This is the GNU Hurd, <http://www.gnu.org/software/hurd/>. Welcome.
The following text has not been updated in a long time. Beware.
This file contains instructions for compiling and installing the Hurd
from your existing Hurd system.
If you are running any other kind of system whatsoever, these
instructions will *NOT* be sufficient. The file INSTALL-cross
contains some past instructions for doing so, but it's too much
trouble to maintain them and make them easier. Your best bet is to
start with a running Hurd system already.
The Hurd and the GNU C Library each need each other in order to
compile. If you are installing both, please follow the directions
"Building the Hurd and libc together". If the C library version you
want to use is already installed, and you know both it and this
version of the Hurd will interoperate together, then see the
instructions "Bulding the Hurd by itself" below.
The Hurd version 0.2 has been verified to work with versions 2.0.3 and
2.0.4 of the GNU C library. (But note that version 2.0.3 has some
easily-fixed bugs in compilation for the i386-gnu target.)
Bug reports for the GNU Hurd should be sent to the mailing list
`firstname.lastname@example.org'. Please do not send requests for
assistance in installing or using the software to that address.
Instead, send requests for assistance to the mailing list
`email@example.com'. You can join these lists by sending a
request to `firstname.lastname@example.org' or
Configuring the Hurd
The `configure' shell script attempts to guess correct values for
various system-dependent variables used during compilation. It uses
those values to create a `Makefile' in each directory of the package.
It may also create one or more `.h' files containing system-dependent
definitions. Finally, it creates a shell script `config.status' that
you can run in the future to recreate the current configuration, a
file `config.cache' that saves the results of its tests to speed up
reconfiguring, and a file `config.log' containing compiler output
(useful mainly for debugging `configure').
If you need to do unusual things to compile the package, please try to
figure out how `configure' could check whether to do them, and mail
diffs or instructions to the address given in the `README' so they can
be considered for the next release. If at some point `config.cache'
contains results you don't want to keep, you may remove or edit it.
The file `configure.ac' is used to create `configure' by a program
called `autoconf'. You only need `configure.ac' if you want to change
it or regenerate `configure' using a newer version of `autoconf'.
Building the Hurd, GNUmach, and libc together
1. Configure GNUmach.
3. Do `make install' in <mach4-build>/mig. ONLY.
4. Do `make install' in <mach4-build>/include. ONLY.
This may have installed an include file called mach_init.h. If so,
delete it; you want to use the one that libc will install, and if
this file exists, libc might not install its version.
5. Configure the Hurd with `configure'.
6. In the Hurd directory, type `make install-headers no_deps=t'.
7. Configure libc.
8. `make install' libc.
9. `make' and `make install' Hurd.
10. Do `make -r kernel' in mach4/kernel.
11. Copy mach4/kernel to /boot/kernel.
Building the Hurd and libc together
1. `cd' to the directory containing the Hurd's source code and type
`./configure' to configure the Hurd.
2. Type `make install-headers no_deps=t' to install the Hurd's header files.
3. Follow the instructions in the GNU C Library for configuring and
installing GNU libc.
4. Return to the directory containing the Hurd's source code and type
`make' to compile the Hurd.
5. Type `make install' to install the Hurd.
Building the Hurd by itself
The simplest way to compile this package is:
1. `cd' to the directory containing the package's source code and type
`./configure' to configure the package for your system. If you're
using `csh' on an old version of System V, you might need to type
`sh ./configure' instead to prevent `csh' from trying to execute
Running `configure' takes awhile. While running, it prints some
messages telling which features it is checking for.
2. Type `make' to compile the package.
3. Optionally, type `make check' to run any self-tests that come with
4. Type `make install' to install the programs and any data files and
5. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
source code directory by typing `make clean'. To also remove the
files that `configure' created (so you can compile the package for
a different kind of computer), type `make distclean'. There is
also a `make maintainer-clean' target, but that is intended mainly
for the package's developers. If you use it, you may have to get
all sorts of other programs in order to regenerate files that came
with the distribution.
Compiling For Multiple Architectures
You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
same time, by placing the object files for each architecture in their
own directory. `cd' to the directory where you want the object files
and executables to go and run the `configure' script. `configure'
automatically checks for the source code in the directory that
`configure' is in and in `..'.
By default, `make install' will install the package's files in `/bin',
`/man', etc. You can specify an installation prefix by giving
`configure' the option `--prefix=PATH'.
You can specify separate installation prefixes for
architecture-specific files and architecture-independent files. If
you give `configure' the option `--exec-prefix=PATH', the package will
use PATH as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
Documentation and other data files will still use the regular prefix.
In addition, if you use an unusual directory layout you can give
options like `--bindir=PATH' to specify different values for
particular kinds of files. Run `configure --help' for a list of the
directories you can set and what kinds of files go in them.
If the package supports it, you can cause programs to be installed
with an extra prefix or suffix on their names by giving `configure'
the option `--program-prefix=PREFIX' or `--program-suffix=SUFFIX'.
Please note, however, that the Hurd knows where it is located in the
filesystem. If you have installed it in an unusual location, the
system might not work properly, or at all. The chief utility of these
options for the Hurd is to allow you to "install" in some alternate
location, and then copy these to the actual root filesystem later.
If you want to set default values for `configure' scripts to share,
you can create a site shell script called `config.site' that gives
default values for variables like `CC', `cache_file', and `prefix'.
`configure' looks for `PREFIX/share/config.site' if it exists, then
`PREFIX/etc/config.site' if it exists. Or, you can set the
`CONFIG_SITE' environment variable to the location of the site script.
A warning: not all `configure' scripts look for a site script.
`configure' recognizes the following options to control how it
Use and save the results of the tests in FILE instead of
`./config.cache'. Set FILE to `/dev/null' to disable caching, for
Print a summary of the options to `configure', and exit.
Do not print messages saying which checks are being made.
Look for the package's source code in directory DIR. Usually
`configure' can determine that directory automatically.
Print the version of Autoconf used to generate the `configure'
script, and exit.
`configure' also accepts some other, not widely useful, options.