PersonName `like` (%) ++. val t ++. (%))
                        orderBy [asc (p ^. PersonName)]
                        return p
                 liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` expected
           nameContains "h"  [p1e, p2e]
           nameContains "i"  [p4e, p3e]
           nameContains "iv" [p4e]

#if defined(WITH_POSTGRESQL)
      it "ilike, (%) and (++.) work on a simple example on PostgreSQL" $
         run $ do
           [p1e, _, p3e, _, p5e] <- mapM insert' [p1, p2, p3, p4, p5]
           let nameContains t expected = do
                 ret <- select $
                        from $ \p -> do
                        where_ (p ^. PersonName `ilike` (%) ++. val t ++. (%))
                        orderBy [asc (p ^. PersonName)]
                        return p
                 liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` expected
           nameContains "mi" [p3e, p5e]
           nameContains "JOHN" [p1e]
#endif

    describe "delete" $
      it "works on a simple example" $
        run $ do
          p1e <- insert' p1
          p2e <- insert' p2
          p3e <- insert' p3
          let getAll = select $
                       from $ \p -> do
                       orderBy [asc (p ^. PersonName)]
                       return p
          ret1 <- getAll
          liftIO $ ret1 `shouldBe` [ p1e, p3e, p2e ]
          ()   <- delete $
                  from $ \p ->
                  where_ (p ^. PersonName ==. val (personName p1))
          ret2 <- getAll
          liftIO $ ret2 `shouldBe` [ p3e, p2e ]
          n    <- deleteCount $
                  from $ \p ->
                  return ((p :: SqlExpr (Entity Person)) `seq` ())
          ret3 <- getAll
          liftIO $ (n, ret3) `shouldBe` (2, [])

    describe "update" $ do
      it "works on a simple example" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          p2k <- insert p2
          p3k <- insert p3
          let anon = "Anonymous"
          ()  <- update $ \p -> do
                 set p [ PersonName =. val anon
                       , PersonAge *=. just (val 2) ]
                 where_ (p ^. PersonName !=. val "Mike")
          n   <- updateCount $ \p -> do
                 set p [ PersonAge +=. just (val 1) ]
                 where_ (p ^. PersonName !=. val "Mike")
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 orderBy [ asc (p ^. PersonName), asc (p ^. PersonAge) ]
                 return p
          -- PostgreSQL: nulls are bigger than data, and update returns
          --             matched rows, not actually changed rows.
#if   defined(WITH_POSTGRESQL)
          liftIO $ n `shouldBe` 2
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Entity p1k (Person anon (Just 73) Nothing 1)
                                  , Entity p2k (Person anon Nothing (Just 37) 2)
                                  , Entity p3k p3 ]
          -- MySQL: nulls appear first, and update returns actual number
          --        of changed rows
#elif defined(WITH_MYSQL)
          liftIO $ n `shouldBe` 1
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Entity p2k (Person anon Nothing (Just 37) 2)
                                  , Entity p1k (Person anon (Just 73) Nothing 1)
                                  , Entity p3k p3 ]
#else
          -- SQLite: nulls appear first, update returns matched rows.
          liftIO $ n `shouldBe` 2
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Entity p2k (Person anon Nothing (Just 37) 2)
                                  , Entity p1k (Person anon (Just 73) Nothing 1)
                                  , Entity p3k p3 ]
#endif

      it "works with a subexpression having COUNT(*)" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          p2k <- insert p2
          p3k <- insert p3
          replicateM_ 3 (insert $ BlogPost "" p1k)
          replicateM_ 7 (insert $ BlogPost "" p3k)
          let blogPostsBy p =
                from $ \b -> do
                where_ (b ^. BlogPostAuthorId ==. p ^. PersonId)
                return countRows
          ()  <- update $ \p -> do
                 set p [ PersonAge =. just (sub_select (blogPostsBy p)) ]
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 orderBy [ asc (p ^. PersonName) ]
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Entity p1k p1 { personAge = Just 3 }
                                  , Entity p3k p3 { personAge = Just 7 }
                                  , Entity p2k p2 { personAge = Just 0 } ]

      it "works with a composite primary key" $
        pendingWith "Need refactor to support composite pks on ESet"
        {-
        run $ do
          let p = Point x y ""
              x = 10
              y = 15
              newX = 20
              newY = 25
              Right newPk = keyFromValues [toPersistValue newX, toPersistValue newY]
          insert_ p
          () <- update $ \p' -> do
                set p' [PointId =. val newPk]
          [Entity _ ret] <- select $ from $ return
          liftIO $ do
            ret `shouldBe` Point newX newY []
        -}

      it "GROUP BY works with COUNT" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          p2k <- insert p2
          p3k <- insert p3
          replicateM_ 3 (insert $ BlogPost "" p1k)
          replicateM_ 7 (insert $ BlogPost "" p3k)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \(p `LeftOuterJoin` b) -> do
                 on (p ^. PersonId ==. b ^. BlogPostAuthorId)
                 groupBy (p ^. PersonId)
                 let cnt = count (b ^. BlogPostId)
                 orderBy [ asc cnt ]
                 return (p, cnt)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ (Entity p2k p2, Value (0 :: Int))
                                  , (Entity p1k p1, Value 3)
                                  , (Entity p3k p3, Value 7) ]

      it "GROUP BY works with HAVING" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          _p2k <- insert p2
          p3k <- insert p3
          replicateM_ 3 (insert $ BlogPost "" p1k)
          replicateM_ 7 (insert $ BlogPost "" p3k)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \(p `LeftOuterJoin` b) -> do
                 on (p ^. PersonId ==. b ^. BlogPostAuthorId)
                 let cnt = count (b ^. BlogPostId)
                 groupBy (p ^. PersonId)
                 having (cnt >. (val 0))
                 orderBy [ asc cnt ]
                 return (p, cnt)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ (Entity p1k p1, Value (3 :: Int))
                                  , (Entity p3k p3, Value 7) ]

    describe "lists of values" $ do
      it "IN works for valList" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          p2k <- insert p2
          _p3k <- insert p3
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 where_ (p ^. PersonName `in_` valList (personName <$> [p1, p2]))
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Entity p1k p1
                                  , Entity p2k p2 ]

      it "IN works for valList (null list)" $
        run $ do
          _p1k <- insert p1
          _p2k <- insert p2
          _p3k <- insert p3
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 where_ (p ^. PersonName `in_` valList [])
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` []

      it "IN works for subList_select" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          _p2k <- insert p2
          p3k <- insert p3
          _ <- insert (BlogPost "" p1k)
          _ <- insert (BlogPost "" p3k)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 let subquery =
                       from $ \bp -> do
                       orderBy [ asc (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId) ]
                       return (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId)
                 where_ (p ^. PersonId `in_` subList_select subquery)
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Entity p1k p1
                                  , Entity p3k p3 ]

      it "NOT IN works for subList_select" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          p2k <- insert p2
          p3k <- insert p3
          _ <- insert (BlogPost "" p1k)
          _ <- insert (BlogPost "" p3k)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 let subquery =
                       from $ \bp ->
                       return (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId)
                 where_ (p ^. PersonId `notIn` subList_select subquery)
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Entity p2k p2 ]

      it "EXISTS works for subList_select" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          _p2k <- insert p2
          p3k <- insert p3
          _ <- insert (BlogPost "" p1k)
          _ <- insert (BlogPost "" p3k)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 where_ $ exists $
                          from $ \bp -> do
                          where_ (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId ==. p ^. PersonId)
                 orderBy [asc (p ^. PersonName)]
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Entity p1k p1
                                  , Entity p3k p3 ]

      it "EXISTS works for subList_select" $
        run $ do
          p1k <- insert p1
          p2k <- insert p2
          p3k <- insert p3
          _ <- insert (BlogPost "" p1k)
          _ <- insert (BlogPost "" p3k)
          ret <- select $
                 from $ \p -> do
                 where_ $ notExists $
                          from $ \bp -> do
                          where_ (bp ^. BlogPostAuthorId ==. p ^. PersonId)
                 return p
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Entity p2k p2 ]


    describe "list fields" $ do
      -- <https://github.com/prowdsponsor/esqueleto/issues/100>
      it "can update list fields" $
        run $ do
          cclist <- insert $ CcList []
          update $ \p -> do
            set p [ CcListNames =. val ["fred"]]
            where_ (p ^. CcListId ==. val cclist)

    describe "inserts by select" $ do
      it "IN works for insertSelect" $
        run $ do
          _ <- insert p1
          _ <- insert p2
          _ <- insert p3
          insertSelect $ from $ \p -> do
            return $ BlogPost <# val "FakePost" <&> (p ^. PersonId)
          ret <- select $ from (\(_::(SqlExpr (Entity BlogPost))) -> return countRows)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [Value (3::Int)]

    describe "inserts by select, returns count" $ do
      it "IN works for insertSelectCount" $
        run $ do
          _ <- insert p1
          _ <- insert p2
          _ <- insert p3
          cnt <- insertSelectCount $ from $ \p -> do
            return $ BlogPost <# val "FakePost" <&> (p ^. PersonId)
          ret <- select $ from (\(_::(SqlExpr (Entity BlogPost))) -> return countRows)
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [Value (3::Int)]
          liftIO $ cnt `shouldBe` 3

    describe "Math-related functions" $ do
      it "rand returns result in random order" $
        run $ do
          replicateM_ 20 $ do
            _ <- insert p1
            _ <- insert p2
            _ <- insert p3
            _ <- insert p4
            _ <- insert $ Person "Jane"  Nothing Nothing 0
            _ <- insert $ Person "Mark"  Nothing Nothing 0
            _ <- insert $ Person "Sarah" Nothing Nothing 0
            insert $ Person "Paul"  Nothing Nothing 0
          ret1 <- fmap (map unValue) $ select $ from $ \p -> do
                    orderBy [rand]
                    return (p ^. PersonId)
          ret2 <- fmap (map unValue) $ select $ from $ \p -> do
                    orderBy [rand]
                    return (p ^. PersonId)

          liftIO $ (ret1 == ret2) `shouldBe` False

      it "castNum works for multiplying Int and Double" $
        run $ do
          mapM_ insert [Numbers 2 3.4, Numbers 7 1.1]
          ret <-
            select $
            from $ \n -> do
            let r = castNum (n ^. NumbersInt) *. n ^. NumbersDouble
            orderBy [asc r]
            return r
          liftIO $ length ret `shouldBe` 2
          let [Value a, Value b] = ret
          liftIO $ max (abs (a - 6.8)) (abs (b - 7.7)) `shouldSatisfy` (< 0.01)

    describe "case" $ do
      it "Works for a simple value based when - False" $
        run $ do
          ret <- select $
            return $
              case_
                [ when_ (val False) then_ (val (1 :: Int)) ]
                (else_ (val 2))

          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value 2 ]

      it "Works for a simple value based when - True" $
        run $ do
          ret <- select $
            return $
              case_
                [ when_ (val True) then_ (val (1 :: Int)) ]
                (else_ (val 2))

          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value 1 ]

      it "works for a semi-complicated query" $
        run $ do
          _ <- insert p1
          _ <- insert p2
          _ <- insert p3
          _ <- insert p4
          _ <- insert p5
          ret <- select $
            return $
              case_
                [ when_
                    (exists $ from $ \p -> do
                        where_ (p ^. PersonName ==. val "Mike"))
                  then_
                    (sub_select $ from $ \v -> do
                        let sub =
                                from $ \c -> do
                                where_ (c ^. PersonName ==. val "Mike")
                                return (c ^. PersonFavNum)
                        where_ (v ^. PersonFavNum >. sub_select sub)
                        return $ count (v ^. PersonName) +. val (1 :: Int)) ]
                (else_ $ val (-1))

          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` [ Value (3) ]

    describe "locking" $ do
      -- The locking clause is the last one, so try to use many
      -- others to test if it's at the right position.  We don't
      -- care about the text of the rest, nor with the RDBMS'
      -- reaction to the clause.
      let sanityCheck kind syntax = do
            let complexQuery =
                  from $ \(p1 `InnerJoin` p2) -> do
                  on (p1 ^. PersonName ==. p2 ^. PersonName)
                  where_ (p1 ^. PersonFavNum >. val 2)
                  orderBy [desc (p2 ^. PersonAge)]
                  limit 3
                  offset 9
                  groupBy (p1 ^. PersonId)
                  having (countRows <. val (0 :: Int))
                  return (p1, p2)
                queryWithClause1 = do
                  r <- complexQuery
                  locking kind
                  return r
                queryWithClause2 = do
                  locking ForUpdate
                  r <- complexQuery
                  locking ForShare
                  locking kind
                  return r
                queryWithClause3 = do
                  locking kind
                  complexQuery
                toText conn q =
                  let (tlb, _) = EI.toRawSql EI.SELECT (conn, EI.initialIdentState) q
                  in TLB.toLazyText tlb
            [complex, with1, with2, with3] <-
              runNoLoggingT $ withConn $ \conn -> return $
                map (toText conn) [complexQuery, queryWithClause1, queryWithClause2, queryWithClause3]
            let expected = complex <> "\n" <> syntax
            (with1, with2, with3) `shouldBe` (expected, expected, expected)

      it "looks sane for ForUpdate"       $ sanityCheck ForUpdate       "FOR UPDATE"
      it "looks sane for ForShare"        $ sanityCheck ForShare        "FOR SHARE"
      it "looks sane for LockInShareMode" $ sanityCheck LockInShareMode "LOCK IN SHARE MODE"

    describe "counting rows" $ do
      forM_ [ ("count (test A)",    count . (^. PersonAge),         4)
            , ("count (test B)",    count . (^. PersonWeight),      5)
            , ("countRows",         const countRows,                5)
            , ("countDistinct",     countDistinct . (^. PersonAge), 2) ] $
        \(title, countKind, expected) ->
        it (title ++ " works as expected") $
          run $ do
            mapM_ insert
              [ Person "" (Just 1) (Just 1) 1
              , Person "" (Just 2) (Just 1) 1
              , Person "" (Just 2) (Just 1) 1
              , Person "" (Just 2) (Just 2) 1
              , Person "" Nothing  (Just 3) 1]
            [Value n] <- select $ from $ return . countKind
            liftIO $ (n :: Int) `shouldBe` expected

    describe "PostgreSQL module" $ do
      it "should be tested on the PostgreSQL database" $
#if !defined(WITH_POSTGRESQL)
        pendingWith "test suite not running under PostgreSQL, skipping"
#else
        (return () :: IO ())

      it "arrayAgg looks sane" $
        run $ do
          let people = [p1, p2, p3, p4, p5]
          mapM_ insert people
          [Value ret] <-
            select $
            from $ \p -> do
            return (EP.arrayAgg (p ^. PersonName))
          liftIO $ L.sort ret `shouldBe` L.sort (map personName people)

      it "stringAgg looks sane" $
        run $ do
          let people = [p1, p2, p3, p4, p5]
          mapM_ insert people
          [Value ret] <-
            select $
            from $ \p -> do
            return (EP.stringAgg (p ^. PersonName) (val " "))
          liftIO $ L.sort (words ret) `shouldBe` L.sort (map personName people)

      it "chr looks sane" $
        run $ do
          [Value (ret :: String)] <- select $ return (EP.chr (val 65))
          liftIO $ ret `shouldBe` "A"
#endif

----------------------------------------------------------------------


insert' :: ( PersistStoreWrite b
           , MonadIO m
           , PersistRecordBackend val b)
        => val -> ReaderT b m (Entity val)
insert' v = flip Entity v <$> insert v


type RunDbMonad m = ( MonadBaseControl IO m, MonadIO m, MonadLogger m
                    , R.MonadThrow m )

#if defined (WITH_POSTGRESQL) || defined (WITH_MYSQL)
-- With SQLite and in-memory databases, a separate connection implies a
-- separate database. With 'actual databases', the data is persistent and
-- thus must be cleaned after each test.
-- TODO: there is certainly a better way...
cleanDB
  :: (forall m. RunDbMonad m
  => SqlPersistT (R.ResourceT m) ())
cleanDB = do
  delete $ from $ \(_ :: SqlExpr (Entity BlogPost))   -> return ()
  delete $ from $ \(_ :: SqlExpr (Entity Follow))     -> return ()
  delete $ from $ \(_ :: SqlExpr (Entity Person))     -> return ()

  delete $ from $ \(_ :: SqlExpr (Entity ArticleTag)) -> return ()
  delete $ from $ \(_ :: SqlExpr (Entity Article))    -> return ()
  delete $ from $ \(_ :: SqlExpr (Entity Article2))   -> return ()
  delete $ from $ \(_ :: SqlExpr (Entity Tag))        -> return ()
  delete $ from $ \(_ :: SqlExpr (Entity Frontcover)) -> return ()

  delete $ from $ \(_ :: SqlExpr (Entity Circle))     -> return ()
  delete $ from $ \(_ :: SqlExpr (Entity Point))      -> return ()

  delete $ from $ \(_ :: SqlExpr (Entity Numbers))    -> return ()
#endif


run, runSilent, runVerbose :: (forall m. RunDbMonad m => SqlPersistT (R.ResourceT m) a) -> IO a
runSilent  act = runNoLoggingT     $ run_worker act
runVerbose act = runStderrLoggingT $ run_worker act
run =
  if verbose
  then runVerbose
  else runSilent


verbose :: Bool
verbose = True


run_worker :: RunDbMonad m => SqlPersistT (R.ResourceT m) a -> m a
run_worker act = withConn $ runSqlConn (migrateIt >> act)


migrateIt :: RunDbMonad m => SqlPersistT (R.ResourceT m) ()
migrateIt = do
  void $ runMigrationSilent migrateAll
#if defined (WITH_POSTGRESQL) || defined (WITH_MYSQL)
  cleanDB
#endif


withConn :: RunDbMonad m => (SqlBackend -> R.ResourceT m a) -> m a
withConn =
  R.runResourceT .
#if defined(WITH_POSTGRESQL)
  withPostgresqlConn "host=localhost port=5432 user=test dbname=test"
#elif defined (WITH_MYSQL)
  withMySQLConn defaultConnectInfo
    { connectHost     = "localhost"
    , connectUser     = "test"
    , connectPassword = "test"
    , connectDatabase = "test"
    }
#else
  withSqliteConn ":memory:"
#endif