File: errbar.Rd

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\name{errbar}
\alias{errbar}
\title{Plot Error Bars}
\description{
  Add vertical error bars to an existing plot or makes a new
  plot with error bars.  
}
\usage{
errbar(x, y, yplus, yminus, cap=0.015, main = NULL,
       sub=NULL, xlab=as.character(substitute(x)),
       ylab=if(is.factor(x) || is.character(x)) ""
           else as.character(substitute(y)),
       add=FALSE, lty=1, type='p', ylim=NULL,
       lwd=1, pch=16, errbar.col, Type=rep(1, length(y)), 
       \dots)
}
\arguments{
  \item{x}{
    vector of numeric x-axis values (for vertical error bars) or a factor or
    character variable (for horizontal error bars, \code{x} representing the
    group labels)
  }
  \item{y}{
    vector of y-axis values.
  }
  \item{yplus}{
    vector of y-axis values: the tops of the error bars.
  }
  \item{yminus}{
    vector of y-axis values: the bottoms of the error bars.
  }
  \item{cap}{
    the width of the little lines at the tops and bottoms of the error bars
    in units of the width of the plot.  Defaults to \code{0.015}.
  }
  \item{main}{
    a main title for the plot, passed to \code{plot}, see also \code{\link{title}}.
  }
  \item{sub}{
    a sub title for the plot, passed to \code{plot}
  }
  \item{xlab}{
    optional x-axis labels if \code{add=FALSE}.
  }
  \item{ylab}{
    optional y-axis labels if \code{add=FALSE}.  Defaults to blank for horizontal charts.
  }
  \item{add}{
    set to \code{TRUE} to add bars to an existing plot (available only for vertical
    error bars)
  }
  \item{lty}{
    type of line for error bars
  }
  \item{type}{
    type of point.  Use \code{type="b"} to connect dots.
  }
  \item{ylim}{
    y-axis limits.  Default is to use range of \code{y}, \code{yminus}, and \code{yplus}.  For
    horizonal charts, \code{ylim} is really the \code{x}-axis range, excluding
    differences.
  }
  \item{lwd}{
    line width for line segments (not main line)
  }
  \item{pch}{
    character to use as the point.
  }
  \item{errbar.col}{
    color to use for drawing error bars.
  }
  \item{Type}{
    used for horizontal bars only.  Is an integer vector with values \code{1}
    if corresponding values represent simple estimates, \code{2} if they
    represent differences.
  }
  \item{...}{
    other parameters passed to all graphics functions.
  }
}
\details{
  \code{errbar} adds vertical error bars to an existing plot or makes a new
  plot with error bars.  It can also make a horizontal error bar plot
  that shows error bars for group differences as well as bars for
  groups.  For the latter type of plot, the lower x-axis scale
  corresponds to group estimates and the upper scale corresponds to
  differences.  The spacings of the two scales are identical but the
  scale for differences has its origin shifted so that zero may be
  included.  If at least one of the confidence intervals includes zero,
  a vertical dotted reference line at zero is drawn.
}
\author{
Charles Geyer, University of Chicago.  Modified by Frank Harrell,
Vanderbilt University, to handle missing data, to add the parameters
\code{add} and \code{lty}, and to implement horizontal charts with differences.
}
\examples{
set.seed(1)
x <- 1:10
y <- x + rnorm(10)
delta <- runif(10)
errbar( x, y, y + delta, y - delta )


# Show bootstrap nonparametric CLs for 3 group means and for
# pairwise differences on same graph
group <- sample(c('a','b','d'), 200, TRUE)
y     <- runif(200) + .25*(group=='b') + .5*(group=='d')
cla <- smean.cl.boot(y[group=='a'],B=100,reps=TRUE)  # usually B=1000
a   <- attr(cla,'reps')
clb <- smean.cl.boot(y[group=='b'],B=100,reps=TRUE)
b   <- attr(clb,'reps')
cld <- smean.cl.boot(y[group=='d'],B=100,reps=TRUE)
d   <- attr(cld,'reps')
a.b <- quantile(a-b,c(.025,.975))
a.d <- quantile(a-d,c(.025,.975))
b.d <- quantile(b-d,c(.025,.975))
errbar(c('a','b','d','a - b','a - d','b - d'),
       c(cla[1],clb[1],cld[1],cla[1]-clb[1],cla[1]-cld[1],clb[1]-cld[1]),
       c(cla[3],clb[3],cld[3],a.b[2],a.d[2],b.d[2]),
       c(cla[2],clb[2],cld[2],a.b[1],a.d[1],b.d[1]),
       Type=c(1,1,1,2,2,2), xlab='', ylab='')
       
}
\keyword{hplot}
% Converted by Sd2Rd version 1.21.