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******************************************************************************
******************************************************************************
**                                                                          **
** This file describes the various bits and pieces making up the HOL system **
** ======================================================================== **
**                                                                          **
**                                                                          **
**                                                                          **
**                            WARNING                                       **
**                            -------                                       **
**                                                                          **
**       The HOL system is not user friendly.                               **
**       You are strongly advised to undergo a training course in           **
**       its use before trying to work with it. In the hands of an          **
**       expert, HOL is a powerful and robust tool; in the hands of         **
**       an untrained novice it may lead to frustration, disillusionment    **
**       and despair.                                                       **
**                                                                          **
**       Details of how to arrange a course in using HOL are available      **
**       from: Mike Gordon, University of Cambridge, Computer Laboratory,   **
**       New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QG               **
**       (tel 0223 334627).                                                 **
**                                                                          **
******************************************************************************
******************************************************************************

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
!                                                                            !
!                            IMPORTANT NOTICE                                !
!                            ================                                !
!                                                                            !
! The HOL system is made available on an as is basis. No guarantee of        !
! maintenance or reliability is provided.                                    !
!                                                                            !
! Users of the HOL system shall not hold its developers liable for any       !
! consequences arising from use of the software whether by himself or by     !
! any other party.  Users shall indemnify the developers and their staff     !
! against any claim by any third party arising from or in connection         !
! with the use of HOL.                                                       !
!                                                                            !
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

==============================================================================
| This is HOL88 Version 2.01. See the directory Manual for documentation.    |
| The file Version.2.01 describes changes made to HOL88 since Version 2.0    |
==============================================================================

* ========================================================================== *
*									     *
* Installing the HOL system  						     *
*									     *
* ========================================================================== *

You may find an executable version of the HOL system in the form of a file
called 'hol' in this directory. To reconfigure an existing executable hol
type:

   install `<pathname>`;;

after starting an interactive hol session, where <pathname> is the absolute
pathname of the directory hol on your machine. For example, to reconfigure hol
to the Cambridge Computer Lab installation do:

   install `/usr/groups/hol/hol_13`;;

If there is no executable hol on the distribution, or if the version you have
is for the wrong machine, then you will have to build hol from sources. How to
do this is explained below.  

* ========================================================================== *
*									     *
* Rebuilding the HOL system  						     *
*									     *
* ========================================================================== *

0) Common Lisp

   HOL can now be run under Common Lisp (thanks to Hewlett-Packard and SRI
   International who jointly paid for the work, and John Carroll who did it).
   See the file hol/Makefile for current details.

1) Franz Lisp

   To create hol, you need Franz Lisp or Common Lisp. 
   At Cambridge, we build hol on Vaxes using Franz Lisp Opus 38.69.  
   To build hol on in Franz Lisp a Sun you should ideally have Franz Lisp, 
   Opus 42.16.1., but earlier public domain versions can also be used. 

   If your tape contains a directory hol/franz then this is a Sun3 public
   domain Lisp (see hol/franz/READ-ME for more details).  Note that to build
   hol you may find you need to reconfigure Lisp to be bigger than its usual
   default (see Appendix E of the Opus 42 Franz Lisp Manual). You should not
   run on a Sun with less than 8 megabytes of memory (it will work with 4, 
   but will be unbearably slow due to thrashing).

2) Setting up path names.

   There are two flags and four site-dependent pathnames used in
   the makefile which you may have to change to rebuild hol at
   your site. These are:

        LispType  : the type of the lisp system used to build HOL. 
                    Possibilities are cl (for Common Lisp) or franz
		    (for Franz Lisp).

        Obj       : the default filename extension for compiled lisp files.
                    for Franz Lisp this is o; for Common Lisp this depends on
                    the implementation. Some implementations and values are:

                      Lucid CL   :   lbin
                      KCL, AKCL  :   o
                      Allegro CL :   fasl

        Lisp      : the lisp system used to build HOL.  This can be 
		    an absolute pathname, a relative pathname, or simply
		    the name "lisp" (provided lisp can be found by 
		    following the builder's search path).

        Liszt     : the franz lisp complier used to build HOL.  This can be 
		    an absolute pathname, a relative pathname, or simply
		    the name "liszt" (provided liszt can be found by 
	            following the builder's search path). This macro is 
		    only relevant for building a Franz Lisp version of HOL.

        LisztComm : the command issued (internally) by HOL to call the 
		    lisp compiler when compiling ML.  This can be just 
		    "liszt", if liszt will be found by following the HOL 
		    user's search path. An absolute pathname can also be 
		    used for LisztComm. This macro is only relevant for 
		    building a Franz Lisp version of HOL.

	HOLdir	  : the absolute pathname of the top-level HOL directory

3) Once the site dependent path-names have been defined, you can try to 
   rebuild HOL.  This is done by typing:

	make hol

    This will rebuild hol from whatever object code is around, but it won't 
    recreate theories or recompile more than is necessary.

    To make hol completely from scratch, type:

	make clobber
	make hol

    This will remove all the object code and built-in theories, and 
    rebuild hol completely from scratch.  This takes a long time, but 
    it may be necessary to get hol running at your site.  In fact, it 
    may be worth trying, just to make sure you've got a completely
    consistent version of hol.

    After building hol, this directory should contain the following
    executable files:

     hol-lcf   ---   A stripped down lcf containing just those things
                     that are needed by HOL (it includes ML but very 
		     little PPLAMBDA stuff).  This can be removed, if
		     you're short of space.

     basic-hol ---   The HOL system without various built-in theories.
     		     This can also be removed if necessary.

     hol       ---   The full HOL system.


* ========================================================================== *
*									     *
* building HOL with other versions of franz
*									     *
* ========================================================================== *

There have been quite a few messages asking about building HOL88 with Franzes
other than the one on the distribution tape.  Most people will know the
following basic information about this. But it may be helpful to a few others,
so here it is.

1) you don't necessarily have to build HOL88 using the public-domain
   Franz lisp that's distributed on the tape.  HOL88 should (in principle)
   be buildable using other versions of Franz.  However, I must add that
   we haven't done this for quite a while here in Cambridge, so there
   may be a few little problems. (or even big ones---has anyone tried?)

2) from the Makefile for HOL88, it should be clear how to rebuild
   the system using a version of franz that differs from the distributed
   one. You just have to change a few pathnames.

3) the real problem, is that Franz has a built-in limit on how big
   a lisp core-image is allowed to get.  To rebuild hol, you must
   use a version of franz (and liszt) which has this limit increased.
   This is known as the TTSIZE problem.  You have to make a franz
   system constant called "TTSIZE" bigger.

4) this entails having a copy of the SOURCE code for franz lisp.  You have
   to change TTSIZE, and then completely rebuild the franz system from
   this slightly modified source.  The resulting "lisp" and "liszt" object
   codes can then be used to build hol.

5) unfortunately, it seems that not everyone has access to the sources.
   I don't know what can be done about this.  There is a licence
   restriction that forbids people who have ULTRIX franz, for example, to 
   give the sources to others. 

6) if, however, you do have the franz source code, then proceed as follows:

   a) completely rebuild the Franz system with a bigger TTSIZE.
      Do this as follows:

      (i)   locate the c source code file in which TTSIZE is defined.
            In the distributed version, this is the file called:

	      /franz/lisp/franz/h/config.h
          
      (ii)  change TTSIZE to something big.  In the distributed
            version, it's set as follows:

	     define TTSIZE 12950
   
  	    the number 12950 means the number of 512-byte blocks.  So, this
	    is about 6 meg.  Try to make this number as big as you can,
	    given the machine(s) you're running on.  When I first encountered
	    this problem (with LCF_LSM in 1984) I set TTSIZE to the equivalent
	    of about 18 meg (it was for a VAX 780).  I never had problems
	    running out of space after that, even when I was doing proofs
	    involving huge theorems. (I may have forgotten the details of
	    this---e.g. it may not have been 18 meg, but something else).

      (iii) completely rebuild the entire Franz lisp system (lisp and 
      	    liszt).  There should be a makefile for your franz, if you
	    have the source. (do a complete rebuild, because it's best to 
	    be sure).

   b) use the newly-built "large" franz to rebuild hol.  This is an entirely
      separate operation.  

7) if there are problems with the HOL part of rebuilding, due to the hol/lisp
   interface (e.g. your franz is less permissive than the distributed one, 
   and you find that some things have to be changes to get it to rebuild)
   then let us know, so we can fix the distribution source.

8) OTHER LISPS:
  
   The above does not cover building hol with common lisp, zeta-lisp etc.


Tom Melham

* ========================================================================== *
*									     *
* Running the HOL system						     *
*									     *
* ========================================================================== *

Once you have built the the HOL system, it is invoked by typing:

    hol

This will print a sign-on message, load a hol-init.ml file if one is present
and then print out the ML prompt # (which can be changed using the set_prompt
function).

The following two 'features' of the HOL system sometimes confuse beginners.

1. The rules for typechecking quotations are different from the rules for
   typechecking ML. There must always be enough explicit type information 
   to determine the type of polymorphic constants. Unlike the ML typechecker, 
   the HOL typechecker will not use the type a polymorphic constant was 
   declared with as a 'default'. For example, "x=[]" will not work,
   but "x=([]:* list)" and "x=1" are OK. Lack of enough type information
   results in the error message like

      Indeterminate types:  "$=:(?1)list -> ((?1)list -> bool)"

      evaluation failed     types indeterminate in quotation

   The "?1" indicates an indeterminate type.

   A type error like "1(2)")  causes the message

      Badly typed application of:  "1"
         which has type:           ":num"
      to the argument term:        "2"
         which has type:           ":num"
      
      evaluation failed     mk_comb in quotation 

2. Use of "in". If you use "in" as a variable in the HOL logic, then
   the parser will occasionally get confused. This is because "in" is a 
   keyword associated with the construct "let x=t1 in t2" and if you use "in"
   as a variable the parser sometimes thinks there is a missing "let". This 
   is a rare problem, but confusing if you are not aware of the possibility.


* ========================================================================== *
*									     *
* Documentation								     *
*									     *
* ========================================================================== *

This is in the directory Manual.  Online help files are in the directory help.

* ========================================================================== *
*									     *
* Library								     *
*									     *
* ========================================================================== *

The library directory hol/Library contains generally useful theories and
code which is not included in the built-in version of HOL.

* ========================================================================== *
*									     *
* Examples								     *
*									     *
* ========================================================================== *

Examples of the use of HOL are in the directory: .historical/examples.

WARNING: Many of these these examples may not work, because of the recent 
changes to HOL.  Eventually they will be fixed.

Examples worth looking at include:

   i.	 Cantor's theorem (in directory examples/cantor).

   ii.   The multiplier (see examples/mult/READ-ME).

   iii.  Some CMOS examples (see examples/cmos/READ-ME).

   iv.   An example illustrating the representation of a modal
         logic in HOL (in directory examples/Modal)

   v.    The Primitive Recursion Theorem (hol/theories/mk_prim_rec.ml).

   vi.   The Mike Fourman shift register (examples/mk_nmos.ml).

   vii.  Jeff Joyce's proof of a little computer 
         (examples/computer/READ-ME, examples/tamarack/README).

   viii. The parity checker example from the paper "HOL: A Proof Generating
         System for Higher-Order Logic" which can be found on 
         hol/doc/HOLSYS.tex (examples/PARITY.ml). See xi below also.

   ix.   An NMOS version of the COUNT example due to Jeff Joyce
         (examples/mos-count/READ-ME).

   x.    A resetable register built out of non-resetable registers
         (examples/RESET_REG.ml).

   xi.   A resetable parity checker. Similar to viii, but more complicated
         (examples/RESET_PARITY.ml).


* ========================================================================== *
*									     *
* Studies								     *
*									     *
* ========================================================================== *

The directory hol/help/Tutorial/Studies contains tutorial case studies.

* ========================================================================== *
*									     *
* contrib								     *
*									     *
* ========================================================================== *

This directory contains contributions from the HOL user community which are
distributed with the HOL source.  The contributions are not edited, and the
University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory assumes no responsibility to
support any HOL code or tools distributed in this directory.

The aim of contrib is to provide a vehicle to make it easy for the HOL
community to share theories, proofs, examples, tools, documents, and other
material which may be of interest to users of the HOL system, but which is
not included in the library.

Each contribution is given a separate subdirectory within contrib. A standard
READ-ME file is included in each subdirectory, giving at least the following
information: 

   * name of the subdirectory
   * a one-line description of the contents
   * names and addresses of the authors, 
   * date of inclusion in contrib

Contributors may also include other information in the READ-ME file.

More contributed material from users is most welcome.